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Submitted in partial fulfillment of Bachelors Degree in Technology Rajasthan Technical University, Kota

(Durin !"##$%"#&#'

Gui(e( B)! r! Rahul "ei#al &' deptt!

Su*+itte( *)! $poorva Khetan%&'()(*+, $sh#ani Kumar%&'()(-*, Suneel Kumar%&'(+*.(,

Dep,rt+ent o- E.ectronic/ 0 Co++unic,tion 1,ipur En ineerin Co..e e 2u3,/4 1,ipur



This is to certify that project report entitled FINGERPRINT BASED VOTING MACHINE submitted by Apoor5, 26et,n4 A/67,ni 2u+,r ,n( Sunee. 2u+,r students of final year B!&! in &lectronics / 'ommunication, 1AIP8R ENGINEERING CO99EGE4 282AS4 1AIP8R #as completed under my supervision and their #or0 is found satisfactory and 1 found them sincere to#ards their #or0!

M/: G,ri+, M,t6ur He,( Dep,rt+ent o- EC

Mr: R,6u. Nei7,. 9ecturer4 EC Deptt:

P.,ce! 2aipur D,te!



&ngineering is not only a theoretical study but it is an implementation of all #e study for creating something ne# and ma0ing things more easy and useful through practical study! 1t is an art #hich can be gained #ith systematic study, observation and practice! 1n the college curriculum #e usually get the theoretical 0no#ledge of industries and a little bit of implementation 0no#ledge that ho# it #or0s3 But ho# can #e prove our practical 0no#ledge to increase the productivity or efficiency of the industry3 To overcome such a problem, #e the students of 2$14UR &"51"&&R1"5 '677&5&, KUK$S, 2$14UR are supposed to ma0e a project on FINGERPRINT BASED VOTING MACHINE: 1ndia is #orlds largest democracy! 1t is perceived to be charismatic one as it accommodates cultural, regional, economical, social disparities and still is able to stand on its o#n! 8undamental right to vote or simply voting in elections forms the basis of 1ndian democracy! 89 is capable of saving considerable printing stationery and transport of large volumes of electoral material! 1t is easy to transport, store, and maintain! 1t maintains security by providing authentication! 1t completely rules out the chance of invalid votes! 1ts use results in reduction of polling time, resulting in fe#er problems in electoral preparations, la# and order, candidates: e;penditure, etc! and easy and accurate counting #ithout any mischief at the counting centre! 1t is also eco friendly!



$ scholarly and <uality #or0 li0e designing of any project can be accomplished by motivation, guidance and inspiration of certain <uarters besides the individual efforts! 7et me in this page e;press my heartiest gratitude to all those #ho helped me in the various stages of this study! =e are very much than0ful to Dr: G:D:S6,r+,4 Director %$cademics,4 Pro-: S:2: B6,tn, ,r4 %>ead, R/D Deptt!,, M/: G,ri+, M,t6ur %>ead, Deptt! of &', and Mr: V:S: B6,tn, ,r for giving us permission to undergo this project and providing all other necessary facility! During our project all the staff members of the Deptt! have helped us #ith their s0ills! >ereby #e also e;press our sincere than0s to our project co?ordinator, M/ Anju M,rej,! $lso #e are than0ful to all other technical staff of the deptt! #ho have helped us to complete our project successfully! =e #ish to e;press our deep sense of gratitude to our project guide Mr: R,6u. Nei7,. for his valuable guidance and 0ind co?operation #ithout #hich this project #ould have not been possible!

Apoor5,26et,n(EC#<#&=' A/67,ni 2u+,r(EC#<#"&' Sunee. 2u+,r(EC#=&>#'

*! 1ntroduction -! icrocontroller Description -!* 8eatures @ -!. 4in Diagram -!@ '7R -!A 4in Description .! 1ntroduction to *)B- 7'D Display .!* 4in description .!- DDR$ ? Display Data R$ .!. B8 ? Busy 8lag .!@ 1nstruction Register %1R, and Data Register %DR, .!A 'ommands and 1nstruction set .!) Sending 'ommands to 7'D @! Basic 'omponents @!* Resistors @!- 'apacitors @!. Diodes @!@ S#itch @!A 4'B @!) Batteries @!+ Relays A! 7ine Sensor 'ommand $ccess 8ingerprint A!* 1ntroduction A!- $41 8unctions A!. Detail of $41 8unctions )! 1' U7"?-((. )!* 8eatures )!- Description )!. 4in 'onnection odule

*?.?+ . -!- Bloc0 Diagram A A )?+ C?*( C?D D D *( *( *( **?*C ** **. *@ *@ *A *A?*C *D?-A *D?-* -* -*?-A -)?-+ -) -) -+


+! 1'

$B?-.+!* 8eatures +!- Description +!. 4in Diagram +!@ 8unction Tables +!A 7ogic Diagram +!) $pplication 1nformation

