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EXECUTIVE REPORT BASELINE SURVEY ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN ZIMBABWE

BY
Dr Lazarus Zanamwe (Team Leader) And Idah Mbengo, Never Mujere, Crecentia Gandidzanwa, Conillious Gwatirisa and Godfrey Sibanda

University of Zimbabwe Department of Geography and Environmental Sciences (DGES) Box MP 167 Mt. Pleasant, Harare Zimbabwe Email geography@arts.uz.ac.zw

9 March 2011

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................................................................ 2 LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................................................. 4 LIST OF ACRONYMS .......................................................................................................................................... 5 1.0 BACKGROUND .............................................................................................................................................. 7 2.0 TERMS OF REFERENCE................................................................................................................................ 7 3.0 METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................................................... 8 3.1 DATA COLLECTION ...................................................................................................................................... 8 3.2 DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................ 8 4.0 OVERALL FINDINGS .................................................................................................................................... 9 5.0 POLICY AND LEGISLATION ...................................................................................................................... 10 6.0 SPECIFIC DISTRICT FINDINGS .................................................................................................................. 12 6.1 BINGA ........................................................................................................................................................ 12 6.2 BULAWAYO ................................................................................................................................................ 14 6.3 BULILIMA .................................................................................................................................................. 15 .6.4 CHEGUTU RURAL ...................................................................................................................................... 17 6.5 GOKWE SOUTH .......................................................................................................................................... 18 6.6 GUTU ......................................................................................................................................................... 20 6.7 HARARE ..................................................................................................................................................... 21 6.8 HWANGE .................................................................................................................................................... 23 6.9 HWEDZA .................................................................................................................................................... 24 6.10 MUTASA ................................................................................................................................................... 26 6.11 MBERENGWA ........................................................................................................................................... 28 6.12 MT DARWIN ............................................................................................................................................. 29 6.13 MUTOKO .................................................................................................................................................. 31 6.14 NYANGA ................................................................................................................................................... 33 6.15 ZVISHAVANE ............................................................................................................................................ 35 7.0 STAKEHOLDER DATABASE OF SELECTED DISTRICTS ........................................................................ 38 8.0 STAKEHOLDER SCOPING ANALYSIS ...................................................................................................... 41 9. ACTION PLAN TO THE YOUTH WORKING GROUP AND STAKEHOLDERS. ......................................... 44 10.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.......................................................................................... 46

10.1 CONCLUSIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 46 10.2 RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................................................................ 47 10.2.1 Skills training ................................................................................................................................... 47 10.2.3 Finance ............................................................................................................................................ 47 10.2.4 Policy ................................................................................................................................................ 47 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................................... 48

List of Tables
Table 1: Legal, institutional set ups and administrative frameworks pertaining to youth development........... 10 Table 2: Youth employment and skills development in Binga ........................................................................... 12 Table 3: Employment and skills development in Bulawayo. .............................................................................. 14 Table 4: Employment and skills development in Bulilima ................................................................................. 15 Table 5: Employment and skills development in Chegutu rural ........................................................................ 17 Table 6: Employment and skills development in Gokwe South ......................................................................... 18 Table 7: Employment and skills development in Gutu....................................................................................... 20 Table 8: Employment and skills development in Harare. ................................................................................... 21 Table 9: Employment and skills development in Hwange.................................................................................. 23 Table 10: Employment and skills development in Hwedza ................................................................................ 24 Table 11: Employment and skills development in Mutasa ................................................................................. 26 Table 12: Youth employment and skills development in Mberengwa................................................................ 28 Table 13: Youth employment and skills development in Mt Darwin .................................................................. 29 Table 14: Youth employment and skills development in Mutoko ...................................................................... 31 Table 15: Youth employment and skills development in Nyanga ...................................................................... 33 Table 16: shows organisations found in the districts and their main respective activities. ............................. 38 Table 17: A SWOT Analysis of Stakeholders ..................................................................................................... 41 Table 18: Suggested youth priorities for the 2010-2012 activity plans. ............................................................. 44

List of Acronyms
AGRITEX CBO CRS ESAP FGD MoHTE LICI MoLSS MERP MoMSMECD MoWAGCD MoYDIE NAMACO NEDPP NERP NGO OVC STERP TOR UNDP VTC YWG ZIMPREST Agricultural Extension Services Community Based Organisation Catholic Relief Services Economic Structural Adjustment Programme Focus Group Discussion Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education Livelihoods, Institutional Capacity Building and Infrastructure Ministry of Labour and Social Services Millennium Economic Recovery Programme Ministry ofMicro, Small, Medium Scale Enterprises and Cooperative Development Ministry of Women Affairs Gender and Community Development Ministry of Youth Development, Indigenization and Empowerment National Manpower Advisory Council National Economic Development Priority Programme National Economic Recovery Programme Non Governmental Organization Orphans and Vulnerable Children Short-Term Economic Recovery Programme. Terms of Reference United Nations Development Programme Vocational Training Centre Youth Working Group Zimbabwe Programme for Economic and Social Transformation

1.0 Background
Zimbabwe has a youthful population comprising 48.4% males and 51.6% females. The average age of males is 21.7 years while the average age of females is 22.7 years ( Pindiriri et al 2010). Formal employment has been declining since 1980s. The actual level of unemployment has been difficult to determine from the available literature due to different dimensions of defining unemployment and whether or not the agricultural sector is included (ILO, 2010). Unemployment rate is estimated at over 70% with the youth aged 15-24 years constituting the bulk of the unemployed accounting for 60% in 2009. (Ministry of Labour and Social Services, 2009; Pindiriri et al., 2010). The sitiuation is worsening because formal economy is only able to absorb about 10% of the 200 000 graduates from O and A schools, technical and, vocational institutes. Over 95 000 of the school-leavers leaving secondary schools do not have the required five O levels (minimum entry to public tertiary education programmes) find it difficult to get opportunities for skills acquisition in both public and private institutions. It has been noted that 74.6% of the unemployed youth have the required 5 O level qualifications. This is an indication of the supply of labour and its demand in terms of quality and quantity. These statistics highlight the magnitude of the youth unemployment challenges Zimbabwe faces. Unemployment is also gender differentiated, with a demographically disproportionate number of females being unemployed (Mambo, 2010; Pindiriri et al., 2010). Nevertheless, employment opportunities for most youths are in the informal sector. It is against this background that this UNDP/ILO/SNV sponsored a survey on youth employment and development in 15 districts in the country. Survey findings are intended to provide data relevant for future programming and identify gaps which need to be filled for during the interventions.

2.0 Terms of reference


The scoping survey focused on assessing the situation of youth development and employment in Zimbabwe, with special attention to skills development, employability and creation of job opportunities. reference were to;: Review the necessary documents relating to the assignment. such as various legal, institutional set ups and administrative frameworks pertaining to youths and youth development in Zimbabwe; Conduct a situation and stakeholder scoping analysis, identifying critical strengths; weaknesses; opportunities and threats. Define, through a participatory process, the youth priorities for the Youth Working Group for the 2010-2012 period . Present a Programme Document and Action Plan to the Youth Working Group and stakeholders. The specific terms of

3.0 Methodology
To explore the issues outlined in the TORs, a survey-based approach was used. The study employed quantitative and qualitative methods to collect data using questionnaires, focus group discussions, key informants interviews, informal interviews and secondary sources. Fifteen (15) districts were purposively selected, based on the TORs selected areas in Hwange, Bulilima, Bulawayo and Mt Darwin. Zimbabwe, which are

Chegutu Rural, Mutasa, Mutoko, Nyanga, Hwedza, Harare, Gokwe South, Zvishavane, Mberengwa, Gutu, Binga,

3.1 Data collection


The baseline survey was conducted between December 2010 and January 2011 by 30 enumerators (local youth working group members) who were trained to administer questionnaires. The consultants conducted the key informant interviews and FGDs. A total of 471 respondents (237 in youths questionnaires, 124 in youths FGDs, 72 adults questionnaires and 38 key informants interviews) participated in the survey.. On average, FGD participants were 10 to 15 per district and were aged between 18 to 32 years. At least five in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants including community traditional leaders,

business people, private organizations, relevant officers in government authorities (local and provincial) and NGOs in each district. The key informants were selected on the basis of their expertise and experience in working with youths and youth support organisations.

3.2 Data processing and analysis


Data were entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 13.0 to enhance cleaning, coding and analysis. Qualitative analysis procedures were used whereby responses were categorized and assigned codes. Codes served to summarize, synthesize, and sort responses made by interviewees. The data were manipulated and explored using frequencies and cross tabulations.

