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UNIT 5 STUDY GUIDE

LESSON 5.1: MODEL INVERSE AND JOINT VARIATION

Inverse variation: Two inverse variables show inverse variation if they are related as follows: y=a/x, the limitation being that a is not equal to 0. The constant, a, is the constant variable and y is said as y varies inversely with x.

EXAMPLES:

1. Y varies __________ with x- y=10/x A: Inversely. 2. Y varies __________ with x- y=8x A: Directly. 3. Y varies __________ with x- y=x-5 A: Neither. 4. Y varies __________ with x- y=45 * x A: Directly.

MORE EXAMPLES:

1. The variables x and y vary directly when x=9 and y=18. Write an equation relating x and y and then find y when x=3. Step 1: Write the general inverse equation: y=ax Step 2: Plug 18 in for y and 9 in for x: 18=a*9 Step 3: Divide both sides by 9: 2=a Step 4: Plug 2 in for a in the original equation: y=2x Step 5: Plug 3 in for x: y=2*3 Step 6: Solve.: y=6

EXAMPLE:

The variables vary inversely when x=2 and y=6. Write an equation that relates x and y, then find y when x=4. Step 1: Write the original inverse equation: y=a/x Step 2: Plug 2 in for x and 6 in for y: 6=a/2 Step 3: Multiply each side by 2: 12=a Step 4: Plug 12 in for a in the original equation: y=12/x Step 5: Plug 4 in for x in this equation: y=12/4 Step 6: Solve to get: y=3

CHECKING FOR INVERSE VARIATION

The equation y=a/x for inverse variation can be rewritten as xy=a. This variation tells you that a set of date pairs (x,y) shows inverse variation if the products xy are constant or approximately constant.

JOINT VARIATION

Joint variation occurs when a quantity varies directly with the product of two or more other quantities. A is a nonzero constant: Z=axy - z varies jointly with x and y P=aqrs - p varies jointly with q, r, and s

EXAMPLE:

The variable z varies jointly with x and y. Z=36 when x=2 and y=6. Write an equation that relates x, y, and z, then find z when x=5 and y=7. Step 1: Write the general joint variation equation: z=axy Step 2: Plug in 36 for z, 2 for x, and 6 for y: 36=a(2)(6) Step 3: Solve, then divide each side by 12: a=3 Step 4: Plug 3 in for a in the general joint variation equation: z=3xy Step 5: Plug 5 in for x and 7 in for y: z=3(5)(7) Step 6: Solve: z=105

MORE EXAMPLES:

1. y varies inversely with the square for x. A: y= a/x^2 2. y varies inversely with x. A: y=a/x 3. x varies jointly with t and r and inversely with s. A: x=atr/s 4. z varies directly with y and inversely with x. A: z= ay/x

LESSON 5.2: GRAPH SIMPLE AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS

A rational function has the form f(x)= p(x)/q(x) are polynomials and q(x) is not equal to 0. The inverse function f(x)= a/x is a rational function. The graph of the function f(x)= 1/x is a hyperbola, which consists of two symmetrical parts called branches. The domain and ranger are all nonzero real numbers. Any function of the form g(x)= a/x (a is not equal to 0) has the same asymptotes, domain, and range as the function f(x)=1/x.

EXAMPLE

Graph the function y= 8/x. Compare the graph with the graph of y=1/x. State the asymptotes, domain, and range. Step 1: Draw the asymptotes: x=0 and y=0 Step 2: Plot points to the left and right of the vertical asymptotes, such as (-2, -4), (-4, -2), (2, 4), and (4, 2). Step 3: Draw the branches of the hyperbola so that they pass through the plotted points and approach the asymptotes. A: The graph of y=8/x lies farther from the axes than the graph of y=1/x. Both graphs lie in the first and third quadrants and have the same asymptotes, domain and range. Domain: x is not equal to 0, Range: y is not equal to 0, Vertical Asymptote: x=0, Horizontal Asymptote: y=0.

GRAPHING TRANSLATIONS OF SIMPLE RATIONAL FUNCTIONS:

To graph a rational function of the form y=a/x-h +k, follow these steps: Step 1: Draw the asymptotes x=h and y=k Step 2: Plot the points to the left and to the right of the vertical asymptote. Step 3: Draw the two branches of the hyperbola so that they pass through the plotted points and approach the asymptotes.

EXAMPLE

Graph y= 8/x+4 -2. State the asymptote, domain, and range. Step 1: Draw the asymptotes x=-4 and y=-2 Step 2: Plot points to the left of the vertical asymptote, such as (-5, -10) and (-6, -6) and to the right such as (4, -1). Step 3: Draw the two branches of the hyperbola so that they pass through the plotted points and approach the asymptotes. Vertical Asymptote: x=-4, Horizontal Asymptote: y=-2, Domain: x is not equal to -4, Range: y is not equal to -2.

