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IA

in questions order word


Questionswith do I doesI didin present and past simple uestion word Auxiliar Subiect Infiiritive (= r'erb)
\()u lent-i1' vour parents? lirre r'r,itl-l Iike Chinese firoel?

Questions with be,presentcontinuous, and going to

Where What food

)ou Jennv

live? like?

What Where

are are is

thel' yoll he

cioiitg? ilking .ibout?

' In the presentsimple use the auxiliary verb do I does to make questions. . In the pastsimple usethe auxiliary verb didto make questions. ' In thesequestionsthe subjectgoesafkr the auxiliary verb. ' RememberASI (auxiliar subject,infinitive) or QUASI (questionworcl,auxiiiar subject,infinitive) to help vou rvith word order in presentor past simple questions.

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In questionswith be,make questionsbv invcrtir-ig the verb and the subject. (listett to. tttlk i . If a verb is followeci by a prep<-tsition goes at the end of the question. preposition about),the Wat areyau talkingabout? I'{OT About whatarefrodking

IB

present simple
I/voulweithev
L J.-

offrequency and expressions adverbs


helsheiit i-llinly know' tne verv weil. It clo n't otierr rain ircre. D c l l{r,ral i ke Ii :ttsi ci Ye s > ..h i ' does \c .i rc doesn' t. . We often use the presentsimple rvith adverbs usunlL,v, sometimes, o.ften, cy (alt+'aVs, of frequen hardly ever,never). " Adverbsof frequencygo beforetl'reuain t erb, btrt after be. fIe often goesotLt.NC)T }*rgoeroften-ott' alwrys lcte.NO'I S]c1-hte-ahrat's. She's (evervda1', onceo of frec.ter-rc1' Expressicrns a sentence. cnd of the at ctc.) usuallv.eo n'eek, twice a week. I haveEnglishc/r-sscs

rvork at htrrtie I usuallr,-

1 ] r'- ,(

I'hev don't live neal'hcrt: Do vor-rsmoke? Yes,I do. i No, i clon't.

. LJse \'ear' the presentsirnplefur things,voudo e\ervdar',rveeli, true. or lvhich are alu'ays . Rentemberthe spellingrules for 3rd personsingular -s: add s work>r,r'orks consonantf y: v and add les study)studies finish>finishes sh,s, ch,x: add es go>goes do>does have>has . Rememberthe rvord order in questions(ASI and QUASI - see1A above).

IC

present e+ verb+ ing continuous:


I'm working Yon \"\Ic 're working Tirev not working \bu \'!e aren't working Thev Yes, I am. Yes,he is. IIC 's She working It Hc Sheisn't working It No, I'm not. No, he isn't.

. IJsethe presentcontinuousfor things harppening now, at this rnoment. My brotheris working irr Germanl'' AWhat areyoLtdoing? to Sarnh. a text niessdge B I'm sending . Remember the spellingrulesfor tlle -lrgform" cook>cooking stuclv>studving rltn )running live >living in the r",* Someverbsare not normalh' useci fot'exauple like,v'nnt, present continuous, need. have(= possess), yott ttov'. to talk to I need I{OT frnrredintrto tal}t+o Tott rlow.

Are voLr working? he working? Is

ID

where with who,which, clauses relative defining


rcstaurrnt. A cook is a personwho woriis itr r A clock is a thing which tells the time. where )'c)ucan buv starnps' A post oflice is a rlace
iS

You can usethat insteadof who or which. thegirl who I that workswith ntv'brother. She's ttttocotttPtfiers. It's a thing which I that conflects

ffi

. Use relativeclauses to explain u,hat a place,thing, or person is or does. That's the woman who won the lottery last year. This is the restaurantwherewe had dinner last week. . Use who for a person,which for a thing, and wherefor a place.

2A

past andirregular regular simple

trtr
r
I

You He She It We They

stayed in a hotel. went on holiday.

didn't stay in a hotel. didn't go on holiday.

trtEtrDid you

infinitive work stay iike study stop

Did you

stay in a hotel? go on holiday?

