

.

\

for A
2
<<A
1
we have v
2
= gh 2
The speed of liquid coming out through a hole at
a depth h below the free surface is the same as
that of a particle falling freely under gravity through
the same height h.
This is known as TORRICELLI'S THEOREM
The speed of liquid coming out is called the
SPEED OF EFFLUX
5.3 Ventury tube
It is used to measure the flow speed of a fluid in
a tube.
Consider a liquid of density is flowing through
a ventury tube where A
1
& A
2
are two cross
sections having pressures P
1
& P
2
.
Let velocities
are v
1
& v
2
at those points. Thus from equation
of continuity
A
1
v
1
=A
2
v
2
........(1)
and from Bernoulli's equation
P
1
+
2
1
v
1
2
=P
2
+
2
1
v
2
2
........(2)
(P
1
P
2
) =
2
1
(v
2
2
v
1
2
)
As the liquids are at different heights at A
1
& A
2
We have P
1
P
2
=gh ........(3)
2gh =v
2
2
v
1
2
........(4)
If we know A
1
& A
2
then solving equations (1) &
(4) we can find the rate of flow at those
crosssections
5.4 Aspi rator pump
In aspirator pump when air is pressed inside the
tube, it comes out rapidly so that pressure at A
reduces whereas pressure at B is more. For this
pressure difference liquid rises till the barrel and
sprayed with the expelled air
5.5 Swing of bal l
When a spinning ball is thrown with a large speed
then the layer of the air moving above the ball is
accelerated while that below it is retarded due to
the spin of the ball. Hence according to
Bernoulli's theorem, as K.E. above is more than
K.E. below the ball , pressure above the ball is
less than the pressure below the ball. So a force
is directed in the upward direction which deflects
the ball in upward direction
FLUID DYNAMICS 159
BERNOULLI' S EQUATION
Ex.1 Water flows in a horizontal tube as shown in
figure. The pressure of water changes by
600N/m
2
betwen A and B where the areas of
crosssection are 30cm
2
and 15 cm
2
respectivley. Find the rate of flow of water
through the tube.
Sol. Let the velocity at A =v
A
and that at B =v
B
.
By the equation of continuity,
2
cm 15
cm 30
v
v
2
2
A
B
= =
By Bernoulli's equation,
P
A
+
2
1
v
2
A
=P
B
+
2
1
v
2
B
or, P
A
P
B
=
2
1
(2v
A
)
2
2
1
v
2
A
=
2
3
v
2
A
or, A
2
3 2
v
m
kg
1000
2
3
m
N
600 
.

