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Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec.

2013 Annotated Bibliography Thesis Statement: During the time between 1948-1994, the Nationalist Party of South Africa created a campaign called Apartheid that affected Colored and Bantu Africans by revoking their common human rights and, because of this, activist groups willingly took the responsibility to end the campaign. Primary Resources AFP/Getty Images. Soweto Riot. Digital image. World History: The Modern Era. ABCCLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Nov. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/845886?terms=black+consciousness According to the photo, the Soweto riot was a protest march that pertained to education. The caption states that it was due to Bantus not agreeing with the Afrikaners only teaching European education. By looking at the photo, there is a large turn out in the march, so it demonstrates the support from Bantu citizens. This photo is used in my project as a visual representation that explains the support the Anti-Apartheid movement had, by all who were affected. African National Congress. Flag of the African National Congress. Digital image. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/420891?terms=african+national+congre ss The photo is of the African National Congress (ANC)s flag, which is colored yellow, black, and green. It features a hand holding a spear and a shield. This has significance because it represents the spear of the nation, or the organizations turn to violence to get their point across. The flag is used in my project as a visual to support information on the ANC and their campaigns. African National Congress. The Freedom Charter. The Freedom Charter. N.p., n.d. 1955. Web. 18 Oct. 2013. Document URL: http://www.anc.org.za/show.php?id=72 According to the Freedom Charter of 1955, the people will govern, have equal rights, share the countrys wealth, share landholdings, and have equal human rights. The people of South Africa should connect and leave behind the social

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography issues tied with the Apartheid. This charter is useful because it shows what the Anti-Apartheid movements were striving for. It is used in my assignment as an example of what rights colored and Bantu Africans wanted to gain back that were taken away due to the mass separation. ANC. ANC Youth League. Digital image. African National Congress. African National Congress, Apr. 1944. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://ancarchives.org.za/anc-youth-league/ According to the photo, there are participants of the ANC Youth League. Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, and Oliver Tambo founded this program. The purpose of the program was to allow young adults to participate in the movement, which it did and they worked closely with the ANC parent group. This photo is used in my project as a visual showing how activists group could come together in order to accomplish their responsibility. Apartheid: The Tyranny of Racism Made Law. Digital Image. U.N. New and Media Photos. United Nations, New York, 1 Jan. 1982. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. Document URL: http://www.unmultimedia.org/photo/detail.jsp?id=116/116451&key=154& query=subject:Apartheid&lang=en&so=0&sf=date The image shows a graveyard in a single colored African homeland where it appears to be crowded with handmade headstones. In the caption, it states a demographic of how nearly half of the colored children in these homelands died before reaching five years old, while white Europeans didnt suffer from many medical issues. It is useful because it shows the lack of rights they were given, such as medical requirements. It is used in my assignment as an example supporting my argument. AP Images. Sign in South Africa before the end of the Apartheid. Literary Movements for Students: Presenting Analysis, Context, and Criticism on Literary Movements. Ed. Ira Mark Milne. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale, 2009. World History in Context. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. Document URL: http://0ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDetails Window?total=49&limiter=AC+y&displayGroupName=Images&currPage=1&s ortBy=relevance%2Cdescending&query=BS+apartheid&prodId=WHIC&actio

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography n=2&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CPC3279387164&userGroupName=lvccld _main&jsid=d7e4f79ff6d7b533773fadecf265492 This image shows one of he guidelines given to colored citizens during the Apartheid. Many of the laws, including this one, made during the time were to distance the white and colored groups and support segregation. Specifically, this sign demonstrates the rules colored shop owners had to follow, which included placing the guidelines visible in their shop. It is useful because it shows the regulations and includes one specific law. AP Photo. Nelson Mandela Addresses Crowd in Soweto. Digital image. World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldgeography.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/1838274?terms=nelson%20mand ela&webSiteCode=SLN_WGEO&returnToPage=%2fSearch%2fDisplay%2f183 8274%3fterms%3dnelson+mandela&token=D0013ACB70F70A1BC561BDF8 8FD2F7DD&casError=False This photo demonstrates Nelson Mandelas leadership and authority. It depicts him presenting a speech in 1990. This is after his release from prison, and it seems that he is supporting triumph that the participation of all the citizens helped abolish the Apartheid. It is used in my project to demonstrate how Nelson remained a leader due to his persistence and focus on ending Apartheid. AP Photo. South Africa's Foreign Minister Burned in Effigy by Anti-apartheid Protestors. Digital image. World History in Context: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/1768405?terms=apartheid In the photo, there is a crowd of protestors carrying signs supporting an end to racism. An effigy is simply a figure made for hatred, so the burning man is a figure of the foreign minister. South Africa was a disappointing sight for the U.N. when Eric Louw showed his support for pro-Apartheid. It is used in my assignment as a reference to show how non-violent protests occurred during the Apartheid and what they would campaign against.