YesI did. No, I didn't.

stayed liked (just add d if verb finishesin e) studied (y>i aftera consonant) in stopped(if verb finishes nsonant, nant-vowel-co conso double the finai consonant)

Llsethe past simple to talk about finished actions in the past. The past simple is the samefor all persons. [Jsethe infinitive after Did... i and didn't for negatives and questions.

To make the past simple E of regular verbs add -ed. Remember the spelling rules. Many comfiIon verbs are irregular in E past simple, for example go>wentSeethe lrregular verb list on p.155.

28

+ ing + verb past wlsI were continuous:


I He was working She
Tt

continuous? past or past simple


\Ahen I took the photo, they were writing a song. I was sitting at home when I saw the news on TV. . LJse the past simple for a completed action. I took the photo./ I saw the news. . tJsethe past continuous for an action in progress. They were writing a song.I I was sitting at home.

You We were working They You I We weren't working They

tr

i He wasn't working She It

hewas. No, he wasn't. E Was he working? Yes, tr !Z --, were' No,theyweren't. working?Yes,they Werethey
Use the past continuous to describean action in progressat a specificmoment in the past. night I wasdrivinghome. At sixo'clocklast On April lst I wasstayingwith some friends in the country.

auxiliaries without withand 2C quest0ns


Questions with an auxiliary uestion tnusic r rlLlJrL What vvlr4L Which CD Who Auxiliarv Ll\, do did did Subiect Infinitive you like? /-" he I buY? go with? you Questions without an auxiliarY Subiect What Which country \A4ro i i Verb happened after the concert? i won i the Eurovision Song Contest? their sonqs? writes

. To make questionsin the past and present simple, we normally use the auxiliary verbs do I doesI did + the infinitive. What musicdo you llkiI'{OT @ . The normal order for questionsin the present and p .1 2 6l A). pas tis Q UA S I (Se e

. When the question word (\Mho?Ihhat? Which?How many?) is the subjectof the verb in the question,we do not use an auxiliary (do, does,did) and the verb is in the third person. NOT Wo writes their songs?

2D

but,olthough so,becorrse,
and so because
Shewas driving fast becauseshewas in a hurr (reason) Shewas in a hurry so shewas driving fast. (result) Hannah spoketo the DJ becausethey didn't like the music. (reason) They didn't like the music so Hannah spoketo the DJ. (result) to expressa reason. Use because Use soto expressa result.

olthough but and


Shetried to stop but shehit the man. Although shetried to stop,shehit the man. It was late but she couldn't sleep. Shecouldn't sleepalthough it was late. Use but and althoughto show a contrast. Abhough can go at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence.

goingto
tl i:-l I'm going to work in a restaurant. i She'ssoinq to meet me at the airport. We aren't going to stayvery long. i He isn't eoins to like the weatherthere. Are you going to find a job? is your brother going to visit you? \A4ren

arrangements present forfuture contnuous


f

tr
nl

j I'm seeingsome friends tonight. We're havine dinner at their housetomorrow. Sheisn't leaving until Friday. lTheyaren'tcg@ What are )/ou doing this evening? Is shemeeting us at the cinema?

lJse (be)going ro + infinitive to talk about future plans and predictions. (plan) l'm goingto work in the tJK for sixweeks. (prediction) I think it'sgoingto rain this afternoon. When you usegoing to go,you can om to go. I'm going to go to universitynextyear rrcxtyear. or I'm going+egoto universtty

You can also usethe presentcontinuous for future which we haveplanned for a fixed time arrangements or place. Don't usethe presentsimple for this. i'{OT Lsee-some #iendstoftight common with the The presentcontinuous is especially efc.and tonight,tomorrow,this weekend, expressions and arrive. with theseverbs: go,come,meet,see,letve,

+ infinitive (predictions) 5B will,won'f

trtr

rtl
i : l

g
I yotl he she be late? it we they
r I

tr
No, I you he she won't.
lt we they

I You He She It We They

'll be late.

I You He She It We They

won't be late.

Will

you he Yes, she will. rt we they

Contractions:

'll = wilh won't = will not

rJsewill I won't+ infinitive for future predictions. (You can also use going fo. See3A above.) The future of thereis I are = therewiII be; the future of I can - I'Il be able oNOT Fll-an.

