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Codoy v.

Calugay - On 6 April 1990, Evangeline Calugay, Josephine Salcedo and Eufemia Pa igas, devisees and lega ees of he holographic !ill of he deceased "a ilde Se#o $da% de &amonal, filed a pe i ion for pro'a e of he said !ill% - (hey a es ed o he genuineness and due e)ecu ion of he !ill on *0 Augus 19+,% - Eugenio &amonal Codoy and "anuel &amonal filed heir opposi ion claiming ha he !ill !as a forgery and ha he same is even illegi'le% - (hey raised dou' s as regards he repea ed appearing on he !ill af er every disposi ion, calling he same ou of he ordinary% - -f he !ill !as in he hand!ri ing of he deceased, i !as improperly procured% - Evangeline Calugay, e c% presen ed 6 !i nesses and various documen ary evidence%

- (he firs !i ness !as he clerk of court of he pro'a e cour !ho produced and iden ified he records of he case 'earing he signa ure of he deceased% - (he second !i ness !as election registrar !ho !as made o produce and iden ify he vo er.s affidavi , 'u failed o as he same !as already des royed and no longer availa'le% - (he hird, he deceaseds niece, claimed ha she had ac/uired familiari y !i h he deceased.s signa ure and hand!ri ing as she used o accompany her in collec ing ren als from her various enan s of commercial 'uildings and he deceased al!ays issued receip s% - (he niece also es ified ha he deceased lef a holographic !ill en irely !ri en, da ed and signed 'y said deceased% - (he four h !i ness !as a former lawyer for he deceased in he

in es a e proceedings of her la e hus'and, !ho said ha he signa ure on he !ill !as similar o ha of he deceased 'u ha he can no 'e sure% - (he fif h !as an employee of the DENR !ho es ified ha she !as familiar !i h he signa ure of he deceased !hich appeared in he la er.s applica ion for pas ure permi % - (he fif h, respondent Evangeline Calugay, claimed ha she had lived !i h he deceased since 'ir h !here she had 'ecome familiar !i h her signa ure and ha he one appearing on he !ill !as genuine% - Codoy and &amonal.s demurrer o evidence !as gran ed 'y he lo!er cour % - !as reversed on appeal !i h he Cour of Appeals !hich gran ed he pro'a e% 0he her or no Ar icle ,11 of he Civil Code, providing ha a leas hree !i nesses e)plici ly declare he

signa ure in a con es ed !ill as he genuine signa ure of he es a or, is manda ory or direc ory% - 1ES% (he !ord 2shall3 conno es a manda ory order, an impera ive o'liga ion and is inconsis en !i h he idea of discre ion and ha he presump ion is ha he !ord 2shall3, !hen used in a s a u e, is manda ory% - -n he case a 'ar, he goal o 'e achieved 'y he la!, is o give effec o he !ishes of he deceased and he evil o 'e preven ed is he possi'ili y ha unscrupulous individuals !ho for heir 'enefi !ill employ means o defea he !ishes of he es a or% - (he paramoun considera ion in he presen pe i ion is o de ermine he rue in en of he deceased% 0he her or no he !i nesses sufficien ly es a'lish he au hen ici y and due e)ecu ion of he deceased.s holographic !ill%

- 4O% 0e canno 'e cer ain ha he holographic !ill !as in he hand!ri ing of he deceased% - (he cler5 of cour !as no presen ed o declare e)plici ly ha he signa ure appearing in he holographic !ill !as ha of he deceased% - (he elec ion regis rar !as no a'le o produce he vo er.s affidavi for verifica ion as i !as no longer availa'le% - (he deceased.s niece sa! pre6 prepared receip s and le ers of he deceased and did no declare ha she sa! he deceased sign a documen or !ri e a no e% - (he !ill !as no found in he personal 'elongings of he deceased 'u !as in he possession of he said niece, !ho 5ep he fac a'ou he !ill from he children of he deceased, pu ing in issue her mo ive%