-C?.* -C -C -D -D .( .* .-?.A ... .@ .A .)?.+ .C?@( .C .D?@( @*?@@*?@@@.?A@.?@@ @@ @A @) @+ @C?A* AA. A@

C! 1nterfacing the serial RS-.- port C!* 1ntroduction C!- >ard#are 4roperties C!. Serial 4inout C!@ 4in 8unction D! 4rinted 'ircuit Boards *(! 4o#er Supply *(!* Unregulated 4o#er Supply *(!- Regulated 4o#er Supply **! 4roject Description **!* Ballot Unit **!- 'ontrol Unit *-! 4roject ethodology *-!* 'omponents *-!- 4rocedure *-!. 'ircuit Diagram *-!@ 'ircuit Description *-!A 4'B 7ayout *-!) 'oding *-!+ Soft#are Description *.! $pplications *@! 8uture Scope 'onclusion References


1ndia is #orlds largest democracy! 1t is perceived to be charismatic one as it accommodates cultural, regional, economical, social disparities and still is able to stand on its o#n! 8undamental right to vote or simply voting in elections forms the basis of 1ndian democracy! 1n 1ndia all earlier elections be it state elections or centre elections a voter used to cast hisEher vote to hisEher favorite candidate by putting the stamp against hisEher name and then folding the ballot paper as per a prescribed method before putting it in the Ballot bo;! This is a long, time? consuming process and very much prone to errors! This situation continued till election scene #as completely changed by electronic voting machine! "o more ballot paper, ballot bo;es, stamping, etc! all this condensed into a simple bo; called ballot unit of the electronic voting machine! &9 is capable of saving considerable printing stationery and transport of large volumes of electoral material! 1t is easy to transport, store, and maintain! 1t completely rules out the chance of invalid votes! 1ts use results in reduction of polling time, resulting in fe#er problems in electoral preparations, la# and order, candidates: e;penditure, etc! and easy and accurate counting #ithout any mischief at the counting centre! 1t is also eco friendly! 6ur 9oting achine consists mainly of t#o units ? %a, 'ontrol Unit %'U, and %b, Ballot Unit %BU, #ith cable for connecting it #ith 'ontrol unit! 1t consists of one 7'D, a fingerprint module, a votecast panel, a candidate panel, a buFFer and a couple of s#itches etc! This project is based on ' language programming! The soft#are platform used in this project are >i?Tech ' 'ompiler and >yperTerminal!

Fin erprint B,/e( Votin M,c6ine

The complete 9oting machine consists mainly of t#o units ? %a, 'ontrol Unit and %b, Balloting Unit #ith cable for connecting it #ith 'ontrol unit! $ Balloting Unit caters upto . candidates! 8our Balloting Units lin0ed together catering in all to )@ candidates can be used #ith one control unit! The control unit is 0ept #ith the 4residing 6fficer and the Balloting Unit is used by the voter for polling! The Balloting Unit of &9 is a small Bo;?li0e device, on top of #hich each candidate and hisEher election symbol is listed li0e a big ballot paper! $gainst each candidate:s name, a button is provided! The voter polls his vote by pressing the button against the name of his desired candidate!


These utiliFe fingerprint recognition technology to allo# access to only those #hose fingerprints you choose! 1t contains all the necessary electronics to allo# you to store, delete, and verify fingerprints #ith just the touch of a button! Stored fingerprints are retained even in the event of complete po#er failure or battery drain! These eliminates the need for 0eeping trac0 of 0eys or remembering a combination pass#ord, or 41"! 1t can only be opened #hen an authoriFed user is present, since there are no 0eys or combinations to be copied or stolen, or loc0s that can be pic0ed! The main aim in designing this product is to provide the concept of the personal identity for each individual! This is e;tended to a special case of electronic voting machine concept! The summary of the design can be briefly e;plained diagrammatically as follo#s! $s a pre?poll procedure the finger prints of all the voters are collected and stored in a database initially at time of distributing cards! $t the time of voting, the option of the voter is ta0en along #ith the finger print! The finger print ta0en by the scanner is sent to the pc through an in?built $ED converter! The processed image is transferred to hard dis0! The option entered by the voter is transferred to chip through D& UB and is stored in the memory! 1f the transferred image is matched #ith any of the records in the data base, then the interrupt is given by the >$RD D1SK to pc! Then the option is considered in the count!



