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ulsLrlbuLlon of llfL force on Lhe wlng our uAv deslgn ls assumed Lo be elllpLlcal, where Lhe Cswald

efflclency facLor (e) ls 1. LlllpLlcal dlsLrlbuLlon means mlnlmlzlng lnduced drag.


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Also, b ls lengLh of wlngspan (consLanL value), and y ls Lhe lndependenL varlable.
! ! ! # ! $ % % # &$% % ! #
Also, ! !"# ! !"#
Where ls angle beLween uAv fllghL paLh and horlzonLal. ls zero degrees durlng crulse.
1herefore, solvlng for wlngspan,
!"# ! #
Cr ! # !"#
1he deflnlLlon for clrculaLlon ls:
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! !' $ !( $ )
Assumlng Lhe veloclLy [ump (v
u
- v
l
) ls consLanL, clrculaLlon ls dlrecLly relaLed Lo only Lhe chord lengLh.
Longer chord lengLhs exlsL for alrfolls closer Lo Lhe cenLer fuselage. lor maxlmum clrculaLlon, whlch
occurs aL cenLer of wlngspan, assume maxlmum chord LheoreLlcally occurs Lhere. (1hough ln reallLy, lL
does noL, because Lhe cenLer ls occupled by Lhe fuselage.)
!( $ )
v
u
ls Lhe veloclLy aL Lhe upper surface of Lhe wlng, and v
l
ls veloclLy aL Lhe lower surface of Lhe wlng.
1o flnd v
u
and v
l
, we musL flnd pressure coefflclenLs C
p,u
and C
p,l
respecLlvely.
lrom Lhe expresslon relaLlng pressure coefflclenL and speed for subsonlc (and lncompresslble) flow,
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!&$ #%
We can solve for v
u
and v
l
:
! #&$ * and ! #&$ *
So, $ ! #&$ * $&$ *
And ! #&$ * $&$ *

SubsLlLuLlng maxlmum clrculaLlon expresslon lnLo Lhe wlngspan expresslon:
! #%&$ * $&$ * !"#
%&'! ! #%&$ * $&$ * !"#
! ! % ! %& %&'! %!"# #%&$ * $&$ *
Mlnlmum wlng loadlng requlred ls:
%&'! !"# ! #%&$ * $&$ * %

lor crulse (flgure 10): (alpha = 0, x/c = 0.3)
8oLLom: C
p,l
= 0.03, 1op: C
p,u
= 0.6
%&'! &+&&,,+,%&$('+'-)$&$('+.)(.)%!,.+/ 0 %
%()!..+. % (from %&'! %()!%-'1+/& %()!,.+/). Maxlmum surface area cannoL exceed
66.6 square meLers whenever Lhe uAv ls operaLlng durlng lLs crulse aL 1000 m above sea level. ln Lurn,
%()! %()!&' %()!..+., or %()!.+.. . Maxlmum chord cannoL exceed 6.66 meLers.




noLes
1.hLLp://wlnd.nrel.gov/CSu_daLa/reporLs/3x3/n4413.pdf
2. hLLp://www.ae.llllnols.edu/m-sellg/ads/coord_daLabase.hLm
3. Anderson, !ohn u. lundamenLals of Aerodynamlcs. 3
Lh
LdlLlon. McCraw Plll. 2010.
noLe 1. 8eference xx conLalns pressure coefflclenL daLa of nACA 4413 alrfoll ln some flgures. 1he
Shadows 200 and 400 use nACA 4413, our uAv deslgn wlll use nACA 4413 as well.
2
)
lrom Lhe flgures, we are Lo flnd pressure coefflclenL values measured aL some polnL on boLh Lhe Lop and
boLLom of Lhe wlng. Cur uAv parameLers wlll be based on chooslng C
p
values measured aL Lhe polnL
half-way on Lhe chord, LhaL ls, x/c = 0.3, slnce we are assumlng Lhe half-way polnL reflecLs average
values of all Lhe daLa polnLs. 1hen wlng loadlng values can be found.