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EPRI Transmission Line Reference Book115-345 kV Compact Line Design

CHAPTER 8

Maintenance and Safety


George Gela

This chapter focuses on electrical issues related to maintenance of compact lines while they are energized and safety issues that need to be considered while performing live work.
Dr. George Gela is the manager of insulation and testing at EPRIsolutions in Lenox, Massachusetts. In this capacity, he is responsible for projects involving high-voltage testing, live working, compact and upgraded transmission lines, and maintenance of lines. Previously Dr. Gela conducted high-voltage research and taught graduate and undergraduate courses at The Ohio State University. Dr. Gela earned a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Toronto in 1980. He is the international chairman of IEC TC78 Live Working, and past chair of the IEEE Corona and Field Effects Subcommittee. He has authored/co-authored more than 15 technical peer-reviewed papers.

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EPRI Transmission Line Reference Book115-345 kV Compact Line Design

8.1

INTRODUCTION

Deregulation and economic realities of todays electric utility business are forcing energy companies to ensure that transmission and distribution lines remain in service every day of the year. Increasingly, transmission owners are turning to live-line working techniques as standard practice. At the same time, operating experience with compact lines discussed in Chapter 2 clearly indicates that only a handful of utilities have attempted live work on compact lines, and that some utilities purposely limited the use of line compaction to locations and lines that could readily be taken out of service for maintenance. In other words, the general perception seems to be that compact lines, especially those operating at the lower voltage range, cannot be worked energized. This chapter, in contrast, focuses on electrical issues related to maintenance of compact lines while they are energized (i.e., live working or live-line maintenance) and safety issues that need to be considered while performing live work. The acronym LW is often used in this chapter to refer to live working. The chapter is not intended to be an exhaustive tutorial treatise on live working (LW), since this subject is covered in other reports and guides, including the EPRI Live Working Guide for Overhead Lines, published in 2004 (EPRI 2004). Rather, this chapter is intended to introduce key concepts of maintenance, safety, and LW with particular reference to compact lines, and to show how good design and engineering approaches aimed at the most efficient use of compact line hardware can go hand-in-hand with enhancing safety of workers and even in some cases allowing maintenance of energized lines that otherwise would not be possible (EPRI 2003; EPRI 2002). Because live work has not been performed extensively on compact lines, experience and especially photographs from such activities are not abundant. For this reason, many concepts and examples in this chapter are presented using photographs of more conventional (i.e., noncompact) lines. This is noted in the captions of the relevant photographs. Some photographs are from a pilot project at the EPRI-Lenox Center, the purpose of which was to study technical issues and practical implementation challenges of upgrading a 46 kV line to 115 kV using live working techniques (EPRI 1998b). Section 8.2 discusses basic considerations for live work on compact lines. In addition to general definitions, background, and safety discussions, this section includes a flowchart that provides guidance in determining whether or not live working methods can be employed for work on a compact line. Sample lists of general and specific skills, requirements, and considerations for LW on compact lines are included. The sec8-2

tion also includes a discussion of selected possible design and construction modifications that can facilitate maintenance of compact lines. The section concludes with selected examples of low-cost and high-cost modifications that help facilitate live work on compact lines. Section 8.3 presents two methods (the IEEE method and the IEC method) used in the industry to calculate the required Minimum Approach Distance (MAD). The required MAD values are calculated using the maximum overvoltage factor anticipated at the worksite. If this value is not known from system studies, the user should use the industry accepted value (previously called the default value) of the overvoltage factor (ANSI NESC C2, IEEE 516). It is important to note that the industry-accepted value of the overvoltage factor is under review at the time of writing of this section. Section 8.3 also includes a discussion of methods that are available to control (and reduce) the anticipated overvoltages at the worksite, and the effect of such actions on the required MAD. Examples are provided. Section 8.4 discusses selected maintenance operations for compact lines, including the following topics:

Insulating Tool Method De-Energized Method Barehand Method Climbing Envelope Tools and Equipment for Insulating Tool Work (Hotsticking) from an Aerial Device or Ladder Work from the Structure Overhead Ground Wires (OHGW) De-energized Work on Phase Conductors Development of Anchorages and Tool Attachment Points and Access to the Worksite

Section 8.5 presents examples of specific requirements for maintenance work on compact lines:

Climbing Steel and Aluminum Lattice Structures,


Both Single- and Multi-Circuit, Including Structures with Underbuilt Lower-Voltage Lines

Steel, Concrete, and Wood Single-Pole Structures,


Both Single- and Multi-Circuit, Including Structures with Underbuilt Lower-Voltage Lines

Structures Made of Nonconductive Materials, or


Containing Nonconductive Components

Tangent, Angle and Deadend Structures Testing of Insulators Prior to Commencement of LW


on Compact Lines

EPRI Transmission Line Reference Book115-345 kV Compact Line Design

Chapter 8: Maintenance and Safety

Insulator Hardware Type Insulator Contamination and Cleaning Issues Tools for Work on Conductor and Insulator Hardware

Worksite Access Issues, Provisions for Heavy Equipment and Trailer Access and Parking Appendix 8.1 gives an example of the Job Hazard Analysis. Appendix 8.2 gives a comparison of MAD values calculated for specific cased using the IEEE method and the IEC method. 8.2 BASIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR LIVE-LINE MAINTENANCE OF COMPACT LINES

Maintenance tasks must be performed in a safe manner. This applies to maintenance of all lines, but special caution must be exercised for compact lines. The two main differences between compact and conventional lines are:

Reduced conductor-conductor and conductor-structure clearances

Insulator configurations that are most often posttype rather than strings of individual units (bells). Figure 8.2-1 (which is a copy of Figure 2.3-8) shows a double-circuit 138-kV compact line with 6-ft vertical phase spacing and horizontal post insulators. Figure 8.2-2 shows a conventional old design double-circuit 115-kV line using suspension strings with nine cap-and-pin insulators per phase. Note the drastically different conductorconductor and conductor-structure clearances. The term clearance is typically used to represent the electrical clearances necessary for the design of structures and the operation of the system. The term distance is typically used to represent electrical distances between energized parts and grounded objects for maintenance and construction (i.e., Minimum Approach Distance, MAD, which is described and discussed in detail later). The MAD is selected for each line (compact or not) to minimize the probability of sparkover at the worksite i.e., to ensure the safety of the worker. In addition to selecting the required MAD, special attention must be paid to situations where voltages and currents are coupled from higher-voltage lines (for example, worksites on underbuilt lines), since these capacitively and/or inductively coupled voltages and currents may be unexpectedly high. Their severity is
Figure 8.2-1 Double-circuit 138-kV compact line with 6-ft vertical phase spacing and horizontal post insulators.

Figure 8.2-2 Conventional old design double-circuit 115-kV line using suspension strings with nine cap-andpin insulators per phase.

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often not known, and their sources (parallel or crossing lines) are often not visible from the worksite. All possible hazards (including nonelectrical hazards, although these hazards are not the focus of this section) must be included in the evaluation of safety (the Job Hazard Analysis or JHA) and discussed at the Job Briefing (Tailgate meeting) that is normally conducted at the worksite prior to commencement of a task, and in case of significant deviations from procedures or significant difficulties encountered during work. An example of a JHA sheet is included in Appendix 8.1. 8.2.1 Determining Whether a Compact Line is Maintainable Using LW Methods

System operations department Safety department


Insulator type, material, and hardware have a direct bearing on the ease with which LW can be performed. These selections must also be coordinated with the choice of LW methods and tools to be used. Often the need to purchase new or different tools will affect design, but may bring long-term cost advantages when maintenance expense and the cost of revenue loss due to outages are factored into the lifetime cost of the line. The information contained in this section is not exhaustive or comprehensive, and every utility will develop its own list of items and customize it to its own particular situation. However, the general ideas in Figure 8.2-3 can be used to assess the compatibility of a line with LW requirements. A list of essential general and specific skills and requirements for LW is also included. The list may be supplemented by additional skills and requirements in specific situations.

The key to ensuring that a line is maintainable using LW methods lies in close cooperation among at least four groups (EPRI 2003):

Line design department Maintenance department with LW experience

Figure 8.2-3 Decision flowchart to assess line maintainability using LW methods.

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Chapter 8: Maintenance and Safety

General LW Skills and RequirementsExamples

Assessment of replacement materials: is the replacement item electrically and mechanically equivalent to or greater than that of the item being replaced?

