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Cargo Work

Container Cargo

Sea Containers were invented in the mid 1950s by Malcolm McLean, a North Carolina trucking
owner who grew tired of wasting his trucking company’s time with trucks standing idle in line as
ships were unloaded bit by bit by dockworkers.

McLean developed sealed truck trailers and the concept of loading and unloading the trailer interiors
only at the points of origin and destination.

The first ship modified to accept these “containers” on deck, sailed with 58 of them from New York
to Houston in April 1956. This was the start of McLean’s company, the Sea-Land Corporation.

The Matson Line (Hawaii) put the first fully containerized ship into service in 1960.

The International Standards Organization (ISO) first established container standards in 1961. The
ISO standard is not prescriptive and instead simply stipulates tests that the containers must pass.

Modern container ships have only one problem – when the ship arrives in port, the object is to
unload the containers quickly to get them on to their final destination and to get the container ships
back out to sea fully loaded heading for the next port.

To accomplish this, container ships are equipped with steel skeletons called “cell guides”.

A special lifting fixture is used with remote actuators, which engage the corner blocks on the top of
the container.

A recent survey indicates that port crane operators can execute full crane cycles to remove and
position containers at rates of between 30 and 60 boxes per hour.

Containers come in two basic sizes – 20 Footer and 40 Footer and are commonly known as TEU
(Twenty Equivalent Units) and FEU (Forty Equivalent Units).

The external body of the container is made of corrugated sheet metal and is not capable of taking any
load. The four corners have shoes and are strengthened to take in load.

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Identification System

Example of an ISO 6346 conform container number

[edit] Owner Code

The owner code consists of three capital letters of the Latin alphabet to indicate the owner or
principal operator of the container. Such code needs to be registered at the Bureau International des
Containers in Paris to ensure uniqueness worldwide.

[edit] Equipment Category Identifier

The equipment category identifier consists of one of the following three capital letters of the Latin
alphabet:

• U for all freight containers


• J for detachable freight container-related equipment
• Z for trailers and chassis

[edit] Serial Number

The serial number consists of 6 (Arabic) numeric digits, assigned by the owner or operator, uniquely
identifying the container within that owner/operator's fleet.

[edit] Check Digit

The check digit consists of one (Arabic) numeric digit providing a means of validating the recording
and transmission accuracies of the owner code and serial number.

[edit] Calculation Step 1

An equivalent numerical value is assigned to each letter of the alphabet, beginning with 10 for the
letter A (11 and multiples thereof are omitted):

A B C D E F G H I J K L M

10 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 23 24

N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 34 35 36 37 38

The individual digits of the serial number keep their numeric value.

[edit] Calculation Step 2

Each of the numbers calculated in step 1 is multiplied by 2position, where position is the exponent to
basis 2. Position starts at 0, from left to right.

The following table shows the multiplication factors:

1. nbr 2. nbr 3. nbr 4. nbr 5. nbr 6. nbr 7. nbr 8. nbr 9. nbr 10. nbr

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512

[edit] Calculation Step 3

a) Sum up all results of step 2


b) Divide them by 11
c) Erase all decimal digits of the division (i. e. make the result an integer value)
d) Multiply the integer value by 11
e) Subtract result of d) from result of a): This is the check digit!

If the final difference is 10, then the check digit becomes 0. To ensure that this does not happen, the
standard recommends that serial numbers should not be used which produce a final difference of 10,
however there are containers in the market which do not follow this recommendation, so handling
this case has to be included if a check digit calculator is programmed.

Notice that step b) to e) mean to find the integer rest of dividing the result of a) by 11. Most
programming languages have a modulo operator for this. Attention should be paid on how it is
working in the language chosen; i. e. if it is giving back the decimal rest or the integer rest in order to
get proper results. - 11 is used as divisor because a containernumber has 11 digits in total. In step 1
the numbers 11, 22 and 33 are left out as they are multiples of the divisor.

[edit] Example

C S Q U 3 0 5 4 3 8 Calc.

