Você está na página 1de 39

# UNIT 5 STUDY GUIDE

## LESSON 5.1: MODEL INVERSE AND JOINT VARIATION

Inverse variation: Two inverse variables show inverse variation if they are related as follows: y=a/x, the limitation being that a is not equal to 0. The constant, a, is the constant variable and y is said as y varies inversely with x.

EXAMPLES:

1. Y varies __________ with x- y=10/x A: Inversely. 2. Y varies __________ with x- y=8x A: Directly. 3. Y varies __________ with x- y=x-5 A: Neither. 4. Y varies __________ with x- y=45 * x A: Directly.

MORE EXAMPLES:

1. The variables x and y vary directly when x=9 and y=18. Write an equation relating x and y and then find y when x=3. Step 1: Write the general inverse equation: y=ax Step 2: Plug 18 in for y and 9 in for x: 18=a*9 Step 3: Divide both sides by 9: 2=a Step 4: Plug 2 in for a in the original equation: y=2x Step 5: Plug 3 in for x: y=2*3 Step 6: Solve.: y=6

EXAMPLE:

The variables vary inversely when x=2 and y=6. Write an equation that relates x and y, then find y when x=4. Step 1: Write the original inverse equation: y=a/x Step 2: Plug 2 in for x and 6 in for y: 6=a/2 Step 3: Multiply each side by 2: 12=a Step 4: Plug 12 in for a in the original equation: y=12/x Step 5: Plug 4 in for x in this equation: y=12/4 Step 6: Solve to get: y=3

## CHECKING FOR INVERSE VARIATION

The equation y=a/x for inverse variation can be rewritten as xy=a. This variation tells you that a set of date pairs (x,y) shows inverse variation if the products xy are constant or approximately constant.

JOINT VARIATION

Joint variation occurs when a quantity varies directly with the product of two or more other quantities. A is a nonzero constant: Z=axy - z varies jointly with x and y P=aqrs - p varies jointly with q, r, and s

EXAMPLE:

The variable z varies jointly with x and y. Z=36 when x=2 and y=6. Write an equation that relates x, y, and z, then find z when x=5 and y=7. Step 1: Write the general joint variation equation: z=axy Step 2: Plug in 36 for z, 2 for x, and 6 for y: 36=a(2)(6) Step 3: Solve, then divide each side by 12: a=3 Step 4: Plug 3 in for a in the general joint variation equation: z=3xy Step 5: Plug 5 in for x and 7 in for y: z=3(5)(7) Step 6: Solve: z=105

MORE EXAMPLES:

1. y varies inversely with the square for x. A: y= a/x^2 2. y varies inversely with x. A: y=a/x 3. x varies jointly with t and r and inversely with s. A: x=atr/s 4. z varies directly with y and inversely with x. A: z= ay/x

## LESSON 5.2: GRAPH SIMPLE AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS

A rational function has the form f(x)= p(x)/q(x) are polynomials and q(x) is not equal to 0. The inverse function f(x)= a/x is a rational function. The graph of the function f(x)= 1/x is a hyperbola, which consists of two symmetrical parts called branches. The domain and ranger are all nonzero real numbers. Any function of the form g(x)= a/x (a is not equal to 0) has the same asymptotes, domain, and range as the function f(x)=1/x.

EXAMPLE

Graph the function y= 8/x. Compare the graph with the graph of y=1/x. State the asymptotes, domain, and range. Step 1: Draw the asymptotes: x=0 and y=0 Step 2: Plot points to the left and right of the vertical asymptotes, such as (-2, -4), (-4, -2), (2, 4), and (4, 2). Step 3: Draw the branches of the hyperbola so that they pass through the plotted points and approach the asymptotes. A: The graph of y=8/x lies farther from the axes than the graph of y=1/x. Both graphs lie in the first and third quadrants and have the same asymptotes, domain and range. Domain: x is not equal to 0, Range: y is not equal to 0, Vertical Asymptote: x=0, Horizontal Asymptote: y=0.

## GRAPHING TRANSLATIONS OF SIMPLE RATIONAL FUNCTIONS:

To graph a rational function of the form y=a/x-h +k, follow these steps: Step 1: Draw the asymptotes x=h and y=k Step 2: Plot the points to the left and to the right of the vertical asymptote. Step 3: Draw the two branches of the hyperbola so that they pass through the plotted points and approach the asymptotes.

EXAMPLE

Graph y= 8/x+4 -2. State the asymptote, domain, and range. Step 1: Draw the asymptotes x=-4 and y=-2 Step 2: Plot points to the left of the vertical asymptote, such as (-5, -10) and (-6, -6) and to the right such as (4, -1). Step 3: Draw the two branches of the hyperbola so that they pass through the plotted points and approach the asymptotes. Vertical Asymptote: x=-4, Horizontal Asymptote: y=-2, Domain: x is not equal to -4, Range: y is not equal to -2.