PIC&<F=> @%Bit CMOS F.,/6 Microcontro..er ":& Fe,ture/

>igh performance R1S' '4U 6nly .A single #ord instructions to learn $ll single cycle instructions e;cept for program branches #hich are t#o?cycle 6perating speedG D' ? -( >F cloc0 input D' ? -(( ns instruction cycle Up to CK ; *@ #ords of 87$S> 4rogram emory, Up to .)C ; C bytes of Data emory %R$ , 1nterrupt capability %up to *- sources, &ight level deep hard#are stac0

Perip6er,. Fe,ture/! Timer(G C?bit timerEcounter #ith C?bit prescaler Timer*G *)?bit timerEcounter #ith prescaler, can be incremented during S7&&4 via e;ternal crystalEcloc0 Timer-G C?bit timerEcounter #ith C?bit period register, prescaler and postscaler T#o 'apture, 'ompare, 4= modules ?'apture is *)?bit, ma;! resolution is *-!A ns ? 'ompare is *)?bit, ma;! resolution is -(( ns ? 4= ma;! resolution is *(?bit C?bit, up to C?channel $nalog?to?Digital converter Synchronous Serial 4ort %SS4, #ith S41 % aster mode, and 1-' %Slave, Universal Synchronous $synchronous Receiver Transmitter %US$RTES'1,

":" B.oc3 Di, r,+


":> Pin Di, r,+ !

":A MC9R!
41'*)8+B devices have a noise filter in the '7R Reset path! The filter #ill detect and ignore small pulses! 1t should be noted that a =DT Reset does not drive '7R pin lo#! The behavior of the &SD protection on the '7R pin has been altered from previous devices of this family! 9oltages applied to the pin that e;ceed its specification can result in both '7R Resets and e;cessive current beyond the device specification during the &SD event! 8or this reason, icrochip recommends that the '7R pin no longer be tied directly to 9DD!

8ig no! -!*


":BPin De/cription!




7'D stands for 7i<uid 'rystal Display! The most commonly used 7'Ds found in the mar0et today are * 7ine, - 7ine or @ 7ine 7'Ds #hich have only * controller and support at most of C( characters!

>:& De/cription
The >D@@+C(U dot?matri; li<uid crystal display controller and driver 7S1 displays alphanumerics, 2apanese 0ana characters, and symbols! 1t can be configured to drive a dot?matri; li<uid crystal display under the control of a @? or C?bit microprocessor! Since all the functions such as display R$ , character generator, and li<uid crystal driver, re<uired for driving a dot? matri; li<uid crystal display are internally provided on one chip, a minimal system can be interfaced #ith this controllerEdriver! $ single >D@@+C(U can display up to one C?character line or t#o C?character lines! The >D@@+C(U has pin function compatibility #ith the >D@@+C(S #hich allo#s the user to easily replace an 7'D?11 #ith an >D@@+C(U! The >D@@+C(U character generator R6 is e;tended to generate -(C A H C dot character fonts and .- A H *( dot character fonts for a total of -@( different character fonts! The lo# po#er supply %-!+9 to A!A9, of the >D@@+C(U is suitable for any portable battery?driven product re<uiring lo# po#er dissipation!

>:" Pin De/cription

ost 7'Ds #ith t#o controllers has *) 4ins! 4in description is sho#n in the table belo#! 4in "o! Pin no: & Pin no: " Pin no: > Pin no: A Pin no: B Pin no: < Pin no: = Pin no: @ Pin no: $ "ame D+ D) DA D@ D. DD* D( &"* Description D,t, *u/ .ine = (MSB' D,t, *u/ .ine < D,t, *u/ .ine B D,t, *u/ .ine A D,t, *u/ .ine > D,t, *u/ .ine " D,t, *u/ .ine & D,t, *u/ .ine # (9SB' En,*.e /i n,. -or ro7 # ,n( & (&/tcontro..er' # D ;rite to 9CD +o(u.e & D Re,( -ro+ 9CD +o(u.e # D In/truction input & D D,t, input

Pin no: &# RE= Pin no: && RS

Pin no: &" 9&& Contr,/t ,(ju/t


Pin no: &> Pin no: &A Pin no: &B Pin no: &<

9SS 9'' &""'

Po7er /upp.) (GND' Po7er /upp.) (EBV' En,*.e /i n,. -or ro7 " ,n( > ("n(contro..er' Not Connecte(

Table "o!.!*G 4in description of the 7'D

>:> DDRAM % Di/p.,) D,t, RAM

Display data R$ %DDR$ , stores display data represented in C?bit character codes! 1ts e;tended capacity is C( B C bits, or C( characters! The area in display data R$ %DDR$ , that is not used for display can be used as general data R$ ! So #hatever you send on the DDR$ is actually displayed on the 7'D!

>:A BF % Bu/) F.,

Busy 8lag is a status indicator flag for 7'D! =hen #e send a command or data to the 7'D for processing, this flag is set %i!e! B8 I*, and as soon as the instruction is e;ecuted successfully this flag is cleared %B8 I (,! This is helpful in producing and e;act amount of delay! 8or the 7'D processing! To read Busy 8lag, the condition RS I ( and RE= I * must be met and The SB of the 7'D data bus %D+, act as busy flag! =hen B8 I * means 7'D is busy and #ill not accept ne;t command or data and B8 I ( means 7'D is ready for the ne;t command or data to process!

