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2011The International Conference on Advanced Power System Automation and Protection

Protection Relay Stability Study for 115kV and 34.5kV Transmission and Distribution System
Sin-Jo Jung, In-Su Kang
KEPCO E&C Ltd, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 446-713, Korea

AbstractSome clients request the stability study of a protection system in designing power system to evaluate whether protection relays properly operate in case of an internal fault and if they do not function in the events of severe external fault. High fault currents could cause Current Transformers (CTs) to be saturated. A critical concern is the performance of fast protective relay (instantaneous or differential elements) during severe saturation of CTs. Time domain transient simulation software is widely used for the study of these types of works. In this paper, a relay stability study of 115 kV and 34.5 kV transmission and distribution systems was carried out and evaluated utilizing the PSCAD software, which provides several modeling methodologies for various electrical equipment such as transmission line, power transformer, current transformer and protective relays. For the purpose of this study, the modeling method of CT is the most important factor because it influences heavily on the protection relay operation. It is very important to model CT as close as the real characteristics of the CT. Two types of CT models provided by the PSCAD were discussed and compared with each other and an appropriate CT modeling methods were covered in this study. This study is mainly based on digital relays, which prevail recently in the relay market. Digital relay characteristics like anti-aliasing filter, digital filter and various setting function are embedded into PSCAD. Keywords Protection Relay, Relay Stability Study, Differential Relay, PSCAD, CT Saturation, External Fault

1. Introduction
Protective relay is one of the most important components of power system. They could reduce harmful damage to both electrical equipment and personnel when an electrical fault occurs. One of design criteria for protection system is to clear electrical fault as fast as possible. In order to achieve this, high speed (or instantaneous) relay has been widely used if no coordination is required with upstream protective device. Application of differential relays to protect large electrical equipment is evaluated as one of the most effective ways in terms of the operating speed. The differential protection for a generator or a motor does not usually cause a nuisance activation of the relay, while the differential protection of a transformer has occasionally caused trip of power system due to unbalanced currents from both side CTs. The unbalanced currents may be attributable to current transformer (CT)s saturation. For transformer differential protection, one set of CTs is located on high voltage side, whereas the other set of CT is located on low voltage side. The CTs at each side may have different turn ratios and different accuracy class. When an external fault outside a transformer occurs, the output current of each side of CTs could have different characteristics in their wave shape because of CT saturation. This could cause an activation of differential relay. To avoid this scenario, protection engineers should consider sizing of
*Corresponding authors (email: sjj@kepco-enc.com, iskra@kepco-enc.com)

CTs based on an applicable standard such as IEEE C37.110 or relay manufacturers recommendation. Modern microprocessor relay has CT saturation detection algorithm to prevent power system from occurring unwanted trip. If the relay detects any saturation phenomenon for an external fault, it blocks the trip output signal. The CT saturation detection system could be sufficient for stable protection system stability. However, some clients may not be satisfied with these provisions and require additional protective relay stability study to ensure adequacy of the protection system. Time domain transient simulation programs such as EMTP, PSCAD and MatLab have been widely used for this type of study. PSCAD program is often used to perform relay stability study.

2. Sample Power System for This Study


A substation for gathering crude oil is selected as a sample power system for this relay stability study. The substation receives power from a network through two (2) 115kV feeders. Two (2) step-down transformers are used to convert system voltage from 115kV to 34.5kV. The transformers are protected by the application of multifunction differential relays. System configuration is as shown in Figure 1. a) Transmission Line CT : 2000/1A
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2011The International Conference on Advanced Power System Automation and Protection

b) c) d) e)

Transformer Capacity : 50/66MVA, ONAN/ONAF Transformer Primary Side CT : 400/5A Transformer Secondary Side CT : 1200/5A 34.5kV Feeder CT : 200/5A

Figure 2.

Comparison of CTs Secondary Currents (Lucas vs. JA Model)

Sample CT curve

Figure 3.

Tested Hysteresis Loop for Sample CT

Figure 1.

Plant Single Line Diagram.