\

=
or, v
A
=
. s / m 63 . 0 s / m 4 . 0
2 2
=
The rate of flow = (30 cm
2
) (0.63 m/s)
=1890 cm
3
/s.
Ex.2 A siphon tube is used to remove liquid from
a container as shown in fig. In order to
operate the siphon tube, it must initially be
filled with the liquid.
(i) Determine the speed of the liquid through
the siphon.
(ii) Determine the pressure at the point C.
Sol. (i) Applying Bernoulli's equation at points A
and D, we get
p
A
+
2
1
v
2
A
+gy
A
=p
D
+
2
1
v
2
D
+gy
D
Assuming datum for potential energy at the
free surface, we have
y
A
= 0; y
D
= (h +y);
p
A
=p
D
=p
atm
0 v
A
2
~ ; v
D
= v
p
atm
+ 0 +0 =p
atm
+
2
1
v
2
= g [(h+y)]
or v = ) y h ( g 2 +
(ii) Applying Bernoulli's equation at A and C, we
get
p
A
+
2
1
v
2
A
+ gy
A
=p
C
+
2
1
v
2
C
+ gy
C
Here, y
C
= + H; v
C
= v (according to the
continuity equation)
p
atm
+0 +0 =p
C
+
2
1
v
2
+ gh
or, p
atm
= p
C
+ g (h +y) + gh
or, p
C
=p
atm
g (h + H + y)
Ex.3 A liquid flows out of a broad vessel through
a narrow vertical pipe. How are the pressure
and the velocity of the liquid in the pipe
distributed when the height of the liquid level
in the vessel is H from the lower end of the
pipe and the length of the pipe is h ?
Sol. Let us consider three points 1, 2, 3 in the
flow of water. The positions of the points are
as shown in the figure.
Applying Bernoulli's theorem to points 1, 2
and 3
) x h ( g v
2
1 p
gH v
2
1 p
2
2
2
2
1
0
+ +
= + +
=
0 v
2
1 p
2
3
0
+ +
By continuity equation
A
1
v
1
=A
2
v
2
= A
2
v
3
Examples
based on
160
Since A
1
>>A
2
, v
1
is negligible and
v
2
= v
3
= v (say)
) x h ( g v
2
1 p
gH
p
2 2 0
+ +
= +
=
2 0
v
2
1 p
+
v = gH 2 (i)
and
) x h ( g gH
p
gH
p
2 0
+ +
= +
p
0
=p
2
+ g (h x)
p
2
= p
0
g (hx) (ii)
Thus prssure varies with distance from the
upper end of the pipe according to equation
(ii) and velocity is a constant and is given
by (i).
6. VISCOSITY
(i) The property of the liquid by virtue of which
it opposes the relative motion between its
adjacent layers is known as viscosi ty.
(ii) Internal tangential force which try to retard
the relative motion between the layers is
called vi scous force.
(i ii ) Viscosity comes into play only when there is
a relative motion between the layers of the
same material. This is why it does not act in
solids.
6.1 Velocity Gradient and Coefficient of Viscosity
(Newton s law of vi scosity)
(i) Suppose a liquid is flowing in streamlined
motion on a horizontal surface OX. The liquid
layer in contact with the surface is at rest
while the velocity of other layers increases
with increasing distance from the surface OX.
The highest layer flows with maximum
velocity.
(ii) Let us consider two parallel layers PQ and
RS at distances z and z +Az from OX. Thus
the change in velocity in a perpendicular
distance Az is Av
x
. The rate of change of
velocity with distance perpendicular to the
direction of flow is
A
A
v
z
x
, is called velocity
gradient.
(i ii ) Now let us consider a liquid layer of area A
at a height z above OX . The layer of the
liquid immediately above it, tends to
accelerate it with a tangential viscous force
F, while the layer immediately below it tends
to retard it backward with the same tangential
viscous force F.
(iv) According to Newton, the viscous force F
acting between two layers of a liquid flowing
in streamlined motion depends upon
following two factors:
(a) It is Contactarea A of the layers i.e.
F A
(b) It is Velocitygradient
A
A
v
z
x
between
layers i.e. F
A
A
v
z
x
.
From (a) and (b)
F A
A
A
v
z
x
or F =q A
A
A
v
z
x
where q is a constant called coeffi ci ent
of viscosity of the liquid.
(v) In above formula if A =1 and
A
A
v
z
x
=1, then
q = F. i.e. the coefficient of viscosity of a
liquid is defined as the viscous force per unit