>:B In/truction Re i/ter (IR' ,n( D,t, Re i/ter (DR'

There are t#o C?bit registers controller 1nstruction and Data register! 1nstruction register corresponds to the register #here you send commands to 7'D e!g! 7'D shift command, 7'D clear, 7'D address etc! and Data register is used for storing data #hich is to be displayed on 7'D! =hen send the enable signal of the 7'D is asserted, the data on the pins is latched in to the

data register and data is then moved automatically to the DDR$ 7'D!

and hence is displayed on the

>:< Co++,n(/ ,n( In/truction /et

6nly the instruction register %1R, and the data register %DR, of the 7'D can be controlled by the 'U! Before starting the internal operation of the 7'D, control information is temporarily stored into these registers to allo# interfacing #ith various 'Us, #hich operate at different speeds, or various peripheral control devices! The internal operation of the 7'D is determined by signals sent from the 'U!

>:= Sen(in Co++,n(/ to 9CD

To send commands #e simply need to select the command register! &verything is same as #e have done in the initialiFation routine! But #e #ill summariFe the common steps and put them in a single subroutine! 8ollo#ing are the stepsG ove data to 7'D port Select command register Select #rite operation Send enable signal =ait for 7'D to process the command

&lectronic components are classed into either being 4assive devices or $ctive devices!


$ P,//i5e De5ice is one that contributes no po#er gain %amplification, to a circuit or system! 1t has not control action and does not re<uire any input other than a signal to perform its function! 1n other #ords, J$ component #ith no brainKL! &;amples are Resistors, 'apacitors and 1nductors! Acti5e De5ice/ are components that are capable of controlling voltagesor currents and can create a s#itching action in the circuit! 1n other#ords, JDevices #ith smartsKL &;amples are Diodes, Transistors and 1ntegrated circuits! ost active components are semiconductors!

A:& Re/i/tor/!
This is the most common component in electronics! 1t is used mainly to control current and voltage #ithin the circuit! Mou can identify a simple resistor by its simple cigar shape #ith a #ire lead coming out of each end! 1t uses a system of color coded bands to identify the value of the component %measured in 6hms,! $ surface mount resistor is in fact mere millimeters in siFe but performs the same function as its bigger brother, the simple resistor! $ potentiometer is a variable resistor! 1t lets you vary the resistance #ith a dial or sliding control in order to alter current or voltage on the fly! This is opposed to the Jfi;edL simple resistors!

8ig! @!* resistor

V,ri,*.e Re/i/tor/ 9ariable resistors are also common components! They have a dial or a 0nob that allo#s you to change the resistance! This is very useful for many situations! 9olume controls are variable resistors! =hen you change the volume you are changing the resistance #hich changes the current! a0ing the resistance higher #ill let less current flo# so the volume goes do#n! a0ing

the resistance lo#er #ill let more current flo# so the volume goes up! The value of a variable resistor is given as its highest resistance value! 8or e;ample, a A(( ohm variable resistor can have a resistance of any#here bet#een ( ohms and A(( ohms! $ variable resistor may also be called a potentiometer %pot for short,!

A:" Con(en/or/FC,p,citor/!
'apacitors, or NcapsN, vary in siFe and shape ? from a small surface mount model up to a huge electric motor cap, the siFe of paint can! 1t stores electrical energy in the form of electrostatic charge! The siFe of a capacitor generally determines ho# much charge it can store! $ small surface mount or ceramic cap #ill only hold a minuscule charge! $ cylindrical electrolytic cap #ill store a much larger charge! Some of the large electrolytic caps can store enough charge to 0ill a person! $nother type, called Tantalum 'apacitors, store a larger charge in a smaller pac0age!

8ig! @!- 'apacitor

A:> Dio(e/!
Diodes are basically a one?#ay valve for electrical current! They let it flo# in one direction %from positive to negative, and not in the other direction! This is used to perform rectification or conversion of $' current to D' by clipping off the negative portion of a $' #aveform! The diode terminals are cathode and anode and the arro# inside the diode symbol points to#ards the

cathode, indicating current flo# in that direction #hen the diode is for#ard biased and conducting current! ost diodes are similar in appearance to a resistor and #ill have a painted line on one end sho#ing the direction or flo# %#hite side is negative,! 1f the negative side is on the negative end of the circuit, current #ill flo#! 1f the negative is on the positive side of the circuit, no current #ill flo#!

8ig! @!. Diodes

A:>(,' 9ED/ (9i 6t E+ittin Dio(e/' 7&Ds are simply diodes that emit light of one form or another! They are used as indicator devices! &;ampleG 7&D lit e<uals machine on! The general purpose silicon diode emits e;cess energy in the form of heat #hen conducting current! 1f a different semiconductor material such as gallium, arsenide phosphide is used, the e;cess energy can be released at a lo#er #avelength visible to human eye! This is the composition of 7&D! They come in several siFes and colors! Some even emit 1nfrared 7ight #hich cannot be seen by the human eye!