3. Current Transformer Model


PSCAD provides two types of CT model, JA model and Lucas model. In order to determine a suitable CT model for this study, simple simulation is made to evaluate the output currents from JA model and Lucas model. In addition, CT data (Table 1) and B-H loop curve (Figure 3) from a local manufacturer are used to evaluate the two (2) CT models. The simulation result is compared with actual test result.
Table 1. Sample CT Data from a Local Manufacturer CT Ratio 400/5A Core Area (m2) 3.6e-3 Flux Path Length (m) 0.653 Internal Impedance (/mH) 0.244/6. 5e-2

Figure 4.

Simulated Hysteresis Loop based on JA Model for Sample CT

The results show that the output currents of both CT models (Figure 3) are very similar to the fault currents up to 14 (kA, peak) that is the expected maximum through-fault-current for the system of Figure 1. Therefore, the Lucas model, which employs the mathematical power series to express hysteresis characteristics of CT, may be acceptable for this type of study.

The JA model was evaluated with adjustment of k factor. The simulation results show that the tested B-H loops are similar to that of manufactures data as shown in Figures 3 and 4 with the relay burden of 1.0 ohm. CT modeling is not a critical factor because both modeling methods are acceptable for this study. The JA model is used for convenience sake. In order to incorporate the JA model into each CT as shown in Figure 1, some data for CT have been provided from the CT manufacturer as shown in Table 2.
Table 2. CT Model Input Data CT Ratio 2000/1 A 400/5A 1200/5 A 200/5A Core Area (m2) 4.48e-3 2.97e-2 8.9e-3 3.6e-3 Flux Path Length (m) 1.3195 1.3195 0.919 0.653 Internal Impedance (/mH) 2.0/0.53 0.5/0.13 2 0.75/0.0 2 0.121/0. 032

2011The International Conference on Advanced Power System Automation and Protection

4. Relay Model
Two types of relay, namely, dual slope current differential relay (87) and instantaneous overcurrent relay (50), were discussed in this study. Current differential relay requires hardware part model and setting part model. Digital relay algorithm is embodied in on-line Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) element of PSCAD as shown in Figure 7. This determines the harmonic magnitude and phase angle of the input signal as a function time. Relay setting model was also prepared to actualize the relays operation under the expected fault condition.

Fault Location

Fault Location

Fault Location Figure 6. Power System Model

(a)

Dual Slope Current Differential Relay Setting Model

Power source was modeled as an ideal source with external resistance and reactance. The fault current was fully offset at the first cycle. The connections in PSCAD between CTs and relay are as depicted in Figure 7. Phase angle and magnitude compensation of the input current for one of two sides shall be made for proper operation of the differential relay. Line differential relay does not need any compensation because phase shift does not exist, but 180 degree shall be used to increase bias current of the relay and to make zero of differential current under normal condition. For the differential relay of delta-wye connected power transformer, 30-degree compensation is basically required for matching the phase angle seen from the relay.

(b)

Instantaneous Overcurrent Relay Setting Model

Figure 5. Dual Slope Current Differential Relay and Overcurrent Relay Setting Model

Dual slope differential relay setting into the PSCAD program was made as shown in Figure 5(a) based on an actual relay setting calculation. Instantaneous OCR was modeled as illustrated in Figure 5 (b). (a)
CT Input to FFT Element

5 System Model
Plant system was modeled as shown in Figure 6. Power source, transmission lines, transformers, CTs and relays were modeled to match to the actual single line diagram of Figure 1.

210 deg for TR protection

(b)

Phase Angle Compensation and Diff. Current Comparison

Figure 7. Dual Slope Current Differential Relay for T/L Protection

2011The International Conference on Advanced Power System Automation and Protection

5. Case Study
A. Transmission Line Internal Fault (location ) Figure 8 shows the phase angle and magnitude of fault current for an internal fault. When an internal fault occurs at a transmission line, the line currents rapidly increase in the opposite direction of each CT seen at one instant and they makes differential current to reach the threshold value. As a result of the fault, the line differential relay properly operates to clear the internal fault. The restraint current of the line differential relay increases, but differential current of the relay goes up much higher than the restraint current, allowing the operation of the differential relay. The CTs are not saturated in this case study.
(Primary Side Current) (Sec. Side Current)

(Primary Side Current)

(Sec. Side Current)

(Biased Current)

(Differential Current)

(Trip Curve)

(a)
(Biased Current) (Differential Current)

Line Differential Relay Output

(Primary Side Current)

(Sec. Side Current)

(Trip Curve) (Biased Current) (Differential Current)

(Trip Curve)

Figure 8.

