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MUSIC LEARNING THEORY/ GORDON Gordon, Edwin. Music Learning Theory Practical Applications. 2011. Web. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QUaqEkmJ1Ys>.

This video consists of Edwin Gordon discussing applications of Music Learning Theory. He explains guidelines of the theory, which are discussed in his book resources. He sings examples and breaks it down in terms of audiation. Gordon, Edwin E. Buffalo, Music Learning Theory, Resolutions and Beyond. Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc., 2006. This book acts as a guide through using the Music Learning Theory. He gives 24 melodies with specific instructions on how to teach the children. The melodies range in different key and time signatures, but are always without lyrics or instruments. The Music Learning Theory stresses students moving in free-flowing continuous movement. A relaxation routine is a precursor to each melody exercise. The sequence of teaching has students moving to a melody, followed by singing the melody. Modeling is crucial since students will imitate movement and breathing. The students should not make reference to the beats of the melody. As Gordon explains, the students should begin movement in a stationary position with just the upper body moving. Large muscle movements should be encouraged. The book then explains how to translate the Music Learning Theory into different music classroom settings, from varying ages to types of music being taught. Gordon also explains how to contrast the activities he gives with tradition instruction. He gives ways to help with students transitions from different teaching styles. This resource is helpful for educators who teach in a specific classroom (ie. High school choral) but would like to incorporate the Music Learning Theory. The teaching suggestions in this book work well with other teaching methods and ideas. It allows for students to understand music in multiple ways. Gordon, Edwin E. Learning Sequences in Music: A Contemporary Music Learning Theory. 8th ed. Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc., 2012. This resource breaks up the Music Learning Theory into two parts; learning the foundation of the theory, and practical applications in different classroom settings. He explains audiation and the misconceptions that some may experience with the concept. He lists the variety of ways to incorporate audiation in the classroom. Gordon explains how to teach and recognize audiation in students. Gordon gives a series of types and stages of audiation to aid students in learning. He goes on to explain the Music Learning Theory as an explanation of how we learn music. The source is very useful in learning the various aspects of the theory.

DALCROZE Bond, Judith W. The Alliance for Active Music Making. AAMM, Web. <http://www.allianceamm.org/index.html>. This source discusses the history of the organization and why it is significant. As a collaboration between Dalcroze, Kodaly, Orff, and Gordon leaders, it seeks to improve educating teachers of music on the different approaches of music education. The website gives future plans for the organization but does not give any update on how its goals have been accomplished since 2004. It includes summaries of each of the four main approaches, written by well-known leaders in those approaches. It lists the pedagogical concepts of the approaches, background on the innovator, how to present the method in a classroom setting, and a list of reference resources to learn more about it. The summaries are limited in that each approach has a different author, which creates discontinuity of information presented for each approach. Links are attached to the website to visit the websites of the societies for the four approaches.

Caldwell, J. Timothy. Expressive Singing: Dalcroze Eurhythmics for Voice. Upper Saddler River, NJ: Prentice- Hall, 1995. This book acts as a source for developing good vocal technique with students and applying the principles of the Dalcroze method to teaching this. Caldwell gives a substantial background on Emile Jaques- Dalcroze. He gives definitions and equations written by Dalcroze, as well as an explanation of the methodology. He explains space, time, energy, weight, balance, plasticity, and gravity as crucial to the method, with definitions and diagrams to aid in understanding. He explains the difference between arrhythm and errhythm and how that is essential to music. He lists six behaviors of music and how it relates to Dalcroze. The final part of the book consists of application of Dalcroze methodology. He puts it in context of teaching singers and teaching them how to practice efficiently. Three sample lessons are provided with specific goals and how to attain them. He gives valuable suggestions for register issues and myths for young singers.

Dalcroze Society of America. Dalcroze Society of America, 2013. Web. 11 Oct. 2013. <http://www.dalcrozeusa.org>. This website is for the Dalcroze Society of America, a nonprofit corporation that promotes Dalcroze principles. It is for use by musicians, dancers, actors, therapists, and art educators. It publishes the American Dalcroze Journal, holds DSA National Conferences, and provides resources to become educated on the Dalcroze study. The website features workshops for Dalcroze training, lists of training centers, videos of Dalcroze lessons, and archived journals. The website lists chapters of the organization throughout America, as well as opportunities to become a member of the DSA.

Dale, Monica. Eurhythmics for Young Children: Six Lessons for Fall. Ellicott City, MD: MusiKinesis, 2000.

This source acts as a guide for incorporating Dalcroze principles into a curriculum. Dale also has Eurhythmics for Young Children: Six Lessons for Winter, which is a continuation of lesson plans for music teachers to adapt. The book gives a background on Dalcrozes three branches; eurhythmics, solfege, and piano improvisation; as well as the three principles; theory follows practice, listening, improvisation. The lesson plans follow a sequence with developing and building on skills and concepts. Each lesson begins with a physical warm up, then activities within a lesson, ending with a goodbye song. The source has a lesson plan outline with objectives listed for each activity. There are transcriptions for all melodies and suggested accompaniments. The activities correspond to the season and holidays of Autumn, including an elaborate Halloween lesson focusing on compound rhythmic patterns. The book has an appendix with more accompaniments with vocal line written out, as well as an index with all repertoire listed in the book. Although Dale is a leading Eurhythmics teacher in the United States, she has adapted the Dalcroze method into these lesson plans, explaining that the Dalcroze method is too complex and diverse to define exactly into one semester of lessons.