- Evangeline Calugay never declared ha she sa! he decreased !ri e a no e or sign a documen % - (he former la!yer of he deceased e)pressed dou' s as o he au hen ici y of he signa ure in he holographic !ill% - 7As i appears in he foregoing, he hree6!i ness re/uiremen !as no complied !i h%8 - A visual e)amina ion of he holographic !ill convinces ha he s ro5es are differen !hen compared !i h o her documen s !ri en 'y he es a or% - (he records are remanded o allo! he opposi ors o adduce evidence in suppor of heir opposi ion% - (he o'9ec of solemni ies surrounding he e)ecu ion of !ills is o close he door agains 'ad fai h and fraud, o avoid su's i u ion of !ills and es amen s and o guaran y heir ru h and au hen ici y% (herefore, he la!s on his su'9ec should 'e in erpre ed in such a !ay as o a ain hese

primordial ends% :u , on he o her hand, also one mus no lose sigh of he fac ha i is no he o'9ec of he la! o res rain and cur ail he e)ercise he righ o ma5e a !ill% - ;o!ever, !e canno elimina e he possi'ili y of a false documen 'eing ad9udged as he !ill of he es a or, !hich is !hy if he holographic !ill is con es ed, he la! re/uires hree !i nesses o declare ha he !ill !as in he hand!ri ing of he deceased% - Ar icle ,11, paragraph 1% provides< 2-n he pro'a e of a holographic !ill, i shall 'e necessary ha a leas one !i ness !ho 5no!s he hand!ri ing and signa ure of he es a or e)plici ly declare ha he !ill and he signa ure are in he hand!ri ing of he es a or% -f he !ill is con es ed, a leas hree of such !i nesses shall 'e re/uired%3 (he !ord 2shall3 conno es a manda ory order, an impera ive o'liga ion and is inconsis en !i h he idea of discre ion

and ha he presump ion is ha he !ord 2shall3, !hen used in a s a u e, is manda ory% Gan v. Yap - On 4ovem'er =0, 19>1, ?elicidad Esguerra Al o 1ap died of hear failure in he @S( hospi al leaving proper ies in :ulacan and in "anila% - On "arch 1+, 19>=, ?aus o E% Aan ini ia ed hese proceedings in C?"anila for pro'a e he holographic !ill e)ecu ed allegedly 'y he deceased% - -n opposi ion o said proceedings, he surviving hus'and -ldefonso 1ap asser ed ha he deceased had no lef any !ill, nor e)ecu ed any es amen during her life ime% - Af er hearing he par ies, he cour refused o pro'a e he alleged !ill% (he !ill i self !as no presen ed% - Some ime in 19>0, ?elicidad Esguerra men ioned o her firs cousin $icen e

Esguerra her desire o ma5e a !ill% ;o!ever, she !an ed i o 'e a secre 'ecause she said ha i !ould 'e useless if her hus'and discovered or 5ne! a'ou i % - So $icen e consul ed !i h he nephe! of ?elicidad and found ou ha i could 'e done provided ha he documen !as en irely in her hand!ri ing, signed and da ed 'y her% - As a resul of his, ?elicidad proceeded !i h he ma5ing of her !ill% (hough i !as a secre , she !ould sho! people !ho !ould visi her !ill% - Af er evalua ing he pieces of evidence presen ed 'efore he cour , he rial 9udge had o accep he opposi or.s evidence ha ?elicidad did no and could no have e)ecu ed such holographic !ill% - ;ence his appeal% 0O4, a los holographic !ill can 'e admi ed o pro'a e%

- 4o% Ar icles ,106,1B govern holographic !ills% - is s a ed ha , 2A person may e)ecu e a holographic !ill !hich mus 'e en irely !ri en, da ed and signed 'y he hand of he es a or himself% It is subject to no other form and may be made in our out of the Philippines, and need not be witnessed. - @nli5e ordinary !ills, holographic !ills need no o'serve he rules laid do!n in Ar % ,0> for i s compliance !i h he la!% As long as i is !ri en en irely, da ed and signed 'y he es a or himself, hen i !ill 'e sufficien proof ha i has 'een e)ecu ed in accordance !i h la!% - ;o!ever, !i nesses may 'e 'rough in so as o verify ha he !ill and he signa ure are in he hand!ri ing of he es a or% (he !i nesses so presen ed do no need o have seen he e)ecu ion of he holographic !ill% - -n he case hand ho!ever, he !ill holographic !ill !as no presen ed o