Line Differential Relay Output

B. Transformer Primary Side Fault (location ) In this fault scenario, the line differential relay shall not operate, while transformer differential relay shall operate to clear fault. As shown in Figure 9(a), the transformer differential relay properly operates on an internal fault. The primary side current increases rapidly on an internal fault and the relay does pick-up by increasing the differential current. However, the line differential relay has enough stability not to respond to an external fault. See Figure 9(b). This case also shows that CTs are not saturated during the transformer internal fault.

(b)

Transformer Differential Relay Output

Figure 9. Differential Relay Output for Primary Side Fault

C. SWGR Feeder Fault (location ) The fault at 34.5kV SWGR feeder shall be cleared by feeder OCR (50/51) only to preserve service continuity at the other feeder. This could be accomplished by relay coordination between incomer OCR and feeder OCRs. For this stability study, feeder OCR shall operate with no time delay by an instantaneous element (50), whereas upstream differential relay for the transformer shall not operate because it is external fault. Figure 10(a) shows that the feeder side of CT is partially saturated on the high fault current. However, it does not affect the relay operation. The amount of the distorted current is high enough to operate instantaneous OCR.

2011The International Conference on Advanced Power System Automation and Protection


(Fault Current)

Table 3. Fault Location

Relay Stability Study Summary Expected Relay Output Trip Not Trip Trip Not Trip Trip Study Result Trip Not Trip Trip Not Trip Trip Study Evaluation Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied

(Fault Current RMS value)

Affected Relay(Note 1) A A B B C

Note 1. A : Transmission Line Differential Relay B : Transformer Differential Relay


(Trip Curve)

C : Feeder Overcurrent Relay

7. Conclusion
The purpose of relay stability study is to evaluate the protection system, using transient analysis program. This study result assures the client. Relay stability study was performed based on a sample power system for gathering crude oil. CT modeling, relay modeling and system modeling were implemented into PSCAD program for this simulation, and many simulations were performed based on various fault locations with the developed models for PSCAD. The conclusion of this study is that the sample protection system was well designed, and particularly the CT dimension has a margin enough for saturation to rarely occur at high external fault current. The CT for SWGR feeder experiences partial saturation at an internal fault, but the distorted current is high enough to operate feeder instantaneous overcurrent relay. Overall evaluation on the sample system concludes that the protection system is acceptable.

(a)

Feeder Overcurrent Relay Output


(Sec. Side Current)

(Primary Side Current)

(Biased Current)

(Differential Current)

(Trip Curve)

[References]
1 2 3 (b) Figure 10. Transformer Differential Relay Output 4 Relay output for 34.5kV feeder fault 5 PSCAD/EMTDC Manual, Manitoba HVDC Research Centre Fundamentals of PSCAD and General Applications(Version 4.2) Considerations in Applying EMTP to Evaluate Current Transformer Performance under Transient and High Current Fault Conditions. Rasheek M. Rifaat, 2005 Saturation of Current Transformers and its Impact on Digital Overcurrent Relay, Ibrahim.M.El-Amin, Nabil H. Al-Abbas, IEEE PES T&D, 2006 A Study on Performance of Current Transformer in High Voltage System, K.Y.Choi, KEPCO-ENC Technical Journal, 2006. A Current Transformer Model Based on the Jiles-Atherton Theory of Ferromagnetic Hysteresis, U.D.Annakkage, P.G.McLaren, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 15, No.1, January 2000. Improved Simulation Models for Current and Voltage Transformers in Relay Studies, J.R.Lucas, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol 7, No.1, January 1992.

6. Study Summary
Study results are summarized in Table 3. All protection function properly respond to the simulated location faults.