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography

AP/Wide World Photos. Non-European South Africans Defy Apartheid Restrictions. Digital image. World History in Context. Gale, Cengage Learning, 2010. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDetailsWin dow?total=1&query=OQE+noneuropean+south+africans+defy&prodId=WHIC&windowstate=normal&mode=vie w&limiter=AC+y&displayGroupName=Images&u=lvccld_main&currPage=1&dis playGroh This photo depicts the Defiance Campaign of 1952 and how the Bantu and colored Africans refused to carry their required passbooks, which was led by Walter Sisulu. Pertaining to this situation, officials began to apprehend the citizens in Boksburg, South Africa. It is used in my project as a visual of how activists would still keep to their responsibility, even when their plan didnt go accordingly. AP/Wide World Photos. Stephen Biko. Digital image. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/301158?terms=stephen+biko This image is a photograph of Stephen Biko. He was the founder of the Black Consciousness and one of the most important key contributors of the AntiApartheid movement. It is useful because it offers a face to one of the people who significantly affected the Apartheid situation. It is used in my assignment as a reference as to who Stephen Biko was. Archambault, G.H. Transition Hard for South Africa. New York Times 3 Jan. 1951: 69. Print. Archambault, G.H. Transition Hard for South Africa. Editorial. New York Times 3 Jan. 1951: 69. Historical Newspapers. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. Document URL: http://0hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/document?set=searcha lleras&start=1&rendition=x-articleimage&inmylist=false&urn=urn%3Aproquest%3AUS%3BPQDOC%3BHNP%

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography 3BPQD%3BHNP%3BPROD%3Bx-articleimage%3B89769280&mylisturn=urn%3Aproquest%3AUS%3BPQDOC%3B HNP%3BPQD%3BHNP%3BROD%3Bx-citation%3B89769280 According to G.H. Archambault, the movement of an agricultural society to an industrial society was quite difficult. White Europeans do not agree with training colored Africans because they didnt believe they can be skilled in any way. It is useful because it demonstrates how the Apartheid affected the economy as an overall unit and shows that colored Africans were exiled in a way. The newspaper article is useful because it offers evidence as to how the separation was reflected on through everyday work. Biko, Stephen. "Stephen Biko: quote on race relations." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 8 Dec. 2013 http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/335738?terms=stephen biko&webSiteCode=SLN_HMOD&returnToPage=%2fSearch%2fDisplay%2f33 5738%3fterms=stephen+biko&token=D0013ACB70F70A1BC561BDF88FD2F7 DD&casError=False According to the quote by Stephen Biko, he wanted to end the negative reputation and show Afrikaners who Bantu and colored Africans really were. At the end, he states that they will ask if they want to join them on their clearly defined terms. It is used in my assignment as a representation of what the activists actually wanted. They did not care for winning but more so becoming whole with society. Clegg, Johnny. "Asimbonanga." Asimbonanga/Biko. Soweto Gospel Choir. N.d. MP3. In this audio recording, the artist is talking about how Nelson Mandela was taken and the citizens cant see him. It mentions some key contributors that worked alongside him. This is useful because it is about the Apartheid and a specific situation. It is used in my assignment for aesthetics and its meaning. Corel. Resettlement Village in Natal. Digital image. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013 Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/354147?terms=south+african+apartheid This image depicts a woman with multiple children in a living area that seems to be uninhabitable. Unfortunately, this is what the homes of Bantu and colored