he cour % O'viously, !hen he !ill i self is no su'mi ed, hese means of opposi ion and, of assessing he evidence are no availa'le% And hen he only guaran y of au hen ici y C he es a or.s hand!ri ing C has disappeared% - - is herefore o 'e concluded ha he e)ecu ion and he con en s of a los or des royed holographic !ill may no 'e proved 'y he 'are es imony of !i nesses !ho have seen andD or read such !ill% - (his is 'ecause he only guaran y of he au hen ici y is he hand!ri ing i self% (he loss of he holographic !ill en ails he loss of he only medium of proof% - (ha even if oral es imony !ere admissi'le o es a'lish and pro'a e a los holographic !ill, he evidence su'mi ed 'y he pe i ioner is so ain ed !i h impro'a'ili ies and inconsis encies ha i fails o measure up o ha clear and dis inc proof re/uired 'y &ule ++%

- &e9ec ion of he alleged !ill mus 'e sus ained - (he e)ecu ion and he con en s of a los or des royed holographic !ill may no 'e proved 'y 'are es imony of !i nesses !ho have seen andDor read such !ill% (he !ill i self mus 'e presen edE o her!ise, i shall produce no effec % (he la! regards he documen i self as ma erial proof of au hen ici y% Rodelas v. Aranza - (he pro'a e cour ordered he dismissal of &odelas. pe i ion for he allo!ance of he holographic !ill of deceased &icardo :% :onilla on he ground ha he alleged pho os a ic copy of he !ill !hich !as presen ed for pro'a e, canno s and in lieu of he los original, for he la! regards he documen i self as he ma erial proof of he au hen ici y of he said !ill%

0he her a holographic !ill !hich !as los or can no 'e found can 'e proved 'y means of a pho os a ic copy - Pursuan o Ar icle ,11 of he Civil Code, pro'a e of holographic !ills is he allo!ance of he !ill 'y he cour af er i s due e)ecu ion has 'een proved% - (he pro'a e may 'e uncon es ed or no % -f uncon es ed, a leas one iden ifying !i ness is re/uired and, if no !i ness is availa'le, e)per s may 'e resor ed o% -f con es ed, a leas hree iden ifying !i nesses are re/uired% - ;o!ever, if he holographic !ill has 'een los or des royed and no o her copy is availa'le, he !ill can no 'e pro'a ed 'ecause he 'es and only evidence is he hand!ri ing of he es a or in said !ill% - is necessary ha here 'e a comparison 'e !een sample hand!ri en s a emen s of he es a or and he hand!ri en !ill%

- :u , a pho os a ic copy or )ero) copy of he holographic !ill may 'e allo!ed 'ecause comparison can 'e made !i h he s andard !ri ings of he es a or% Even a mimeographed or car'on copyE or 'y o her similar means, if any, !here'y he au hen ici y of he hand!ri ing of he deceased may 'e e)hi'i ed and es ed 'efore he pro'a e cour , may 'e allo!ed% -f he holographic !ill has 'een los or des royed and no o her copy is availa'le, he will can not be probated 'ecause he 'es and only evidence is he hand!ri ing of he es a or in said !ill% Azaola v. Singson - (he su'9ec of his case is he holographic !ill of ?o una a 1ance% - ?rancisco AFaola su'mi ed he said holographic !ill !here'y "aria AFaola

!as made he sole heir of he deceased% - (he pro'a e of he !ill is con es ed on he ground ha he !ill !as e)ecu ed under undue influence, ha he documen !as no in ended o 'e he !ill of he deceased and ha he proponen of he !ill failed o presen a leas hree !i nesses !ho could declare he !ill and he signa ure herein o 'e in he !ri ing of he es a ri)% - -n his case, he proponen of he !ill only presen ed one !i ness o prove ha he 'ody of and signa ure in he !ill !as ha of he es a or 0he her or no he hree6!i ness rule is manda ory and applica'le in his case - (he SC held ha he pe i ioner is no 'ound o produce more han one !i ness as he au hen ici y of he !ill is no in /ues ion%