4.0 Overall findings


The survey revealed that in all the 15 districts, levels of youth unemployment were high (more than 70%). Of those employed, most were engaged in informal economic activities such as agriculture (23%) flea markets (18%) and cross border trading (10%). Others were involved in mining, service provision and textile industries. The findings indicated the differences in gender, education levels, proximity to resources and affluence of individual youths influence and participation in economic activities. With regards to skills development, most youths especially the females were unskilled. Lack of skills and knowledge were identified as inhibiting factors to youth employment. The youths were facing a challenge in accessing Vocational Training Centres (VTCs). This was due to lack of finance, failure to meet the academic entry requirements, absence of VTCs in some districts and poorly equipped training institutions. The survey revealed that districts like Binga and Hwedza did not have VTCs. There was a mismatch between skills training and what is required in the labour market. The survey noted that the youths were failing to start income generating activities due to failure to access microfinance and technical support. Most youths indicated that they did not have collateral security, knowledge on the availability of microfinance and did not know how to write fundable project proposals. It was revealed that youth participation in national developmental projects was high (more than 80%). Most youth were involved in gender awareness, public health education, and human rights awareness, HIV and AIDS awareness. However the survey indicated very few youths were involved in political debates. Nevertheless, most youths have access to social services. Although policies and programmes are in place to support youths both financially and materially, their implementation is weak. A lot of youths were not aware of the existence of the National Youth Policy and other youth support instruments. Most institutions (e.g MoYDIE and MoWAGCD) responsible for translating the policy frameworks into development opportunities have limited resources to do so. Since the last decade, Zimbabwe has experienced a deep social and economic crisis. This led to industrial closures and declining investment. As a result, formal employment opportunities dwindled. As a result youths are mostly undertaking informal income generating activities. The survey revealed that there are abundant natural resources and opportunities in the 15 districts studied. The resources include mineral resources, agricultural resources, forest resources and water resources. These resources have a potential to generate youth employment provided the youths are empowered through skills training, provision of finance and creating an enabling policy framework. The survey revealed that most youths aspired to complete educational training, learn a trade or a skill and own business enterprises. The main findings of the study are summarised in the following section..

5.0 Policy and legislation


Zimbabwe has variety of policies, legislation and programmes that deal with youth development and empowerment However there is lack of coordination in government departments and other institutions on issues of youth employment and development. Implementation of policies and effectiveness of institutions mandated to administer the policies and programmes had been compromised because of limited funding (Table 1).

Table 1: Legal, institutional set ups and administrative frameworks pertaining to youth development
Legislation/ Policy Indeginisation and Economic Empowerment Act Youth Opportunities Creates an enabling environment to improve the indigenous participating in economic activities Fifty-one percent indigenous ownership of shares in companies operating in Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Manpower Development Fund Act Promote vocational and technical education, and training through development of institutions. It recommends rewarding of companies training apprentices There are 42 VTCs but other districts are not represented ZIMDEF has experienced challenges in compensating companies for the cost of training apprentices. However ZIMDEF offers opportunities for funding vocational training and education for the youth MoYDIE has facilitated youth projects by giving small loans through banks. There is limited impact on youth empowerment due to financial constraints. Youths find training fees charged by VTCs expensive Number of women enrolling at VTCs is increasing National Skills Development Policy Framework Guides the reform of skills development, education and training systems. Addresses the challenges of unemployment and mismatch of skills development and needs of the labour market Outlines strategy and support measures for the growth of SMEs Expected to create employment for the youth and opportunities for informal apprentice Unemployment is still increasing and a mismatch of skills development exists and needs of a labour market still to be addressed Comments Provide youths an opportunity to become shareholders in companies operating in Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe National Youth Policy (2000)

Supports youth employment, access to resources, empowerment participation, education and vocational training Promotes gender, equality and equity

The Micro Small Scale Enterprise Policy and Strategy Framework (20082012)

The budgetary constraints has limited the ministries activities

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Zimbabwe Youth Council Act (1997)

Established the Youth Council Promotes education and vocational skills training Youth employment and access to resources, youth empowerment and participation, gender equality and equity Target unemployed youth, adolescence girls and street children/youth among others

The MoYDIE has the mandate to undertake projects that have potential to create employment for youth Some youth groups are not registered with the Youth Council due lack of awareness and failure to pay affiliation fee.

Zimbabwe National Employment Policy Framework The African Youth Charter

Promotes and secure sustainable freely chosen decent employment for all the conditions of freedom, equity , security and human dignity Paved way for a comprehensive youth policy for member states Promote youths training

Most youths are not employed

Drafting of the Zimbabwe youth policy

Medium Term Plan and African Commission Report Science and Technology policy (2000)

Targeted 25000 youths to be trained by 2015 Lack of modern technology to exploit resources

Promotes employment creation, efficient utilization of resources, import substitution To create 42000 new jobs per annum in the formal sector

ZIMPREST (ZIMPREST blueprint)

Lack of prioritization of employment creation in subsequent blue prints

Sources; Nziramasanga (1999), Mambo (2010), Pindiriri (2010), Maguranyanga (2011)

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6.0 Specific district findings


6.1 Binga
Binga has a population of about 118 843 people (CSO 2002) and covers an area 13 058 km . It is endowed with natural resources that include the Zambezi River, Kariba dam, fish, game, wood carving trees, hot springs and reeds. These resources offer opportunities for creating youth employment activities in fishing, basket making, tourism, water bottling and basket making. Despite the existence of the natural resources and employment opportunities, youth in Binga were facing quite a number of challenges due to lack of education and skills. Table 2 summarises youth employment and skills development in Binga.
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Table 2: Youth employment and skills development in Binga


Variable Highest level of education Findings Most youths (80%) have attained secondary education Very few (7%) attained tertiary education. Others(6% ) have never been to school Most youths (20%) are in informal employment. Women dominate in flea markets and vegetable vending while males dominate in fishing Leading economic activities: Informal trading, fishing , education/teaching and agribusiness .Other economic activities; crafts, boat repair Abundant natural resources: Fish , land, hot springs, wood carving trees, forests, reeds, crocodiles Potential economic activities Kapenta and bream fishing, basket making, wood curving, crocodile farming, sorghum and millet cultivation, carpentry Skills training Absence of VTCs in the district. Few youths (13.3%) have been trained in vocational training (outside Binga) Informal apprenticeship not recognized by employers. No master crafts persons in the district No VCTs in district Low pass rate at school Prohibitive training fees Lack of knowledge about courses offered at VTCs Disused army barracks to be converted to VTCs Comments Tertiary education institutions are not found in Binga Satisfactory rates of literacy Gender disparities in employment activities because the fishing industry is masculine.

Youth employment

Existing youth economic activities

Absence of formal employment or industry

Youth Employment Opportunities

Potential economic activities are feasible provided youths get enough funding and relevant skills to exploit resources

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Access to finance

None of the youth received microfinance

Reasons for failing to access finance: Lack of collateral security Lack of knowledge on sources of microfinance Limited availability of funding

Youth organisations

Few (14%) belong to youth groups exist e.g. Binga trees, Manjolo bee keeping group, Six Pages (running a piggery at Govera) Sava carvers and curios-

No education on advantages of youth groups

Youth challenges and needs

Absents of VTC for training VTCs outside Binga are expensive in terms of transport and accommodation Lack of capital to purchase fishing rigs (costing $15000.00 to $ 27000.00 each)

Expensive transport and inadequate O levels Passes inhibit youth enrolment at VTCs outside Binga. The youths want a 50-50 share of proceeds with Kariba boat owners Quarter system on youth employment.

Exploitation of youths by Kariba rig owners who have no fishing permits but fishing rigs. Rig owners demand 90% of the fish catch, while permit owners (local youth) get 10%.

Decentralisation of job adverts and interviews be done at district level

Nepotism when applying for employment Participation in decision making Development projects, public health, environmental education, gender awareness, political debates To complete their education and/or to start training (15-24 age group) To go back to school on part time basis and work full time (25-30 age group) Satisfactory participation

Youth aspirations:(education)

Enabling environment for further education or adult education To complete educational training

Youth aspirations (skills training) Youth aspirations (owners of enterprise)

To start training (15-24 age group) To learn a trade or skill (31-35 age group) To be owners of enterprises (20-24 age group) To own business (31-35 age group)

Need to train youths in skills that enhance income generating projects Need funding for income generating projects funding and capacity building on enterprise management

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Policy and programme awareness

Gender Policy Zimbabwe National Youth policy Quota system in employment for local youth

Youths are aware of the policies but there is no evidence of practical implementation on the ground

Cross cutting issues

Youths were reluctant to indicate HIV/AIDS status. HIV/AIDS awareness is high among the youth

Need to improve access to health facilities

6.2 Bulawayo
Bulawayo is the second largest city in Zimbabwe. It is rich in cultural heritage and one of the oldest, most attractive and major transport hub in southern Africa. There used to be light and heavy industries employing a large labour force. Table 3 summarizes the employment and skills development in Bulawayo.

Table 3: Employment and skills development in Bulawayo.