## LESSON 5.3: GRAPH GENERAL RATIONAL FUNCTIONS

Graph of Rational Functions: Let p(x) and q(x) be polynomials with no common factors other than +/- 1. The graph of the following rational function has the characteristics listed below. F(x)=p(x)/q(x) 1. The x-intercepts of the graph of f are the real zeros of p(x). 2. The graph of f has a vertical asymptote at each real zero of q(x). 3. The graph of f has at most one horizontal asymptote, which is determined by the degrees m and n of p(x) and q(x).

SHORTCUT NOTES

To find x-intercept, set the numerator =0 To find the vertical asymptote, set the denominator =0 Horizontal Asymptote: BOBO- Bigger on bottom, y=0 EATSDC- Exponents are the same, divide leading coefficiant BOTN- Bigger on top, none

## EXAMPLE FOR BOBO

Graph y=9/x^2+3 Step 1: Find the x-intercept by setting the numerator =0: 9=0, 9 is not equal to 0, so there is no x-intercept. Step 2: Find the vertical asymptote by setting the denominator =0: x^2+3=0 x^2=-3. Since -3 has no square root, there is not vertical asymptote. Step 3: Find the domain: Since no number squared, then added by 3 will equal 0, the domain is all real numbers. Step 4: Find the horizontal asymptote: Since the exponent is bigger on the bottom, the horizontal asymptote is y=0. Step 5: Make a table with at least seven x- values. Step 6: Find the y-values by plugging x-values into the equation and plot the points (along with a dashed line for asymptotes).

## EXAMPLE FOR EATSDC

Graph 4x^2/x^2-9 Step 1: Find the x-intercept: x-intercept= 4x^2=0 =x^2=0 =0. x=0. Step 2: Find the V.A.: x^2-9=0 = x^2=9 =+/-3 Step 3: Find the domain: Since the V.A. is x=+/-3, the domain is x is not equal to +/- 3. Step 4: Find the H.A.: Since the exponents are the same on the top and bottom, you would do 4/1 and get =4. Step 5: Plot the asymptotes on the graph. Step 6: Make a table and choose x-values that will fit in the sections the asymptotes have divided the graph into. DO NOT PICK 3 OR -3. Step 7: Solve for the y-values and graph the points.

## EXAMPLE FOR BOTN

Graph y=x^2+6x+9/x-1 Step 1: Find the x-intercept: x^2+4x-2=0 (x+3)(x+3)=0 x=-3 Step 2: Find the V.A.: x-1=0 x=1 Step 3: Find the domain: x is not equal to 1. Step 4: Find the H.A.: Since the exponent is bigger on the top, there is none. Step 5: Make a table and choose at least seven x-values to the left and right of 1. Step 6: Solve for the y-values and plot the points.

## LESSON 5.4: MULTIPLY AND DIVIDE RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

A rational expression is in simplified form if its numerator and denominator have no common factors (other than +/- 1). To simplify a rational expression, apply the following property. Simplifying Rational Expressions: Let a, b, and c be expressions with b is not equal to 0 and c is not equal to 0. Then the following property applies. Ac/bc= a/b Divide out the common factor c.

EXAMPLE

Simplify x^2-2x-15/x^2-9 Step 1: Factor the expressions: (x-5)(x+3)/(x-3)(x+3) Step 2: Divide out the common expressions: (x-5)/(x-3) Step 3: Rewrite without the parenthesis: x-5/x-3

EXAMPLE

Simplify x^2+6x+9/x^2+7x+12 Step 1: Factor the expressions: (x+3)(x-3)/(x+3)(x+4) Step 2: Divide our the common expressions: (x-3)/(x+4) Step 3: Rewrite without the parenthesis: x-3/x+4

EXAMPLE

Multiply x+2/x^3-27 x (x^2+3x+9) Step 1: Factor the expressions: x+2/ (x-3)(x^2+3x+9) x (x^2+3x+9)/1 Step 2: Divide our the common expressions: x+2/x-3 x 1 Step 3: Multiply: x+2/x-3

EXAMPLE

Divide 7x/2x-10 / x^2-6x/x^2-11x+30 Step 1: Keep, change, flip: 7x/2x-10 x x^2-11x+30/x^2-6x Step 2: Factor the expressions: 7x/2(x-5) x (x-5)(x-6)/x(x-6) Step 3: Divide out the common expressions: 7x/2 x x Step 4: Multiply: 7x/2x Step 5: Divide out the common variable: 7/2

## LESSON 5.5: ADD AND SUBTRACT RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS

Adding or Subtracting Like Denominators: To add or subtract rational expressions with like denominators, simply add or subtract their numerators. Then place the result over the common denominator. For example: 5x/2x^2 + 6/2x^2= 5x+6/2x^2