Adequate LW training and certification (for example,


training in basic electric power systems, proper use of tools, rescue and first aid, clear communication, etc.). Utilities that use their own crews for LW should keep full records of training and refresher courses. Utilities that outsource LW to outside contractors should require the contractors to demonstrate their qualifications. At the writing of this book, the IEEE/ESMOL Subcommittee is in the process of developing a paper entitled Contractor Qualifications for Live Working, which will be published in 2007 or 2008.

Possibility of using overvoltage control methods such


as blocked reclosing, pre-insertion resistors, Portable Protective Air Gap (PPAG), etc.

Possibility of re-calculating the MAD based on overvoltage control method(s) selected

Possibility of establishing equipotential zones or


erecting a barrier for ground crews in case of a flashover or sparkover, especially on structures where PPAGs are installed 8.2.2 Additional Considerations for LW of Compact Lines

Written work procedures in compliance with federal,


state, local, and utility requirements, such as the National Electrical Safety Code (NESC), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and local authority.

Adequate rescue equipment, first-aid facilities, and


advanced medical help/facilities

Attachment points and anchorages tools, body


restraint, and for self- and assisted-rescue devices

Positive communication system between elevated


workers and ground personnel

Positive communication system (a backup system is


also recommended) between the worksite and operations (dispatcher, system controller, etc.) Specific Considerations and Requirements for the LW TaskExamples

The additional fundamental consideration for live-line maintenance on compact lines is the fact that the available physical spacethe clearancesis smaller than for traditional lines and may not meet the required Minimum Approach Distances (MAD) for the line worked. This in itself does not necessarily eliminate LW on compact lines as an alternative to de-energizing the line, but it does require special consideration and possible use of special precaution, procedures, conductor support assemblies, and tools to ensure both the workers safety and the protection of the transmission facilities as well as their successful maintenance and operation. Also, two other considerations need to be kept in mind while evaluating the feasibility of performing LW on compact lines:

Confirmation that of the minimum approach distance is available for each type of work and each task, and, if necessary, for each structure and insulator type

Likelihood of increased coupling (both capacitive


and inductive) from adjacent lines and among phases of the compact line worked

Confirmation that structures have adequate capacity


for climbing, and installation of tools and rescue equipment

Possibility that additional structure/hardware attachment and reinforcement points may be needed to accommodate the maintenance work and/or special tools. 8.2.3 Facilitating Effective Maintenance of Compact Lines

Decision to use aerial devices or insulating ladders Selection of sufficient and appropriate tools for each
LW method, type of structure, insulator, string, and insulator hardware

Assessment of insulator string hardware: are LW fittings available, or are special yokes and tools required?

Determination of the minimum number of healthy


(or maximum number of defective) insulator units allowed for each type of work and each task. Additional insulation is required for altitudes above 900 m (3000 ft)

An effective method for facilitating maintenance, selecting tools, designing anchorage and attachment points, and developing work procedures for each specific structure and phase is to work across utility departments to develop good communication channels. The first step is to recognize the design and construction aspects that are important to maintenance and live work. However, it is often not possible to identify all design and construction aspects only by examining drawings and specifications. It is important to inspect

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EPRI Transmission Line Reference Book115-345 kV Compact Line Design

the physical structure and assembly, and to walk through an exercise of performing the expected maintenance tasks. A full-scale prototype on the structure is an ideal way to achieve this. Alternately, it is beneficial to lay out the insulators, hardware, and other components on the shop floor with the tools beside them. Workers, design engineers, and safety personnel should be involved in this exercise. At that time, maintenance workers can explain what is needed to support the tools and respective loads to the design engineers. Workers and safety officers can determine the fall protection and rescue systems to be used and express their needs for attachment to the design engineer. It is beneficial to write work procedures while everyone involved is present. Although such a process is time consuming, it can help avoid outages that may be required for structure modifications prior to LW and the need to shut down a LW job to obtain different tools than those first selected. 8.2.4 Examples of Low-Cost-Impact Design Modifications That Help Facilitate LW

have relatively long angle iron members on each side of the crossarm with no connecting and reinforcing crossmembers in the center portion of the crossarm. These long members must support the weight of workers as well as the redistributed weight of the conductor(s). Structures designed for heavy ice and wind loads may be able to easily support these no-design loads; however, structures designed for light loading may require reinforcements at strategic location to prevent severe bending of members. Tool attachment locations are also critical on angle structures. The tools must be attached such that, as the tension is taken off of the conductor, the angle of the tool relative to the conductor and the structure does not change. Otherwise, tools placed at a wrong angle are not able to support the conductor tension. This results in severe hardship for workers and may reduce work efficiency. Furthermore, on the outside angle, the phase insulator assembly hardware attachment is at the termination of the crossarm. Therefore, there is no convenient place to attach tools, unless special provisions are made at the crossarm termination itself. Including tool attachment points at appropriate locations during the design stage can be done relatively easily if the designer is aware of the issue. Proper design will undoubtedly save on future maintenance costs and reduce risk of injury to the worker. Conversely, lack of appropriate attachment points may prevent LW altogether. Similarly, attachment provisions for insulating ladders (both vertical and horizontal) and anchorages for hoisting equipment should be an integral part of each structure design, and can be provided relatively easily at the design stage. Worker access to elevated work positions may be accomplished by the installation of step bolts or attached ladders. These should begin at 8 to 10 ft above the ground level to eliminate easy access by the public. More serious problems set in at crossarm level. Access to the worksite on a lattice structures is not a significant issue because of the available number of structure crossmembers on which workers can step, walk, and attach restraint and rescue devices (provided these members are properly rated for mechanical loads). On steel and concrete poles, permanent working rings around the structure (at conductor height) should be provided for the workers feet and another set of smaller rings, eyelets, or loops for worker climbing and rescue equipment attachment. Access to the insulator hardware attachments on tubular steel crossarms can be achieved by the use of catwalks with handrails or steel bar loops for hand and knee positioning.

Overall structure design should recognize the need of performing LW and should accommodate, as much as possible, provisions that would help facilitate LW and render the work least strenuous and costly. When designing structures, it is possible to include design features and modifications that have a very low impact on line cost but are very useful from the viewpoint of executing LW tasks. Conversely, the cost of not including such simple and low-impact design modifications can result in a high cost for performing LW, can hinder efficient execution of LW tasks, and in some cases can prevent LW altogether. Some general low-impact design modifications are described below (EPRI 2003). A very useful way of identifying needed modifications and testing them is to build a prototype of the structure prior to completing the design. The designer will find it also very beneficial to work closely with manufacturers and suppliers of hardware and tools to develop ideas for design modifications to facilitate live work. Tool attachment points are essential to efficient to live work. The designer should be able to incorporate tool attachment points (such as additional holes) into the hardware and structure members at little or no increased cost. Tools should be attached at the intersection of two or more lattice members. Some structures

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Chapter 8: Maintenance and Safety

Also, provisions for worker self and assisted rescue must be included in new designs. Insulators and attachment hardware, especially at the energized end, should be selected to allow good visibility of the work area and easy removal/reinsertion of the cotter key. Fog-type units tend to obstruct access to and visibility of the cotter key and should not be used as the first unit at the energized end of a string. 8.2.5 Examples of High-Cost-Impact Design Modifications That Help Facilitate LW

plugged in for the duration of live work as needed (EPRI 2006b). Many utilities have also recently returned to the practice of using the traditional ceramic insulators instead of polymer units because of the lack of reliable and easyto-use tools to test the condition of the installed polymer units prior to LW. Although such examples are rather rare at this time, they point to the advantages of employing innovative approaches not only to optimize the line design/construction process, but also to include maintenance of the line. 8.3 8.3.1 SELECTING REQUIRED MAD Relevant NESC Provisions