Variable Highest level of education Youth employment Findings Almost all youths interviewed attained secondary education (46.7%), About 33.3% proceeded to tertiary education More youths in informal activities (33.3%) than formal (6.7%); Leading economic activities Informal trading , cross border, peri-urban agriculture, bricklaying Others ;Arts, craft Youth Employment Opportunities Skills training Natural resources: land for urban agriculture. Potential economic activities; service industry, art, poultry, piggery Lobengula VTC, Sizinda VTC and Jairos Jiri training centre Most youths received training informal apprenticeship (20%), technical training, vocational training (20%), formal apprenticeship About 46.7% did not receive any training From MoYDIE and foreign governments Poor access to finance ( 93.3% had no access to finance) Need for funding to support service industry Inadequate passes at O Levels Mismatch between VTC Courses and labour market demands Under utilization of VTCs because of prohibitive training fees Failure to access finance due to lack of collateral security, transparency, knowledge on sources of microfinance and limited availability of funding. Comments Satisfactory rates of literacy

Informal employment dominates because of decline in industries Few formal activities

Existing youth economic activities

Access to finance

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Youth organisations

Instha youth organisation Most youths do not belong to youth groups, associations and cooperatives Only 26.6% belong to youth groups

Membership of youth organizations low Need to facilitate development of youth groups

Youth challenges/needs

Lack/ limited funding to start projects, sexual immorality , alcohol abuse, Lack of employment opportunities

Training in appropriate skills Provision of start up capital for income generating projects e.g. poultry and piggery Satisfactory participation

Participation in decision making

Development projects, Public health Environmental education,, Gender awareness, political debates To complete education and/or to start training (15-24 age group) To go back to school on part time basis and work full time (25-30 age group)

Youth aspirations:(educatio n)

Enabling environment for further education and adult education To complete education and training

Youth aspirations (skills training) Youth aspirations (owners enterprise)

To start training (15-24 age group) To learn a trade or skill (31-35 age group) To be owners of enterprises (20-24 age group) To own business (31-35 age group)

Need to train youths in skills to enhance income generating projects Need funding for income generating project and capacity building on enterprise management Most youth are aware of the policies but there is no evidence of implementation in the district Have access to health facilities

Policy and programme awareness Cross cutting issues

Gender Policy Zimbabwe National Youth Policy The youths were reluctant to indicate HIV/AIDS status. HIV/AIDS awareness is high among the youth

6.3 Bulilima
Bulilima has a population of 94361 (CSO 2002) and covers an area of 12980 km . It experiences low rainfall and lies in a semi arid agro based zone. Livelihoods are based on cattle rearing. The district shares a border with Botswana.. It has experienced massive youth emigration to the neighbouring countries. Table 4 shows the employment and skills development in Bulilima.
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Table 4: Employment and skills development in Bulilima


Variable Highest level of education Findings All youths interviewed attained secondary education All youths are trained in informal employment Most youths (75% ) are employed in agro business, followed by welding and brick Comments Massive brain drain to South Africa and Botswana Informal employment dominates because of absence of industries

Youth employment

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laying.

Existing youth economic activities Youth Employment Opportunities

Leading economic activities: agriculture and welding Natural resources: Mopani worms , pastures, land , forests Potential economic activities; wood carving, , cattle rearing, carpentry Informal apprenticeship dominating (31%) followed by vocational training then formal apprenticeship (31%). A small proportion (38%) is not trained. There is Tegwani Training Centre Youths access micro finance from the MoYDIE. The majority (93.7%) did not access microfinance. Chinevavili Trust was involved in cattle rearing and mancimbi harvesting. Most youths do not belong to youth groups, associations or cooperatives.

Absence of formal employment

Feasible especially for Mopani worms. The youths are not interested in Mopani worms harvesting, but the business can be viable.

Skills training

Low enrolment due to youth emigration to neighboring countries for greener pastures Shun the training centre because of absence of electricity. Reasons for failing to access finance: Lack of collateral security, knowledge on sources of microfinance and funding

Access to finance

Youth organisations

Need to form youth groups

Youth challenges/needs

Lack of funding to start projects Limited natural resources/industries Absence of VCTs and few training centres

The area has an ageing population as youth has emigrated to neighboring countries(South Africa,Botwana and overseas) for greener pastures

Participation in decision making

Development projects, Public health Environmental education,, Gender awareness, political debates To complete education and/or to start training (15-24 age group) To go back to school on part time basis and work full time (25-30 age group)

Satisfactory participation

Youth aspirations:(education)

Need to create an enabling environment for further training and adult education

Youth aspirations (skills training)

To start training (15-24 age group) To learn a trade or skill (31-35 age group)

Need to train youths skills to enhance income generating projects

Youth aspirations (owners enterprise)

To be owners of enterprises (20-24 age group) To own business (31-35 age group)

Need funding for income generating project and capacity building on enterprise management The youth are aware of the policies but there is no evidence of implementation on the ground in the district

Policy and programme awareness

Gender Policy Zimbabwe National Youth Policy

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Cross cutting issues

The youths were reluctant to indicate HIV/AIDS status. However HIV/AIDS awareness is high among the youth

Have access to health facilities

.6.4 Chegutu Rural


Chegutu district has a population of 234589 (CSO 2002) and covers 5307 km2.The district experiences moderate rainfall. Land is the main natural resource in Chegutu rural is mainly land. Livelihoods are based on seasonal agricultural production of maize, groundnuts, cotton and tobacco. Table 5 summarises the employment and skills development in Chegutu rural.

Table 5: Employment and skills development in Chegutu rural


Variable Highest level of education Findings All youths interviewed attained secondary education Few proceeded to tertiary education, Most youths (80%)were not trained in any skill . Most youth (20% ) respondents were employed in agro business, followed by welding and brick laying. Existing youth economic activities Youth Employment Opportunities Skills training Leading economic activities: agribusiness , followed by cross boarder and brick laying Other activities : carpentry , Natural resources : fertile lands, moderate rainfall Potential economic activities; agro processing ,e.g peanut butter making Mashayamombe VTC Most youths respondents did not receive any technical/ vocational training (80%). Few .(7%) attended technical and vocational training Absence of formal employment Comments Satisfactory rates of literacy

Youth employment

Informal employment dominates because of absence of industries

Need for value addition of agricultural products Lack of vocational training centres Prohibitive training fees Mismatch between VTC courses and labour market demands

Access to finance

Few youths accessed through donors. The majority did not access (87%).

Lack of collateral security Lack of knowledge on sources of microfinance Limited availability of funding

Youth organisations

PENYA Trust

Most youths do not belong to youth groups, associations and cooperatives.

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Youth challenges/needs

Lack/ limited funding to start projects Limited natural resources/industries Delay in the approval of project proposal Vandalism of projects site Political interference

Training in appropriate skills Provision of starting capital Capacity building in human rights

Participation in decision making Youth aspirations: (education)

Development projects, public health, environmental education,, gender awareness andpolitical debates To complete education and/or to start training (15-24 age group) To go back to school on part time basis and work full time (25-30 age group)

Satisfactory participation

Need to create an enabling environment for further education and adult education To complete education and training Need to train youths in skills to enhance income generating projects

Youth aspirations (skills training) Youth aspirations (owners enterprise) Policy and programme awareness

To start training (15-24 age group) To learn a trade or skill (31-35 age group) To be owners of enterprises (20-24 age group) To own business (31-35 age group) Gender Policy Zimbabwe National Youth Policy

Need funding for income generating project and capacity building on enterprise management The youth are aware of the policies but there is no evidence of implementation on the ground in the district Have access to health facilities

Cross cutting issues

The youths were reluctant to indicate HIV/AIDS status. However HIV/AIDS awareness is high among the youth

6.5 Gokwe South


Gokwe South has a population of 294 627 people (CSO 2002) and covers an area of 18246 km2. It experiences low rainfall amounts. Livelihoods are based on cotton production. The district has the Mapfungautse forest and Chirisa wild life area. . Table 5 summarizes the employment and skills development in Gokwe South.