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography Africans appeared to be after the Population Registration Act of 1950. It is used in my assignment as a representation of what life was like as the Africans rights were slowly diminishing. Corel. Segregated stands in a South African sports arena. Image. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 13 Oct. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/330748?terms=south+africa+apar theid The image was post-World War II during the South African Apartheid and depicts the true separation of society at the time. The left side of the stand was reserved for the white Afrikaners and the right side of the stand was left for the Bantu Africans. It is useful because it physically demonstrates what it was like with segregation, even before the worst phase of the Apartheid. In my project, the photo will be used as a representation of how life appeared. Embassy of South Africa. Nelson Mandela Casting Ballot. Digital image. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/1671577?terms=nelson+mandela In this photo, Nelson Mandela is submitting his vote after the complete end of Apartheid. This is a major point in history because it is where colored and Bantu Africans were able to succeed in their journey of gaining their rights. It is used in my assignment as a representation of activist groups fulfilling their responsibility and citizens gaining their rights back. In addition, it is an introduction to a democratic South Africa. Farrell, Denis. Oliver Tambo. Digital image. World History: The Modern Era. ABCCLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/1153207?terms=oliver+tambo This image is a photograph of Oliver Tambo, another very significant key contributor of the Anti-Apartheid movement. Tambo joined together with Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu to create the ANC Youth League. The photo

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography is useful because it presents a visual of Oliver Tambo. It is used in my assignment as a reference to how Tambo appeared. Geyer, A.L. Speech in the Support of Apartheid in South Africa. A.L. Geyer: Speech in Support of Apartheid in South Africa (1953). Rotary Club of London, London. 19 Aug. 1953. Speech. A.L. Geyer: Speech in Support of Apartheid in South Africa (1953). World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 13 Oct. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/354590?terms=apartheid According to A.L. Geyer, Apartheid is the way for both societies to grow because it allows them to develop at their own pace. The Bantus can advance further with agriculture and industry and the white Europeans can control politically. The speech is useful because if offers an opinion to the other side of the argument. It is used in my assignment as an additional document that offers the perspective of a white European, rather than a colored African. Halsall, Paul, ed. U.N. Resolution 1598: On Race Conflict in South Africa 1961. Modern History Sourcebook. Fordham University, July 1998. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. Document URL: http://www.fordhamuniversity.edu/halsall/mod/1961-unsouthafrica1.html According to the U.N. Resolution 1598, the South African government failed to comply with their previous requests, so they reminded them of their duties as a government and asked of them to reconsider their policies to form them with their obligations, It is useful because it shows the resistance and reluctance of the government to avoid Apartheid. It is used in my project as evidence to show the fight against Apartheid was not easy for the activists. Hulton Archives. Sharpeville Massacre. Digital image. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/333854?terms=sharpeville+massacre

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography In this photo, it shows the aftermath of the Sharpeville Massacre, a very violent turn of events at an activist protest. Many protestors were murdered immediately when officials became frantic. It is used in my project as a reference as to how violent situations became during the process of activist groups supporting Ant-Apartheid. Hulton-Deutsch Collection/Corbis. Rioting in Soweto, South Africa, 1976. Digital image. World History in Context. Gale, Cengage Learning, 2010. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDetail sWindow?total=3&query=OQE+riots+soweto&prodId=WHIC&windowstate= normal&mode=view&limiter=AC+y&displayGroupName=Images&u=lvccld_ main&currPage=1&displayGroups=Images&sortBy=relevance%2Cdescendin g&source=fullList&p=WHIC%3AUHIC&action=e&catId=&view=docDisplay& documentId=GALE%7CBT2380000594 In this photo, it depicts the situation before the Soweto Massacre. A protestor seems to be confronting an official, while the other officials are watching the protestors in the background. This photo is used in my assignment as a visual to show what happened before the massacre occurred. Liasion Agency. Apartheid Signs in South Africa 1956. 1956. Photograph. Gale, Cengage Learning, n.p. Apartheid Signs in South Africa, 1956. Gale World History in Context. Detroit: Gale, 2010. World History in Context. Web. 14 Oct. 2013 Document URL: http://0ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/which/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDeta ilsWindow?total=49&limiter=AC+y&displayGroupName=Images&currPage= 1&sortBy=relevance%2Cdescending&query=BS+apartheid&prodId=WHIC& action=2&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CBT2380000882&userGroupName= lvccld_main&jsid=757afba83751222212e1af9bf03b11e1 This image demonstrates the white Afrikaners ideas of the nonwhite Africans. They saw and endorsed them as a terrible group of people who were not human or of their standards. The photo shows two colored males walking to their living quarters with a sign that has a phrase that demonstrates them as a danger. It is useful because it shows the view of the colored Africans in the white European perspective. The image will be

