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# EEK 471 LAB 14

Universiti Sains Malaysia Electrical Engineering Department Advanced Power Electronic Laboratory EEK471

## Design 1: Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) (2 Weeks Assignment)

OBJECTIVE To explore how a PWM signal is generated To simulate a PWM circuit using Proteus, PESIM, PSCAD, PSpice, Multisim or etc. To design, construct and test a PWM circuit based on analog circuits, PWM ICs or microcontroller

INTRODUCTION Basic principles of PWM PWM or Pulse Width Modulation is a powerful way of controlling analogue circuits and systems, using the digital outputs of microprocessors. Defining the term, we can say that PWM is the way we control a digital signal simulating an analogue one, by means of altering its state and frequency of this. This is how a PWM signal would look like in Figure 1.

Figure 1: PWM signal The PWM is actually a square wave modulated. This modulation infects on the frequency (clock cycle) and the duty cycle of the signal. Both of these parameters will be explained in details later but keep in mind that a PWM signal is characterized from the duty clock and the duty cycle. The amplitude of the signal remains stable during time (except of course from the rising and falling ramps). The clock cycle is measured in Hz and the duty cycle is measured in percent (%).

## EEK 471 LAB 14

These are the basic parameters that characterize a PWM signal. The first parameter, the clock cycle, is easy to understand. It is the frequency of the signal measured in Hz. The other parameter has to do with the switching time of the signal. Take a look in the following three signals in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Duty cycle of PWM signal All three signals shown above are square wave oscillations modulated as per their oscillation width, so called "duty cycle". They have the same frequency(f) and period (T), but they differ on the width of the positive state (TON). The duty cycle is the percentage of the positive state compared to the period of the signal. Duty Cylcle, D = Period (T) = Ton X 100% T 1 Frequency (f)

A 10% duty cycle means that the positive stated remains positive for 10% of the period of the signal. The signal remains "ON" for some time and "OFF" for some time. Ton = Time the output remains high. Toff = Time the output remains Low. When output is high the voltage is 5v' When output is low the voltage is 0v T = Time Period = Ton + Toff

Due to the efficiency and simplicity of PWM, as well as the flexibility of this modulation type, there are numbers of applications that it can take place. The concept of Pulse Width Modulation is widely used in Power Electronics. In a simple dc to dc converter the switched is turned on and off at a constant frequency f. The on time Ton is variable. The duty cycle or duty ratio D=Ton/T, where T=1/f is the period. In dc to ac inverters D is modulated to generate specific output wave shapes. The low power control signal used to turn the switch on/off can be generated by an analog circuit or a microprocessor.

EEK 471 LAB 14 By using PWM, someone can modulate, transmit and/or storage analogue signals like audio/voice telecommunications and music. Switching power supplies that uses this technology are much more energy efficient than the classic power supplies, reaching up to 60% power saving! The output power and/or voltage can be controlled either digitally using a micro-controller or with the old classic potentiometer. Stepper motors can be easily controlled using PWM, as well as DC motors. The torque and speed of a DC motor can be controlled by altering the voltage or the duty cycle of the PWM easily. PWM is widely used in dimmer circuits that could control a variety of lamps including LEDs. Notice that using PWM, dimmer circuits and other circuits like motor controller that would normally require AC voltage to operate, can be handled with DC voltage directly with no conversion whatsoever. Generating PWM signal PWM is widely used to modulate - transmit and demodulate analogue signals. The modulation is mainly done using a method called intersective PWM. According to this method, the input analogue signal and a saw-tooth waveform are driven in a comparator. Each time saw-tooth waveform voltage is less than the input reference signal, the SPWM output is driven high and vice-versa. This can be seen as in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Block diagram of PWM signal For a linear saw-tooth waveform: d(t) =VC(t) / VM for 0 VC(t) VM So d(t) is a linear function of VC(t).

## EEK 471 LAB 14

EQUIPMENTS DC Power Supplies Textronic Oscilloscope Digital Agilent Oscilloscope (Optional) Connection Leads Design Components (to be determined by each group at your own cost)

Experiment: Part I Simulation of a PWM Circuit 1. In this part, you will do a simulation showing the characteristic curve of PWM signal using power electronic simulation software available in market. Show all your steps and results of simulation in the final report. 2. Use any one of the power or electronic software to simulate a PWM circuit. The simulation will focus on the basic concept of generating this signal. In the simulation, you might be using active or passive components like resistors, capacitors, transistors or any components that can be represented by block or symbol. Your simulation should cover main elements of PWM such as shown in Figure 3 of the introduction part. The elements are DC level generator, triangular or saw-tooth generator voltage comparator and some measurements tools. 3. The following are parameters you will use in the simulation part. PWM frequency = 100 kHz Peak voltage of Saw-tooth signal <= 5 V DC offset voltage of Saw-tooth signal = 0 V Duty cycle = 0 to 100% controllable Waveforms at D=0.75

Experiment: Part II Construction of a PWM circuit 1. In this part, you will construct a PWM circuit based on the simulation design you have done before in Part I. 2. A DC level generator comes from DC regulated power supply. A saw-tooth generator may be created using operational amplifier circuit (using LM741), or taken directly from Agilent new oscilloscope which is able to output this signal. Use LM311 or LM324 as a comparator to realize the above circuit. 3. You might also use some famous PWM ICs like SG3524/25/26/27 or TL494/594/598, which directly generate two PWM signals at different phase simultaneously. 4. Or you can choose PIC/ Arduino microcontroller in your design. 5. Extra marks will be given for those who are able to combine step 2, 3 and 4 in the design. 6. For PWM circuit, show that the duty cycle, D= VC(t) / VM. Verify that you can vary D from 0 to 1. Show actual waveforms when D=0.75 7. Your final report should cover Part I and Part II and must be submitted during the presentation couple weeks later. Please prepare the slide show for this.