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Obesity

Bibliography

Obesity
Dr. Thompson
10/30/13

Obesity

When someone sees an obese individual they tend to make assumptions about why that person is obese. Assumptions like the person simply eats way to much or that they are la y. !ven lookin" at my own wei"ht # am inclined to blame mysel$ $or my predicament. %owever this is not sole reason individuals become obese. With this paper # wish to in$orm the people that there are multiple $actors that contribute to one becomin" obese and that obesity is not &ust the $ault o$ the individual. Over 1/3 o$ the American public $all into the cate"ory o$ bein" obese makin" it one o$ the most common health related crisis in this country. Obesity conditions include heart disease' stroke' type ( diabetes and certain types o$ cancer. With this paper # will $ocus on three aspects that may contribute in lar"e part to a person bein" obese. These three aspects are $amily li$e' the $ood industry' and stress. # believe these $actors can either act as separate entities or combine to put individuals behind the ) ball in attemptin" to live healthy li$estyles.

Obesity # set out to chan"e my own mind on obesity and that is how # have come up with these three $ocal points o$ my paper. # used to view my own wei"ht problems as well as others as my own $ault or their own $ault' but a$ter much research # now believe there are three $actors in a person*s li$e that may contribute to obesity that are not always easy to mana"e. # $eel that i$ a person is havin" trouble in these three areas then they are very likely to succumb to obesity and will have a hard time overcomin" it. This assumption is based on what # have researched' but also lookin" upon my own personal e+periences and tryin" to $i"ure out why # have had such a hard time battlin" my own wei"ht issues. Within $amily li$e # am talkin" about the $amily support system and the role "enetics plays in obesity. #$ a $amily lacks education and a "ood support system then a child will likely eat the wron" thin"s or eat too much o$ somethin" as well as not "et the proper e+ercise. # will in$orm you on how $amily "enetics plays a role in obesity as well. # am also "oin" to $ocus on the $ood industry*s role in a person becomin" obese. # am "oin" to look at the communication' or lack o$ communication in the $ood industry*s messa"es to consumers. ,eople are eatin" out more and the $ood industry has responded by makin" their $ood cheap' $ast and a$$ordable and $or the most part this $ood is very unhealthy $or you. This paper will also e+plain the connection to how a person*s stress level $uels their ne"ative eatin" habits and behaviors toward physical activity. This includes and individuals social position' work stress' and overall how stress is related to obesity. #n this paper # will lay out my themes as # have listed them above. -irst this paper will discuss the $amily aspect o$ obesity because # believe health be"ins with $amily and $amily communication in most aspects o$ li$e. The $ood industry will be the ne+t section because # believe that they are a ma&or cause o$ obesity to an individual' however # also

Obesity believe this is one e+ample o$ where the blame should not solely lie o$ them' but also on the individual eatin" their product. .y third theme and likely the deepest o$ the three themes will be how stress a$$ects obesity. This theme has drastic implications on the $irst two themes and de$initely the broadest o$ the three. # will narrow this theme down in to the direction # have e+plained above' and # believe this will be a theme that will tie my whole paper to"ether.

FAMILY
The $ollowin" book and article*s authors $ocus on the $amily $actor that contributes to obesity. The two main dimensions within the $amily $actor that will be talked about are the $amily as a support system and $amily "enetics as a contributor to obesity. Bouchard, C. (199 !. The genetics of obesity. (1st ed.!. Boca "ato#, A## Arbor, Lo#do#, $o%yo& C"C 'ress. This book will be very help$ul to me in terms o$ describin" $amily "enetics as a contributin" $actor to obesity. The book has a $amily studies section that will be o$ "reat help as well as di$$erent "ene e$$ects on human obesity. The book also provides a chapter on non/"enetic determinates o$ obesity which will look at non/"enetic $actors that contribute to obesity. The author o$ this book is a "ood authority on the sub&ect because he has earned a ,h.D. and is a pro$essor o$ !+ercise ,hysiolo"y at 0avel 1niversity. %e is also a member o$ the American 2ociety o$ %uman 3enetics' %uman 4iolo"y 5ouncil as well as many other health related councils. This source will be a "ood companion to my other sources in the $amily section o$ my paper. #t "oes much more into depth about 6

Obesity "enetics then my other two sources do which will help with in$ormation $or this section o$ my paper.

La%i(, A. ()*1)!. $+, FAMILY A-. A- OB,/, C+IL.. Medicinski Glasnik / Medical Gazette, 17( !, 0123 .