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography utilized in my assignment as a reference on how nonwhite Africans were seen in others eyes. Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS. South African Shanty Town, 1948. Digital image. Masterpiece. Public Broadcasting Service, n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/masterpiece/endgame/timeline.html The photo presents a common shantytown in the townships where the Bantu Africans resided. The area is not the conditions one should be living in, but their lifestyle normally appeared to be this way. This image is used in my assignment as a visual of life in the beginning of the Apartheid for nonwhite Africans. Mandela, Nelson R. No Easy Walk to Freedom. Speech. Presidential Address by Nelson R. Mandela to the ANC (Transvaal) Congress) 21 Sept. 1953. News24. 24 Jan. 2011. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. Document URL: http://www.news24.com/NelsonMandela/Speeches/FULL-TEXT-No-EasyWalk-To-Freedom-20110124 According to Nelson Mandela, the campaign of Defiance brought far strides in the fight against Apartheid because a vast array of laws passed were taking away the rights of Colored Africans. For example, the Bantu Education Bills sole purpose was to teach the African children that they were inferior to the white Europeans. This speech is useful because it offers important political changes done during the Apartheid and what accomplishments were made to gain back rights. It is used in my assignment for its examples of laws and great milestones reached on the colored Africans part. Mandela, Nelson."Nelson Mandela: quote on political struggle." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/337287?terms=nelson+mandela In this quote by Nelson Mandela, he explains how his passion to fight the Apartheid began. He states that there was no complete thought process, but the situation of the surroundings prompted him to go against the system to save the Bantu and Colored Africans. It is used in my assignment as an explanation for Mandelas activist efforts during the Apartheid.

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography National Party of South Africa. National Party of South Africa: Policy on Colour (1948). World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/341253?terms=apartheid The National Party of South Africa gave this declaration and it explained their terms and policies on the colored group of South Africa. They wanted to express that they were in favor of the white minority, but did not want to oppress the colored group. This document is useful because is offers the limited rights the colored group had during the Apartheid. It is used in my assignment as additional examples of rights given to the colored people by the government. National Party of South Africa. Population Registration Act, No. 30.Governments of the World: A Global Guide to Citizens Rights and Responsibilities. Ed. C. Neal Tate. Vol. 4. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2006. 330-331. World History In Context. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. Document URL: http://0ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/PrimarySourcesDetailsPage/Prim arySourcesDetailsWindow?query=&prodId=WHIC&displayGroupName=Prim arySources&limiter=&source=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&s ortBy=&search_within_results=&action=2&catId==&activityType=&document Id=GALE%7CCX3447400356&userGroupName=lvccld_main&jsid=f2782340e 69872d547ca7f9b550aac01 According to the Registration Act, all people in the union were to be recorded with all details such as birth and residence, but they also needed what is called an identity number, which individualized them from one another. It is useful because it gives background insight as to how society during the Apartheid functioned. It is used in my assignment, as a reference to the different acts performed by the government to separate the societies from each other. New York Times. Racism in South Africa. New York Times 10 May 1950: 29+. Print New York Times. Racism in South Africa. Editorial. New York Times 10 May 1950: 29. Historical Newspapers. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. Document URL:

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography http://0hnpl.bigchalk.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/document?set=searchall eras&start=1&rendition=x-articleimage&inmylist=false&urn=urn%3Aproquest%3AUS%3BPQDOC%3BHNP%3 BPQD%3BHNP%3BPROD%3Bx-articleimage%3B94258721&mylisturn=urn%3Aproquest%3AUS%3BPQDOC%3BH NP%3BPQD%3BHNP%3BPROD%3Bx-citation%3B94258721 The newspaper article states that the Europeans slowly became dominant over the colored African and this can be supported with a bill passed that forced Indians to sell their land to Europeans. It is useful because it gives evidence that as the Europeans rights went up, the colored Africans rights went down. It is used in my assignment for its examples of the points of decreasing rights and explaining the different racial groups.