8ig @!.%a, 7&D

A:A S7itc6!
This is a mechanical part #hich #hen pressed ma0es the current to flo# through it! 1f the s#itch is released, the current stops flo#ing through it! This helps to control a circuit!


8ig! @!@ S#itch

4'B stands for printed circuit board #hich are used for #iring up of the components of a circuit! 4'Bs are made of paper phenolic 8R- grade %lo# cost, for lo# fre<uency and lo# po#er circuit assembly, and glass epo;y 8R@ grade %for high fre<uency, high po#er circuits, copper clad laminates %available in *!)mm, -!@mm and .!)mm thic0ness,! Single sided 4'Bs have copper foil only on one side #hile double?sided 4'Bs have copper foil on both side of the laminate! Thic0ness of copper foil is .A micrometer minimum on cheaper 4'Bs and +( micrometer on slightly costlier 4'Bs! Trac0s %conductive paths, are made by mas0ing %covering, the trac0 part of copper #ith etch?resist enamel paint %you can even use nail polish, and later dipping the laminate in ferric chloride solutions to dissolve all copper e;cept under the mas0ed part! >oles in 4'Bs are drilled after etching is over! The trac0s on t#o sides of a 4'B are joined using printed through hole %4T>, techni<ue, #hich is e<uivalent to using slotted copper rivets for joining trac0s on both sides! 6n cheaper 4'Bs, 4T> are not provided, only 4ads %i!e! circular copper land #ith centre hole, are provided and you have to join the trac0s on both sides by soldering a copper #ire to the pads #ith a copper #ire! 1n single sided 4'B components are mounted on the side #hich has no trac0 %called component side,! 1n a double?sided 4'B the component side is defined %mar0ed before hand, or it #ill sho# component outline %also called sil0 screen, 5reen mas0ing is the process of applying a layer of green colour insulation varnish on all parts of trac0s e;cept near the holes, to protect the trac0s from e;posure to atmosphere and thus prolong its life and reliability!

A:< B,tterie/!
Symbol of batteries sho#s positive %O, terminal by a longer line than the negative %?, terminal! 8or lo# po#er circuit dry batteries are used!


8ig! @!) Battery

A:= Re.,)/!
$ relay is usually an electromechanical device that is actuated by an electrical current! The current flo#ing in one circuit causes the opening or closing of another circuit! Relays are li0e remote control s#itches and are used in many applications because of their relative simplicity, long life, and proven high reliability! They are used in a #ide variety of applications throughout industry, such as in telephone e;changes, digital computers and automation systems!

Ho7 (o re.,)/ 7or3G

$ll relays contain a sensing unit, the electric coil, #hich is po#ered by $' or D' current! =hen the applied current or voltage e;ceeds a threshold value, the coil activates the armature, #hich operates either to close the open contacts or to open the closed contacts! =hen a po#er is supplied to the coil, it generates a magnetic force that actuates the s#itch mechanism! The magnetic force is, in effect, relaying the action from one circuit to another! The first circuit is called the control circuitP the second is called the load circuit! $ relay is usually an electromechanical device that is actuated by an electrical current! The current flo#ing in one circuit causes the opening or closing of another circuit!


8ig @!+ Relay

T)pe/ o- Re.,)/

There are t#o basic classifications of relaysG *! &lectromechanical Relay -! Solid State Relay! &lectromechanical relays have moving parts, #hereas solid state relays have no moving parts! $dvantages of &lectromechanical relays include lo#er cost, no heat sin0 is re<uired, multiple poles are available, and they can s#itch $' or D' #ith e<ual ease!

&:E.ectro+ec6,nic,. Re.,)/ Gener,. Purpo/e Re.,)G The general?purpose relay is rated by the amount of current its s#itch contacts can handle! ost versions of the general?purpose relay have one to eight poles and can be single or double thro#! These are found in computers, copy machines, and other consumer electronic e<uipment and appliances!


Po7er Re.,)! The po#er relay is capable of handling larger po#er loads Q *(?A( amperes or more!They are usually single?pole or double?pole units!

8ig! @!C 4o#er Relay

Cont,ctorG $ special type of high po#er relay, its used mainly to control high voltages and currents in industrial electrical applications! Because of these high po#er re<uirements, contactors al#ays have double?ma0e contacts!

Ti+e%De.,) Re.,)G The contacts might not open or close until some time interval after the coil has been energiFed! This is called delay?on?operate! Delay?on?release means that the contacts #ill remain in their actuated position until some interval after the po#er has been removed from the coil! $ third delay is called interval timing! 'ontacts revert to their alternate position at a specific interval of time after the coil has been energiFed! The timing of these actions may be a fi;ed parameter of the relay, or adjusted by a 0nob on the relay itself, or remotely adjusted through an e;ternal circuit!