13 30 28 32 3 0 5 4 3 8

x x x x x x x x x x

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1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512

= = = = = = = = = =

13 60 112 256 48 0 320 512 768 4096 6185 [a)]

b) Division by 11: 562.272...

c) Erase decimal digits: 562

d) Multiply by 11: 6182

e) a) minus d) = Check Digit: 3

[edit] Practical Problems

In day-to-day business it happens that containers do appear which do not follow the ISO 6346
identification at all, however they are fully CSC safety approved containers. Usually these are
"shippers owned" containers what means that they are not owned by the carrier but supplied by the
cargo owners (shippers). They may have no or no registered owner code and no category identifier
and have no check digit. Generally it is not advisable not to follow ISO 6346 as this causes problems
to the carriers and container terminals to correctly identify the equipment and to properly deliver the
cargo because computer systems require ISO 6346 conform naming and as such missing prefixes are
invented, for example YYYY at the carrier and XXXX at the terminal what causes the equipment to
mismatch.

[edit] Size and Type Codes

ISO 6346 also gives size and type codes for containers. When displayed on the container, the size
and type codes shall be used as a whole.

The codes are compiled of the following elements:

• First character, representing the length (coded)


• Second character, representing the width and height (coded)
• Third and fourth character indicating the type of the container

The following is an overview of the most common codes:

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ISO Type Group ISO Size Type

Code Description Code Description

20G0 GENERAL PURPOSE CONT.


20GP GENERAL PURPOSE CONT.
20G1 GENERAL PURPOSE CONT.

20HR INSULATED CONTAINER 20H0 INSULATED CONTAINER

20PF FLAT (FIXED ENDS) 20P1 FLAT (FIXED ENDS)

20T3 TANK CONTAINER

20T4 TANK CONTAINER


20TD TANK CONTAINER
20T5 TANK CONTAINER

20T6 TANK CONTAINER

20T7 TANK CONTAINER


20TG TANK CONTAINER
20T8 TANK CONTAINER

20T0 TANK CONTAINER

20TN TANK CONTAINER 20T1 TANK CONTAINER

20T2 TANK CONTAINER

22BU BULK CONTAINER 22B0 BULK CONTAINER

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22G0 GENERAL PURPOSE CONT.
22GP GENERAL PURPOSE CONT.
22G1 GENERAL PURPOSE CONT.

22HR INSULATED CONTAINER 22H0 INSULATED CONTAINER

22P3 FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE)

22PC FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE) 22P8 FLAT (COLL.FLUSH FOLDING)

22P9 FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE)

22P1 FLAT (FIXED ENDS)


22PF FLAT (FIXED ENDS)
22P7 FLAT (GENSET CARRIER)

22RC REEFER CONT.(NO FOOD) 22R9 REEFER CONT.(NO FOOD)

BUILT-IN GEN. F. POWER SPLY BUILT-IN GEN. F. POWER SPLY


22RS 22R7
OF REEF OF REEF

22RT REEFER CONTAINER 22R1 REEFER CONTAINER

22SN NAMED CARGO CONTAINER 22S1 NAMED CARGO CONTAINER

22T3 TANK CONTAINER

22T4 TANK CONTAINER


22TD TANK CONTAINER
22T5 TANK CONTAINER

22T6 TANK CONTAINER

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22T7 TANK CONTAINER
22TG TANK CONTAINER
22T8 TANK CONTAINER

22T0 TANK CONTAINER

22TN TANK CONTAINER 22T1 TANK CONTAINER

22T2 TANK CONTAINER

22UP HARDTOP CONTAINER 22U6 HARDTOP CONTAINER

22UT OPEN TOP CONTAINER 22U1 OPEN TOP CONTAINER

22V0 VENTILATED CONTAINER

22VH VENTILATED CONTAINER 22V2 VENTILATED CONTAINER

22V3 VENTILATED CONTAINER

25GP GP-CONTAINER OVER-HEIGHT 25G0 GP-CONTAINER OVER-HEIGHT

26GP GP-CONTAINER OVER-HEIGHT 26G0 GP-CONTAINER OVER-HEIGHT

26HR INSULATED CONTAINER 26H0 INSULATED CONTAINER

28TG TANK FOR GAS 28T8 TANK FOR GAS

28UT OPEN TOP (HALF HEIGHT) 28U1 OPEN TOP (HALF HEIGHT)

VE-HALF-HEIGHT =1448 MM VE-HALF-HEIGHT =1448 MM


28VH 28V0
HEIGHT HEIGHT

29PL PLATFORM 29P0 PLATFORM

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GEN. PURP. WITHOUT VENT HIGH CUBE CONT. (WIDTH
2EGP 2EG0
WIDTH 2.5M 2.5M)

42G0 GENERAL PURPOSE CONT.


42GP GENERAL PURPOSE CONT.
42G1 GENERAL PURPOSE CONT.

