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In the previous section on harmonic function, the strong progression of V - I was discussed. Listen again to the example, and notice how the phrase does not sound over until the final I chord is sounded.

The final V - I chord progression is what we call a cadence. A cadence is combination of a certain strong harmonic progressions with a resolution to a strong beat that ends a phrase. Cadences might be thought of as the punctuation marks in music - some cadences sound uite final !"# while others onl$ pause a moment !,# and still others leave the listener waiting for more !%#. Cadences are eas$ to hear, but are sometimes harder to recogni&e in printed music. It is important to listen to the musical examples, and recogni&ing these musical punctuations.

Authentic Cadence
The strongest t$pe of cadence is an authentic cadence. There are two t$pes of authentic cadences' a perfect authentic cadence (PAC) and imperfect authentic cadence (IAC) . In order for an authentic cadence to be perfect all of the following must be true'
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(armonic progression of V - I !or an added seventh on the V chord# )oth chords must be in root position The *elod$ must end on the tonic pitch.

All of these strict re uirements make this the strongest and most final sounding of all cadences. +ou ma$ think of it as a final period at the end of a paragraph or an exclamation point !"#. A ,AC is usuall$ found at the end of works and often at the end of significant sections.

In an imperfect authentic cadence, the onl$ re uirement is that the harmonic progression must be V - I or vii - I, or with added sevenths on the V or vii chords. The chords ma$ be inverted, and the melod$ ma$ end on a pitch other than tonic. )ecause of the more general nature of the IAC, it sounds less final, but still strong enough to be used at minor stopping points in a work when the composer wishes the music to cadence, but then go on. *usicall$, this cadence functions like a period at the end of a sentence.

Deceptive Cadence
-hen a V chord does not resolve up b$ fourth to a I chord, but instead resolves up b$ second to a vi, we call it a deceptive cadence !.C#. )ecause a vi chord and a I chord have two notes in common. This cadence is not nearl$ as conclusive, or final, as an authentic cadence, and is never used to end a tonal work. (owever, it does provide a delightful /surprise/ b$ resolving to a minor chord in ma0or ke$s, and a ma0or chord in minor ke$s. In a deceptive cadence, the vi chord is not used in first inversion. This is because of the similarit$ to the I chord - it will sound like a /wrong note I chord/ rather than a vi chord.

Half Cadence
The half cadence !ending on V#is perhaps most like a comma !,# because it cannot end a phrase. The unstableness of the dominant chord sets up the following phrase. In a half cadence !(C# the V chord ma$ be preceded b$ an$

other chord. The chord that follows a half cadence ma$ be an$ chord, however, I or vi are most common.

Another specific, but rarer, t$pe of half cadence is a phrygian half cadence !iv1 - V# was popular during the )aro ue period. ,hr$gian (alf Cadences onl$ occur in minor ke$s, and must consist of a first inversion iv chord that resolves to a root position V or V7 chord. It refers to a common t$pe of cadence that was used in music written in the phr$gian mode, but was later fre uentl$ used to end the slow middle movement of a concerto, when the composer wished for the final movement to begin without an extended break. The second movement of )ach2s Brandenburg Concerto No. 2 is perhaps one of the shortest complete movements in the literature, and consists onl$ of a phr$gian cadence.

Plagal Cadence
The ,lagal cadence, IV - I is actuall$ a regression, but through continual and prominent use b$ composers over the centuries, it has become a common, conclusive cadence. This is the /Amen/ cadence used at the end of most church h$mns.

Cadences in Musical Practice

As mentioned, cadences are usuall$ uite eas$ to recogni&e when heard. In common practice music, cadences occur at regular intervals, usuall$ ever$ 3 or 4 measures, but in slower works ma$ occur more fre uentl$. 5otice also that not ever$ V - I, for example, is a cadence. A cadence is both harmonic and melodic -- occurring at important points in the music. Listen to the following example to hear how a variet$ of cadences are used to bring the music to a regular ebb and flow, and how the t$pe of cadence can lead the listener to expect what is to follow.