This author looks at the comple+ $amily system and its relation to obesity. The author be"ins with a solid breakdown o$ what obesity is and the percenta"e o$ obese children in the world. The author also breaks down the percenta"e o$ obese children that will likely stay obese into adulthood and the possible health issues associated with this. The author also $ocuses on 4ron$enbrenner*s theory o$ bio ecolo"ical systems which $ocuses on a child*s development and all the conse7uential events durin" the child "rowth in the conte+t o$ relationships between the children and their environment. The author also looks at obesity in terms o$ bein" "enetic versus environmental $actors. This article is a "ood companion to the book by 4ouchard. #t will provide me with the other hal$ to my $amily section which is the $amily system. #t also provides more 7uality in$ormation on "enetics contributin" to obesity. Overall this article will be bene$icial to me because there is a lot o$ easy to understand in$ormation that is relative to my topic. The author does a "ood &ob o$ writin" so that everythin" can be understood.

FOO. I-.4/$"Y
The $ollowin" &ournal articles $ocus on the $ood industry*s role in contributin" to obesity. The authors will $ocus on the risin" obesity rate in con&unction with the rapid "rowth o$ the $ast $ood industry. 8

Obesity ,d5ards, 6. A., ,#gstr78, 9., : +art5ell, +. 6. ()**;!. O<er5eight, obesity a#d the =ood ser<ice i#dustry. Food Service Technology, 5()2 !, 1;29 . doi&1*.1111>?.1 312 ;3 *.)**;.**11;.@ The authors o$ this article $ocus on the role o$ the $ood industry on obesity. #n particular they $ocus on the $ast $ood sector' and their use o$ lar"er portion si es' as well as bu$$ets and product bundlin". They provide nutrition in$ormation as well as e$$ects all three o$ the $actors they talk about have on obesity. Toward the end o$ the article the authors provide the $ood industry*s perspective on the $ood industry*s role on obesity. The study does a "reat &ob o$ reportin" how di$$erent se+es and a"e "roups handle the three $actors in a nicely laid out table that is easy to understand. The authors also discuss how di$$erent "overnments are handlin" the obesity crisis in terms o$ $ast $ood. This article will be help$ul to me because it provides valuable in$ormation as to why the $ood industry may be a contributin" $actor to a person*s obesity. The article is $airly easy to read and comprehend and is very nicely laid out in terms o$ structure. This article relates to the article below by 9osenheck' but does not "o into the depth that 9osenheck does. %owever there is in$ormation in this as like the $ast $ood industry*s point o$ view that is not contained in the 9osenheck article. The authors o$ this &ournal article are pro$essors at the Worship$ul 5ompany o$ 5ooks 9esearch 5entre' at 4ournemouth 1niversity in Dorset' and the Department o$ 9estaurant and 5ulinary Arts at Orebro 1niversity in 2weden.

Obesity "ose#hec%, ". ". ()**1!. Fast =ood co#su8ptio# a#d i#creased caloric i#ta%e& a syste8atic re<ie5 o= a tra?ectory to5ards 5eight gai# a#d obesity ris%. Obesity Revie s, !(0!, ;A;2; 3. doi&1*.1111>?.1 032319B.)**1.** 33.@ This author looks at the increase in obesity relationship to the sur"e and "rowth o$ the $ast $ood industry. The author reviews 1: studies $rom the .!D0#;! database to try to $ind a link between $ast $ood and obesity. The author determines that the individuals who partake in $ast $ood are more likely to become obese especially in the studies that included adults. .any o$ these studies looked at years o$ research conducted on individuals who consumed $ast $ood and those that did not and then looked at each individuals health. The author provided some valuable in$ormation to link the $ood industry to obesity' but also did talks about other contributin" $actors beside the $ood industry that could be blamed $or obesity. Althou"h in the author*s article makes it appear that there is a clear link' the author is 7uick to point out that there is still much more work that needs to be done to determine the e+tent to which the $ast $ood industry is to blame. The author wrote this article to be easy to understand and provided a "ood structure to $ollow that is easier to comprehend. This article resembles the <Overwei"ht' obesity and the $ood service industry= article but this article di$$ers by includin" many more studies as well as the studies that looked at individuals over years o$ $ast $ood or non $ast $ood consumption.

This journal article will focus on 14 year trends in the nutritional quality of menu offerings at eight fast food restaurant chains in the United States.