Design of structures on which LW will be performed must have appropriate distances (MAD) for the line voltage and the selected LW method. For instance, access by insulated ladder may require a greater working envelopei.e., larger distancesthan access by an aerial device positioned on the outside of the structure perimeter. Also, vertical configurations and multi-circuit structures will require greater working distances on the upper phases. Providing sufficient clearances may require structures to be larger than initially planned, which could result in significant increase in the material and construction costs. This is an example of a high-cost-impact design modification that may not always be justified in economic terms, and, therefore, is not used very often (EPRI 2003). On the other hand, the cost of an outage to perform needed work de-energized may outweigh the initial cost increase, or even the cost of subsequent modification of an existing line, and the designer may find good justification for increasing structure size to accommodate LW. As an alternative to increasing clearances, the designer may work with the operations and protection/relaying departments to control (reduce) overvoltages that could occur at the worksite during work. Overvoltage control (reduction) can be achieved through various means, including permanent installation of surge arresters (a rather expensive approach), blocking circuit breaker reclosure for the duration of live work, and installation of Portable Protective Air Gaps (PPAG) for the duration of live work. Proper attachment points for the PPAG and for connection to ground of its ground electrode are needed and should be implemented at the structure design stage. Overvoltage control and reduction, and the resulting reduced MAD values, are discussed in Sections 8.3.4 through 8.3.6. At the time of writing of this book, EPRI is working on the development of the next generation of PPAGs and on developing PPAGs that can be permanently installed on selected structures and

For work on energized lines (live work), NESC requires that proper Minimum Approach Distance (MAD) is maintained at all times between workers and energized parts, or workers performing barehanding and grounded parts. The MAD values are based on maximum switching overvoltage levels expected at the worksite. Live work on compact lines presents special challenges due to reduced clearances (see Figures 8.2-1 and 8.2-2 as examples), and for this reason, very few utilities have performed work on energized compact lines in the past. New tools and equipment and proper training can overcome these challenges in many situations. For work on de-energized lines, NESC requires that proper protection, such as establishing an equipotential zone, insulation and/or isolation is provided for the protection of workers. However, little guidance is provided on methods of achieving the protection goal. Also, it needs to be recognized that methods of achieving protection for workers aloft may not be the same as for ground-level workers, and that protection provided in one location may not be applicable to other locations. 8.3.2 Worksite Voltages

During normal operation of the transmission line, the worksite and workers within it are exposed to normal rated ac system voltage. However, under abnormal conditions, such as switching operations, faults, etc., the worksite may be exposed to significantly higher voltage stresses, known as overvoltages. These overvoltages are not permanent, and in the case of switching, they are of very short duration, but they need to be considered in the determination of MAD and in the hazard analysis prior to performing live work.

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The MAD is determined from the maximum anticipated switching overvoltage level at the worksite. The methods of calculation of MAD are discussed subsequently. Lightning activity in the vicinity of the worksite is not a concern, since live work is not performed when lightning is seen or when thunder is heard in the vicinity (typically 5 to 10 miles) of the worksite. 8.3.3 Minimum Approach Distance

The electrical component of MAD depends on maximum overvoltage that is anticipated to occur at the worksite during work. In calculating this value, the overvoltage is expressed as a multiple, or per-unit (p.u.) of the line voltage (peak line-to-ground value). Normally, the maximum nominal line voltage is used; however, some utilities use the actual calculated voltage, which may be different from the maximum nominal value. Example calculation of p.u.:

The MAD is the sum of two components:

Assume line voltage of 230 kV. This value is the rms


line-to-line value.

The electrical component, often referred to as the


Minimum Air Insulation Distance (MAID), which is the required distance to withstand the maximum anticipated switching overvoltage expected at the worksite. The MAID is related to the rated line voltage and operational characteristics of the line.

The maximum nominal line voltage is 1.05 x 230


242 kVrms, L-L.

The corresponding ac rms line-to-ground value is


242/3 140 kV.

A modifier (adder), typically taken as 1 ft (30 cm) for


transmission line live work, that accounts for ergonomic factors such as inadvertent movement by the worker and possible errors in visually judging distances. Some utilities use an insulating stick that is set to the required MAD and is installed at an appropriate location at the worksite. This stick serves as a visual indication of MAD (see Figure 8.3-1). The line in Figure 8.3-1 is not a compact line, and the line is used only to illustrate the application of the MAD-indicating measuring stick.

The corresponding ac peak line-to-ground value is


140 x 2 198 kV.

Assume that the maximum overvoltage anticipated at


the worksite is 495 kVpeak, L-G.

Then, the maximum anticipated pu value at the


worksite is 495 / 198 2.5 p.u. Note: To distinguish between voltages for ac lines and dc lines, IEEE now recommends using the subscript L to designate ac phase quantities, and the subscript P to designate dc pole quantities.

Figure 8.3-1 Use of an insulating measuring stick to provide a visual indication of the required MAD. (The line is not a compact line, and the line is used only to illustrate the application of the MAD-indicating measuring stick.)

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Chapter 8: Maintenance and Safety

When values of the p.u. factor that are applicable to a specific worksite are not known, technical literature recommends the use of industry-accepted values for the system to be worked. These industry-accepted values of p.u. have been increased in the 2007 edition of the NESC (ANSI C2 2007), and are taken from the IEEE Std 516-2003 (IEEE 2003), which is again under revision. As of the writing of this book, the proposed 2008 revision of IEEE Std 516 will most likely recommend the previously used p.u. values, with additional explanations and caveats. For completeness, Table 8.3-1 lists the previously used p.u. values, the new IEEE Std 516-2003 values that are the same as the 2007 NESC p.u. values, and the proposed revised 2008 Std 516 values for system voltages above 72.5 kV. Table 8.3-2 shows, for selected system voltage levels, the effects on MAD of increasing the p.u. values from those in IEEE Std 516-1995 to those in IEEE Std 516-2003. Calculation of MAD Calculation of MAD follows the same procedures for conventional and compact lines. However, as pointed out earlier, for compact lines, the required MAD values obtained using the industry-accepted values p.u. numbers may present special challenges due to reduced clearances. Various overvoltage control methods and temporary phase spreading equipment may be employed in such cases, as discussed subsequently. The MAD is calculated as follows: MAD = electrical component (i.e., the calculated MAID) + ergonomic adder

Currently, there are two accepted methods of determining (calculating) minimum air insulation distances (MAID) for qualified electrical workers:

The IEEE method, described in detail in (IEEE 2003) The IEC method, described in detail in (IEC Publication 61472) Both methods yield approximately the same MAID values for the same worksite conditions and equivalent overvoltage levels (Gela and Charest 1998; Gela et al. 2000a; Gela and Kientz 2000b). A comparison of MAD values calculated with the two methods for selected conditions is included in Appendix 8.2.
IEEE Method for Calculation of MAID, the Electrical Component of MAD

The IEEE method does not consider the effects of defective insulators. This is handled separately (IEEE 2002). The IEEE method does not consider the effects of electrically floating conducting objects in the air gap (i.e., objects in the gap that are not bonded to the energized conductors or to ground). Altitude correction is applied after the electrical component of MAD is computed. The MAID is calculated by the IEEE method using Equation (8.3-1):

D = (C1 C2 + a) pu kVLG
Where: D = insulation distance (ft).

8.3-1

Table 8.3-1 Previous and New Industry-Accepted Values of the Overvoltage Factor p.u.a
System Voltage (rms, line-to-line), kV 72.6 kV - 362 500 - 550 700 - 800 Old Overvoltage Factor (p.u.) from IEEE Std-1995 3.0 2.4 2.0 New Overvoltage Factor (p.u.) from IEEE Std 5162003 and 2007 NESC 3.5 3.0 2.5 Proposed Revised IndustryAccepted 2008 STD 516 Values (p.u.) 3.0 2.4 2.0

a. Note: Higher or lower overvoltage (p.u.) factors may occur depending on the design and the operation of the system. Table 8.3-2 Effect on MAD of Increasing p.u. Values
System Voltage (rms, line-to-line), kV 115 138 161 230 345 Old Overvoltage Factor New Overvoltage Factor (p.u.) (p.u.) from IEEE Std- from IEEE Std 516-2003 and 2007 1995, and MAD in ft (m) NESC, and MAD in ft (m) 3.0, 3.10 (0.93) 3.0, 3.52 (1.07) 3.0, 3.93 (1.20) 3.0, 5.20 (1.58) 3.0, 8.32 (2.53) 3.5, 3.45 (1.05) 3.5, 3.94 (1.20) 3.5, 4.42 (1.35) 3.5, 6.09 (1.86) 3.5, 10.24 (3.12) Proposed Revised IndustryAccepted 2008 STD 516 Values (p.u.), and MAD in ft/m 3.0, 3.10 (0.93) 3.0, 3.52 (1.07) 3.0, 3.93 (1.20) 3.0, 5.20 (1.58) 3.0, 8.32 (2.53)

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= 0.01. = 1.1 if tools are present in the air gap, otherwise C2 = 1.0. a = saturation factor; a = 0 for overvoltage values less than and equal to 630 kVpeak, and increases for overvoltage values greater than 630 kV peak (ANSI NESC C2 2007; IEEE Std 516 2003). pu = maximum anticipated per-unit switching impulse overvoltage, approximately equal to the 2%truncation value of the statistical distribution of overvoltages (often designated by the letter T) kVL-G = rms system line-to-ground voltage (maximum nominal or actual)
IEC Method for Calculation of MAID, the Electrical Component of MAD

C1 C2

ka kf

ki

= atmospheric factor, to allow for a range of elevations within a service area. = factor to allow for the effects (in addition to their reduction of the air gap length) of electrically floating objects in the worksite gap. = factor to be applied to determine the required minimum length of a defective insulator string near which live work is to be done.

