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CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHORDATES Gill slits- probably a food-catching device; openings on the wall of the pharynx of the embryo Notochord- present in embryo or adult; it is a rod lying dorsal to the intestine, extending from anterior to posterior end, serving as a skeletal support -it is wholly or partially replaced by skull and vertebral column The CNS is hollow( in tunicates embryo only), contains single continuous cavity and situated on the dorsal side -in the invertebrates the CNS is always solid and lies ventrally B. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VERTEBRATES Animals with bilateral symmetry Internal heteronomous segmentation and cephalization Two pairs of paired jointed locomotor appendages in the form of fins or limbs Skin separable from the rest of the body wall and commonly producing protective structures such as scales, feathers and hair Muscle layer of the bodywall decidedly metameric in arrangement With an internal skeleton of cartilage or bone consisting of a skill and gill supports in the head, vertebral column,ribs and breastbone in the body and supports for the appendages Vertebral column higly metameric, composed of successive rings around the notochord CNS consisiting or a brain and a spinal cord Nerves highly metameric in arrangement Head with eyes, ears and nose Digestive tract giving rise by outgrowth to two digestive glands, the liver and pancreas Pharynx intimately connected with the respiratory system either opening to the exterior by openings ,the gill slits or giving rie by outgrowth to the lungs Heart ventral to the body Circulatory system closed, always with a median dorsal artery, the aorta, and with one or two portal systems genital and excretory systems closely related, excretory ducts as genital ducts opening of excretory and genital ducts common with the intestine into a cloaca or near the anus well-developed coelom, never segmented and divided in the adult into two or four compartments viscera supported by mesenteries C.CLASSIFICATION OF THE CHORDATES animals are related by descent and become differentiated into distinct groups only through a gradual process of change the hemichordata/ enteropneusta/ branchiotremata-regarded as invertebrate phylum PHYLUM CHORDATA Subphylum I- Urochorday/Tunicata(tunicates or sea squits) SubphylumII Cephalochordata/Acrania(Amphioxus and its allies) Subphylum III-Vertebrata/Craniata

A. FISH AND FISHLIKE ANIMALS -cold blooded aquatic vertebrates with fins as locomotory organs -gills as respiratory organs -vertebral axis ending in a vertical fin -heart with one atrium and one ventricle -embryo without membranes(except the yolk sac) CLASS I (AGNATHA)- without jaws and with no or poorly developed fins ORDERS: o Ostestraci extinct forms commonly called as ostracoderms o Anaspida having an armor of heavy plates o Heterostraci o Cyclostomata-round mouthed fishes; without paired fins -