LESSON 5.3: GRAPH GENERAL RATIONAL FUNCTIONS

Graph of Rational Functions: Let p(x) and q(x) be polynomials with no common factors other than +/- 1. The graph of the following rational function has the characteristics listed below. F(x)=p(x)/q(x) 1. The x-intercepts of the graph of f are the real zeros of p(x). 2. The graph of f has a vertical asymptote at each real zero of q(x). 3. The graph of f has at most one horizontal asymptote, which is determined by the degrees m and n of p(x) and q(x).

SHORTCUT NOTES

To find x-intercept, set the numerator =0 To find the vertical asymptote, set the denominator =0 Horizontal Asymptote: BOBO- Bigger on bottom, y=0 EATSDC- Exponents are the same, divide leading coefficiant BOTN- Bigger on top, none

EXAMPLE FOR BOBO

Graph y=9/x^2+3 Step 1: Find the x-intercept by setting the numerator =0: 9=0, 9 is not equal to 0, so there is no x-intercept. Step 2: Find the vertical asymptote by setting the denominator =0: x^2+3=0 x^2=-3. Since -3 has no square root, there is not vertical asymptote. Step 3: Find the domain: Since no number squared, then added by 3 will equal 0, the domain is all real numbers. Step 4: Find the horizontal asymptote: Since the exponent is bigger on the bottom, the horizontal asymptote is y=0. Step 5: Make a table with at least seven x- values. Step 6: Find the y-values by plugging x-values into the equation and plot the points (along with a dashed line for asymptotes).

EXAMPLE FOR EATSDC

Graph 4x^2/x^2-9 Step 1: Find the x-intercept: x-intercept= 4x^2=0 =x^2=0 =0. x=0. Step 2: Find the V.A.: x^2-9=0 = x^2=9 =+/-3 Step 3: Find the domain: Since the V.A. is x=+/-3, the domain is x is not equal to +/- 3. Step 4: Find the H.A.: Since the exponents are the same on the top and bottom, you would do 4/1 and get =4. Step 5: Plot the asymptotes on the graph. Step 6: Make a table and choose x-values that will fit in the sections the asymptotes have divided the graph into. DO NOT PICK 3 OR -3. Step 7: Solve for the y-values and graph the points.

EXAMPLE FOR BOTN

Graph y=x^2+6x+9/x-1 Step 1: Find the x-intercept: x^2+4x-2=0 (x+3)(x+3)=0 x=-3 Step 2: Find the V.A.: x-1=0 x=1 Step 3: Find the domain: x is not equal to 1. Step 4: Find the H.A.: Since the exponent is bigger on the top, there is none. Step 5: Make a table and choose at least seven x-values to the left and right of 1. Step 6: Solve for the y-values and plot the points.

LESSON 5.4: MULTIPLY AND DIVIDE RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

A rational expression is in simplified form if its numerator and denominator have no common factors (other than +/- 1). To simplify a rational expression, apply the following property. Simplifying Rational Expressions: Let a, b, and c be expressions with b is not equal to 0 and c is not equal to 0. Then the following property applies. Ac/bc= a/b Divide out the common factor c.

EXAMPLE

Simplify x^2-2x-15/x^2-9 Step 1: Factor the expressions: (x-5)(x+3)/(x-3)(x+3) Step 2: Divide out the common expressions: (x-5)/(x-3) Step 3: Rewrite without the parenthesis: x-5/x-3

EXAMPLE

Simplify x^2+6x+9/x^2+7x+12 Step 1: Factor the expressions: (x+3)(x-3)/(x+3)(x+4) Step 2: Divide our the common expressions: (x-3)/(x+4) Step 3: Rewrite without the parenthesis: x-3/x+4

EXAMPLE

Multiply x+2/x^3-27 x (x^2+3x+9) Step 1: Factor the expressions: x+2/ (x-3)(x^2+3x+9) x (x^2+3x+9)/1 Step 2: Divide our the common expressions: x+2/x-3 x 1 Step 3: Multiply: x+2/x-3

EXAMPLE

Divide 7x/2x-10 / x^2-6x/x^2-11x+30 Step 1: Keep, change, flip: 7x/2x-10 x x^2-11x+30/x^2-6x Step 2: Factor the expressions: 7x/2(x-5) x (x-5)(x-6)/x(x-6) Step 3: Divide out the common expressions: 7x/2 x x Step 4: Multiply: 7x/2x Step 5: Divide out the common variable: 7/2

LESSON 5.5: ADD AND SUBTRACT RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

Adding or Subtracting Like Denominators: To add or subtract rational expressions with like denominators, simply add or subtract their numerators. Then place the result over the common denominator. For example: 5x/2x^2 + 6/2x^2= 5x+6/2x^2