area of contact between two layers having a
unit velocity gradient.
FLUID DYNAMICS 161
Note:
(i) In the formula, signs indicate that the force
F between two layers is a mutualinteraction
force.On the layer A, the layer above it exerts
a force in the forward direction while the layer
below it exerts an equal force in the backward
direction.
(ii) The viscosity of liquids decreases with rise
in temperature but the viscosity of gases
increase with rise in temperature.
(iii) Newtonian fluids are fluids which obey
Newtons law of viscosity.
(iv) Kinemetic viscosity is the ratio of dynamic
viscosity () to density () of liquid.
v =
gcm
gcm
1 1
3
sec
=cm
2
sec
1
6.2 Dimensions and Unit of coefficient of Viscosity :
(i) From the relation q =
F
A
v
z
x
A
A
F
H
G
I
K
J
dimensions
of coefficient of viscosity is [ML
1
T
1
]
and its unit is kg m
1
sec
1
.
(ii) Another unit of coefficient of viscosity is
poise i.e. 1 kg m
1
sec
1
=10 poise.
6.3 Reynol ds Number
(i) To define the flow pattern in liquids a
dimensionless quantity is used called
Reynolds Number which can be defined as
N
Re
=
q
v D
,D = Diameter of tube;
v =Velocity of liquid ; =Density of liquid
= Viscosity of liquid
(ii) Lami ar fl ow : The flow of liquid in tubes
without mixing the layers are charecterised
as laminar flow.
N
Re
< 2100
(i ii ) Turbulent flow : The flow of liquid in tubes
with intermixing of layers are characterised
as turbulentflow. N
Re
is >2100
(iv) Transi ent fl ow : The flow of liquid in
between laminar and turbulent called transient
flow.
6.4 Terminal vel ocity and Stokes l aw
(i) When a body falls through a fluid, two forces
act upon the body : weight of the body and
the upthrust due to the buoyancy of the fluid.
(ii) When a solid sphere falls in a liquid than its
accelerating velocity is controlled by the
viscous force of liquid and hence it attains a
constant velocity which is called terminal
velocity (V
T
).
(i ii ) Stokes showed that if a small sphere of radius
r is moving with a terminal velocity V
T
through
a homogeneous medium (liquid or gas) of
infinite extension, then the viscous force
acting on the sphere is F = 6 t q r V
T
,
Where F is viscous force and V
T
is terminal
velocity.
6.5 Calcul ation of Termi nal Veloci ty
(i) Let us consider a small ball of radius r and
density , falling freely in liquid (or gas), of
density o and coefficient of viscosity q. When
it attains a terminal velocity V
T
, it is subjected
to two forces
(ii) Effective force acting downward =V ( o)g
=
4
3
t r
3
( o) g,
(i ii ) Viscous force acting upward = 6 t q r V.
There is no acceleration so, the net force
acting on it must be zero. i.e.,
6 t q r V =
4
3
t r
3
( o) g
or V =
2
9
r g
2
( ) o
q
.
Thus, terminal velocity of the ball is directly
proportional to the square of its radius.
VISCOSITY
Ex.1 The viscous force acting on a solid ball moving
in air with terminal velocity v is directly
propertional to
(A) v (B) v
(C) 1/ v (D) v
2
Sol. [B] Since F =6 t q r v so F v
Examples
based on
162
Ex.2 The velocity of a small ball of mass M and
density d
1
, when dropped in a container filled
with glycerine becomes constant after some
time. If the density of glycerine is d
2
, then
find viscous force acting on the ball.
Sol. Since Effective force = V (d
1
d
2
) g
but
M
d
1
=V
so effective force will be Mg
1
2
1
d
d
F
H
G
I
K
J
Ex.3 A drop of water of radius 0.0015 mm is falling
in air. It the coefficient of viscosity of air is
1.8 10
5
kg m
1
s
1
. What will be the
terminal velocity of the drop, density of air
can be neglected.
Sol .. V
T
=
9
2
q
o g ) ( r
2
given r =0.0015 mm,
= 10
3
kg m
3
, o = 0,
q = 1.8 10
5
kg m
1
s
1
V
T
=
5
3
2
4
10 8 . 1 9
8 . 9 10
1000
10 15
2