Table 6: Employment and skills development in Gokwe South


Variable Highest level of education Findings Most youths (89%)interviewed attained secondary education Few ( 6%)proceeded to tertiary education, 5% attended primary education at highest level Youth employment Alt youths are trained in informal employment. Most youths (28%) are employed in agro business, followed by welding and brick 18 Informal employment dominates because of absence of industries Comments Satisfactory rates of literacy

laying. Existing youth economic activities Leading economic activities: agribusiness , followed by informal trading, education/ teaching heath, cross boarder and brick laying Natural resources : land forest ,wildlife,, Potential economic activities; agro processing, e.g. cotton, maize, Skills training Gokwe VTC and Shingayi Catholic training centre. Most youths did not receive any technical/ vocational training (61%) Few have attained technical and vocational training (17%) Diversity of informal economic activities

Youth Employment Opportunities

Need for value addition of agricultural products e.g cotton processing, oil pressing, peanut butter processing, Failure to meet minimum requirements e.g mathematics and science or the required 5 O Levels Mismatch between VTC Courses and labour market demands Under utilization of VTCs because of prohibitive training fees

Access to finance

Youths access finance from t foreign governments and donors, SACCO, Vantage, sweet heart, SEDCO, Zambuko trust. And MoYDIE Poor access , 77% did not access finance,

Reasons for failing to access finance: Lack of funding, lack collateral security, lack knowledge on sources of microfinance and no transparency in the disbursement of youth funds A district with the highest number of respondents belonging to youth groups

Youth organisations

SACCO youth group Most youths respondents (60%) r indicated that they belonged to youth groups, associations and cooperatives. Lack/ limited funding to start projects Lack of shelter and commercial stands, high rentals, lack of formal employment, nepotism in the job market, employer need kick backs, lack of funds to pay for training fees.

Youth challenges/needs

Need for training in appropriate skills Provision of starting capital

Participation in decision making

Development projects, public health, environmental education, gender awareness, political debates To complete education and/or to start training (15-24 age group) To go back to school on part time basis and work full time (25-30 age group)

Satisfactory participation

Youth aspirations:(education)

Enabling environment for further education and adult education To complete education and training

Youth aspirations (skills training) Youth aspirations (owners enterprise)

To start training (15-24 age group) To learn a trade or skill (31-35 age group) To be owners of enterprises (20-24 age group) To own business (31-35 age group)

Need to train youths in skills to enhance income generating projects Need funding for income generating project and capacity building on enterprise management

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Policy and programme awareness Cross cutting issues

Gender Policy Zimbabwe National Youth Policy The youths were reluctant to indicate HIV/AIDS status. However HIV/AIDS awareness is high among the youth

Youths were aware of the policies but there was no evidence of implementation on the ground Have access to health facilities

6.6 Gutu
Gutu has a population of 198130 (CSO 2002) and covers an area of 7150 km . Gutu experiences low rainfall of 600mm per year. Soils are moderately fertile. The community is predominately agro based, farming mainly maize, legumes and small grains. Table 7 summarizes the employment and skills development in Gutu.
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Table 7: Employment and skills development in Gutu


Variable Highest level of education Youth employment Findings All most all youths interviewed attained secondary education (86.7%), A third proceeded to tertiary education Most youths( 40%) are employed in informal activities : agro business informal trading e.g. cross border, poultry production, Leading economic activities: agribusiness , followed by informal trading, education/ teaching, health, cross boarder Natural resources : land ,mineral resources, Potential economic activities; agro processing ,e.g. , maize ,legumes, quarrying , mining Comments Satisfactory rates of literacy

Informal employment dominates because of the existence of few industries in the district Diversity of informal economic activities

Existing youth economic activities

Youth Employment Opportunities

Need for value addition of agricultural products e.g. peanut butter processing, need for funding to support small-scale miners Failure to meet minimum requirements e.g mathematics and science or the required 5 O Levels Mismatch between VTC Courses and labour market demands Under utilization of VTCs because of prohibitive training fees

Skills training

Gutu VTC Most youths did not receive any technical/ vocational training (40%) Few have attained technical and vocational training ( .(33%) and formal apprentice (27%)

Access to finance

Youths access finance from MoYDIE, CBZ, Poor access , 93% did not access finance,

Reasons for failing to access finance: Lack of collateral security, knowledge on sources of microfinance Limited funding, ,lack of transparency in the disbursement of youth funds

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Youth organisations

Few youths belong to the following; Youth in Mining Association, Chatsworth youth soccer group and youth snooker group Most youths do not belong to youth groups, associations and cooperatives Lack/ limited funding to start projects, sexual immorality , alcohol abuse, Lack of employment opportunities

Need to support youth groups with protective clothing in mining suitable shelters for snooker and playing ground for soccer.

Youth challenges/needs

Need for training in appropriate skills Provision of starting capital Need for the Creation income generating projects e.g. poultry Satisfactory participation

Participation in decision making

Development projects, Public health Environmental education,, Gender awareness, and political debates To complete education and/or start training (15-24 age group) To go back to school on part time basis and work full time (25-30 age group)

Youth aspirations:(education)

Enabling environment for further education and adult education To complete education and training

Youth aspirations (skills training) Youth aspirations (owners of enterprise)

To start training (15-24 age group) To learn a trade or skill (31-35 age group) To be owners of enterprises (20-24 age group) To own business (31-35 age group)

Need to train youths in skills to enhance income generating projects Need funding for income generating projects and capacity building on enterprise management The youths are aware of the policies but there is no evidence of implementation on the ground in the district Have access to health facilities

Policy and programme awareness Cross cutting issues

Gender Policy Zimbabwe National Youth Policy The youths were reluctant to indicate HIV/AIDS status. However HIV/AIDS awareness is high among the youth

6.7 Harare
Harare had a population of 1632000 (CSO 2002) and covers an area of 846 km2. It experiences high rainfall (800 1000mm) and lies in the highveld. It is the largest industrial hub in the country to generate youth employment. It has large open spaces that provide opportunity for urban agriculture. Table 8 summaries the employment and skills development in Harare.

Table 8: Employment and skills development in Harare.


Variable Highest level of education Youth employment Findings Most youths interviewed attained secondary education, (53%) tertiary (27%). Never been to school (13%) Sizeable youths are trained in informal employment (26%) Comments Satisfactory literacy rate

Informal employment dominates because of decline of industries

21

Existing youth economic activities

Leading economic activities: informal trading e followed by education, textile, bricklaying and cross border Natural resources: open land for urban agriculture Potential economic activities; small scale industries e.g scrap metal collection , panel beating, welding, panel beating, spray painting, vehicle repair, master craft person Msasa VTCs and Mt Hamptden Technical and vocational training (26%) Not trained (74%)

Declining industry negatively affected formal employment

Youth Employment Opportunities

Employment opportunities mainly in service industries

Skills training

Youths focusing on income generating activities at the expense of skills training

Access to finance

Youths access micro finance from the MoYDIE and foreign government The majority did not access (86.7%).

Reasons for failing to access finance: Lack of collateral security Lack of knowledge on sources of microfinance Limited availability of funding

Youth organisations

27% belong to youth organisations 73% are not affiliated to any organization Most youths do not belong to youth groups, associations and cooperatives

. Need to facilitate formation of youth groups.

Youth challenges/needs Participation in decision making

Lack of funding to start projects Limited formal employment opportunities Development projects, public health environmental education,, gender awareness, political debates To complete education and/or start training (15-24 age group) To go back to school on part time basis and work full time (25-30 age group)

Need to avail funding for youth projects

Satisfactory participation

Youth aspirations:(education)

Need to create earn enabling environment for further education and adult education To complete education and training Need to train youths in skills to enhance income generating projects Need funding for income generating project and capacity building on enterprise management The youth are aware of the policies but there is no evidence of implementation on the ground in the district Have access to health facilities

Youth aspirations (skills training) Youth aspirations (owners of enterprise)

To start training (15-24 age group) To learn a trade or skill (31-35 age group) To be owners of enterprises (20-24 age group) To own business (31-35 age group)

Policy and programme awareness Cross cutting issues

Gender Policy Zimbabwe National Youth Policy The youths were reluctant to indicate HIV/AIDS status. However HIV/AIDS awareness is high among the youth

22

6.8 Hwange
Hwange has a population of 132185 (CSO 2002) and covers an area of 29688 km2. Hwange experiences low rainfall 450- 600mm per year. The community is predominately based on mining. Table 9 summarizes the employment and skills development in Hwange.

Table 9: Employment and skills development in Hwange.