": So.i( St,te Re.,)/ These active semiconductor devices use light instead of magnetism to actuate a s#itch! The light comes from an 7&D, or light emitting diode! =hen control po#er is applied to the devices output, the light is turned on and shines across an open space!6n the load side of this space, a part of the device senses the presence of the light, and triggers a solid state s#itch that either opens or closes the circuit under control! 6ften, solid state relays are used #here the circuit under control must be protected from the introduction of electrical noises!


$dvantages of Solid State Relays include lo# & 1ER81, long life, no moving parts, no contact bounce, and fast response! The dra#bac0 to using a solid state relay is that it can only accomplish single pole s#itching!


B:& Intro(uction
7ine Sensor 'ommand $ccess 8ingerprint odule $41 References 4rogrammers 5uide introduces you to 7ine Sensor 'ommand $ccess 8ingerprint Unit %7'$8U,, product from Beyond7S1! 7'$8U, #hich contains 7ine Sensor 'ommand $ccess 8ingerprint odule %B7-*A RD7 Series, inside, performs fingerprint authentication functions and management of fingerprint data %template,! 7'$8U stores up to *(E.(EA( template fingers depend on type of

7'$8U %B7-*A ((*RD7 E B7-*A ((.RD7E B7-*A ((ARD7,! 1n this manual, #e provide information about the usage of 7ine Sensor 'ommand $ccess 8ingerprint odule $41 for #riting an application program using 7'$8U! The follo#ing tables summariFe the commands supported in 7ine Sensor 'ommand $ccess 8ingerprint odule $41 into the follo#ing categoriesG open E close, registration E matching commands, template management commands, setting commands and miscellaneous functions!

B:&:& Open ,n( C.o/e Function/

B:&:" Re i/tr,tion ,n( M,tc6in Function/

B:&:> Te+p.,te M,n, e+ent Function/


B:&:A Settin Function/

B:&:B Mi/ce..,neou/ Function/


B:" API Function/

'ommand $ccess 8ingerprint odule $41 is a programming $41 that provides developers a common interface for #riting 'E'OO applications #hich use 7'$8U for fingerprint authentication! Developers need not to be concerned #ith the intricacies of operating 7'$8U at lo#er level! T#o 0inds of 'ommand $ccess 8ingerprint odule $41s , #hich basically =in.$41, are provided for developer! The first one is provided if you #ant to ma0e applications #ith ' language %B7 odule$41!h, B7 odule$41!lib and B7 odule$41!dll,! The other one is provided if you #ant to ma0e applications #hich use $41 class for 'OO then 'ommand $ccess 8ingerprint odule $41 'lass %'B7 odule$41!h, 'B7 odule$41!lib and 'B7 odule$41!dll, can be used!

B:> Det,i. o- API Function/

1n this section, #e introduce detail descriptions of each command in 'ommand $ccess 8ingerprint odule $41! 'orrect synta; and parameters of each command are introduced! &ach function returns a value as given in the table at previous sections after the e;ecution! 'all open module function to connect the 7'$8U! Then 7'$8U related instructions can be performed! $fter performing the functions, call close module function to close connection #ith 7'$8U! "oteG Throughout this manual BMT& is e<ual to unsigned char

De/cription on -unction/


B:>:&: Open Mo(u.e The B7 R6pen odule function establishes the communication #ith 7'$8U! 'all this function if application #ant to ma0e transactions #ith 7'$8U! S)nt,H! int B7 R6pen odule%const char Scom4ort1n, intS version"um6ut, intS user a;6ut, P,r,+eter Input! com4ort1n Gcommunication port string %J'6 *L, J'6 -L, T, #here 7'$8U is connected B:>:" C.o/e Mo(u.e The B7 R'lose odule function closes the communication #ith 7'$8U! Use this function if application #ants to end transactions #ith 7'$8U! S)nt,H! int B7 R'lose odule%,

B:>:> Po7er O-The B7 R4o#er6ff function gives instruction to 7'$8U for doing po#er 688! Use this function to po#er 688 the 7'$8U! Use 4o#er 6" button on 7'$8U to activate the 7'$8U again! S)nt,H! int B7 R4o#er6ff%, B:>:A Veri-) The B7 R9erify function gives instruction to 7'$8U for verifying an input finger on sensor #ith specified templates stored in 7'$8Us database! Use mas0 table to specify templates for verification! 1f o#ner handle #indo# is not e<ual to "U77 then #indo#s message = R=$1TR81"5&R is sent to this #indo# handle after received fingerprint input ready signal from 7'$8U! S)nt,H! int B7 R9erify%unsigned char S mas01n, intS result'ode6ut, intS template"um6ut, P,r,+eter Input! mas01n G %note SG do not care,