42HR INSULATED CONTAINER 42H0 INSULATED CONTAINER

42P3 FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE)

42PC FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE) 42P8 FLAT (COLL.FLUSH FOLDING)

42P9 FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE)

42PF FLAT (FIXED ENDS) 42P1 FLAT (FIXED ENDS)

42PS FLAT (SPACE SAVER) 42P6 FLAT SPACE SAVER

42RC REEFER CONT.(NO FOOD) 42R9 REEFER CONT.(NO FOOD)

42RS REEFER CONT.(DIESEL GEN.) 42R3 REEFER CONT.(DIESEL GEN.)

42RT REEFER CONTAINER 42R1 REEFER CONTAINER

42SN NAMED CARGO CONTAINER 42S1 NAMED CARGO CONTAINER

42T5 TANK CONTAINER


42TD TANK CONTAINER
42T6 TANK CONTAINER

42TG TANK CONTAINER 42T8 TANK CONTAINER

42TN TANK CONTAINER 42T2 TANK CONTAINER

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42UP HARDTOP CONTAINER 42U6 HARDTOP CONTAINER

42UT OPEN TOP CONTAINER 42U1 OPEN TOP CONTAINER

45BK BULK CONTAINER 45B3 BULK CONTAINER

45G0 HIGH CUBE CONT.


45GP HIGH CUBE CONT.
45G1 HIGH CUBE CONT.

45P3 FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE)


45PC FLAT (COLLAPSIBLE)
45P8 FLAT (COLL.FLUSH FOLDING)

45RC REEFER CONT.(NO FOOD) 45R9 REEFER CONT.(NO FOOD)

45RT REEFER CONTAINER 45R1 REEFER CONTAINER

45UT OPEN TOP CONTAINER 45U1 OPEN TOP CONTAINER

45UP HIGH CUBE HARDTOP CONT. 45U6 HIGH CUBE HARDTOP CONT.

46HR INSULATED CONTAINER 46H0 INSULATED CONTAINER

48TG TANK FOR GAS 48T8 TANK FOR GAS

49PL PLATFORM 49P0 PLATFORM

4CGP GP CONTAINER 4CG0 GP CONTAINER (WIDTH 2.5 M)

L0GP HIGH CUBE CONT. L0G1 HIGH CUBE CONT.

L2GP HIGH CUBE CONT. L2G1 HIGH CUBE CONT.

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L5GP HIGH CUBE CONT. L5G1 HIGH CUBE CONT.

Country Code (Optional)

The country code consists of two capital letters of the Latin alphabet as described in ISO 3166. It
indicates the country where the code is registered not the nationality of the owner or operator of the
container. The letters of the code shall not be less than 100 mm high.

Mandatory Operational Marks

Operational marks are intended solely to convey information requested for the movement of
containers or give visual warnings. They relate to

• the weight of containers


• a symbol to denote air-surface container
• a sign warning of overhead electrical danger
• a height mat be for containers higher than 2.6m (8 ft 6 in)

Container Dimensions
Door Max Tare
Outside Dimensions Internal Dimensions Capacity
Dimensions Weight Weight

Length Height Width Length Height Width Width Height Cubic Gross Weight

2.11 2.10 6000


2.20 2.28 m 2.06 m 1.99 m 950 kg
8 ft 2.43 m 2.26 m m m 9.95 cm kg
m 7 ft 6 6 ft 6 6 ft 6 2100
Container 8 ft 7ft 6 in 6 ft 6 6 ft 6 351 cf 13243
7 ft in in in lbs
in in lbs

2.35 2.34 10,160 1,300


2.99 m 2.59 m 2.43 2.84 m 2.39 m 2.28 m
10 ft m m 15.95 cc kg kg
9 ft 10 8 ft 6 m 9 ft 3 7 ft 10 7 ft 5
Container 7 ft 8 7 ft 8 561 cf 22,400 2,870
in in 8 ft in in in
in in lbs lbs

20 ft 6.06 m 2.59 m 2.43 5.9 m 2.39 m 2.35 2.34 2.28 m 33.1 cm 30,480 2,230
Container 20 ft 8 ft 6 m 19 ft 4 7 ft 10 m m 7 ft 5 1,170 cf kg kg
in 8 ft in in 7 ft 8 7 ft 8 6,700 4,920

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in in in lbs lbs

12.04 2.35 2.34


2.59 m 2.43 2.39 m 2.28 m
40 ft 12.2 m m m m 67.6 cm 3,0480 3,680
8 ft 6 m 7 ft 10 7 ft 5
Container 40 ft 39 ft 5 7 ft 8 7 ft 8 2,386 cf kg kg
in 8 ft in in
in in in