. We often usef think I I don't think ...+ will... I think he'Ilfail the ex.atn. I don't thinkhe'II passthe exam.NOT f@ i e , ranJ *r,p,"oplruse sftal/(not i" g t.ttt*n."t*ith Somffi.t will), but this is very formal (for example,ln businessletter). I shall write to vou when I havestudiedvour case.

5C

anddecisions) offers, will(promises,


Decisions I I won't have the fish, I'11have the steak. We'll take the 6.30 train. I'll help you with your homework. Offers r Shall I open the window? Promises I'll alwayslove you. I won't tell anyone. offering, lJsewill I won't + infinitive for making decisions, and promising. NOT +$deToft I'Il helpyou with thosebags. tJseShall1...? or Shallwe .,.i when an offer is a question. ShaIII pol,?ShaIIwe call you tonight at 7.00?

past, present, andfuture of tenses: 5D review


Tense present simple present continuous past simple past continuous going o+ infinitive willlwon't+infinitive Example I live in the city centre. She doesn't smoke. He's looking for a new job.
I'm leaving tomorrow

Things that happen alwaysor usually. Things that are happeningnow or in the near future. I Finishedactionsin the past. Actions that were in progressat a past time. Future plans and predictions. offers,and promises. instant decisions, Predictions,

We saw a good fihn last night. i We didn't_4t ""yttti"g y.tt..qf He was working in Paris. What were you doing at7.00? j I'm going to seeTom tonight. It's soins to rain. You'll love New York. I'll phone her later. I'll help you. I'll pay you back tomorrow.

4A

+ ever,never present perfect (experience)

tr
I've (I have) l You've (You have) He's (He has) been to She's(Shehas) London. It's (It has) We've (We have) They've (They have)

tr
I haven't You haven't He hasn't worked in Shehasn't a bank. It hasn't We haven't They haven't

tr

tr

. lJsethe presentperfect to talk about past experiences when you don't sayexactlywhen they happened. I've beento London NOT My brother has worked abroad. . For regularverbsthe pastparticiple is the sameasthe past p.155. simple (+ ed). For Irregular verbs see ' lVe often use the present perfect wifh ever (= in your life until now) and never. Have you everbeento London? I,{0,I've neverbeenthere. I ;fb Compare the presentperfect of go and be. ' ', i He'sgone to Paris.= He's in Paris now. ', He'sbeento Paris.= He went to Paris and came back. i

Have you worked in a bank? Yes,I have. No,I haven't. he has. No, he hasn't. Has he been to London? i Yes,

perfect present simple? or past


A Haveyou everbeen to Mexico? B Yes,I have. A When did you go there? B I went lastyear.

often b.g* in the presentperfect (with a general Conversations question) and then changeto the past simple (with questionsasking for specificdetails,when, where,who with, etc.) {Jsethe past simple to ask / sayexactlywhen something happened.

just,olready + yet, perfect 4B present


yet
A Haveyou finished your homework yet? B No, not yet. I haven'tfinished yet. lJseyet + the presentperfect in E and E sentences to ask if something that you think is going to happen has happenedor to sayit hasn't happened. Pat vet at the end of the sentence.

just
A Would you like a coffee? B No thanks.I've just had one. just starteda new job. My sister's ' Use justin E sentences to saythat somethinghappenedvery recently. . Put iustbeforc the main verb.

already
A B A B Do you want to seethis film? No, I've already seenit three times. Shall I buy a newspaper? No, I've already bought one.

to saythat Use alreadyin E sentences somethinghappenedbefore now or earlier than expected. Put alreadybefore the main verb.