Ergonomic Component of MAD The IEEE method recommends 1 ft (or 0.30 m) for work at 72.6 kV and above and 2 ft (0.6 m) for work at 72.5 kV and below for the ergonomic (inadvertent movement) component based on years of successful live working field. The IEC method allows the utility to determine the ergonomic component, and recommends the value of 300 mm. MAD Based on Highest Anticipated Overvoltage As indicated above, at the time of writing this book, the highest anticipated overvoltage factor used in the IEEE method is under review through IEEE committees. Final decisions of this review process will also determine the industry-accepted values of p.u., and the finally approved industry-accepted values of p.u. may differ from those listed in Table 8.3-1. As the p.u. values directly affect MAID, the electrical component of MAD, the previously published tables of MAD values are likely to change. For this reason, the tables are not reproduced here. The reader is directed to the most recent edition of IEEE Std 516 (IEEE 2003), the most recent edition of NESC C2 (ANSI NESC C2 2007), and the most recent editions of the OSHA rules (OSHA 29 CFR Part 1910.269). 8.3.4 Control of Worksite Overvoltages

The IEC method (IEC 61472) is more complicated to use and requires more information for computing the MAID values (see Equations 8.3-2 through 8.3-6):

DU = 2.17 (eU 90 /(1080 K t ) 1)


Where:

8.3-2

U 90 = K s U 2
U 2 = ( 2 / 3 ) U s u2
Us u2 = maximum nominal system voltage. = 2% per unit overvoltage.

8.3-3 8.3-4

Note: For the standard switching impulse wave shape of 250/2500 s, u2 (of the IEC method) is related to p.u. (of the IEEE method) by:

u2 = ( pu + 0.25) / 1.25
Ks

8.3-5

= statistical safety factor with the suggested value of 1.1.


8.3-6

K t = k s k g k a k f ki
ks ks kg

= conventional deviation factor with the value = 0.936 for the typical suggested normalized conventional deviation of 5%. = gap factor; suggested conservative value of 1.2, unless a more precise value can be chosen.
Strainstick Length, ft (m) 13.2 (4.02) 13.2 (4.02) 9.9 (3.02) 8.7 (2.64)

Experience has shown that MAD values based on the industry-accepted value of p.u. are often too great to allow LW on some structures, especially on compact structures. That is, the available clearances are smaller than the required MAD, and sometimes smaller than the insulator string lengths. An example is shown in Table 8.3-3.

Table 8.3-3 Example of MAD Values, Recommended Tool Length, and Insulator Connection Lengths
System Voltage (kVL-L) 345 (V, 20 units) 345 (V, 16 units) 230 (I, 13 units) 138 (I, 9 units) Cradle Stick Length, ft (m) 11.3 (3.45) 9 (2.74) Connection Length Connection Length Ceramic String, ft (m) Polymer (ft/m) 9.58 (2.92) 7.98 (2.43) 6.23 (1.90) 4.31 (1.31) 8.04/2.45 8.04/2.45 6.48/1.97 4.58/1.4

MAD, ft (m) 8.32 (2.53) 8.32 (2.53) 5.20 (1.58) 3.52 (1.07)

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To overcome this difficulty, an overvoltage control strategy may be applied on the system and/or at the worksite. This approach has the effect of reducing the overvoltage level and allows determination through engineering studies of the actual p.u. value expected at the worksite. This actual p.u. value may then be used to recalculate the required MAD for the particular worksite and operating condition. The overvoltage control strategies may consist of:

Blocked reclosing (many utilities employ this strategy


for all live work)

formed, and is usually placed on the next structure to that on which LW is done (EPRI 1994, Gela et al. 1996, 2002). Figure 8.3-2 shows the process of installing a PPAG on a 230-kV steel lattice structure (this structure is not a compact structure and is used as an example of the installation of the PPAG). Figure 8.3-3 shows two PPAGs installed on a 500-kV line with line-to-line clearance of 35 ft (subconductor-to-subconductor clearance of 33.5 ft). Similarly, this structure is not a compact structure and is used as an example of the installation of the PPAG.

Use of pre-insertion resistors in the circuit breaker, or


other breaker control methods

Installation of Portable Protective Air Gaps (PPAG)


for the duration of LW (several utilities are now adopting this strategy). Blocked reclosing and breaker controls are used quite often to reduce overvoltages during live work. The use of PPAGs, however, is not yet a widespread strategy. The PPAG is briefly described below (OSHA 29 CFR Part 1910.269; EPRI 1994; Gela et al. 1996, 2002). 8.3.5 Use of PPAG

A PPAG consists of an insulating pole (similar to that used for insulating tools or hotsticks) with two metal electrodes. One electrode is placed in contact with the energized phase, while the other electrode is connected by a cable to the structure ground. The PPAG is connected line-to-ground on the phase on which LW is per-

Figure 8.3-2 Installation of a PPAG on a 230-kV steel lattice structure. (This structure is not a compact structure and is used as an example of the installation of the PPAG.)

Figure 8.3-3 Installation of PPAGs on a 500-kV line with 35-ft line-to-line clearance. (This structure is not a compact structure and is used as an example of the installation of the PPAG.)
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The distance between the metal electrodes of the PPAG is selected so that the PPAG would spark over at an overvoltage that is significantly lower than the sparkover voltage of the worksite. Thus, the function of the PPAG is to protect the worksite and the worker by deliberately introducing a known weak link on the line on which LW is performed. The exact distance between the PPAG electrodes is determined based on system conditions, operating practice, type of structure worked, and other considerations (EPRI 1994, Gela et al. 1996, 2002). For purposes of this discussion, it is sufficient to recognize that the PPAG serves as a definite protection for the worksite that will prevent the occurrence of sparkover and flashover at the worksite. Should a PPAG sparkover occur, either during installation or maintenance activities, there will be a fault to ground. Protection against step, touch, and transfer touch voltages must be provided at the structure where the PPAG is installed. PPAGs are used during live work operations to limit the worksite overvoltage to a specified value. The PPAG is only required for the duration of the specific work and for the maximum overvoltages that may be anticipated during the performance of the task. The PPAG needs only be installed on the phase being worked, but some utilities install a PPAG on each phase. PPAGs have been used by several utilities with great success on 500/550 kV systems for more than 30 years, and PPAGs for 115/138, 230, and 345 kV systems have been developed recently through EPRI research and testing at the EPRI-Lenox laboratory. One utility employs, when needed, a commercially available 41 in. (1.04 m) PPAG to facilitate replacement of insulators on a compact 550 KV line (EPRI 1994, Gela et al. 1996, 2002). How the PPAG Allows Derivation of Recalculated MAD The MAD for LW is related to the maximum expected overvoltage at the worksite. Without the PPAG, the maximum overvoltages expected at the worksite are based on the p.u. values listed in Table 8.3-1. With the PPAG installed for LW, the maximum expected overvoltage is determined by the PPAG, and it is significantly lower than those based on p.u. values in Table 8.3-1. Hence, the required distance for the reduced overvoltage is also significantly reduced, and a new MAD value can be calculated.