EXAMPLES

Perform the indicated operation: 1. 4/3x + 7/3x A: 11/3x 2. 8x/7x^2 3/7x^2 A: 8x-3/7x^2

MORE EXAMPLES

Perform the indicated operation and simplify: 1. 8/6x + 2/6x A: 10/6x= 5/3x 2. 4/5x^2 + 1/5x^2 A: 5/5x^2= 1/x^2 3. 2x^2/x^2+1 + 2/x^2+1 A: 2x^2+2/x^2+1= 2(x^2+1)/x^2+1= 2

## ADDING OR SUBTRACTING WITH UNLIKE DENOMINATORS

To add or subtract two rational expressions with unlike denominators, find a common denominator. Rewrite each rational expression using the common denominator. Then add or subtract. LCD means the least common denominator and LCM means the least common multiple.

## EXAMPLE WITH INSTRUCTIONS

Find the least common multiple of x^2+8x+15 and x^2-25 Step 1: Factor each expression: (x+3)(x+5) and (x-5)(x+5) Step 2: (x+5)(x-5)(x+3) [You would only have one if they share the same expressions, however, if one factor has two of this shared expression, you must have two.]

EXAMPLES

Find the least common multiple of the polynomials: 1. x^2-16 and x^2+5x+4 A: (x-4)(x+4)(x+4)(x+1)= (x+4)(x+1)(x-4) 2. 8x-16 and 12x^2+12x-72 A: 8(x-2) and (12(x+3)(x-2)= 24(x+3)(x-2)

EXAMPLES

1. 7/9x^2+x/3x^2+3x A: LCD: 9x^2(x+1) 7(x+1)/9x^2(x+1) + 3x^2/9x^2(x+1) 7(x+1) + 3x^2/9x^2(x+1) 3x^2+7x+7/9x^2(x+1) 2. 3/4x-1/7 A: LCD: 28x 21/28x 4x/28x 21-4x/28x

## EXAMPLE OF SIMPLIFYING COMPLEX FRACTIONS

Simplify: 5/x+4/1/x+4+2/x A: The LCD of all the fractions in the numerator and denominator is x(x+4) Step 1: Multiply numerator and denominator by the LCD Step 2: Simplify: 5x/x+2(x+4) Step 3: Simplify some more!: 5x/3x+8

## LESSON 5.6: SOLVE RATIONAL EQUATIONS

Solve 3/x+1=9/4x+5 Step 1: Cross multiply: 3(4x+5)=9(x+1) Step 2: Distributive property: 12x+15=9x+9 Step 3: Subtract 9x from each side: 3x+15=9 Step 4: Subtract 15 from each side: 3x=-6 Step 5: Divide each side by 3: x=-2 [CHECK FOR EXTRANEOUS SOLUTIONS!]

EXAMPLE

Solve 1-8/x-5=3/x Step 1: Find the LCD: x(x-5) Step 2: Multiply each side by the LCD x(x-5) Step 3: Simplify: x^2-5x-8x=3x-15 Step 4: Write in standard form: x^2-16x+15=0 Step 5: Factor: (x-1)(x-15)=0 Step 6: Zero product property: x=1 or x=15 [CHECK FOR EXTRANOUS SOLUTIONS]

## LESSON 5.7: DESCRIBE AND COMPARE FUNCTION CHARACTERISTICS

The graphs of y=x and y=2^x rise from left to right for all real numbers. These functions are always increasing. The graphs of y=-x and y=0.5^x fall from left to right for all real numbers. These functions are always decreasing. The function y=x^2 is decreasing for x < or equal to 0, but increasing for x is > or equal to 0.

## AVERAGE RATE OF CHANGE

When finding the average rate of change for an interval, plug in both points ([x1,x2]) to find what each y equals [y1,y2]. Then plug them into the following equation: F(x2)-f(x1)/x2-x1

## EVEN AND OFF FUNCTIONS

A function f is an even function if f(-x)=f(x) for all x in its domain. The graph of an even function is symmetric about the y-axis. A function f is an odd function if f(-x)=-f(x) for all x in its domain. The graph of an odd function is symmetric about the origin. One way to recognize a graph that is symmetric about the origin is that it looks the same after a 180 degree rotation about the origin.

EXAMPLE

## Determine whether f(x)=-x^6+3x^4-2x^2-7 is even, odd, or neither. A: f(-x)=-(-x)^6+3(-x)^4-2(-x)^2-7 = x^6+3x^4-2x^2-7 Even

EXAMPLE

Determine whether f(x)=-5x/12-x^2-x^4 is even, odd, or neither. A: f(-x)= -5(-x)/12-(-x)^2-(-x)^4 =5x/12-x^2-x^4 -f(x)= -(5x/12-x^2-x^4) =-5x/12-x^2-x^4 Odd