Reuters/Corbis-Bettmann. Nelson Mandela and F. W. De Klerk Celebrate the End of South African Apartheid. Digital image. World History In Context. Gale, Cengage Learning, 1994. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDetailsWin dow?total=36&query=OQE+nelson+mandela&prodId=WHIC&windowstate=nor mal&mode=view&limiter=AC+y&displayGroupName=Images&u=lvccld_main& currPage=1&displayGroups=Images&sortBy=relevance%2Cdescending&source=f ullList&p=WHIC&action=e&catId=&view=docDisplay&documentId=GALE%7C BT2380000055 In this image, Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Clerk are triumphantly celebrated the official end to the South African Apartheid in 1994. In 1991, major laws began to become appealed and the activists were released from prison. This is useful because if offers a conclusion to my argument. It is used in my assignment as a concluding image to the South African Apartheid.

Reuters/Corbis-Bettmann. Nelson Mandela Casting Ballot. Digital image. World History in Context. Gale, Cengage Learning, 2010. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDetails Window?total=36&query=OQE+nelson+mandela&prodId=WHIC&windowstat e=normal&mode=view&limiter=&displayGroupName=Images&u=lvccld_main

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography &currPage=1&displayGroups=&sortBy=relevance%2Cdescending&source=& p=WHIC&action=e&catId=&view=statisticsDocDisplay&documentId=GALE% 7CBT2380001437 This image shows Nelson Mandela placing his ballot in the first election where Bantu and Colored Africans were able to vote. It is significant and useful because it shows the introduction of a democracy in South Africa. It is used in my assignment as a concluding photo to demonstrate the aftermath of the end of the Apartheid. Sharpeville Massacre. 1960. Photograph. ANC Archives, South Africa. Sharpeville Massacre. 1960. Photograph. ANC Archives, South Africa. ANC Archives. African National Congress. Web. 16 Oct. 2013 Document URL: http://ancarchives.org.za/sharpeville-protest/ The image pertains to the Sharpeville Massacre of March 21, 1960, where police officials murdered sixty-nine protestors. In the image, the people do not appear harmful, but the officials are viciously attacking them with weapons. It is useful because it demonstrates the difficult times when groups tried to protest for their rights. It is used in my assignment as an example of the hardships experienced by those trying to gain what rights they should have. Sprenger, Richard, Mustafa Khalili, and Alex Purcell. "Nelson Mandela, 1964: 'I Am Prepared to Die' - Audio Recording of Speech at Sabotage Trial." Theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media, 05 Dec. 2013. Web. 06 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela1964-speech-audio In this audio clip, Nelson Mandela is making an opening statement for his trial pertaining to treason. He mentions how South Africa has the capability of being successful, but it is too separated and contrasting. It is useful because it offers his point of view on the situation. It is used in my assignment as a supplement to his history. STF/AFP/GETTY IMAGES. Stephen Bikos Funeral, 1977. A Man Holds a Poster of Stephen Biko, with a Large Group Of... Digital image. World History in Context. Gale, Cengage Learning, 2009. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography Document URL: http://0ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDetailsWin dow?total=1&query=OQE+stephen+biko+funeral&prodId=WHIC&windowstate= normal&mode=view&limiter=AC+y&displayGroupName=Images&u=lvccld_mai n&currPage=1&displayGroups=Images&sortBy=relevance%2Cdescending&sourc e=fullList&p=WHIC%3AUHIC&action=e&catId=&view=docDisplay&document Id=GALE%7CPC2831287049 In this photo, it shows a supporter of Stephen Biko raising a poster at Bikos funeral in support of his work. The crowd surrounding him appears in a melancholic state. It is useful because it shows the impact the contributors had on their followers. It is used in my assignment as an addition image to present Stephen Biko. Tambo, Oliver. Oliver Tambo: Speech on the Struggle Against Apartheid. Speech on the Struggle Against Apartheid. South Africa. 1968. Speech. Oliver Tambo: Speech on the Struggle Against Apartheid (1968). World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 13 Oct. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/309227?terms=south+africa This speech was given by Oliver Tambo in 1968 and goes into depth explaining the both sides of the Apartheid, one being the side trying to increase human rights and the other attempting to take away colored Africans right. In addition, it explains the reshaping of African society and the doctrines introduced by the Nationalist Party. The content of the passage was very descriptive and offered many events that took place during the time of the Apartheid. In my assignment, this information is utilized to give a portion of background and to argue the lack of rights of the Bantu Africans of South Africa. Turnley, David, and Corbis. Blacks were Forced to Live in Townships Such as This One during the Apartheid Years in South Africa N.d. World Religions Reference Library, n.p. Blacks were forced to live in townships such as this one during the Apartheid years in south Africa World Religions Reference Library. Ed. Julie L. Carnagie, et al. Vol. 4: Biographies. Detroit: UXL, 2007. U.S History in Context. Web. 14 Oct. 2013.