8.3.6

MAD Based on Reduced p.u. Values

An example of recalculated MAD values for a 138-kV system voltage using various p.u. values are listed in Table 8.3-4 (see notes for the listed pu).
Table 8.3-4 Example of Recalculated Minimum Approach Distances, Line-to-Ground, for Various p.u. Values, ac Energized Work (Including the Ergonomic Component).
Type of Overvoltage Control p.u. Value None Blocked reclosinga PPAGb 3.0 2.5 1.5 Line-to-Ground MAD Value, ft (m) 3.58 (1.09) 3.17 (0.97) 2.25 (0.59) Line-to-Line MAD Value 4.92 (1.50) 4.50 (1.37) 2.67 (0.81)

a. The 2.5 p.u. for blocked reclosing is a typical value. This value must be confirmed by a system study. The MAD is from NESC Table 441-2. b. The 1.5 p.u. for PPAGs is from IEEE Std 516-2003, Table D6. This p.u. and MAD must be determined by laboratory study.

8.3.7

Phase Spreading Equipment

Recently, specialized robotic arms have been developed that can be used to detach conductors from their attachment points and spread out the phases at the worksite, as shown in Figure 8.3-4. Such equipment is used at all voltage levels and is also especially useful in working on compact lines.

Figure 8.3-4 Example of a robotic arm with an insulating cross-arm for spreading phases of energized overhead lines.

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8.3.8

Required MAD Versus Available Insulators

Although this section describes methods of controlling worksite overvoltages to the desired values even in situations of extreme line compaction, it should be recognized that practical situations often result in clearances that are more accommodating due to the length of commercially available insulators. A study (EPRI 1998b) was conducted to determine whether a 46-kV line (delta phase configuration) could be upgraded to 115 kV (also delta phase configuration) using live working methods, and to identify the most extreme compaction of the upgraded 115-kV line. The process of voltage upgrading was performed on a full-scale mockup of the original 46-kV line by increasing both the phase-structure and phase-phase clearances. The original 46-kV post insulators were replaced with new insulators rated for 115 kV to increase phase-structure clearances, and the new insulators were moved to new locationsi.e., the mounting locations were spread out to increase the phase-phase clearances. Relocating insulators on wood poles is a rather simple matteronly new bolt holes for mounting brackets need to be drilled, provided the pole height is sufficient, as shown in Figure 8.3-5. In case of insufficient pole height, a bayonet extension may be needed, especially for the shield wire. For concrete poles, drilling of new bolt holes is not the preferred option, but pole bands may be used to attach the insulator mounting brackets, as shown in Figure 8.3-6.

However, when selecting 115-kV insulators for the upgraded line, it was recognized that the most extreme compaction option could not be realized because commercially available post insulators were typically longer that needed. Special shorter insulators could be designed, at least in theory, but the development cost would prove prohibitive for a small batch of such insulators. Hence, the final compact 115-kV line had clearances that were greater than initially anticipated, and resulted in a more relaxed requirement for overvoltage control requirements to facilitate live work. The compact 115-kV line is still on display at the EPRI Lenox Center. 8.4 MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS FOR COMPACT LINES

Maintenance of energized lines is performed using the hotstick method (also known as the insulating tool or the at-a-distance method). Lines can also be maintained de-energized. In special situation, the barehand method (also known as the contact method) can be used. The same methods can also be used for compact lines, although, as discussed earlier, live work on compact line presents considerable challenges and special overvoltage control strategies may need to be employed. 8.4.1 Insulating Tool Method

When using the insulting tool method, the worker is normally positioned on the structure, on a support (for example, a diving board attached to the structure), or

Figure 8.3-5 Example of a compact 115-kV line that resulted from upgrading a 46-kV linewood pole structure, drilled holes for attaching new 115-kV insulators.

Figure 8.3-6 Example of a compact 115-kV line that resulted from upgrading a 46-kV lineconcrete pole structure, using pole bands to attach new 115-kV insulators.

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in an aerial device, and uses live working insulating tools to perform required tasks. The worker is assumed to be at ground potential and fully insulated from energized parts by air (the required MAD) and the insulating tools. 8.4.2 De-Energized Method

The above precautions apply to maintenance of both traditional and compact lines. 8.4.3 Barehand Method

For the de-energized method, the line must be de-energized and properly grounded for the duration of work. Grounding is accomplished by installing suitably rated temporary grounding cables that provide two functions:

They establish an equipotential zone for workers at


the worksitei.e., a space within which all objects accessible to the worker are at approximately the same potential.

The use of the barehand method without overvoltage control on compact 115/138 kV line is not likely at this time due to reduced clearances. Furthermore, when line crews are approaching and leaving an energized circuit by the barehand method, the MAD must be increased to eliminate the possibility of sparkover due the floating electrode effect. The use of PPAGs may extend the barehanding method to compact lines. 8.4.4 Climbing Envelope

They provide a low impedance path to the substation,


which helps in the operation of breakers in case of accidental or unintentional energization of the line (experience shows that de-energized line may become energized by accidental erroneous closing of breakers, or by a conductor from another energized line falling onto the line worked). The worksite must be properly set up and all workers both those aloft on the structure and those on the groundmust be well protected. Grounding cables need to be kept as short as possible to reduce their electrical resistance and to limit mechanical motion (whipping) during faults resulting from accidental or unintentional energization. It must be noted that methods of protecting workers aloft may differ considerably from methods used to protect workers at ground level. In particular, ground-level workers must be aware of hazards associated with step, touch, and transfer voltages, capacitively coupled voltages to vehicles and other objects, and magnetically induced currents in loops formed by conductors, cables, guy wires, metallic objects bonded together, etc. To avoid these hazards, workers must never break bonding wires between vehicles and equipment with their hands before temporary grounding cables are removed from the ground rods, always wait for the signal from the crew that the grounding cables have been removed, and always use appropriate hot line tools. Also, workers must not grab a vehicle or equipment and an end of a grounding cable or bonding wire simultaneously. EPRI has developed two training videos on temporary grounding:

For LW on wood poles, many utilities define a climbing envelope, which accounts for the size of a typical lineman and is a cylinder typically 30 in. (76 cm) in diameter, centered on the centerline of the pole. This approach allows a space (buffer) of 15 in. (38 cm) on each side of the pole, measured from the pole centerline, for climbing the pole. The distance to all energized parts then must be equal to or greater than the required MAD plus the radius of this climbing envelope. This concept is illustrated graphically in Figure 8.4-1, where D1 is the MAD that corresponds to the minimum anticipated overvoltage at the worksite, and D2 is the MAD that corresponds to the maximum anticipated overvoltage expected at the worksite. Safety note: As Figure 8.4-1 clearly shows, the 15-in. (38 cm) buffer DOES NOT include the ergonomic component of MAD. The required MAD must still be determined based on the overvoltage factor and must also include the ergonomic component. 8.4.5 Tools and Equipment for Insulating Tool Work (Hotsticking) from an Aerial Device or Ladder

Insulation cannot be cascaded for purposes of live work. When crews are working from an insulating ladder or aerial device with insulating tools, the ladder or aerial device or the insulating tool must have the full insulation value for the voltage being worked (for example, the aerial device may not have one-half of the required insulation and the insulating tool the other half). When crews are using an aerial device, the bottom of the platform or bucket, as well as the workers head and arms (while extended) must maintain the required MAD from energized objects (buckets are assumed to have no insulating value). The outside phase of a hori-

Temporary Grounding for Workers Aloft (EPRI PID


1011766)

Temporary Grounding for Workers on the Ground


(EPRI PID 1014839)

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zontal line configuration should be worked from the outside. It is often not possible to work the center phase of the horizontal configuration or the upper phases (i.e., the top and the middle phases) of the vertical configurations because the available line-to-line clearances are insufficient for the required MAD and the worker envelope without the use of overvoltage control measures. 8.4.6 Work from the Structure

8.4.7

Overhead Ground Wires (OHGW)

OHGWs should be considered as energized when working on de-energized (grounded or ungrounded) conductors until the wires are grounded to the structure or to installed temporary ground rods (especially on wood or nonconductive structures). On steel structures, ground wires may be connected to the structure or may be insulated from it. Even when the ground wires are connected to the structure, it is important to recognize that the OHGW attachments are mechanical, not electrical, and therefore may not provide sufficiently low-impedance path to ground for worker safety. Also, OHGWs are often insulated from the structures on older lines to accommodate power-line communication (PLC), or are segmented to minimize power losses and are grounded at a central point only in the segment. In any case, the OHGW should be treated as energized until properly grounded. On wood and nonconductive structures, temporary ground rods and cables should be installed for the duration of work. OHGWs over energized circuits, even in short spans and especially in corridors, may be energized through induction and must be treated as such. The mechanical connection should be bonded to the structure prior to touching the OHGW, and the OHGW must be bonded prior to separating the OHGW from the structure.