Variable Highest Level of Education Findings Almost all youths interviewed attained secondary education (66.7%), About 20% proceeded to tertiary education Most youths(13%) are employed in informal activities; Informal trading, small scale mining, cross border, welding Leading economic activities: informal trading followed by agribusiness, brick laying, Others ;mining, textile industry , welding, and cross border Youth Employment Opportunities Natural resources : ,mineral resources, pastures, reeds, wild life Potential economic activities; small scale mining , beef production, basket making, professional hunting Skills training Kamativi VTC Don Bosco training centre (private Most youths did receive training apprenticeship, technical training, vocational training, formal apprenticeship (59.9%). 40% did not receive any training Failure to meet minimum requirements e.g mathematics and science or the required 5 O Levels Mismatch between VTC Courses and labour market demands Under utilization of VTCs because of prohibitive training fees The district has two training centres Access to finance Youths access finance from MoYDIE, and the private sector Poor access , 93.3% of the youth respondents did not access finance, Reasons for failing to access finance: Lack of collateral security Lack of knowledge on sources of microfinance Limited funding, ,lack of transparency in the disbursement of youth funds Need for funding to support small-scale miners and beef production Comments Satisfactory rates of literacy

Youth employment

Informal employment dominates because of the existence of few industries Few formal activities

Existing youth economic activities

23

Youth organisations

Most youths do not belong to youth groups, associations and cooperatives Few youths belong to youth groups (6.7%) Lack/ limited funding to start projects, sexual immorality , alcohol abuse, Lack of employment opportunities

Need to facilitate formation of youth organization

Youth challenges/needs

Training in appropriate skills Provision of starting capital Creation of income generating projects e.g. poultry

Participation in decision making

Development projects, Public health Environmental education,, Gender awareness, political debates To complete education and/or to start training (15-24 age group) To go back to school on part time basis and work full time (25-30 age group)

Satisfactory participation

Youth aspirations:(education)

Need to create an enabling environment for further education and adult education To complete education and training

Youth aspirations (skills training) Youth aspirations (owners of enterprise)

To start training (15-24 age group) To learn a trade or skill (31-35 age group) To be owners of enterprises (20-24 age group) To own business (31-35 age group)

Need to train youths in skills to enhance income generating projects Need funding for income generating project and capacity building on enterprise management The youth are aware of the policies but there is no evidence of implementation on the ground in the district Have access to health facilities

Policy and programme awareness Cross cutting issues

Gender Policy Zimbabwe National Youth Policy The youths were reluctant to indicate HIV/AIDS status. However HIV/AIDS awareness is high among the youth

6.9 Hwedza
Hwedza is located in Mashonaland East province of Zimbabwe. The district has a population of 17604 (CSO 2002). The district experiences moderate rainfall. Livelihoods are based on subsistence agriculture. Hwedza is endowed with natural resources that include tobacco soils, natural scenery such as Hwedza Mountains and gold mineral deposits. Table 10 summarizes the employment and skills development in Hwedza

Table 10: Employment and skills development in Hwedza


Variable Highest Level of Education Findings All youths interviewed attained secondary education Few( 7%) proceeded to tertiary education, Comments Satisfactory rates of literacy Have inadequate O Level

24

Youth employment

Most youths respondents were employed in agro business, followed by welding, carpentry, education and brick laying. Informal employment dominates because of absence of industries

There is need to support formal employment

Existing youth economic activities

Leading economic activities: agribusiness , followed by informal trading, education/ teaching , health , brick laying, piggery and poultry, sewing, cattle fattening, flea markets, Natural resources : gold, land, natural scenery Potential economic activities; agro processing, e.g. tobacco, maize, tourism (Hwedza Mountain), small scale mining

Diversity of informal economic activities

Youth Employment Opportunities

Need Capacity building on value addition of agricultural products e.g. tobacco processing, oil pressing, peanut butter processing Mismatch between VTC Courses and labour market demands There are few technical institutions.

Skills training

Most youths respondents (33.3%) received formal apprenticeship training Few youths (20%) had attained technical and vocational training

Access to finance

MoYDIE is the sole source of microfinance for youths in the district CBZ, ZABG, IDBZ and Metropolitan. Out of 364 project proposal submitted only 26 were funded at a total value of $17400 (70% were in agriculture and the remaining in, piggery, cattle fattening and flea markets).

Other stakeholder should finance the youths Need for awareness raising on how to access the funds Collateral security is a prohibitive factor Delays in the processing of project proposals. Lack of funds to finance the projects.

Youth organisations

Respondents only identified ACTION 24. Lack/ limited funding to start projects Lack of shelter and commercial stands, high rentals, lack of formal employment, nepotism in the job market, employer need kick backs, lack of funds to pay for training

There is need to encourage the youth to form groups. Training in appropriate skills Provision of start capital

Youth challenges/needs

Participation in decision making

Development projects, Public health Environmental education,, Gender awareness, political debates To complete education and/or to start training (15-24 age group) To go back to school on part time basis and work full time (25-30 age group)

Satisfactory participation

Youth aspirations:(education)

Create an enabling environment for further education and adult education To complete education and training

Youth aspirations (skills training)

To start training (15-24 age group) To learn a trade or skill (31-35 age group)

Need to train youths in skills to enhance income generating projects

25

Youth aspirations (owners of enterprise)

To be owners of enterprises (20-24 age group) To own business (31-35 age group)

Need funding for income generating project and capacity building on enterprise management The youth are aware of the policies but there is no evidence of implementation on the ground in the district Have access to health facilities

Policy and programme awareness Cross cutting issues

Gender Policy Zimbabwe National Youth policy The youths were reluctant to indicate HIV/AIDS status. However HIV/AIDS awareness is high among the youth

6.10 Mutasa
Mutasa has a population of 167 462 covering an area of 2545km . The district experiences high rainfall of around 800- 900mm. Livelihoods is based on subsistence agriculture. Mutasa is endowed with natural resources that include land, natural scenery, high rainfall and forests. Table 11 summarises the employment and skills development in Mutasa.
2

Table 11: Employment and skills development in Mutasa


Variable Highest Level of Education Findings Most a youths ( 82%), interviewed attained secondary education The remaining 18%attained tertiary education Most youths respondents are employed in informal activities: agro business, informal trading. Youth in formal employment is 10%, informal employment is 20% Implying that 70% are not employed. Leading economic activities: informal trading, followed by agribusiness, cross boarder trading Others are. bricklaying, poultry production, fishing, hairdressing Youth Employment Opportunities Natural resources : land, sand, favorable climate and relief for fruit farming and potato growing Potential economic activities; agro processing ,e.g. , maize ,legumes, hired labour and market gardening, sand mining , fruit processing e.g. apple Skills training Kukwanisa VTC The youths without skills training (70%). Few youths received technical/vocational training (30%) Failure to meet minimum requirements e.g mathematics and science or the required 5 O Levels Kukwanisa VTC imparts skills in carpentry and metal work. Under utilization of VTCs because of Need for value addition of agricultural products e.g. peanut butter processing, fruit processing, Comments Satisfactory rates of literacy

Youth employment

Informal employment dominates because of decline of industries

Existing youth economic activities

Diversity of informal economic activities

26

prohibitive training fees

Access to finance

Youths are aware that they can access finance from MoYDIE and MoWAGCD,

Reasons for failing to access finance: Lack of collateral security Lack of knowledge on microfinance sources of

Limited funding, ,lack of transparency in the disbursement of youth funds Capacity building management in financial

MoWAGCD offers funding to female household heads only Youth organisations The youths do not belong to youth groups, associations and cooperatives Lack/ limited funding to start projects, Lack of employment opportunities Failure to undergo trade testing due to financial constraints Participation in decision making Development projects, Public health Environmental education,, Gender awareness, political debates To complete education and/or to start training (15-24 age group) To go back to school on part time basis and work full time (25-30 age group) Youth aspirations (skills training) To start training (15-24 age group) To learn a trade or skill (31-35 age group) Youth aspirations (owners of enterprise) To be owners of enterprises (20-24 age group) To own business (31-35 age group) Policy and programme awareness Gender Policy Zimbabwe National Youth Policy Vulnerable group a priority for assistance Education policy Cross cutting issues The youths were reluctant to indicate HIV/AIDS status. However HIV/AIDS awareness is high among the youth Have access to health facilities Need funding for income generating project and capacity building on enterprise management The youth are aware of the policies. There is weak implementation on the ground . Need to train youths in skills to enhance income generating projects There is need to facilitate formation of youth groups. Training in appropriate skills Provision of start up capital Creation of income generating projects e.g. poultry Satisfactory participation

Youth challenges/needs

Youth aspirations:(education)

Create an enabling environment for further education and adult education To complete education and training

27

ARVs are available only at Bonda and Hauna

6.11 Mberengwa
Mberengwa has a population of 180712 (CSO, 2002) and covers an area of 5096km2. It experiences low rainfall and lies in semi arid agro based zone. Livelihoods are based on small scale mining and cattle rearing and subsistence farming. Table 12 summarises the employment and skills development in Mberengwa.