2.35 2.34
2.59 m 2.43 5.84 m 2.39 m 2.28 m
20 ft 6.06 m m m 2,4000 2,340
8 ft 6 m 19 ft 1 7 ft 10 7 ft 6 32 cm
Tunnel 20 ft 7 ft 8 7 ft 8 kg kg
in 8 ft in in in
in in

2.28 2.21
20 ft 2.59 m 2.43 5.9 m 2.29 m 2.16 m
6.06 m m m 31 cm 24,000 3,400
Open- 8 ft 6 m 19 ft 4 7 ft 10 7 ft 8
20 ft 7 ft 6 7 ft 5 1,170 cf kg kg
sider in 8 ft in in in
in in

12.04 2.35 2.34 30,480 3,900


40 ft 2.89 m 2.43 2.69 m 2.58 m
12.2 m m m m 76.2 cm kg kg
High 9 ft 6 m 8 ft 2 8 ft 5
40 ft 39 ft 5 7 ft 8 7ft 5 2,700 cf 71,650 8,600
Cube in 8 ft in in
in in in lbs lbs

2.35 2.34 2,160


2.59 m 2.43 5.96 m 2.35 m 2.28 m
20 ft 6.06 m m m 33 cm 30,480 kg
8 ft 6 m 19 ft 4 7 ft 8 7 ft 8
Open-top 20 ft 7 ft 8 7 ft 5 1,170 cf kg 4762
in 8 ft in in in
in in lbs

12.04 2.35 2.34 3,720


2.59 m 2.43 2.35 m 2.28 m
40 ft 12.2 m m m m 67.6 cm 30,480 kg
8 ft 6 m 7 ft 8 7 ft 8
Open-top 40 ft 39 ft 5 7 ft 8 7 ft 5 2,386 cf kg 8,201
in 8 ft in in
in in in lbs

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The inside bottom has a wooden ceiling. There are weather-insulted vents provided to facilitate
venting.

The weights marked on the containers are TARE weight and LADEN weight. TARE weight is the
weight of the empty container and is usually 2200KGS for a TEU, while the LADEN weight may be
anything from 20000KGS to 32000KGS (strengthened steel construction).

The container shoes fitted at the corners are hollow with 5 oval slots to facilitate the fitting of
container fittings as well as for lifting the container – either by using conventional wire slings or by
spreaders.

Since the containers are concentrated weights the loading of the same require special heavy
dunnaging to spread the load evenly over the deck – if carried as deck cargo on conventional general
cargo ships.

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However the carriage of containers are primarily on container ships or
on ships, which have been built to take in general cargo as well as
containers to a limited extent. Container Carriers

Handling and Safety Instructions

1. Instructions on the proper handling of the securing devices on containers (and other standardized
cargo):

- All loose securing elements have to be applied according to this Cargo Securing Manual.

- It is recommended to have only one type of twistlock on board. If more than one type of
twistlocks, the different types should be clearly identified.

- All twistlocks in use have to be locked.

- Twistlocks must be inserted so that opening devices are accessible for opening.

- Adjustable pressure- or tension / compression elements have to be set with a minimum


clearance to the longitudinal bulkhead in order to reduce the movement within the container
block.

- Damaged containers are not allowed to be loaded.

- Cargo carried within the standardized cargo units should be packed and secured within these units.
The same principles to stowage and securing of cargo inside the containers should be applied as the
same cargo being stowed conventionally onboard.

- The skirts of the bottom rails of the container should not be allowed to come in contact with the
underlying dunnage. These structures are not strength members, and will buckle and give way if placed
on dunnage.

2. Safety instructions related to handling of securing devices and to securing and unsecuring of containers
(or other standardized cargo by ship or shore personnel):

- People working in the cargo area are always to wear a protective helmet and protective
shoes.

- Any securing or unsecuring of containers must be carried out during the ship’s stay at berth or
safe anchorage.

- Dropping of container fittings from above is forbidden.

- Work on top of container stacks is generally to be avoided. If work on top of containers is not
avoidable, an approved fall protection system must be used. Access to the top of a container
stack for inserting, locking, unlocking or collecting securing devices is only allowable by means
of an approved lashing cage.

- A fall hazard shall exist whenever employees are working within 0.9 meters of the unprotected
edge of a work surface and 0.3 meters or more, horizontally, from the adjacent surface. Weather
conditions may impair vision or sound footing of workers on top of containers.