While climbing on and working from structures, the workers movement is continually restricted to within the tight line-to-line and line-to-ground MAD values, especially on single-pole structures. The lower the system voltage, the greater the movement restrictions become. Single-pole vertical and single- and double-circuit structures are particularly confining and create challenging situations for both designer and worker. It is beneficial to use the recalculated MAD for blocked reclosing to provide additional worker confidence. Climbing, working, and hand lines (barehand hot rope) should be kept in a vertical plane that allows maximum line-to-line and line-to-ground distances. Working from the structure creates hazards when working around tools and their attachments. It is necessary to be familiar with the work procedure for each job and the possible hazards associated with it. As part of JHA (Job Hazard Analysis), or at the initial design stage, the design department should analyze the structure and tool attachment points, and determine the loads and displacements that will occur and that could result in possible hazards.

Figure 8.4-1 Illustration of the climbing/working space and line-to-ground MAD concepts.

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A workers body belt and positioning strap are adequate for attachment to the structure at the OHGW level. An easy-to-install sling (often called a becky), rated for the load of a worker, should be carried aloft for easy rescue equipment attachment. OHGWs are fairly lightweight (620 lb [281 kg] for 0.5 in. steel in a 1200 ft [366 m] span); however, as they are designed for ice and wind loading, the area of work should be able to support the weight of the worker and tools. A workers weight (wearing apparel and with tools) of 250 lb is typical for design loads. Poles and goat heads usually have sufficient design strengths for maintenance purposes. The force capability of cantilever arms should be verified with the design department prior to developing maintenance work procedures. Special grounding precautions should be observed when working on structures with communications facilities such as OPGW (OPtical Ground Wire) and Personal Communications Systems (PCS) antennas, because grounding arrangements of such equipment may not be familiar to utility workers or may not be sufficient for worker safety. These issues should be considered early in the design stages of the structure and the communication system, and work should be coordinated carefully between the utility maintenance department and the owner of the communication system. 8.4.8 De-energized Work on Phase Conductors

sions such as rolled steel (loop) shaped in a U be included (welded to the pole, either vertically or horizontally), at work positions. These fall prevention attachments must meet OSHA and IEEE Std 1307 (IEEE 1996) requirements. Fall protection loops must be installed at locations coordinated with the specific tools and work procedure at each worksite. Anchorage and tool attachment points must be properly rated for the expected mechanical load, see Figure 8.4-2. (This structure is not a compact structure and is used as an example.) On structures where there are no crossarms to support tools, such as line posts and supported line posts, push sticks are required in tandem in order to:

Lift the conductor vertically, Maintain the horizontal separation between the pole
and the conductor. Access to the worksite on a steel crossarm creates unique problems. The crossarm, if narrow enough, may be straddled (see Figure 8.4-3), the positioning strap placed loosely around the crossarm and the worker can scoot to the worksite. On larger diameter crossarms, rolled steel loops (1 ft in length) may be welded to the crossarm in the horizontal plane. These loops should be staggered on each side of the crossarm so that each hand and knee can move forward to walk to the

Similarly to work on overhead ground wires, phase wires should be considered as energized when working on de-energized phase conductors until the wires are grounded to the structure or to installed temporary ground rods (especially on wood or nonconductive structures). Considerations and precautions similar to those in Section 8.4.7 apply. 8.4.9 Development of Anchorages and Tool Attachment Points and Access to the Worksite

A variety of strain stick suspension yokes is commercially available. The proper yoke must be selected for the specific structure and phase to be worked. The yoke must fit properly to eliminate the possibility of slippage. Yokes may be modified by the utility; however, adequate strength of the modified yokes and other tools must be certified by a competent person. Wire tongs used on steel poles will require chain extensions to accommodate greater pole diameters. Where pole diameters are too large to accommodate a positioning strap, it is recommended that attachment provi8-16

Figure 8.4-2 Anchorages and tool attachment points. Note the selection of block support points. (This structure is not a compact structure and is used as an example.)

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worksite. These loops also provide fall protection attachments. They may also be used to secure tools to prevent slipping (but not to support loads). Alternatively, walkways with handrails may be installed. On steel lattice crossarms, short ladders may be used for worker to crawl (see Figure 8.4-4).

8.5

EXAMPLES OF SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR MAINTENANCE WORK ON COMPACT LINES

This section provides additional selected examples of requirements for maintenance work on compact lines. 8.5.1 Climbing Steel and Aluminum Lattice Structures, Both Single- and Multi-Circuit, Including Structures with Underbuilt Lower-Voltage Lines

This section addresses climbing of lattice structures. An alternative to climbing is the use of chassis-mounted aerial devices (bucket trucks) with insulating boom section for energized work. For de-energized work, noninsulating booms may be used; however, proper grounding and procedures for phase conductors and overhead ground wires must be followed. Lattice structures are relatively easy to climb and to attach tools such as strain and support sticks. From the LW and maintenance viewpoint, it is important to ensure that structure members have sufficient strength (both initial, and aged after years of service) to allow climbing and to support tools.
Figure 8.4-3 Access on steel crossarms. Note support points for the tools, ladders, and blocks. Also, note access along the arm to the cold end of the insulator string. (This structure is not a compact structure and is used as an example.)

On multi-circuit structures, sufficient climbing space must be available. The possibility of blocking breaker reclosure on both lines may also need to be considered. Short-circuit current levels need to be known for both lines. For de-energized work on one or both lines, unobstructed attachment points to the bare structure steel for temporary grounding cables must be available, and an equipotential zone must be established for the de-energized circuit(s). Structures with underbuilt lower-voltage lines require special consideration. When work is performed on the upper higher-voltage line(s), whether the line worked is energized or de-energized, sufficient climbing space past the underbuilt lower-voltage line(s) must be available, or the lower-voltage line(s) must be de-energized and grounded. For work on the underbuilt lower-voltage line(s) while the upper higher voltage line(s) remain(s) energized, induction into the lower-voltage line(s) resulting from both steady-state and switching operations, faults, and lightning strikes on the upper higher-voltage line(s), must be considered, or the higher-voltage line(s) must be de-energized but not necessarily grounded. In some cases, induction from the upper higher-voltage line(s) into the underbuilt lower-voltage line(s) can reach a significant percentage of the nominal voltage of the under-

Figure 8.4-4 Using a short ladder to crawl to the end of a steel lattice crossarm. (This structure is not a compact structure and is used as an example.)

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built line(s), especially on compact structures where all clearances are reduced. 8.5.2 Steel, Concrete, and Wood Single-Pole Structures, Both Single- and Multi-Circuit, Including Structures with Underbuilt Lower-Voltage Lines

Transmission single-pole structures are generally more difficult to climb and require one of the following:

lems while climbing or performing insulating tool work from the structure. Namely, the presence of a worker's body, particularly when wearing a conductive suit, can short out a portion of the insulation system, and thereby possibly expose the worker to increased electrical risk. For LW purposes, all components should be considered to be conductive unless specific work procedures have been developed. In addition, issues related to installation and interconnection of temporary grounds (including multi-circuit structures), and bonding of metal hardware are similar to or even more severe than those for wood and concrete poles. 8.5.4 Tangent, Angle, and Deadend Structures

Step bolts that are appropriately spaced and located


around the pole circumference,

Attached ladders for climbing, or Aerial devices.