EXAMPLES

Perform the indicated operation: 1. 4/3x + 7/3x A: 11/3x 2. 8x/7x^2 3/7x^2 A: 8x-3/7x^2

MORE EXAMPLES

Perform the indicated operation and simplify: 1. 8/6x + 2/6x A: 10/6x= 5/3x 2. 4/5x^2 + 1/5x^2 A: 5/5x^2= 1/x^2 3. 2x^2/x^2+1 + 2/x^2+1 A: 2x^2+2/x^2+1= 2(x^2+1)/x^2+1= 2

ADDING OR SUBTRACTING WITH UNLIKE DENOMINATORS

To add or subtract two rational expressions with unlike denominators, find a common denominator. Rewrite each rational expression using the common denominator. Then add or subtract. LCD means the least common denominator and LCM means the least common multiple.

EXAMPLE WITH INSTRUCTIONS

Find the least common multiple of x^2+8x+15 and x^2-25 Step 1: Factor each expression: (x+3)(x+5) and (x-5)(x+5) Step 2: (x+5)(x-5)(x+3) [You would only have one if they share the same expressions, however, if one factor has two of this shared expression, you must have two.]

EXAMPLES

Find the least common multiple of the polynomials: 1. x^2-16 and x^2+5x+4 A: (x-4)(x+4)(x+4)(x+1)= (x+4)(x+1)(x-4) 2. 8x-16 and 12x^2+12x-72 A: 8(x-2) and (12(x+3)(x-2)= 24(x+3)(x-2)

EXAMPLES

1. 7/9x^2+x/3x^2+3x A: LCD: 9x^2(x+1) 7(x+1)/9x^2(x+1) + 3x^2/9x^2(x+1) 7(x+1) + 3x^2/9x^2(x+1) 3x^2+7x+7/9x^2(x+1) 2. 3/4x-1/7 A: LCD: 28x 21/28x 4x/28x 21-4x/28x

EXAMPLE OF SIMPLIFYING COMPLEX FRACTIONS

Simplify: 5/x+4/1/x+4+2/x A: The LCD of all the fractions in the numerator and denominator is x(x+4) Step 1: Multiply numerator and denominator by the LCD Step 2: Simplify: 5x/x+2(x+4) Step 3: Simplify some more!: 5x/3x+8

LESSON 5.6: SOLVE RATIONAL EQUATIONS

Solve 3/x+1=9/4x+5 Step 1: Cross multiply: 3(4x+5)=9(x+1) Step 2: Distributive property: 12x+15=9x+9 Step 3: Subtract 9x from each side: 3x+15=9 Step 4: Subtract 15 from each side: 3x=-6 Step 5: Divide each side by 3: x=-2 [CHECK FOR EXTRANEOUS SOLUTIONS!]

EXAMPLE

Solve 1-8/x-5=3/x Step 1: Find the LCD: x(x-5) Step 2: Multiply each side by the LCD x(x-5) Step 3: Simplify: x^2-5x-8x=3x-15 Step 4: Write in standard form: x^2-16x+15=0 Step 5: Factor: (x-1)(x-15)=0 Step 6: Zero product property: x=1 or x=15 [CHECK FOR EXTRANOUS SOLUTIONS]

LESSON 5.7: DESCRIBE AND COMPARE FUNCTION CHARACTERISTICS

The graphs of y=x and y=2^x rise from left to right for all real numbers. These functions are always increasing. The graphs of y=-x and y=0.5^x fall from left to right for all real numbers. These functions are always decreasing. The function y=x^2 is decreasing for x < or equal to 0, but increasing for x is > or equal to 0.

AVERAGE RATE OF CHANGE

When finding the average rate of change for an interval, plug in both points ([x1,x2]) to find what each y equals [y1,y2]. Then plug them into the following equation: F(x2)-f(x1)/x2-x1

EVEN AND OFF FUNCTIONS

A function f is an even function if f(-x)=f(x) for all x in its domain. The graph of an even function is symmetric about the y-axis. A function f is an odd function if f(-x)=-f(x) for all x in its domain. The graph of an odd function is symmetric about the origin. One way to recognize a graph that is symmetric about the origin is that it looks the same after a 180 degree rotation about the origin.

EXAMPLE

Determine whether f(x)=-x^6+3x^4-2x^2-7 is even, odd, or neither. A: f(-x)=-(-x)^6+3(-x)^4-2(-x)^2-7 = x^6+3x^4-2x^2-7 Even

EXAMPLE

Determine whether f(x)=-5x/12-x^2-x^4 is even, odd, or neither. A: f(-x)= -5(-x)/12-(-x)^2-(-x)^4 =5x/12-x^2-x^4 -f(x)= -(5x/12-x^2-x^4) =-5x/12-x^2-x^4 Odd