Ferguson, Laura. "The Role of Movement in Elementary Music Education: A Literature Review." NAfME (2005). Web. 29 Oct. 2013. <http://upd.sagepub.com/content/23/2/23.full.pdf>. This sources discussed movement in American classrooms. It debates the use of smaller movements, such as finger taps, and its validity in the music classroom. It give citations of studies done with gross and fine motor movement, based on age and race. Many other authors and educators are listed with their views on movement in the classroom, including how each concept relates to musical development. Ferguson also cites evidence of students preferring music programs with movement incorporated. Overall, Ferguson combines the findings of many others and concludes that movement is helpful in the music classroom.

Findlay, Elsa. Rhythm and Movement: Applications of Dalcroze Eurhythmics. Evanton, IL: Summy- Birchard Company, 1971. This source acts as a guide for teaching rhythm to children, and its connection to tempo, dynamics, duration, patterns, form, melody, and accompaniment. Findlay explains in detail how rhythm is intertwined with the different musical elements and how to foster understanding with the children. She explains the key objectives of the Dalcroze method and the study of eurhythmics. She provides transcriptions of songs and accompaniments to use, as well as diagrams of how the children should be moving to the music. It gives a conglomerate of activities to encourage proper movement and lesson plans to incorporate the different elements. The appendix gives a list of activities by intent (ie. Movement and space patterns, action songs, games with balls). Findlay seems to focus this book on having female children who feel comfortable moving in certain ways. The activities and lessons require large areas of space for movement, which is difficult to adhere to in a music classroom. These lessons are best suited for non-public school settings.

Jaques- Dalcroze, Emile. Eurhythmics, Art and Education. Trans. Frederick Rothwell. New York: A.S. Barnes and Company, 1931. This source was a translated compilation of articles written by Jaques- Dalcroze himself. It features articles written about eurhythmics, music education, art, and general topics relating to his approach. He includes diagrams of how the body should move, as well as explanations of how movement should be done properly. He gives many helpful activities to aid in the different attributes of his methodology. On page 160, he begins a list of activities that develop space, weight, and auditory awareness. Because he wrote all the articles on different occasions, there is some bias and opinion that skews the facts that are attributed with eurhythmic practice.

Leck, Henry H., and R. J. David Frego, narr. Creating Artistry through Movement: Dalcroze Eurhythmics in the Choral Setting. 2005. Hal Leonard. CD-ROM. The source featured Henry H. Leck from Butler University/ Indianapolis Childrens Choir and R. J. David Frego from the Ohio State University. The video source gives visual representations of the Dalcroze method in practice. Frego and Leck worked with children, older students, and adults. They used questioning techniques to further musical learning. They showed examples with movement with and without music, games with props such as balls, and partner activities. ___ They showed the videos of the children and explained reasoning over the video. The video showed the ideal milieu for using the Dalcroze method in an elementary and choral setting. The children were interviewed on how the movement was helpful. This source gives the history of Jaques- Dalcroze and how he developed the concepts in the Dalcroze method. The video goes into how to introduce pulse, rhythm, and tempo to students. Leck and Frego explain how Dalcroze is useful in choral settings as well as general music settings. There are also examples of how to help conductors. They give an array of pedagogical tools for the choral and general music setting which provides opportunity for musical development.

Mead, Virginia H. Dalcroze Eurhythmics in Today's Music Classroom. New York: Schott Music Corporation, 1994. This source is invaluable to learning about the Dalcroze approach. It provides a background on Jaques- Dalcroze and the pedagogy behind the approach. The concepts are explained and connected to each other. Mead introduces concepts to be taught through specific activities for different aged students. The appendix provides a guide to piano improvisation, a crucial factor in the approach. Mead also gives the reader sheet music to play on the piano with the corresponding activity.

Shiobara, Mari. "Music and Movement: the Effect of Movement on Musical Comprehension." British Journal of Music Education 11.02 (1994): 113-127. This article is a research comparison between movement used in classrooms in Japan and America. The article compares the use of movement to different teaching

methods, such as Kodaly, Orff, and Suzuki. Shiobara explains how movement is used in the music curricula in Japan and England. Background is then given on Jaques- Dalcroze and his experience in Geneva. Connection is made to psychological theories and how it relates to movement and learning in music. Diagrams are given with movement as well as practice exercises to ease children into movement-based lessons.

ORFF Goodkin, Doug. Play, Sing & Dance: An Introduction to Orff Schulwerk. 2nd ed. Miami: Schott Music Corporation, 2004. Goodkin goes through a process in which Orff may have made decisions for his method for teaching music. He gives a history of the xylophone, how it was used, and why Orff included this instrument in his method. He gives the ranges of each type of glockenspiel, xylophone, metallophone, and recorder. Goodkin gives rules for the children when using the Orff instruments, as well as limitations to Orff and how to rectify shortcomings for the students. He gives suggestions for the instrumental Orff class and how to develop good curriculum. A map is provided for format of the instrumentarium. Lange, Diane M. Together in Harmony. Chicago: GIA Publications, Inc., 2005. This source seeks to combine Orff- Schulwerk with Music Learning Theory. It gives a general background on Orff- Schulwerk and the concepts behind its application. It gives details on each instrument included in the Orff instrumentarium and how they should be used in the classroom. It explains the musical benefits of the instruments and the sequence of learning for it. Lange explains how concepts should be developed, beginning with simpler to more complex. She explains the four types of bordun and its benefits. She explains the part-song method and whole-part-whole method, as well as when to use each. This source is benefitial for combining concepts of Orff- Schulwerk and Music Learning Theory. Shamrock, Mary. Orff Schulwerk: Brief History, Description, and Issues in International Dispersal. Ann Arbor: American Orff-Schulwerk Association, 1995. This source was an easy- to- understand breakdown of Orff- Schulwerk. It discussed the main principles and laid them out in a direct manner. Warner, Brigitte. Orff-Schulwerk: Applications for the Classroom. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991. This source gives an extensive background on Carl Orff and how he developed his method for music education.