.

\

V
T
=2.72 10
4
m/sec.
Q.1 Water is flowing through two horizontal pipes
of different diameters which are connected
together. In the first pipe the speed of water
is 4 m/s and the pressure is 2.0 10
4
N/m
2
.
Calculate the speed and pressure of water in
the second pipe. The diameters of the pipes
are 3 cm and 6 cm respectively.
Sol. If A is the area of crosssection of a pipe at
a point and u is the velocity of flow of water
at that point, then by the principle of
continuity, we have
Au =Constant
or A
1
u
1
=A
2
u
2
or
1
2
1
) r ( u t =
2
2
2
) r ( u t
or u
2
=

.

\

2
1
r
r
u
1
Here r
1
=1.5 cm = 1.5 10
2
m, r
2
= 3 cm
=3 10
2
m and u
1
= 4m/s
u
2
=
2
2
2
10 3
10 5 . 1


.

\

4 =1 m/s
Bernoullis theorem :
2
2 2
2
1 1
2
1
P
2
1
P u + = u +
) (
2
1
P P
2
2
2
1 1 2
u u + =
for water =1 10
3
kg/m
3
, u
1
= 4 m/s,
u
2
= 1 m/s and P
1
= 2.0 10
4
N/m
2
P
2
=(2.0 10
4
) +
2
1
(110
3
) (4
2
1
2
)
=(2.0 10
4
) +(0.75 10
4
) =2.75 10
4
N/m
2
Q.2 The pressure difference between two points
along a horizontal pipe, through which water
is flowing, is 1.4cm of mercury. If due to non
uniform crosssection, the speed of flow of
water at the point of greater crosssection is
60 cm/s, calculate the speed at the other
point.
Sol. By Bernoullis theorem :
P
1
+
2
1
2
1
u =P
2
+
2
2
2
1
u
or
2
1
2
2
u u =
) P P ( 2
2 1
The speed of water will be greater at the
place when the crosssection is smaller.
2
2
u =
2
(P
1
P
2
) +
2
1
u
Here P
1
P
2
= 1.4 cm of mercury
=(1.4 10
2
m) (13.6 10
3
kg/m
3
)
(9.8 N/kg)
=1.866 10
3
N/m
2
,
=110
3
kg/m
3
, u
1
=60 cm/sec =0.6 m/sec.
2
2
u =
) 10 1 (
2
3
(1.866 10
3
) +(0.6)
3
= 4.092
or u
2
= 2.023 m/sec
FLUID DYNAMICS 163
SOLVED EXAMPLES
Q.3 Water flows into a horizontal pipe whose one
end is closed with a valve and the reading of
a pressure gauge attached to the pipe is
3 10
5
N/m
2
. This reading of the pressure
gauge falls to 1 10
5
N/m
2
when the valve
is opened. Calculate the speed of water
flowing into the pipe.
Sol. According to Bernoullis theorem :
P
1
+
2
1
2
1
u = P
2
+
2
2
2
1
u
or ] [
2
1
2
1
2
2
u u = P
1
P
2
Here u
1
=0
the value is initially closed, and
so the velocity of water is zero
= u
2
2
2 (P
1
P
2
)
2
2
u =
3
10 1
2
(3 10
5
110
5
)
= 2 2 10
2
=400
u
2
= 20 m/s
Q.4 A horizontal tube has different crosssectional
areas at point A and B. The diameter of A is
4 cm and that of B is 2 cm. Two manometer
limbs are attached at A and B. When a liquid
of density 0.8 g/cm
3
flows through the tube,
the pressuredifference between the limbs of
the manometer is 8 cm. Calculate the rate of
flow of the liquid in the tube. (g =980 cm/s
2
)
Sol. Q =A
1
A
2
2
2
2
1
A A
h g 2
Here A
1
=t
2
1
r =t
2
2
4

.

\

=4t cm
2
,
A
2
= t
2
2
r =t
2
2
2

.