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography Document URL: http://0ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/uhic/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDetails Window?total=49&limiter=AC+y&displayGroupName=Images&currPage=1&s ortBy=relevance%2Cdescending&query=BS+apartheid&prodId=WHIC&actio n=2&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CPC3448487182&userGroupName=lvccld _main&jsid=6e35aa1db03957680a58a5a73a92fc68 The image shows an example of what most colored Africans living areas were at the time of the Apartheid. The photo includes what is similar to a shantytown with dangerous living quarters that do not appear fully supported. It is useful because it gives a representation on how the colored Africans lived in poverty and unsafe conditions, while being separated from the privileged Europeans. It is used in my assignment as a description of everyday lives of colored Africans. Tutu, Desmond. The Question of South Africa. Speech. Capetown. 23 Oct. 1984. Fordham University. Fordham University the Jesuit University of New York, Aug. 1997. Web. 16 Oct. 2013 Document URL: http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/1984tutu.asp According to Desmond Tutu, division was slowly destroying South Africa and he hoped that peaceful freedom could be brought to all racial groups of South Africa. He explains a story of how a woman had to watch her grandson be shot by policemen and also he lack of colored students education because of boycotts. The speech is useful because I offers personal stories of how the Apartheid affected average citizens and it gives a different perspective of the situation. It is used in my assignment as a reference for a religious perspective of the Apartheid and the personality offered in it. United Nations. Official Emblem for International Anti-Apartheid Year. Digital Image. U.N. News and Media Photos. United Nations, New York, 1 Jan. 1978. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. Document URL: http://www.unmultimedia.org/photo/detail.jsp?id=116/116332&key=107& query=subject:Apartheid&lang=en&so=0&sf=date The image states an interest in equality between all races during the time of Anti-Apartheid Year in 1978; it shows three different colored figure drawings