4C

comparative adjectives
Adiective short Comparative shorter bigger busier more reiaxed better worse further one syllable:+ er
one vowel + one consonant double final consonant

adverbs comparative
Adverb Regular quickly slowly Comparative more quickly less slowlv Adverb Irregular hard well badly Comparative harder better worse

big
busy relaxed good bad far

y:y+|er consonanl+ two or more syllables: nlore+ adjective Irregular

Use comparative adjectivesto compare people and things. My brother'staller than me. Use comparative adverbsto compare actions. He drivesmore slowly than me. You can also use (not) as + (adjective/ adverb) + as. I'm not as tall as my brother. He doesn'tdrive as fast as tne,

4D

perfect) (+ ever+ present superlatves


Adjective
cold

Comparative
colder

hot pretty beautiful good bad far

hotter prettrer I more beautiful better worse further

Superlative the coldest the hottest the prettiest the most beautiful the best the worst the furthest

. Use the + superlativeadjectivesto saywhich is the biggest,etc. in a group. the bestin the class. It's the highestmountain in Europe.She's . We often use a superlativewith the present perfect. place we'veever beento. is the coldest Russia It's the most beautiful churchI've everseen.

5A

(with fo) uses of theinfinitive


+ fo infinitive
I want to go to the party. I need to buy some new clothes. It'll be nice to meet some new peopie. It's important not to be late. Use fo + the infinitive after: - some verbs (want, need,would like, etc.) SeeVerb Forms p. 154. - adjectives It isn't easyto find a job. Nice to meetyou. The negativeinfinitive is not to + verb. Try not to be late tomorrow. IJse fo + the infinitive to saywhy you do something. I came to this schoolto learn English.I\TOTfet-.learn_Eng}ish. - after prepositions He left without sayinggoodbye. . Rememberthe spelling rules for the -ing form (Seep. 126 IC )

infinitive of purpose
A Why did you go to the party? B To meet new people. I went to the party to meet new people.

5B verb+ -ing
Eating outside in the summer makesme feel good. I love reading in bed. I'm thinking of buying a new car.

' lJse verb + ing; - as the subject of a sentence Smokingis badfor you. - after someverbs,(like,love,hatq enjoy,etc.)SeeVerb Forms p. 154. I hategetting up early.

mustn't to,don't hove ta,must, 5C have


haveto, don't hoveto
trl tr It i Shehas to get up at 7.00 everyday. , You have to drive on the left in the UK. We don't have to wear a uniform at this school. He doesn't have to work on Saturdavs. Do I haveto buy a grammarbook? Does shehave to study tonight?

must I mustn't
E ifl ' Yo.t must do ,vourhomework tonight. Shemust tidy her room before shegoesout.

You mustrlt smoke in class. They mustn't leavetheir bagshere. Contraction: mustn'f = must not llse must + infinitive to talk about rules and obligations. You must turn off your mobilephonesbeforecoming into class. must I mustn't are the same for all persons.It is not often used in questions(have fo is more common). IJse mustn'r + infinitive to say something is prohibited. You mustn't smokehere. You can use mustn't or can't to talk about rules. You mustn't park here.Youcan't park here. Mustn't and,don't have to have completelv different meanings. Compare: Yaumustn'tgo = You can't go. It's prohibited Youdon't haveto go = You can go if you want, but it's not obligatory/necessary.

Don't contract haveor has. I have fo go. NOT ++e+oo. Use haveo+ infinitive to talk about rules and obligations, or to say something is necessary. rJsedon't have to + infinitive to saythere is no obligation,or somethingis not necessary. llse do I doesto make questions and negatives. Do I have to go?t{OT ++aYe++oo? a Must and have ta arc very similar, but there is a small difference.We normally use have to for a generalobligation (a rule at work or a law). We normally use mustwhenthe speaker imposesthe obligation (for example,a teacherto studentsor a parent to children). But often you can useeither.

+ preposition go,etc. movement: 5D expressing


The man went up the stepsand into the church. I ran over the bridge and acrossthe park. He drove out of the garageand along the street. . To expressmovement use a verb of movement, for example,go, come,run, walk, etc. and a preposition of movement (up, down, etc.) . Be careful with in I into and out I out of, Use into ! out of + noun, but if there isn't a noun just use in or out. Come into the living room. Come in. He went out. He went aut of the house.

6A

(firstconditional) will + infinitive ff + present,


lf'I miss the bus, I'll get a taxi. Shewon't be angry ;'youtell her the truth. What will you do ir'it rains? lJse l/+ present,will + infinitive to talk about a possiblefuture situation and its consequence. The i/clause can come first or second. I'll comeif you like. OR If you like, I'll come. ,d&You can also use the imperative or can. If you miss tlte bus,get a taxi. If you missthe bus,you can get a tax.