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Obesity +earst, M. O., +ar#ac%, L. 6., Bauer, 9. C., ,ar#est, A. A., Fre#ch, /. A., : Michael Oa%es, 6. 6. ()*1A!. -utritio#al Duality at ,ight 4./. Fast2Food Chai#s& 1 2 Year $re#ds. "#erican $o%rnal Of &reventive Medicine, ''(0!, ;192;9 . doi&1*.1*10>?.a8epre.)*1A.*1.*)1

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The authors o$ the $ollowin" book and &ournals articles $ocus on stress as a contributin" $actor to obesity and how stress a$$ects our mental ability to handle our eatin" habits and mana"e our wei"ht properly. Mela, .., : "ogers, '. (1991!. Food( eating and obesity)the *sychobiological basis of a**etite and eight control. (1st ed.!. Lo#do#, ,#gla#d& Chap8a# a#d +all. This book covers a wide ran"e o$ topics in obesity which will be "ood $or all sections o$ my paper. .ore speci$ically $or the stress portion o$ my paper # will use a $ew chapters $rom the book in particular that $ocus on the co"nitive control o$ eatin"' the mood and $ood cravin" and $ood addiction as causes o$ overeatin"' and physiolo"ical and learned in$luences on eatin". The authors o$ this book are a "ood source o$ in$ormation because they both worked $or the 5onsumer 2ciences Department o$ the #nstitute o$ -ood 9esearch in the 1nited ?in"dom. The authors do not really take a side on anythin" in the book' but instead try to in$orm the reader on the possible reasons we become obese' and provide research and studies to back up their in$ormation. #t may have been nice to read which side the authors were on' but at least # know this book is $air to both sides. This book also provides a lot o$ in$ormation that is in my other sources but in much more depth which will provide me with more 7uality in$ormation. )

Obesity /i#ha, "., : 6astrebo==, A. (#.d!. /tress as a Co88o# "is% Factor =or Obesity a#d Addictio#. +iological &sychiatry, 7,(9!, 1)321A;. The authors o$ this article $ocus on the relationship between stress and obesity' and while they o$$er much evidence that there is a link between stress and obesity they state that there are also some "aps to understandin" this in$ormation. The authors in the article create a link between stress and an increasin" vulnerability to addiction. The authors provide many 7uality results that con$irm a link between stress and obesity' but use lan"ua"e that takes a little thou"ht to comprehend. The authors describe a lot o$ neurobiolo"y and use lan"ua"e that would be comprehended much better by members in the medical $ield. The authors do however provide bar "raphs that hi"hli"ht a de$inite correlation between obesity and stress. These "raphs show that the total stress mean o$ a "roup is much hi"her in the obese cate"ory than the lean cate"ory. This article will be bene$icial to me because it does provide much evidence between stress and obesity' but will take e+tra e$$ort on my part to care$ully read throu"h and understand everythin". This article has basically the same views as the article by .oore and 5unnin"ham however the two articles look at di$$erent areas o$ stress as it relates to obesity. The authors o$ this article are very credible resources on this sub&ect. Dr. 2inha is on the 2cienti$ic Advisory 4oard $or !mbera ;eutotherapeutics' and Dr. @astrebo$$ assists .an,ower' who provides contractors $or the ,$i er ;ew %aven 5linical 9esearch 1nit. Moore, C. 6., : Cu##i#gha8, /. A. ()*1)!. /ocial 'ositio#, 'sychological /tress, a#d Obesity& A /yste8atic "e<ie5. $o%rnal Of The "cade#y Of -%trition . /ietetics, 110( !, ;112;)0. doi&1*.1*10>?.?a#d.)*11.1).**1

Obesity The authors o$ this article look the relation o$ social position and stress which to"ether contribute to the increased risk o$ obesity. The study also $ocuses on the link between social positions and dietary behaviors' and the author looks at e+planations $or this includin" lower social positions causin" a hi"her level o$ stress. The authors did much research on the topic and included re$erences $rom ,ub.ed' Web o$ 2cience' and ,syc#n$o data $rom December (00A and @uly (011. The authors discovered that most studies showed a healthy body wei"ht $or people with a hi"her social position as well as hi"her stress bein" associated with a hi"her body wei"ht. The authors $ind a clear link between social position' stress and obesity and do a "ood &ob o$ layin" out the statistics to back their study. They do however state that much more research needs done on the sub&ect and their results althou"h appearin" very certain that there is a link between the three needs to be studied $urther. This is a "ood companion article to the 2inha and @astrebo$$ article. They both look at stress and the link to obesityB however they look at di$$erent aspects o$ stress. The authors o$ this article mi"ht be a little less certi$ied than my other articles' but # believe this is still a use$ul resource $or me. 5.@. .oore is a "raduate student $rom !mory 1niversity in 3eor"ia' and 2.A. 5unnin"ham is an assistant pro$essor $rom 9ollins 2chool o$ ,ublic %ealth' in Atlanta 3eor"ia.

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