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography that are connected. It is useful because it demonstrates the perseverance of the colored Africans and neutral partied to connect all people. It is used in my assignment as an example of the Anti-Apartheid movement. William Campbell/Sygma/Corbis. Police Dragging Away an Anti-Apartheid Protestor from Demonstrations in Soweto, 1980. Digital image. World History in Context: The Modern Era. Gale, Cengage Learning, 2008. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/whic/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDetailsWin dow?total=1&query=OQE+soweto+protestors&prodId=WHIC&windowstate=nor mal&mode=view&limiter=AC+y&displayGroupName=Images&u=lvccld_main& currPage=1&displayGroups=Images&sortBy=relevance%2Cdescending&source=f ullList&p=WHIC%3AUHIC&action=e&catId=&view=docDisplay&documentId= GALE%7CPC3048687141 This photo depicts officials taking away a protestor in Soweto, South Africa. This was highly common in protests to be apprehended by officers in a violent manner. It is useful because it presents an image as to how protestors were treated at the time. It is used in my assignment as a visual to demonstrate treatment of activists. White, William S. South Africa Splits into Three Groups. New York Times 16 Apr. 1952: 7. Print. White, William S. South Africa Splits into Three Groups. Editorial. New York Times 16 Apr. 1952: 7. Historical Newspapers. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. Document URL: http://0hnpl.bigchalk.ilsweb.lvccld.org/hnweb/hnpl/do/document?set=searchalleras &start=51&rendition=x-articleimage&inmylist=falseI&urn=urn%3Aproquest%3AUS%3BPQDOC%3BHNP% 3BPQD%3BHNP%3BPROD%3Bx-articleimage%3B93565180&mylisturn=urn%3Aproquest%3AUS%3BPQDOC%3BH NP%3BPQD%3BHNP%3BPROD%3Bx-citation%3B93565180 According to William S. White, not only did the Bantus and Europeans segregate, but so did the white minority. To go further, they separated themselves from the English-speaking Europeans and the Afrikaans-speaking Europeans. This document is useful because it provides an insight as to how the Apartheid affected everyone, not just the Bantu and Colored Africans. It is

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography used in my assignment as a reference as to the ways a society can change in certain situations. Yanker, Gary. The Anti-Apartheid Movement Says Support the African Liberation Struggle. The Anti-Apartheid Movement Says Support the African Liberation Struggle. Anti-Apartheid Movement, n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2013. Document URL: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/yan1996002330/PP/ Although simplistic, the photo depicts support and endorsement of AntiApartheid. It is useful because it provides evidence of the ratification of the liberation movements in South Africa. It will be used in my assignment for the purpose of evidence supporting my argument of rights the colored Africans did not have. Secondary Sources ABC-CLIO. "African National Congress." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/311684?terms=african+national+c ongress In this article, it explains the African National Congress (ANC), which is the main Bantu political organization. They created the spear of the nation, which was the turn to violence in order to get their point across. They were banned after the Sharpeville Massacre, but rose again after the end of the Apartheid. This is useful because it offers background to an activist group. It is used in my assignment as a resource for more background information on activist organizations. ABC-CLIO. "Sharpeville massacre." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/309959?terms=sharpeville+massa cre

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography According to the article, the massacre took place in Sharpeville, South Africa and was due to protestors not carrying their passbooks. When they began to strike the police cars with stones, the officers began to beat and shoot the weaponless protestors. This is useful because it includes evidence to support the argument that their rights were taken away and that they tried to get them back.

Soweto Gospel Choir. "Hlohonolofatsa." African Spirit. N.d. MP3 This audio recording does not pertain to the history of Apartheid, but talks about praise. It is used in my conclusion to support the text on how the Apartheid ended and Nelson Mandela was freed. Soweto Gospel Choir. "Woza Meli Wami." African Spirit. N.d. MP3. The audio recording says how the person has a heavy burden and asks for help. It is used in my project for aesthetics and supports the tone of the text it is put on, which is Stephen Biko. "Soweto massacre." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/421303?terms=black+consciousness The article states that the Soweto Massacre was a nonviolent protest due to white Europeans plans to only teach education through a European perspective. Both students and adults were murdered and, because of this, riots were ongoing for a whole year. This article is useful because it had evidence on a specific situation. It is used in my argument as a reference to a significant situation that occurred during the Apartheid. ABC-CLIO. "Apartheid and Strife in South Africa (Overview)." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 6 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Topics/Display/1186307?cid=41&webSiteCode=SLN_ HMOD&returnToPage=%2fTopics%2fDisplay%2f1186307%3fcid%3d41&terms =apartheid&token=9B4C31FF37486558B30FD62A317E0212&casError=False This article explains the timeline of the Apartheid. It began with already prominent racism from the Afrikaners, which led to the Nationalist Party being elected into