- Fall protection systems must be inspected and maintained prior to each day’s use.

- Each fall protection system shall be rigged to minimize the free-fall distance.

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Stowage and Securing Instructions

Possible consequences from misuse of securing devices or misinterpretation of instructions given might result
in the following:

- Exceeding the maximum stack mass may result in:


- overstressing hatch cover construction
- overstressing stowage and securing devices
- damaging containers or loss of containers overboard

- When twistlocks are not locked properly this may result in:
- overstressing stowage and securing devices
- damaging containers or loss of containers overboard

- When lashings are not applied in the relevant places this may result in:
- overstressing of twistlocks
- damaging containers or loss of containers overboard

- When the weight distribution in the stack is not like prescribed in this manual this may result
in:
- overstressing stowage and securing devices
- damaging containers or loss of containers overboard

- If the maximum GM - value in the stowage plan is exceeded this may result in:
- higher transverse accelerations
- overstressing stowage and securing devices
- overstressing the ship structure
- damaging containers

Stowage and Securing Plan (not included in this model manual)

Lashing of containers on purpose ships are supplied from reputed lashing makers and have been
tested for the loads they are to lash. Various fittings are used and all of these are generally carried on
board.

Base stacker Twist Lock Double Stacker

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Corner Eye Pad Side Stack Thrust Bridge Fitting

Twist Lock Rod Lashing Bar Spacer Stacker

A spacer stacker is used where there is a difference between adjacent containers as loaded in their
heights, one being the 8ft and the other 8.5FT.

On normal ships where these fittings may not be available wire ropes are used however the number
of ropes to be used would be decided by the weight of the container.

On GC ships with no provision for built in shoes only single height loads are carried.

However on container ships the hold stacks may extend to 7 high and on hatch top/ deck to 5 high.

The hold and the deck/ hatch top being strengthened.

The lashings to be done are specified in the container-lashing manual supplied to the ship from the
building yard. This is not to be reduced since the stresses have been calculated and the number of
lashings incorporated.

The containers are loaded onto a container ship in a specified manner. The ship is divided into BAYS
or ROWS. Looking from the side the bays are marked from forward to aft.

The containers are stacked in tiers and are in general called the stacks.

This way ensures that any container can be located very easily – knowing the bay number and the
row number isolates the location and the stack height give the exact position of the container.

On container ships the containers are lowered onto slots inside the holds, the holds bottom is
provided with sunken shoes, twist locks/ stackers are fitted onto these and the container is lowered
onto them.

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Cell Guides on Deck – Open hatch concept:

Some containers are designed to carry refrigerated cargo, these special containers have their own
cooling plant in built on one end of the container, and all that is required for the ship to provide is a
power point for the electricity. The containers come with their own recording device and card, the

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ships officers has to renew the card on the expiry of the same, and is to see that the cooling plant
does not stop functioning, manuals are provided whereby ships staff can do some minor repairs to
the plant.

Today a variety of cargo which previously was thought could only be loaded onto a general cargo
ship, is transported on container ships. An example is a tank, thus small parcels of liquid is carried on
container ships.

Lashing of containers is very important since a typical container ship has a low GM(F), consequently
the ship rolls quite a bit and the stresses developed by the cargo swaying is liable to break the
lashings and put the containers into the sea.

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All lashings are to be done following the ships lashing manual. In general the following is a typical
lashing system, others may also be accepted if permitted by the manual.

The planning of loading of a container ship is normally undertaken ashore, but the officer in charge
of the watch should keep an eye on the loading to detect errors in stowage which may occur. A

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particular watch should be kept for containers with dangerous goods placards to see that their
stowage satisfies segregation requirements as laid down in the IMDG code.

Other things to watch for are that container marked for underdeck stowage do not end up on deck –
this is serious since the container may be for second port by rotation, also the heavier containers are
generally loaded underdeck to increase the GM. Thus in addition to a loss of GM the ship would also
have a mess up at the disport.

Refrigerated containers should be loaded where they can be connected to the ship’s power supply
and the duty officer is to ensure the same. While loading a slight slackening of watch can become a
liability since the gantries load very fast and to unload or to shift is expensive and time consuming –
even if the fault actually is of the port.

Sometimes containers are loaded which due to the nature of the contents have to be overstowed, in
this case the container is loaded and the container is then blocked off so that there would be no
chance of any pilferage – such containers may carry – currency/ coins, drugs, and mail or other high
value cargo.

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