\

=t cm
2
,
g =980 cm/sec
2
. h = 8 cm
Q =4t t
2 2
) ( ) 4 (
8 980 2
t t
= 4t
15
8 980 2
=4 3.14 32.3 =406 cm
3
/sec
Q.5 Water tank has a hole in its wall at a distance
of 10 m below the free surface of water. The
diameter of the hole is 2 mm. Compute the
velocity of efflux of water from the hole and
the rate of flow of water.
Sol. The velocity of efflux of water is
v = gh 2 = m 10 s / m 8 . 9 2
2
= 14 m/s
The rate of flow of water is =A v =tr
2
v
=3.14 (110
3
m)
2
14 m/sec
=4.4 10
5
m
3
/sec
Q.6 The relative velocity between two layers of
water is 8.0 cm/s. If the perpendicular
distance between the layers is 0.1 cm, find
the velocity gradient.
Sol. Velocity gradient =
z
v
x
A
A
Here Av
x
(relative velocity between layers)
=8.0 cm/s and distance between the layers
Az =0.1 cm
Velocity gradient =
cm 1 . 0
cm/s 8.0
= 80 per sec
Q.7 There is a 1 mm thick layer of glycerine
between a flat plate of area 100 cm
2
and a big
plate. If the coefficient of viscosity of glycerine
is 1.0 kg(ms), then how much force is required
to move the plate with a velocity of 7 cm/s ?
Sol. To move the plate with a constant velocity,
the necessary force will be equal to the
viscosity force F(say). Now
F = qA
z
V
x
A
A
,
Here q =1.0 kg/(ms), A =100 cm
2
=10
2
m
2
,
Av
x
=7 10
2
m/sec and Az =1 mm =10
3
m
F =
3
2 2
10
) 10 7 ( 10 0 . 1
= 0.7 N
164
Q.8 A drop of water of radius 0.0015 mm is falling
in air. if the coefficient of viscosity of air is
1.8 10
5
kg/ms), what will be the terminal
velocity of the drop ? (Density of water
=1.0 10
3
kg/m
3
and g =9.8 N/kg.) Density
of air can be neglected.
Sol. By Stokes law, the terminal velocity of a
water drop of radius r is given by
v =
9
2
q
o g ) ( r
2
,
Here density of water] o is the density of
air and q the coefficient of viscosity of air.
Here o is negligible and r =0.0015 mm =1.5
10
3
mm =1.5 10
6
m . Substituting the
values :
v =
9
2
5
3 2 6
10 8 . 1
8 . 9 ) 10 0 . 1 ( ) 10 5 . 1 (
= 2.72 10
4
m/s
Q.9 A metallic sphere of radius 1.0 10
3
m
and density 1.0 10
4
kg/m
3
enters a tank
of water, after a free fall through a distance
of h in the earths gravitational field. If its
velocity remains unchanged after entering
water, determine the value of h.
Given : coefficient of viscosity of water
=1.0 10
3
Ns/m
2
, g = 10 m/s
2
and
density of water = 1.0 10
3
kg/m
3
.
Sol. The velocity attained by the sphere in falling
freely from a height h is
v = gh 2 .............(i)
This is the terminal velocity of the sphere in
water. Hence by Stokes law, we have
v =
q
o g ) ( r
9
2
2
,
Where r is the radius of the sphere, is the
density of the material of the sphere, o (=1.0
10
3
kg/m
3
) is the density of water and q is
coefficient of viscosity of water
v =
) 10 0 . 1 ( 9
10 ) 10 0 . 1 10 0 . 1 ( ) 10 0 . 1 ( 2
3
3 4 2 3
= 20 m/s
from eq. (i) we have h =
g 2
v
2
=
10 2
20 20
= 20 m
Q.10 An air bubble of radius 1 cm rises up in a
liquid column with terminal velocity of
0.21 cm/s. If the density of liquid be
1.47 10
3
kg/m
3
, then calculate the
coefficient of viscosity of the liquid. Density
of air is negligible. (g =9.8 m/s
2
)
Sol. The weight of the air bubble is negligible.
Two forces act upon it : (i) upthrust of the
liquid g r
3
4
3
o t , where r is the radius of the
bubble and o is the density of the liquid and
(ii) viscous force 6tqrv. Since the bubble has
acquired terminal velocity,
Therefore 6tqrv = g r
3
4
3
o t
or q =
9
2
v
g r
2
o
Substituting the value
q =
9
2
s / m 10 21 . 0
)
2
s / m 8 . 9 )
3
m / g k
3
10 47 . 1 (
2
) m 10 1 (
2
2
=1.52 10
2
kg/(ms)
=1.52 10
3
poise
FLUID DYNAMICS 165