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography office. The most significant law passed was the Population Registration Act of 1950. At the end of the Apartheid, a democracy was established and the Apartheid became nonexistent. This article is useful because it sets a time frame and explains clearly what occurred. It is used in my assignment as a reference to certain situation during the Apartheid. ABC-CLIO. "Nelson Mandela." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/315233?terms=nelson+mandela In this article, it explains the story of Nelson Mandela and what he endured. Mandela was the co-founder of the ANC Youth League and later gained a position on the ANC parent group. He was charged with treason and sentenced to life in prison after the Sharpeville Massacre. Twenty-eight years later, he was released by F.W. de Clerk and elected president for a term of 1994-1999. Stephen Biko. World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. Document URL: http://0-worldhistory.abcclio.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/Search/Display/314466?terms=apartheid In this article, it gave a brief biography of Stephen Biko, the founder of the Black Consciousness Movement in 1968 that supported non-violence and wanted the colored Africans to approach the Apartheid with confidence. It is useful because it demonstrates the responsibilities colored Africans took in order to instill confidence into their social group against the Apartheid. It is used in my assignment as an example of the colored Africans who took action when the Apartheid affected them. Tertiary Resources Apartheid of South Africa. Prejudice in the Modern World Reference Library. Vol. 2: Alamanac. Detroit: UXL, 2007. 443-462. U.S. History in Context. Web. 1 Oct. 2013. Document URL: http://0ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceD etailsWindow?query=prodId=WHIC&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography &source=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&search_withi n_results=&action=2&catId=&activityType=document&Id=GALE%7CCX2831 400036&userGroupName=lvccld_main&jsid=9df1cedfea8366b19b3280a0a0e c0810 According to the passage, the Apartheid began with the election of the Nationalist Party and, during the time, acts such as the Bantu Education Act were introduced. The Apartheid ended with the election of F.W. de Clerk who slowly abolish all Apartheid laws. This is useful because it offers plentiful information to create a background of the Apartheid and supports the argument. It is used in my essay as support for my argument of the lack of rights of Colored and Bantu Africans. Harris, Betty J. Apartheid. New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Ed. Maryanne Cline Horowitz. Vo. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribners Sons, 2005. 105-113. U.S. History In Context. Web. 1 Oct. 2013 Document URL: http://0ic.galegroup.com.ilsweb.lvccld.org/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceD etailsWindow?query=&prodId=WHIC&displayGroupName=Reference&limite r=&source=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&search_wit hing_results=&action=2&catId=&activityType=&documentId=GALE&7CCX34 24300046&userGroupName=lvccld_main&jsid=ff0bf321c1a4d9f26815008b1 f09f92e According to Betty J. Harris, there were many acts involved with the Apartheid that slowly removed all rights of colored and Bantu Africans, such as the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act and Native Resettlement Act of 1954. The article is useful because it contains multiple different laws and regulations created during the Apartheid. It is used in my assignment for its examples of laws and historical timeline. Maddox, Gregory H. Black Consciousness. New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Ed. Maryanne Cline Horowitz. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribners Son, 2005. 22830. World History Modern Era (GVRL). Web. 13 Oct. 2013 Document URL: http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX3424300085&v=2.1&u=lvc cld_main&it=r&p=GVRL.HISTORY&sw=w&asid=62bb4d501cfe7e8aa61fadc7d e1e6668

Megan Barrera Period 05 09 Dec. 2013 Annotated Bibliography According to Gregory H. Maddox, the Black Nationalist Movement, Black Consciousness (1960-1970) focused on self-liberation and followed AntiApartheid unrest to fight for their rights. The movement Azanian Peoples Organization is closely linked to this movement. This passage is useful because it creates the argument of how colored Africans moved forward to fight for their rights, instead of waiting for something to happen. It is used in my assignment as support and evidence for my argument. Savage, Katherine. South Africa. The New Book of Knowledge. Vol. 17. Danbury, CT: Scholastic Library Pub., 2006. 268-73. Print. In this text, the article gives some background information of the Apartheid, such as the government group was called the Nationalist Party. The Apartheid began around the late 1940s and included the increasing separation of white Afrikaners and colored Africans. The passage is useful becaseu it offers additional information needed to understand the background story of the Apartheid. It is used in my assignment as a reference point.