Table 12: Youth employment and skills development in Mberengwa


Variable Highest Level of Education Findings Most youths (90%), interviewed attained secondary education The remaining attained tertiary education (5%) No youth respondent was formally employed Most youths(55%) respondents are employed in informal activities : agro business), informal trading and fishing Existing youth economic activities Leading economic activities are gold and emerald mining , small-scale irrigation and education/ teaching Others are. cross boarder trading, bricklaying, poultry production, fishing, hairdressing Few formal activities Comments Satisfactory rates of literacy

Youth employment

Informal employment dominates because of the decline in industries

Youth Employment Opportunities

Natural resources : mineral deposits e.g gold and emeralds, pastures, Potential economic activities; gold and emeralds mining, and cattle rearing

Need for skills and environmental training for small l scale miners, Value addition in beef processing

Skills training

The youths without skills training (85%) Few youths received technical/vocational training (5%) Formal apprenticeship (5%)

Failure to meet minimum requirements e.g mathematics and science or the required 5 O levels hinders entry into VTCs Reasons for failing to access finance: Lack of collateral security

Access to finance

Youths access finance from MoYDIE and MoWAGCD, SEDCO, Poor access 90% of the respondents were not funded Poor access to lack of collateral security

Limited funding, ,lack of transparency in the disbursement of youth funds Capacity building in financial management

28

Youth organisations

Few youths belong to youth groups, associations and cooperatives (10%) Lack/ limited funding to start projects, Lack of employment opportunities Lack of knowledge on training opportunities

The need to facilitate formation of youth groups. Training in appropriate skills Provision of starting capital Creation of income generating projects e.g. poultry Satisfactory participation

Youth challenges/needs

Participation in decision making

Development projects, Public health Environmental education,, Gender awareness, political debates To complete education and/or to start training (15-24 age group) To go back to school on part time basis and work full time (25-30 age group)

Youth aspirations:(education)

Create an enabling environment for further education and adult education To complete education and training

Youth aspirations (skills training)

To start training (15-24 age group) To learn a trade or skill (31-35 age group)

Need to train youths in skills to enhance income generating projects

Youth aspirations (owners of enterprise)

To be owners of enterprises (20-24 age group) To own business (31-35 age group)

Need funding for income generating project and capacity building on enterprise management The youth are not aware of the policies. There is weak implementation on the ground . Have access to health facilities

Policy and programme awareness Cross cutting issues

Not aware of any policy

The youths were reluctant to indicate HIV/AIDS status. However HIV/AIDS awareness is high among the youth ARVs are available only at hospital Clinics are too far

6.12 Mt Darwin
Mt Darwin has a population of 199105 (CSO 2002) and covers an area of 4380km2. It experiences moderate rainfall .Livelihoods are based mainly on agriculture (cotton, maize), horticulture, Table 13 summarizes the employment and skills development in Mt Darwin

Table 13: Youth employment and skills development in Mt Darwin


Variable Highest Level of Education Findings Most youths (73.3%), Interviewed attained secondary education Tertiary education (13.3%) Comments Satisfactory rates of literacy

29

Youth employment

Few youth respondents (6.7%)were formally employed Informal employed (13.3%) Most youths respondents are not employed (80%)

Unemployment is rife

Existing youth economic activities

Leading economic activities are, cross border, informal trading, ,bricklaying. Others are. , education, fishing, car repair

Few economic activities

Youth Employment Opportunities

Natural resources : soils suitable for agriculture e.g cotton farming small scale mining (gold), Potential economic activities;, small scale mining, agro processing ( e.g cotton, maize), piggery, poultry, horticulture

,Value addition in agro business processing e.g. cotton processing Need for skills and environmental training for small l scale miners Capacity building in agro processing Funding of small scale project e.g. small scale mining Failure to meet minimum requirements e.g mathematics and science or the required 5 O Levels

Skills training

Chaminuka VTC The youths without skills training (73.7%) Few youths received technical/vocational training (0%) Formal apprenticeship (26.7%)

Access to finance Poor access. All respondents not funded

Reasons for failing to access finance: Lack of collateral security Limited availability funding, ,lack of transparency in the disbursement of youth funds Need for capacity building in financial management Need for capacity building on proposal writing

Youth organisations

Youths belonging to youth groups, associations and cooperatives (13%). Youths not belonging to youth groups, associations and cooperatives (87%)

There is need to facilitate formation of more youth groups.

Youth challenges/needs

Lack/ limited funding to start projects, Lack of employment opportunities Funds take too long to be processed High interest rates

Training in appropriate skills Provision of start capital Creation of income generating projects e.g. agro processing e.g cotton Satisfactory participation

Participation in decision making

Development projects, Public health Environmental education,, Gender awareness, political debates

30

Youth aspirations:(education)

To complete education and/or to start training (15-24 age group) To go back to school on part time basis and work full time (25-30 age group)

Create an enabling environment for further education and adult education To complete education and training

Youth aspirations (skills training)

To start training (15-24 age group) To learn a trade or skill (31-35 age group)

Need to train youths in skills to enhance income generating projects

Youth aspirations (owners of enterprise)

To be owners of enterprises (20-24 age group) To own business (31-35 age group)

Need funding for income generating project and capacity building on enterprise management The youth are aware of the policies. There is weak implementation on the ground . Have access to health facilities

Policy and programme awareness Cross cutting issues

Gender Policy National Youth Policy The youths were reluctant to indicate HIV/AIDS status. However HIV/AIDS awareness is high among the youth ARVs are available only at the hospital CD4 count machine only available at mine hospital

6.13 Mutoko
Mutoko has a population of 124410 (CSO, 2002) and covers an area of 3964 km2. It experiences medium rainfall .Livelihoods are based mainly on horticulture, fruit farming, and subsistence agriculture. Table14 summarizes the employment and skills development in Mutoko.

Table 14: Youth employment and skills development in Mutoko


Variable Highest Level of Education Findings Most Youths (75%) secondary education interviewed attained Comments Satisfactory rates of literacy

No respondent attained tertiary education Youth employment Few youth respondents (6%)were formally employed ( Most youths respondents are not employed Informal employed (44%) Existing youth economic activities Leading economic activities are agribusiness( horticulture fruit growing) ,informal trading , cross border , cross border ,black granite carving, Others are. Brick laying , welding and education/teaching Diversified informal activities Unemployment is rife

31

Youth Employment Opportunities

Natural resources : soils suitable for agriculture, water in wetlands, minerals black granite, Potential economic activities;, , market gardening, small scale mining, agro processing e.g tomatoes and mangoes

, Value addition in agro business processing Need for skills and environmental training for small l scale miners Capacity building in agro processing Funding of small scale project e.g. small scale mining

Skills training

Tabudirira VTC The youths without skills training (56.3%) Few youths received technical/vocational training (18.8%) Formal apprenticeship (25%)

Failure to meet minimum requirements e.g mathematics and science or the required 5 O Levels

Access to finance

Youths access from MoYDIE( 12.5% ) Poor access 87.5.% not funded

Reasons for failing to access finance: Lack of collateral security Limited funding, ,lack of transparency in the disbursement of youth funds Need for capacity building in financial management Need for capacity building on proposal writing

Youth organisations

Youths belonging to youth groups, associations and cooperatives (50%). e.g MAYO Youths not belonging to youth groups, associations and cooperatives (50%)

The need to facilitate formation of more youth groups.

Youth challenges/needs

Lack/ limited funding to start projects, Lack of employment opportunities Funds take too long to be processed High interest rates

Training in appropriate skills Provision of starting capital Creation of income generating projects e.g. agroprocessing that is tomato and mango Satisfactory participation

Participation in decision making

Development projects, Public health Environmental education,, Gender awareness, political debates To complete education and/or to start training (15-24 age group) To go back to school on part time basis and work full time (25-30 age group)

Youth aspirations:(education)

Create an enabling environment for further education and adult education To complete education and training

Youth aspirations (skills training)

To start training (15-24 age group) To learn a trade or skill (31-35 age group)

Need to train youths in skills to enhance income generating projects

Youth aspirations

To be owners of enterprises (20-24 age group)

Need funding for income generating project and capacity building on

32

(owners of enterprise) Policy and programme awareness Cross cutting issues

To own business (31-35 age group) Gender Policy National Youth Policy The youths were reluctant to indicate HIV/AIDS status. However HIV/AIDS awareness is high among the youth ARV are available only at hospital CD4 count machine only available at mine hospital

enterprise management The youth are aware of the policies. There is weak implementation on the ground. Have access to health facilities

6.14 Nyanga
Nyanga has a population of 119307(CSO 2002) and covers an area of 5613 km2. It experiences high rainfall and lies in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe. Livelihoods are based on specialized and diversified farming of fruit, horticulture, forestry, mining. Table 15 summarizes the employment and skills development in Nyanga.

Table 15: Youth employment and skills development in Nyanga


Variable Highest Level of Education Findings Most youths (93%) interviewed attained secondary education The remaining attained tertiary education (7%) Youth employment Few youth respondents were formally employed (5%) Most youths( 75%) respondents are not employed Informal employed (20%) Existing youth economic activities Leading economic activities are agribusiness, goat rearing welding and informal trading Others are. , cross boarder trading, poultry production, hairdressing, metal works and bricklaying, cutting and design, bakery, carpentry, candle making Youth Employment Opportunities Natural resources :water, climate favorable for forestry, and plantation, mineral deposits e.g gold Potential economic activities; small scale gold mining, potato growing, fruit growing, timber processing and cattle rearing, tourism, water bottling, gravity irrigation, market gardening , Value addition in agro business processing Need for skills and environmental training for small l scale miners Need for capacity building in agro processing Funding of small scale project e.g water Few formal activities Diversified informal activities Unemployment is rife Comments Satisfactory rates of literacy

33

bottling and timber processing

Skills training

The youths without skills training (53.3%) Few youths (20%) received technical/vocational training Formal apprenticeship (20%)

Failure to meet minimum requirements e.g. mathematics and science or the required 5 O Levels

Access to finance

Youths access finance from MoYDIE and MoWAGCD, SEDCO, Most youths ( 93.3%) were not funded) Access to finance from foreign governments (6.7 %)

Reasons for failing to access finance: Lack of collateral security Limited funding, ,lack of transparency in the disbursement of youth funds Need for capacity building in financial management Need for capacity building on proposal writing

Youth organisations

Youths belonging to youth groups, associations and cooperatives (34%) Young farmers Youth group Youths not belonging to youth groups, associations and cooperatives (66.7%)

The need to facilitate formation o more youth groups.