- Aran ing also ha he genuineness of he !ill is con es ed, he provision of Ar ,11 should no 'e in erpre ed o re/uire he compulsory presen a ion of he hree !i nesses% - First, i should 'e no ed ha in holographic !ills, no !i ness is re/uired in he e)ecu ion hereof, hus he e)is ence of he !i nesses possessing he re/uisi e /ualifica ions is a ma er 'eyond he con rol of he proponen % - Second, he la! i self con empla es a si ua ion !here no compe en !i ness can 'e produced hus allo!ing he cour o resor o e)per evidence o supply he deficiency% - (o clarify fur her, he op ion o re/uire e)per evidence depends on he discre ion of he cour % -f he cour is convinced 'y he es imony of he !i nesses, i may no longer as5 for e)per evidence% ;o!ever, if here is no compe en !i ness or if hose

produced !ere no convincing, he cour may accordingly call for e)per evidence% - (hus, he case is remanded o allo! he par ies o adduce addi ional evidence including e)per es imony% - Ar ,11 re/uiring hree !i nesses in he pro'a e of a con es ed holographic !ill is merely direc ive and no manda ory% Kalaw v. Relova - 4a ividad Gala! lef a holographic !ill% - is no con es ed ha he !ill !as in her hand!ri ing as cer ified 'y he 4:-% (he !ill ho!ever has al era ionsDinser ions% (he !ill originally named &osa, he deceden .s sis er as her sole heir and adminis ra or, 'u his !as crossed ou and changed o her 'ro her Aregorio% Such al era ion !as ho!ever no au hen ica ed 'y he full signa ure of he deceden %

- ;ence, he !ill !as denied pro'a e 'y he rial cour

0he her he !ill is valid or no % - - is invalid% Ordinarily, !hen a num'er of erasures, correc ions and in erlinea ions made 'y he es a or in a holographic sill have no 'een no ed under his signa ure, he !ill in no here'y invalida ed as a !hole, 'u a mos only as respec s he par icular !ords erased, correc ed or in erline% - ;o!ever, in his case, he !ill in dispu e had only one su's an ial provision, !hich !as al ered 'y su's i u ing he original heir !i h ano her, 'u !hich al era ion did no have he signa ure of he es a or, he effec mus 'e ha he en ire !ill is voided for he reason ha no hing remains in he !ill af er ha !hich could remain valid%

- (o s a e ha he !ill as firs !ri en should 'e given efficacy is o disregard he seeming change of mind of he es a ri)% :u ha change of mind can nei her 'e given effec 'ecause she failed o au hen ica e i in he manner re/uired 'y la! 'y affi)ing her full signa ure% - 0hen a num'er of unau hen ica ed erasures, correc ions and in erlinea ions are made 'y he es a or in a holographic !ill, he same is no here'y invalida ed as a !hole, 'u a mos only as respec s he par icular !ords erased, correc ed or in erlined% Except ho!ever, if af er all he al era ions !ere voided, no hing remains in he !ill% Commen s C (he holding ha he inser ion of he name of Aregorio canno 'e given effec for no having 'een done in accordance !i h he re/uiremen of Ar ,1B is 'eyond /ues ion% 0hy,

ho!ever, !as he cancella ion of he original es amen ary ins i u ion given effec H (ha cancella ion !as no done in he !ay manda ed 'y he ar icle% (o say, as he decision does, ha 2 o s a e ha he !ill as firs !ri en should 'e given efficacy is o disregard he seeming change of mind of he es a ri),3 is no argumen , 'ecause i is no enough ha he es a or manifes his in en C he mus manifes in a manner re/uired 'y la!% Ajero v CA - (he holographic !ill of Annie San !as su'mi ed for pro'a e% - Priva e responden opposed he pe i ion on he grounds ha < nei her he es amen .s 'ody nor he signa ure herein !as in deceden .s hand!ri ingE i con ained al era ions and correc ions !hich !ere no duly signed 'y deceden E and, he !ill !as procured