Similar considerations as for lattice structures apply to multi-circuit poles. Step bolts and ladders generally start 8 to 10 ft above ground level to prevent climbing access to the public. Wood poles may or may not be equipped with step bolts. Old wood and concrete poles often have copperweld grounding wires as part of the lightning protection system. In such cases, these ground wires are designed for system protection and are not sufficient to carry shortcircuit currents; hence, they are not suitable attachment points for temporary grounds for de-energized work. Also, workers have expressed concerns climbing laminated poles using pole climbers, since the gaffs tend to slide off or sink into the laminate more easily than in the case of wood poles. There are a variety of composite structures (i.e., wood H-frame using a prefab metal crossarm with attached overhead ground wire supports [so-called goat head]) that are composed of a variety of materials. These structures must be addressed separately as to appropriate work method. Furthermore, it is essential to ensure proper bonding of metal hardware and guy wires to avoid exposing workers to hazardous potential differences. 8.5.3 Structures Made of Nonconductive Materials, or Containing Nonconductive Components

Tangent (suspension) structures are designed primarily for nontension mechanical loads such as the vertical weight of conductors, overhead ground wires, and ice, as well as horizontal wind loads. They generally account for the majority of structures in a transmission line. A single general climbing and maintenance procedure is required for these structures. Angle structures (small, medium, and large angle) can vary significantly in construction and present different challenges to LW. The inside, center, and outside conductor(s) often have crossarms of different lengths and may use different insulator attachment hardware. Work procedures and specific tools must be considered for each phase. Deadend structures, besides supporting vertical and horizontal loads, are designed to carry the tension loads of the conductors. They are normally designed such that if the tension on one side of the structure is lost, the structure will absorb the loss, including shock load, without failure. On long lines in severe storm areas, tangent deadend structures are often installed at specified intervals to prevent cascading or catastrophic failure of the system. Strain tools on deadend structures must accommodate both the tension and the angle of the conductor(s). Deadend structures have a jumper to electrically connect the conductors on either side of the structure. Like the angle structure, crossarm lengths and insulator attachment hardware can vary between phases, depending on the angle between the line directions on either side of the structure. The jumpers can use from none to two supporting insulator strings depending on the angle and the specific phase. Different work procedures and specific tools may need to be used for various angle structures and, possibly, for each phase on the angle structure. Tools supporting the tension loads and their structure attachment points must be given careful consideration.

Structures made of nonconductive synthetic materials, or containing nonconductive synthetic structural components are not in common use yet; however, there are several trial field installations. One advantage of such structures is the possibility of using structural components as part of the insulation system, thus reducing the length and weight of insulators. From the LW viewpoint, however, this approach can pose significant prob8-18

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8.5.5

Testing of Insulators Prior to Commencement of LW on Compact Lines

Chapter 2 contains examples of several compact lines operating at various voltage levels. Careful examination of these examples shows that very few compact lines employ the conventional I or V insulator strings. Instead, post (or long-rod) ceramic insulators or polymer insulators are used for suspension and deadend applications. Some lines use innovative, but complicated, insulator assemblies. Insulators and insulator assemblies must be tested prior to live work. For porcelain and glass insulator discs (bells), conventional guidelines and test procedures can be used. For polymer insulators, there are at this time no low-cost techniques and instruments for rapid and reliable routine testing at the worksite prior to maintenance. Consequently, some utilities do not perform LW on some lines that use polymer insulators, do not use polymer insulators altogether on certain lines that need to be maintained live, or have instituted programs to replace installed polymer insulator with porcelain or glass strings to allow LW. This situation applies to both conventional and compact lines. EPRI is now conducting research to develop instruments for assessing the condition of polymer insulators for live working immediately prior to commencement of work (EPRI 2006a). 8.5.6 Insulator Hardware Type

mended until it is no longer effective and replacement becomes necessary. Cleaning of polymer insulators must be performed very carefully to avoid damage to the sheds and, more importantly, to the sheath (EPRI 1998a). Coating of insulators to prevent contamination-related flashovers helps avoid outages, but has little effect on LW procedures. However, when insulators need to be recoated (usually every few years), removal of the aged coating and application of new coating is typically performed with the line de-energized. 8.5.8 Tools for Work on Conductor and Insulator Hardware

Tools dedicated to the specific structure design are recommended for use in the insulating tool and barehand live work methods. The engineering department should be instructed to furnish permanent insulator LW (hot fittings) hardware for insulator attachments to ease LW procedures and to accommodate standard insulating tool attachments. Special LW hardware provisions need only be furnished at insulator string connections that have been coordinated between the engineering design and maintenance departments. This may be required on the cold-end, hot-end, or both. Fog bells (long-skirted) porcelain insulator units may prohibit the use of standard cotter pin removal tools. Crews at one utility made the decision during line construction to deviate from construction drawings and replace fog insulator units at the energized end of each string with regular units to allow removal of the cotter key. Such situations should be discussed at the design stage between the engineering and maintenance departments. Practice has shown that universal insulating tools may be too long for use on compact lines due to reduced clearances, and as such interfere with, restrict, or prevent effective LW (EPRI 1997). As an example of this potential problem, Table 8.5-1 summarizes the required MAD values (based on 3 p.u. overvoltage factor) and the lengths of recommended tools for 115/138 and 230 kV system voltage levels. Typical connection lengths of the ceramic strings and polymer insulators are also included.

Because of reduced clearances, compact lines exhibit higher electric field levels on hardware. For this reason, the use of EHV hardware is recommended. It is essential that designers coordinate the design of hardware with maintenance personnel, especially the craft that will be performing the LW. The inclusion of special provisions for LW in the design, such as a yoke or tool attachment flange on the hardware, reduces the cost for developing special tools for LW, reduces work time, and decreases worker risk (Ordon 1995). 8.5.7 Insulator Contamination and Cleaning Issues

Contaminated insulator units or strings may flash over during wet conditions. Washing or cleaning (using various methods, such as CO2 pellets, crushed vegetable matter, etc.) of contaminated insulator strings is recom-

Table 8.5-1 MAD Values, Recommended Tool Lengths and Typical Insulator Connection Lengths
System Voltage (kVL-L) 230 (I, 13 units) 138 (I, 9 units) MAD, ft (m) 5.20 (1.58) 3.52 (1.07) Strainstick Length, ft (m) 9.9 (3.02) 8.7 (2.64) Connection Length Ceramic String, ft (m) 6.23 (1.9) 4.31(1.31) Connection Length Polymer, ft (m) 6.48 (1.97) 4.58 (1.40)

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Analysis of Table 8.5-1 shows that the lengths of the recommended adjustable strainsticks are greater in all cases than the insulator connection lengths. This must be recognized prior to commencement of live work, and appropriate tools and procedures may need to be developed. This must be done with full input from the maintenance crews that will use them. A full-scale structure mockup is a very useful tool to confirm the design of the tools and develop proper procedures. 8.5.9 Worksite Access Issues, Provisions for Heavy Equipment and Trailer Access and Parking

ples in this chapter are presented using photographs of more conventional (i.e., noncompact) lines. This is noted in the captions of the relevant photographs. Basic Considerations for Live Work on Compact Lines
General and Specific Requirements and Skills for Design and Live Work on Compact Lines

General Requirements and Skills. In general, designers designing compact lines and linemen working on compact lines require similar skills at those needed for conventional lines.

Access to structures is a major deterrent to LW at many utilities. In inaccessible mountainous, river bed, residential, industrial, or agricultural areas, aerial devices cannot be used due to lack of access roads and flat areas near structures. Helicopter use can often be hindered by fog, rain, and high winds. Therefore, climbing is often the only alternative, keeping in mind that the climbing option may not be viable due to the condition of structures and due to prevailing environmental conditions at the time of work. 8.6 HIGHLIGHTS

Specific Requirements and Skills. Designers should


work closely with maintenance departments to identify and avoid issues that could render live work on compact lines difficult or even impossible. Such issues should be discussed with all stakeholders, and design modifications or corrective measures should be implemented. Often, simple and inexpensive design modifications can help facilitate live work when they are considered and implemented at the design stage. The same modifications can prove to be prohibitively costly to implement after the line has been built. Most importantly, good communication among various departmentsincluding the design, maintenance, system operations, and safety departments prior to construction, is essential and beneficial in the long range.

Basic Differences Between Compact and Conventional Lines The two main differences between compact and conventional lines are:

Examples of Low-Cost and High-Cost Modifications.


Selected examples of low-cost and high-cost modifications that help facilitate live work on compact lines are presented in Section 8.2.
Methods for Selecting the Required Minimum Approach Distance (MAD)

Reduced conductor-conductor and conductor-structure clearances

Insulator configurations that are most often posttype rather than strings of individual units (bells). Current Status of Live Working on Compact Lines

Methods of Calculation of MAD. Methods of calculating MAD for compact lines are the same as for conventional lines. Two industry-accepted methods are discussed (the IEEE methods and the IEC method).

DriversNeed for LW. Deregulation and economic


realities of todays electric utility business are forcing energy companies to ensure that transmission and distribution lines remain in service every day of the year. Increasingly, transmission owners are turning to live-line working techniques as standard practice.