Youth challenges/needs

Lack/ limited funding to start projects, Lack of employment opportunities Lack of knowledge on training opportunities Marginalization of youth in national programmes

Training in appropriate skills Provision of starting capital Creation of income generating projects e.g. water bottling, forestry, carpentry

Participation in decision making

Development projects, Public health Environmental education,, Gender awareness, political debates To complete education and/or to start training (15-24 age group) To go back to school on part time basis and work full time (25-30 age group)

Satisfactory participation

Youth aspirations:(education)

Enabling environment for further education and adult education To complete education and training

Youth aspirations (skills training) Youth aspirations (owners on an enterprise) Policy and programme

To start training (15-24 age group) To learn a trade or skill (31-35 age group) To be owners of enterprises (20-24 age group) To own business (31-35 age group) Gender Policy

Need to train youths in skills to enhance income generating projects Need funding for income generating project and capacity building on enterprise management The youth are not aware of the policies. There is weak implementation on the

34

awareness Cross cutting issues

National Youth Policy The youths were reluctant to indicate HIV/AIDS status. However HIV/AIDS awareness is high among the youth ARVs are available only at hospital Clinics are too far

ground. Have access to health facilities

6.15 Zvishavane
Zvishavane has a population of 103086 (CSO 2002) and covers an area of 2675 km2. It experiences low rainfall and lies in the semi arid agro zone. Livelihoods are based on small mining and subsistence agriculture and cattle rearing. Table 16 summarizes the employment and skills development in. Zvishavane Table 16 Youth employment and skills development in Zvishavane Variable Highest Level of Education Findings Most youths(47%), secondary education interviewed attained Comments Satisfactory rates of literacy

Those that attained tertiary education were 33% of the respondents 7% of the respondents never been to school Youth employment Few youth respondents were formally employed (5%) Most youths respondents are not employed Informal employed (20%) Existing youth economic activities Leading economic activities are informal trading ,, education/ teaching, cross border , mining Others are. agribusiness Youth Employment Opportunities natural resources : mineral deposits e.g gold, chrome,, water resources, pastures Potential economic activities; small scale gold mining, irrigation, market gardening ,Value addition in agro business processing Need for skills and environmental training for small l scale miners Capacity building in agro processing Funding of small scale project e.g. small scale mining Skills training Zvishavane VTC The youths without skills training (53.3%) Few youths received technical/vocational Failure to meet minimum requirements e.g mathematics and science or the required 5 O Levels Small mining dominates Unemployment is rife

35

training Formal apprenticeship (13%)

Access to finance

Youths access finance from MoYDIE and MoWAGCD, CBZ , UNICEF funds drama groups, Bethany funds HIV and AIDs awareness campign Poor access (93%) not funded) Youth access from foreign governments (6.7 %)

Reasons for failing to access finance: Lack of collateral security Limited funding, ,lack of transparency in the disbursement of youth funds Need for capacity building in financial management Need for capacity building on proposal writing

Youth organisations

Youths belonging to youth groups, associations and cooperatives (34%).( boxing, drama football and netball) Youths not belonging to youth groups, associations and cooperatives (66.7%) Lack/ limited funding to start projects, Lack of employment opportunities Funds take too long to be processed High interest rates

The need to facilitate formation of more youth groups.

Youth challenges/needs

Training in appropriate skills Provision of start capital Creation of income generating projects e.g. water bottling, forestry, carpentry Satisfactory participation

Participation in decision making

Development projects, Public health Environmental education,, Gender awareness, political debates To complete education and/or to start training (15-24 age group) To go back to school on part time basis and work full time (25-30 age group)

Youth aspirations:(education)

Create an enabling environment for further education and adult education To complete education and training

Youth aspirations (skills training)

To start training (15-24 age group) To learn a trade or skill (31-35 age group)

Need to train youths in skills to enhance income generating projects

Youth aspirations (owners of enterprise)

To be owners of enterprises (20-24 age group) To own business (31-35 age group)

Need funding for income generating projects and capacity building on enterprise management The youth are aware of the policies. There is weak implementation on the ground Have access to health facilities

Policy and programme awareness Cross cutting issues

Gender Policy National Youth Policy The youths were reluctant to indicate HIV/AIDS status. However HIV/AIDS awareness is high among the youth ARV are available only at hospital CD4 count machine only available at mine

36

hospital

37

7.0 Stakeholder database of selected districts


The survey revealed that few organisations focused on youth employment and development in the districts. Most organizations operating in the districts focused on humanitarian aid.

Table 16: shows organisations found in the districts and their main respective activities.
Organisation Main activities and areas of intervention Youth and adult education District(s) Contact details

ADEA

Harare

0772573545 a.arnott@adeanet.org

Achieve your goal trust

Promote youth rights and opportunities to participate in decision making and civil life

Zaka Gutu Chegutu rural Zvishavane

aygt07@yahoo.com

ACTION 24

Climate change , adaptation

Hwedza Goromonzi Zvimba

158 Five Avenue Zero offices 04734007-30 0777092265 achembere@gmail.com

ADRA

Drilling boreholes, construction of clinics, classrooms and hospitals and drip irrigation

Binga

2 Princess Drive Newlands Harare 04776716/04776786 info@adrazimbabwe.com

COSV

Health services, hospital upgrading and improvement

Hwange Lupane Binga

cosvzim@zol.co.zw 10 De Villers new Alexandra park Harare 04774975 4 Kensington Road Highlands 0772400541 dappszimbabwe@mweb.co.zw

Development Aid from People to People (DAPP)

Child Aid , HIV and AIDS awareness and vocational training

Mutasa Shamva

Development Reality Institute (DRI)

Climate change adaptation

Gutu

158 Five Avenue. Greenwood Park, Harare, Zimbabwe. info@driafrica. 0773460466 0772292693 J Mutero

Gokwe South Savings and Credit Cooperative ( SACCO) INTSHA

Economic empowerment, youth loans

Gokwe South

Human Rights

Bulawayo

speakingtscha@gmail.com

38

Lutheran World Federation

Gender and human rights Environmental management Food security Community education Water harvesting

Mberengwa Zvishavane

7 Lawley Road, Bulawayo 09-25491

Marvel Act Youth Organisation (MAYO)

Sports, distribution of agricultural inputs, theatre arts in HIV/AIDS awareness Promoting rural development

Mutoko

MoYDIE Mutoko

Nambia Development Education Trust

Hwange

info@ndt.org.na

NGO- LUBHANCHO

Community orphan care and support .Give small children livestock

Hwange Binga

Lwendulu village hwange stand number F35/36 Telephone 08122760

Ntengwe

Garden inputs

Binga

DAs office Binga

PENYA

Youth empowerment, skills training, counseling, poverty alleviation, microfinance

Chegutu Rural Mabvuku Tafara Goromonzi

0773654554 0772128345 director @penyazim.org 32 Airdrie road Eastlea First and second floor Msasa house 04796283 Stanley.dahwa@plan-international.org

Plan International

Distribute agricultural input and educational assistance

Mutoko

Restless Development

wealth creation and productive work, sexual reproductive health and HIV awareness

Bulilima Nyanga Mutare Inyanga Rusape

151 Sam Nujoma street,Belgravia Harare 0774135630 Email infozimbabwe@restlessdevolpment.org

Student Christian Movement of Zimbabwe

Help youths to grow in the Christian e Child/youth, education/training/religion

Harare

O772948274 zimscm@yahoo.com

THAMASO

HIV/AIDS awareness and education of yuths

Harare

83 Central Ave, Harare thamasozimbabwe@gmail.com 0772 486 274

39

Value Addition Project Trust (VAPRO)

Youth training in product value addition, business development or entrepreneurship, leadership and peace building

Harare

0772470489 109 Rotten Row Harare vapro@zol.co.zw

Youth in mining & Environmental Trust

Small scale mining of gold at Zoma Empowering and capacity Development in Youths

Gutu Hwedza, Nyanga

37 Leopold Takawira ST, Harare. Infor @yimetrust.org

Zimbabwe Youth Council

Register youth organisation Youth exchanges, youth leadership training and youth income generating projects

All provinces

31 Argll Newlands Harare

Zimbabwe Youth Network

Peace building, sport, HIV/AIDS, educational training

All provinces

0774163602

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8.0 Stakeholder scoping analysis


Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis highlighted areas that need to be built upon and those that will need to be addressed to ensure successful implementation of youth programmes. The results of the analysis are shown in Table 17.