'y pe i ioners hrough improper pressure and undue influence% - (he pe i ion !as also con es ed 'y Ir% A9ero !i h respec o he disposi ion in he !ill of a house and lo % ;e claimed ha said proper y could no 'e conveyed 'y deceden in i s en ire y, as she !as no i s sole o!ner% - ;o!ever, he rial cour s ill admi ed he deceden .s holographic !ill o pro'a e% - (he rial cour held ha since i mus decide only he /ues ion of he iden i y of he !ill, i s due e)ecu ion and he es amen ary capaci y of he es a ri), i finds no reason for he disallo!ance of he !ill for i s failure o comply !i h he formali ies prescri'ed 'y la! nor for lac5 of es amen ary capaci y of he es a ri)% - On appeal, he CA reversed said Iecision holding ha he deceden did no comply !i h Ar icles *1* and *1B of he 4CC% - found ha cer ain

disposi ions in he !ill !ere ei her unsigned or unda ed, or signed 'y no da ed% - also found ha he erasures, al era ions and cancella ions made had no 'een au hen ica ed 'y deceden % - ;ence, his appeal% 0he her he CA erred in holding ha Ar icles ,1* and ,1B of he 4CC !ere no complies !i h% - 1ES% (he SC reversed he decision of CA% - A reading of Ar icle ,1* sho!s ha i s re/uiremen affec s he validi y of he disposi ions con ained in he holographic !ill, 'u no i s pro'a e% -f he es a or fails o sign and da e some of he disposi ions, he resul is ha hese disposi ions canno 'e effec ua ed% Such failure, ho!ever, does no render he !hole es amen void% - Ji5e!ise, a holographic !ill can s ill 'e admi ed o pro'a e no !i hs anding

non6compliance !i h he provisions of Ar icle ,1B% - @nless he au hen ica ed al era ions, cancella ions or inser ions !ere made on he da e of he holographic !ill or on es a or.s signa ure, heir presence does no invalida e he !ill i self% (he lac5 of au hen ica ion !ill only resul in disallo!ance of such changes% - - is also proper o no e ha he re/uiremen s of au hen ica ion of changes and signing and da ing of disposi ions appear in provisions 7Ar icle ,1* and ,1B8 separa e from ha !hich provides for he necessary condi ions for he validi y of he holographic !ill 7Ar icle ,108% - (his separa ion and dis inc ion adds suppor o he in erpre a ion ha only he re/uiremen s of Ar icle ,10 of he 4CC C and no hose found in Ar icles ,1* and ,1B C are essen ial o he pro'a e of a holographic !ill%

- Sec ion 9, &ule +6 of he &ules of Cour and Ar icle ,*9 of he Civil Code enumera e he grounds for disallo!ance of !ills% (hese lis s are e)clusiveE no o her grounds can serve o disallo! a !ill% - -n a pe i ion o admi a holographic !ill, he only issues o 'e resolved are< o !he her he ins rumen su'mi ed is, indeed, he deceden .s las !ill and es amen E o !he her said !ill !as e)ecu ed in accordance !i h he formali ies prescri'ed 'y la!E o !he her he deceden had he necessary es amen ary capaci y a he ime he !ill !as e)ecu edE and o !he her he e)ecu ion of he !ill and i s signing !ere he volun ary ac s of he deceden %

- (he o'9ec of he solemni ies surrounding he e)ecu ion of !ills is o close he door agains 'ad fai h and fraudE accordingly, la!s on his su'9ec should 'e in erpre ed o a ain hese primordial ends% -n he case of holographic !ills, !ha assures au hen ici y is he re/uiremen ha hey 'e o ally au hographic or hand!ri en 'y he es a or himself% ?ailure o s ric ly o'serve o her formali ies !ill no resul in he disallo!ance of a holographic !ill ha is un/ues iona'le hand!ri en 'y he es a or%

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