+ infinitive (second conditional) 6B if + past, would


It'a bear attacked me, I'd run away. lli I didn't have children, I wouldn't live in the country. job ii'they offered it to you? Would you take the manager's use z/+ pasr,would + infinitive to talk about an improbable / impossibleor hypotheticalfuture situation and its consequence. If a bear attackedme, I'd run away.= I'm imagining this situation. It's very improbable. would I wouldn't is the samefor ail persons. 'd (I'd, you'd, he'd,etc.) and of The contraction of would is would not is wouldn't. F ir s tand s e c o n d c o n d i ti o n a l s Comparethe first and secondconditionals: Use the first conditional for possible future situations. If I have time tomorrow,I'll help/ou, (= maybe I will have time) Use the second conditional for improbable / impossible or hypothetical situations. If I had time tomorrow,I'd help /ou. (= I won't have time.) . The fphrase can come first or second. If I saw,a bearI'd run. OR 17 run if I saw a bear. . Rememberwith can, Lrse could + infinitive, not weul4ean. If I had a car, we could drive there. With the verb beyou can use were(insteadof was) after I and he I sheI it. If he wasI were here,he'd help you. If I wereyou... Use were(not was)in the expression We often use this expressionfor advice.

6C

+ infinitive (possibility) mly I might


We might have a picnic tomorroq but it dependson the weather. I might not go to the party. I haven'tdecidedyet. I may go to the part but I'm not sure. I may not have time to do everything today. Might not and may not aren't usually contracted. . use might I moy and might not I may not +infinitive to talk about a future possibility. It might I mq, rain. = It's possiblethat it will rain. . Might I Moy (nor) is the same for all persons,I might I may, he might I may, we might I may, etc. dg Yo.t can also useMay 1.., I May we... to ask fbr permission. (= can I useyour phone). , May I useyour phone?

(advice) 6D should I shouldn'f


I think you should changeyour job. The governmentshould do more for old people. Use shouldI shouldn'r+ infinitive to give somebody advice or saywhat you think is the right thing to do. Youshouldcut your hair. - I think it would be a good idea. shouldI shouldn'r+ infinitive is the samefor all persons. You cn also use ought to I ought not to insteadof shouldI shouldn't. your job. Youought to change

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' aqt urnl reg+ +arf?e>foof-I JOI{ 'nq n{a payool I fio .rats6apttl lw nttn paqool '1aot tnol uo lnd JOI{ 'pale.redas 'aqurudasare prre reau arc (to!) aPrlred eqt pue (loo} qra aql .sq.razr psetqd asaqliplv\ 'waqi nlEuryool ut,I palqo uB a Bq sqra^ pserqd etuos U 'slat hu ntEunool w dnpE nol op awq wW 'aqeredasuraru pue 'uftLop puu ut awa) ue a uq sqra^ pserqd etuos cafqo lls 'pafqo ju/w uB e^Bq +r#o-{rrql IOi{ llo ll urn AI qrwlw oj r.uop sqreaeserqd auros I l,uop 'u61! jnd'wor tnol spnq 'tol4oo7,Lto utnl,dn pB (qrazrpe +{ro+nd ION ro 'aprlred pue uoqrsoda.rd) ap4rcd + qre^ - qre^ pseqd y qre^ eq] uee ,qeqsaoS lMle 1r ('r1a'w!q,1!,ata) unouo.rde sr palqo aql ueQ\\ . 'sasse18 ftu ro {ool ot arreqsle,r.rp1 l{o ttl aqt uml UO,,tJ aqttlo utnl 'orper er{}uo urn} uaqJ 'uo ja mol J ln EO laot tnol uo 1n '00'g dn 'lrafqo aq raryero aroaq ('qa Suru;our,,(-ranE te la8 1 atqted aql lnd uer no,,( sq;arrasaq]q]l^a . fio'uo)

08

sqje^lPSPrqd pJoM lo JepJo


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)8

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p ss'd elerpauralul-ard ailJqslpa| AAaN g IooBs,luapnls


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