Table 17: A SWOT Analysis of Stakeholders


Stakeholder MoYDIE Strengths Decentralized structures down to the village level National Youth Policy has been developed Capacity to mobilize the youth Youth fund Weaknesses Beauracratic red tape Lack of transparence in the disbarment of funds Delays in implementing policies that have been developed Limited financial resources No Youth National Action Plan Lack of awareness of youth fund Top down approach which is not sustainable Opportunities They execute programmes to the village level In charge of more than 50% of the youth population Political support NGO and donor support Local leadership support Threats Politicization of programmes inadequate funding government and stakeholders

Micro Finance institutions

Decentralized Have funding resources at no interest

Amount of funding per project is too little Lack of transparency in disbursing funds Failure to attract large clientele due to prohibitive loan requirements

High clientele base Access to international or donor funding

Politicizing activities Inadequate funding

Banks

Provide loans facilities

Access to international and donor funds Government support

Unstable political environment Low clientele due to high interest rates

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ZYWG

Its focus on the needs of the youth, employment and develop Bottom up approach which is sustainable ment Powerbase derived from the youth Capacity to mobilize youth

Inadequate funding

Large clientele Stake holder support

Political interference Political instability

Inadequate communication especially with rural youth

ZYC

Maintain register of YWG Youth programmes supported by government

Centralized in Harare No field officers Not accessible in terms of geographical location Not known by youths on the ground

Access to youth groups to work within the country Support from government and stakeholders

Politicization of the council Political instability

Fund youth programmes

Local Government

Assist in the mobilization of the local people Form partnerships with NGOs Coordination role of all activities at district and provincial level Provide land for youth projects

Limited funding Beareucratic red tape Inadequate vehicles to cover their districts Ability to reach the lowest level in a district

Politicization of programmes Unstable economic climate Lack of funding

NGOS

Have resource base Fund a variety of projects Cover wide range of youth projects Programmes are run efficiently Focus on humanitarian aid rather than youth development

Access to international funds

Political interferences

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Good coordination among themselves and government

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9. Action Plan to the Youth Working Group and stakeholders.


Table 18 shows suggested action plans for the YWG. Table 18: Suggested youth priorities for the 2010-2012 activity plans. Strategy Discussion of findings and mapping way forward Major Activity Stakeholder workshop Target Group Major Donors. YWG MoYDIE, MoWGCD,, MSMECD, Ministry of Labour and other relevant ministries, industry, Banks , Micro Finance Institutions. Training Colleges Youths group and youths in various districts Implementing Agencies UNDP,ILO,SNV

Group formation in districts

Workshop to raise awareness of advantages of formation of youth working groups

Major Donors. YWG MoYDIE, MoWGCD, , MSMECD, Ministry of Labour and other relevant ministries, industry, Banks , Micro Finance Institutions. Training Colleges Major Donors. YWG MoYDIE, MoWGCD, , MSMECD, Ministry of Labour and other relevent ministries, industry, Banks , Micro Finance Institutions. Training Colleges Major Donors. YWG MoYDIE, MoWGCD, MSMECD, Ministry of Labour and other relevant ministries, industry, Banks , Micro Finance Institutions. Training Colleges, Stakeholders such as Ministry of Education Sports and Culture, MoYDIE, MoWAGCD, MSMECD, Youth Groups

Natural resources identification in districts

Workshops on identification of natural resource in districts

Youth group and youths in various districts.

Strategies of resource exploitation

Workshops on strategies of resource exploitation at district level

Youths group and youths in various districts

Curriculum Review For Vocational Training Curriculum Lobbying Vocational Training Colleges to introduce marketable programmes

Review of the current Vocational Training Syllabus

Stakeholder review including Youth from Technical colleges, Youth Groups, Government Ministries dealing with youth

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Youth Skills training on exploitation of natural resources and support activities

Workshops on skills training in districts Workshops on project proposal writing and project management Identification of source of finance and material support and possible partnerships with stakeholders

VTCs training officers, youths and youth groups in already in projects

Major Donors. YWG MoYDIE, MoWGCD, , MSMECD, Ministry of Labour and other relevant ministries, industry, Banks , Micro Finance Institutions. Training Colleges

Youth Partnerships with Industry

Visits by youth to industry or vis versa Attachments for youth Marketing of youth activities

Youths and YWG

Major Donors. YWG MoYDIE, MoWGCD, , MSMECD, Ministry of Labour and other relevant ministries, industry, Banks , Micro Finance Institutions. Training Colleges

Evaluation and Monitoring

Stakeholder workshops to set targets to be used on monitoring and evaluation of activities and use of resources.

Youth and Major Donors. YWG MoYDIE, MoWGCD, MSMECD, Ministry of Labour and other relevant ministries, industry, Banks ,Micro Finance Institutions. training colleges youth groups ,

UNDP,ILO.SNV

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10.0 Conclusions and recommendations

10.1 Conclusions
The findings reveal high levels of youth unemployment in all the 15 districts. However youth are engaged in informal economic activities such as cross border trading, flea markets and agri-businesses. Lack of skills and knowledge were identified as inhibiting factors to youth employment. Access to VTCs was a challenge due to lack of finance, failure to meet the academic entry requirements, absence of VTCs in some districts and poorly equipped training institutions. There was a mismatch between skills training and what is required in the labour market at district level. This needs to be addressed. The youths are failing to start income generating activities due to failure to access microfinance and technical support and lack of collateral security, Others had no knowledge on the availability of microfinance neither could they write fundable project proposals. The findings indicated that the natural resources available in the districts provided opportunities for youth employment. These abundant resources were however severely underutilized. Most youths were involved in gender awareness, public health education, and human rights awareness, and HIV and AIDS awareness. However the survey indicated very few youths were involved in political debates. Nevertheless, most youths have access to social services. Most youths were not aware of the existence of the National Youth Policy and other youth support instruments. Institutions (e.g MoYDIE and MoWAGCD) responsible for translating the policy frameworks into development opportunities have limited resources to do so.

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10.2 Recommendations
Based on the survey findings, there is urgent need for short, mid-term and long term interventions to enhance youth employment and development. Responsible authorities need to retrofit resources to enhance youth participation in employment generation projects. This can be realized through youth capacity building and empowerment activities at local levels. Financial support should be availed to youths at affordable rates. Taking into cognisance of the mammoth challenges facing youth, it is imperative that stakeholders such as the government ministries, private sector, the interventions; YWGs, donors (ILO, UNDP, SNV) should consider the following

10.2.1 Skills training


Reviewing curriculum in VTCs and other training institutions to meet the needs of the labour market. Revise the entry requirements to VTCs in order to cater for youths without the required 5O levels including English and mathematics Increase the number of VTCs and training centres in the districts.

10.2.3 Finance
Review the collateral security requirements to access loans. Timely disbursement of funding. Mobilize financial resources for youth projects Improve stakeholder participation in the planning implementation and evaluation of the disbursement of fund. Increase the amount of funds available for projects. Train the youth groups and youth training officers on financial management and the application of funds, project proposal writing and project management and entrepreneurship training in skills.

10.2.4 Policy
Total Implementation of the youth support policy. Dissemination of the National youth policy. Create an enabling environment for policy implementation. Make the policies available at grassroots level. Review policies to accommodate quota system for the youth

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References
CSO,2002,Zimbabwe Population Census Report ILO 2010 .World Employment Report: .Employment, Productivity and Poverty Reduction .ILO ,Rome. Maguranyanga B (2011) Skills for Youth Employment and Rural Development In Western Project- Training for Rural Economic Empowerment (TREE) Programme . and Southern Africa

Mambo. N. M, 2010: Situational Analysis of the Skills Development System in Zimbabwe, A Report Submitted to the Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education Technical Committee and ILO, SNV Ministry of Labour and Social Services, 2009: Zimbabwe National Employment Policy Framework (ZiNEPF), Government of Zimbabwe, Harare. Nziramasanga 1999 The Zimbabwe Report of the Presidential Commission of Inquiry into Educational Training.Harare.Zimbabwe. Ministry of Labour and Social Services, 2009. Zimbabwe National Policy Framework (ZiNEPF) The Government of Zimbabwe.Harare. Pindiriri, E. Muhoyi, A. Chakravarti, T. Masaya 2010. Rapid assessment of labour market in Zimbabwe: With a special focus on youth and women, Study Prepared For Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV), August 2010, Harare

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