U *st byte G template V S, S, S, C, ), @, -, ( if bit V; I* , do verify #ith template V %; ; -, U -nd byte G template V S, S, S, D, +, A, ., * if bit V; I*, do verify #ith template%; ; -O*, B:>:B I(enti-) The B7 R1dentify function gives instruction to 7'$8U for identifying an input finger on sensor among all templates stored in 7'$8Us database! 1f o#ner handle #indo# is not e<ual to "U77 then #indo#s message = R=$1TR81"5&R is sent to this #indo# handle after received fingerprint input ready signal from 7'$8U! S)nt,H! int B7 R1dentify%intS result'ode6ut, intS template"um6ut, B:>:< Re i/ter The B7 RRegister function gives instruction to 7'$8U for registering an input finger on sensor and save the template at specified location in 7'$8Us database! Use input template number %(? ma; template number, to specify location of template on 7'$8U! Template #ith good <uality image #ill be registered on 7'$8U if the location for template is empty! 7'$8U over#rites old template if the input finger has been registered previously at other location! 1f o#ner handle #indo# is not e<ual to "U77 then #indo#s message = R=$1TR81"5&R is sent to this #indo# handle after received fingerprint input ready signal from 7'$8U! S)nt,H! int B7 RRegister%int template"um1n, intS result'ode6ut, intS template"um6ut, P,r,+eter Input! template"um1n Gtemplate number to store registered fingerprint %( to DE-DE@D,

B:>:= Get A.. Te+p.,te St,tu/


The B7 R5etallTemplateStatus function gives instruction to 7'$8U for sending status of all templates! S)nt,H! int B7 R5et$llTemplateStatus%intS status'ode$rray6ut, P,r,+eter Output! status'ode$rray6ut Gstatus code of template number from ( to DE-DE@D %array of int #ith siFe *(E.(EA(, (G empty *G valid -G on pending B:>:@ Get Te+p.,te St,tu/ The B7 R5etTemplateStatus function gives instruction to 7'$8U for sending status of the template! Use input variable template number to specify #hich template status #ill be sent by 7'$8U! S)nt,H! int B7 R5etTemplateStatus%int template"um1n, intS status'ode6ut, P,r,+eter Input! template"um1n Gtemplate number to get status ( to DE-DE@D

B:>:$ C.e,r Te+p.,te The B7 R'learTemplate function gives instruction to 7'$8U for deleting template! Use input variable template number to specify #hich template #ill be cleared! 6nly validEpending template #ill be deleted by 7'$8U! S)nt,H! int B7 R'learTemplate%int template"um1n, intS status'ode6ut, P,r,+eter Input! template"um1n Gtemplate number to clear %( to DE-DE@D,

B:>:&# Re,( Te+p.,te


The B7 RReadTemplate function gives instruction to 7'$8U for sending template data! Use input variable template number to specify #hich template data #ill be sent by 7'$8U! 6nly validEpending template #ill be sent by 7'$8U! B:>:&& ;rite Te+p.,te The B7 R=riteTemplate function gives instruction to 7'$8U for #riting template data! Use input variable template number to specify in #hich location the template #ill be #ritten! 7'$8U #rite the template on database only if this location is empty and no other template matches #ith the template given as the parameter! B:>:&" Set PIN The B7 RSet41" function gives instruction to 7'$8U for setting 41" stored in 7'$8U! Use this function to store C?digit 41" at 7'$8U! S)nt,H! int B7 RSet41"%unsigned char S41"1n,

<: IC 89N% "##>


<:& Fe,ture/

Seven darlingtons per pac0age 6utput current A((ma per driver%)((ma pea0, 6utput voltage A(v 1ntegrated suppression diodes forinductive loads 6utputs can be paralleled for higher current TT7E' 6SE4 6SEDT7 compatible inputs inputs pinned opposite outputs to Simplify layout

<:" De/cription
The U7"-((*$, U7"-((-$, U7"-((. andU7"-((@$ are high voltage, high current darlington arrays each containing seven open collector darlington pairs #ith common emitters! &ach channel rated at A((m$ and can #ithstand pea0 currents of)((m$! Suppression diodes are included for inductive load driving and the inputs are pinned opposite the outputs to simplify board layout! The four versions interface to all common logic families U7"-((*$ 5eneral 4urpose, DT7, TT7, 4 6S,' 6S U7"-((-$ *@?-A9 4 6S U7"-((.$ A9 TT7, ' 6S U7"-((@$ )Q*A9 ' 6S, 4 6S These versatile devices are useful for driving a #ide range of loads including solenoids, relays D' motors, 7&D displays filament lamps, thermal print heads and high po#er buffers! The U7"-((*$E-((-$E-((.$ and -((@$ are supplied in *) pin plastic D14 pac0ages #ith a copper leadframe to reduce thermal resistance! They are available also in small outline pac0age %S6?*), as U7"-((*DE-((-DE-((.DE-((@D!

