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# ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. array? 5. side. 6. Find the length of the half wave dipole at 30MHz. Define directivity.

State pattern multiplication for Binomial array. What are the parameters that determine the overall pattern of an antenna Calculate the power gain of horn antenna with a square aperture of 10A on a A parabolic reflector with a mouth diameter of 22m operates at frequency of 5GHz. It has illumination efficiency of 0.6. Find the power gain.

7. Define skip distance. 8Find fc at vertical incidence if the maximum value of electron density is 1.24x106cm"3. 9. Define snell's law. 10. What is standing wave ratio? PART -B (5x16 = 80 MARKS) ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS 11. (a) Derive the fields associated with a half wave dipole. Derive expression for power radiated and radiation resistance.
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11. (ii)

(b)

(i) State and Prove reciprocity principle. Define effective aperture. Derive the relationship between effective

## aperture and directivity of an antenna.

12.

(a)

For an array of 2 isotropic point sources, fed with currents of same but in phase quadrature, determine the radiation pattern.

magnitude

Evaluate the null directions and directions of maxima and draw the pattern. of arrays of two point sources with equal amplitude and phase. (OR) 12. (b) Derive the maxima, null points and half power points of an N-element broadside array and show that the first minor lobe is 13.46 db down from the major lobe.

13. (a) Explain the construction and operation of yagi uda antenna and rhombic antenna. (OR) 13. (b) How horn antenna is designed and what are the methods of designing the horn antenna? Derive the expressions for design equations.

14.

(a)

## Derive the expression for refractive index of ionosphere and critical

frequency. (OR) (b) Assume that reflection takes place at a height of 400km and that of maximum density in the ionosphere corresponds to 0.9 refractive index at 10MHz. (ii) What (i) will be the range for which the MUF is 10MHz for

## Assume flat earth Take the earth's curvature into consideration.

15. 15.

(a) With diagram, explain the measurement of radiation pattern of an antenna. (OR) (b) (i) Explain a method used for the measurement of antenna polarization, (ii) Explain near field and far field phase measuring systems with diagram.

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B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, APRIL/MAY 2011 Sixth Semester Electronics and Communication Engineering EC 2353 ANTENNA AND WAVE PROPAGATION (Regulation 2008) Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks Answer ALL questions PART A (10 2 = 20 marks) 1. Define gain and directivity of an antenna. 2. What is the significance of radiation resistance of an antenna? 3. What are the applications of loop antenna? 4. Define Pattern Multiplication. 5. State Huygens Principle. 6. What are the features of pyramidal horn antenna? 7. What are the applications of microstrip antenna? 8. What are near and far field measurements? 9. Define maximum usable frequency. 10. What is meant by Faraday rotation? PART B (5 16 = 80 marks) 11. (a) Derive the Electric and magnetic field quantities of Hertzian dipole. (16) Or (b) Explain the following terms with respect to antenna: (i) Polarization (4) (ii) Effective aperture (3) (iii) Directivity (3) (iv) Antenna temperature (3) (v) Radiation pattern. (3) 12. (a) Deduce the field quantities and draw radiation pattern for a half wavelength dipole. (16) Or (b) Two identical vertical radiators are spaced 4 / = d meters apart and fed with currents of equal magnitude but with a phase difference . Evaluate the resultant radiation for = 0 and thereby identify the direction of maximum and minimum radiation. (16) 13. (a) Explain the radiation mechanism of slot antenna with diagram. (16) Or

(b) Explain the special features of Reflector antenna and discuss on different types of feed used with neat diagram. (16) 14. (a) With a neat sketch, explain the construction and operation of Helical antenna. (16) Or (b) Explain the principle of operation of Yagi-Uda array with neat schematic diagram. (16) 15. (a) (i) Explain the mechanism of ionosphere propagation. (8) (ii) How does the earth affect ground wave propagation? (8) Or (b) (i) Explain the terms : (1) Optimum working frequency (2) Duct propagation (3) Virtual height (10) (ii) What are the effects of earth magnetic field? (6)