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Composed of paired bean shape organ -retroperitoneal (kidney) urethra ureter urinary bladder

FUNCTIONS: Filtration of cellular waste from blood Regulation of salt and water balance Excretion of the waste and excess water as urine Endocrine function- Erythropoietin and Renin In male, the urethra also serves the reproductive system -for urine and semen

KIDNEY Median boarder o Concave cavity o Where blood vessels and lymphatic exits o Where nerve enters o And ureter exits Top Surface o Upper portion o Funnel shape o Made of 2-3 calyxes Reddish brown region

o Renal Cortex Pale color middle o Renal Medulla Apical portion o Papillae o Area surrounded by calyxes filled with adipose-RENAL SINUSES Cortical substances in between Renal Pyramids called RENAL COLUMNS OF BERTIN Basal portion o Radial striation o Known as Medullary Rays of Ferrein

RENAL CORTEX -subdivided into two: *PARS CONVOLUTA -contains convoluted tubules Renal corpuscles or Malphigian corpuscles o Glomerulus and Bowmans capsule Proximal convoluted tubule Distal Convoluted tubule Arch Collecting tubule *PARS RECTA -straight tubules such as: Descending and ascending Loop of Henle Straight collecting tubules

CORTEX Contains Renal Corpuscles Prominent alterations of pars Raidata as representative by longitudinal sections of straight tubules and Pars Convoluta

MEDULLA Absent No alteration Composed only of all straight parts

Acidophilic brighter Contains more of the secretory portions

Lighter Contains excretory tubules

NEPHRONS 1-1.4 Millions Parts: o Renal or Malphigian corpuscles Bowmans capsule Glomerulus PCT Descending and Ascending loop of Henle DCT Collecting Tubule GLOMERULUS

A tuft of capillaries enclosed in the Bowmans capsule BOWMANS CAPSULE 2 Layers: Outer parietal Layer Lined by single layer of squamous cells Inner visceral layer Formed of modified epithelial cells called PODOCYTES o Stellate cells o Interdigitate with other neighboring fitration slits or pores FILTRATION BARRIER Filtration slits Basal Lamina Fusion of capillary and podocyte-produced basal lamina Endothelium of a glomerular capillary

MESANGIAL CELLS Stellate-shaped Phagocytic FUNCTIONS: Provide structural support and contraction o By vasoactive substances to help maintain hydrostatic pressure Phagocytosis o Protein aggregates that adhere glomerular filter o Engulf Ag and Ab complex Secretion o Protoglands

o Immune responses o Maintains glomerulus URINARY OR CAPSULAR SPACE Between 2 capsular layers Receives the fluid filtered through the capillary wall and the visceral layer Each renal corpuscle has a: Vascular pole Tubular pole PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE Longest and the most convoluted parts Lined by Simple cuboidal epithelium with brush borderreabsorption Cells have granular cyroplasm, acidophilic Reabsorb 60-65%water o All glucose and amino acid o 80% Sodium, Chloride LOOP OF HENLE U-shaped structure with a: Descending limb o Thick: lined by simple cuboidal epithelium o Thin: line by Simple squamous epoithelium Ascending limb o Lined by Simple cuboidal epithelium without brush border o Wider lumen JUXTAMEDULLARY NEPHRONS Located near the corticomedullary junction It allows the kidney to produce concentrated hypertonic urine

With short thick descending limb, long thin ascending and descending limbs and long thick ascending limbs DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE Lined by Simple cuboidal cells without brush border Wider lumen Pale staining cytoplasm Sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion by potassium pumpregulated by Adlosterone Secrete H+ and NH4- maintain acid base JG CELLS Rounded nuclei, basophilic cytoplasm Secretes RENIN Angiotensinogen

Angiotensin I

Angiotensin II vasoconstrictor

Aldosterone Na and H2O reabsorption Lacis Cells Aka Extra Glomerular Masangial cells Produced by erythropoeitin COLLECTING TUBULES Last part of each neprhon Join each other to form straight

COLLECTING DUCTS Runs to the tips of the medullary pyramids Empty into the minor calyces Tubules: Simple cuboidal epithelium Ducts: Simple Coulumnar epithelium ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (ADH) Arginine vasopressin Makes the collecting duct more permeable to water EXCRETORY PASSAGES Structure that convey urine from the kidney parenchyma to the outside Renal Pelvis main excretory duct of the kidney Ureter LE: transitional epithelium/ urothelium 3 WALLS Inner mucous layer Middle muscular layer o Outer circular layer muscle layer o Inner longitudinal muscle layer Outer adventitia layer- loose collagenous t. o Blood and lymph vessels nerves 3 LAYERS OF UROTHELIUM Single layer of small basal cells Intermediate region containing 1 several layer of columnar cells Superficial layer of very large polyhedral or bulbous cells called UMBRELLA CELLS RENAL PELVIS

Flattened funnel shaped end of the ureter in the hilum of the kidney, that branches into major and minor calyces Lined by transitional epithelium Lamina propia: scanty areolar c.t. o Small blood vessels, lymphocytes o NO GLANDS URETER Muscular tubes that connects each kidney to the bladder Walls are much thicker than renal pelvis Forms longitudinal muscosal folds when empty giving the lumen stellate shaped appearance Mucosa: lined by transitional epithelium o Forms longitudinal muscosal folds when empty giving the lumen stellate shaped appearance o Collapsed state- Columnar o Distended- Cuboidal Lamina propia: dense superficial part o Loose superficial part o NO glands o Diffuse lymphatic tissue Muscular: Upper 2/3 thinner, 2 layers of muscles: o Inner longitudinal o Outer circular Lower 1/3 thicker, 3 layers: o Inner longitudinal o Middle circular o Outer longitudinal Terminal portion: NO circular muscles o Inner longitudinal o Outer longitudinal

URINARY BLADDER Hollow organ for the storage of urine Mucsosa: lined by Transitional epithelium Lamina propia: Submocusa: Muscularis: 3 layers: Destrussor muscle o inner longitudinal o middle circular o outer longitudinal Tunica adventitia: fibroelastic connective tissue Peritoneum- covers the upper part of the urinary bladder The ureter pass through the wall of the bladder obliquely forming a sphincter of the bladder MALE URETHRA Long, consist of 3 portions: Prostatic urethra o 3-4cm long, extends through the prostate gland o Lined by urothelium o In the midline is the opening of the prostate utricle o On the R & L are the slit like openings of the ejaculatory ducts highly vascularized