Worksite Overvoltage Factors. It is important to note


that default maximum industry accepted overvoltage factor values are now under revision by IEEE committees, and the most recent edition of IEEE Std 516 should be consulted for the applicable values.

Current Status. Operating experience with compact


lines is scarce. Only a handful of utilities have attempted live work on compact lines in the past. Some utilities purposely limited the use of line compaction.

Control of Overvoltages. Industry standards allow


users to implement various overvoltage control strategies aimed at reducing the worksite overvoltage factors. This is especially beneficial for LW in view of the reduced clearances on compact lines.

Available Level of Industry Experience. Because live


work has not been performed extensively on compact lines, experience in live work is not abundant. Also, photographs from such activities are not readily available. For this reason, many concepts and exam-

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EPRI Transmission Line Reference Book115-345 kV Compact Line Design

Chapter 8: Maintenance and Safety

Special Tools and Equipment

REFERENCES ANSI. 2007. NESC C2-2007. National Electrical Safety Code C2. Latest Edition. EPRI. 1994. Electrical Performance of a Portable Protective Gap (PPG) in a Compact 550-kV Tower. Palo Alto, CA. TR-103860. EPRI. 1997. Energized Work on Idaho Power Companys Existing 345 kV Structures. Palo Alto, CA. TR-108968. EPRI. 1998a. Evaluation of the Performance of NonCeramic Insulators for Live Working Applications: Replacing Ceramic Insulators with NCI. Palo Alto, CA. EPRI. 1998b. Upgrading 46 kV Line to 115 kV, Draft Final Report. Palo Alto, CA. EPRI. 2002. Tools and Methods to Perform Live Work on Reduced Clearance FacilitiesInterim Report. Palo Alto, CA. 1001749. EPRI. 2003. Optimizing the Transmission Line Design for Effective Live Working. Palo Alto, CA. 1002032. EPRI. 2004. Live Working Guide for Overhead Lines. Palo Alto, CA. 1008747. EPRI. 2006a. Electrical Condition Assessment of Polymer Insulators for Live Working: Update on Development of an Improved Portable Tester. Palo Alto, CA.1012321. EPRI. 2006b. Overvoltage Control Devices for Live Work, Opportunity Sheet. Palo Alto, CA. 1013334. Gela, G. et al. 1996. Application of Portable Protective Gaps for Live Work on Compact 550 kV Transmission Lines.IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. Vol. 11. No. 3. July. pp. 1419-1429. Gela, G. and M. Charest. 1998. IEC Method of Calculation of Minimum Approach Distances for Live Working. IEEE transactions paper presented at ICOLIM 1998. Lisbon, Spain. October. Gela, G., P. W. Hotte, and M. Charest. 2000. IEC Method of Calculation of Minimum Approach Distances for Live Working. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. Vol. 15. No. 2. April. pp. 635-640. Gela, G. and H. Kientz. 2000. Further Comparison of the IEC and IEEE Methods of Calculation of Minimum Approach Distance. Paper presented at ICOLIM2000. Madrid, Spain. May.
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Various utilities, contractors, and manufacturers have


developed a range of tools and equipment specifically designed to facilitate live work on compact lines.
Research Needs

Additional research is needed in several directions,


including much greater understanding of worksite overvoltage factors, robots that are smaller in size and hence better conform to reduced line clearances, sophisticated overvoltage reduction strategies, and simulator-type training materials for proper training of new generations of linemen for work on compact lines.

Chapter 8: Maintenance and Safety

EPRI Transmission Line Reference Book115-345 kV Compact Line Design

Gela, G, R. Ferraro, and T. Verdecchio. 2002. Portable Protective Air Gaps. ICOLIM 2002 Proceedings. Berlin, Germany. pp. 103-107. IEC. n.d. Publication 61472. Live Working: Minimum Approach Distances A Method of Calculation. IEEE. 1996. Std 1307-1996. IEEE Trial Use Guide for Fall Protection for the Utility Industry. IEEE. 2002. ESMOL Subcommittee 15.07. Minimum Number of Good (Healthy) Porcelain or Glass Insulator Units in a String for Live Work.IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. Vol. 17. No. 3. July. pp. 809-814.

IEEE. 2003. Std 516-2003. IEEE Guide for Maintenance Methods on Energized Power Lines. Ordon, T. J. F. and K. E. Lindsey. 1995. Considerations in the Design of Three Phase Compact Transmission Lines. ESMO 1995 Proceedings. pp. 108-114. OSHA. 29 CFR Part 1910.269. Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution.

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EPRI Transmission Line Reference Book115-345 kV Compact Line Design

Chapter 8: Maintenance and Safety

APPENDIX 8.1

EXAMPLE OF JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS

NOTE:This is only an example of a job hazard analysis. Most job hazard analysis will require more detail.
Table A8.1-1 Example of Job Hazard Analysis

JOB TASK: Spacer replacement from insulating aerial device SEQUENCE OF STEPS Identify circuit to be worked on Obtain permission from system operator POTENTIAL HAZARDS Working on a circuit that is not set up for work (e.g., blocking recloser) Working on a circuit that is not set up for work (e.g., blocking recloser) 1. Unstable/uneven ground Set up insulating aerial device 2. Contaminated boom 3. Not having an equipotential zone PREVENTIVE MEASURES Positive identity of circuit in the field (e.g., circuit identification on structure) Review switching order from system operator with crew Use proper shoring and blocking of outriggers Clean and inspect boom Check all bonding connections - Check desiccate crystals - Check atmospheric relief valve - Check leak monitoring system - Monitor leakage for 3 minutes with boom/basket contacting energized line Wear proper fall protection Wear conductive suit bonded to basket to create an equipotential zone Maintain minimum approach distance from objects at a different potential Keep the area beneath the worksite clear

Test boom for leakage

High leakage current causing flashover

PPE Bond on to energized conductor Replace spacer

Falls Electrocution Electrocution Struck-by

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Chapter 8: Maintenance and Safety

EPRI Transmission Line Reference Book115-345 kV Compact Line Design

APPENDIX 8.2

EXAMPLE COMPARISON OF IEEE AND IEC CALCULATED MAD VALUES

Table A8.2-1 shows an example comparison of MAD values calculated by the IEEE and IEC methods for the following conditions:

Sea level (H = 0 m) No broken insulators (ki = 0 in the IEC method) No electrically floating conducting objects (kf = 0 and F = 0 in the IEC method) p.u. = 1.25 x u2 0.25 from Equation 8.3-5 Also, for the IEC method, the following values were used: Ks = 1.1, ks = 0.936, and kg = 1.2

The agreement is very good in most cases in Table A8-2-1.


Table A8.2-1 Values of DU (IEC) and D (IEEE) for H = 0 m (sea level)
Case Us (kVL-L) kVL-G u2 T=p.u. U2 a-table Ks U90 ka 0m Kt Du (m) Du (ft) C1 C2 D (ft) D (m) Alt.f.0 Daltit(m) Du/D 1A 121 70 2.3 2.625 227 0 1.1 250 1.000 1.12 0.50 1.63 0.01 1.00 1.83 0.559 1.00 0.56 0.89 2A 242 140 2.3 2.625 454 0 1.1 500 1.000 1.12 1.11 3.63 0.01 1.00 3.67 1.118 1.00 1.12 0.99 3A 362 209 1.8 2 532 0 1.1 585 1.000 1.12 1.35 4.41 0.01 1.00 4.18 1.274 1.00 1.27 1.06 3B 362 209 2.1 2.375 621 0.0006 1.1 683 1.000 1.12 1.64 5.38 0.01 1.00 5.26 1.604 1.00 1.60 1.02 3C 362 209 2.3 2.625 680 0.0012 1.1 748 1.000 1.12 1.85 6.07 0.01 1.00 6.14 1.873 1.00 1.87 0.99 4A 550 318 1.8 2 808 0.0020 1.1 889 1.000 1.12 2.35 7.70 0.01 1.00 7.62 2.323 1.00 2.32 1.01 4B 550 318 2.1 2.375 943 0.0033 1.1 1037 1.000 1.12 2.93 9.62 0.01 1.00 10.03 3.057 1.00 3.06 0.96 5A 800 462 1.8 2 1176 0.0050 1.1 1293 1.000 1.12 4.13 13.56 0.01 1.00 13.86 4.223 1.00 4.22 0.98

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