<:> Pin Connection



=: IC MA?%">"

=:& Fe,ture/

eets or &;ceeds T1$E&1$?-.-?8 and 1TURecommendation 9!-C 6perates 8rom a Single A?9 4o#er Supply =ith *!(?R8 'harge?4ump 'apacitors 6perates Up To *-( 0bitEs T#o Drivers and T#o Receivers W.(?9 1nput 7evels 7o# Supply 'urrent ? C m$ Typical &SD 4rotection &;ceeds 2&SD -? -(((?9 >uman?Body odel %$**@?$, Upgrade =ith 1mproved &SD %*A?09 >B , and (!*?R8 'harge?4ump 'apacitors is $vailable =ith the $B-($pplications X T1$E&1$?-.-?8, Battery?4o#ered Systems, Terminals, odems, and 'omputers

=:" De/cription
The $B-.- is a dual driverEreceiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply T1$E&1$?-.-?8voltage levels from a single A?9 supply! &ach receiver converts T1$E&1$?-.-? 8inputs to A?9 TT7E' 6S levels! These receivers have a typical threshold of *!. 9, a typical hysteresis of (!A 9, and can accept W.(?9 inputs! &ach driver converts TT7E' 6S input levels into T1$E&1$?-.-?8 levels!

=:> Pin Di, r,+


=:A Function T,*.e/

=:B 9o ic Di, r,+


=:< App.ic,tion In-or+,tion




@:& Intro(uction
The Serial 4ort is harder to interface than the 4arallel 4ort! 1n most cases, any device you connect to the serial port #ill need the serial transmission converted bac0 to parallel so that it can be used! This can be done using a U$RT! 6n the soft#are side of things, there are many more registers that you have to attend to than on a Standard 4arallel 4ort! %S44, So #hat are the advantages of using serial data transfer rather than parallel3 *! Serial 'ables can be longer than 4arallel cables! The serial port transmits a :*: as ?. to ?-A volts and a :(: as O. to O-A volts #here as a parallel port transmits a :(: as (v and a :*: as Av! Therefore the serial port can have a ma;imum s#ing of A(9 compared to the parallel port #hich has a ma;imum s#ing of A 9olts! Therefore cable loss is not going to be as much of a problem for serial cables than they are for parallel! -! Mou don:t need as many #ires than parallel transmission! 1f your device needs to be mounted a far distance a#ay from the computer then . core cable %"ull odem 'onfiguration, is going to be a lot cheaper that running *D or -A core cable! >o#ever you must ta0e into account the cost of the interfacing at each end! .! 1nfra Red devices have proven <uite popular recently! Mou may of seen many electronic diaries and palmtop computers #hich have infra red capabilities build in! >o#ever could you imagine transmitting C bits of data at the one time across the room and being able to %from the devices point of vie#, decipher #hich bits are #hich3 Therefore serial transmission is used #here one bit is sent at a time! 1rD$?* %The first infra red specifications, #as capable of **A!-0 baud and #as interfaced into a U$RT! @! icrocontroller:s have also proven to be <uite popular recently! any of these have in built S'1 %Serial 'ommunications 1nterfaces, #hich can be used to tal0 to the outside #orld! Serial 'ommunication reduces the pin count of these 4U:s! 6nly t#o pins are commonly used, Transmit Data %TBD, and Receive Data %RBD, compared #ith at least C pins if you use a C bit 4arallel method %Mou may also re<uire a Strobe,!

@:" H,r(7,re Propertie/


Devices #hich use serial cables for their communication are split into t#o categories! These are D'& %Data 'ommunications &<uipment, and DT& %Data Terminal &<uipment!, Data 'ommunications &<uipment are devices such as your modem, T$ adapter, plotter etc #hile Data Terminal &<uipment is your 'omputer or Terminal! The electrical specifications of the serial port is contained in the &1$ %&lectronics 1ndustry $ssociation, RS-.-' standard! 1t states many parameters such as Q *! $ NSpaceN %logic (, #ill be bet#een O. and O-A 9olts! -! $ N ar0N %7ogic *, #ill be bet#een ?. and ?-A 9olts! .! The region bet#een O. and ?. volts is undefined! @! $n open circuit voltage should never e;ceed -A volts! %1n Reference to 5"D, A! $ short circuit current should not e;ceed A((m$! The driver should be able to handle this #ithout damage! $bove is no #here near a complete list of the &1$ standard! 7ine 'apacitance, a;imum Baud Rates etc are also included! 8or more information please consult the &1$ RS-.-?& standard! 1t is interesting to note ho#ever, that the RS-.-' standard specifies a ma;imum baud rate of -(,((( B4SK,#hich is rather slo# by today:s standards! Revised standards, &1$?-.-D / &1$?-.-& #ere released, in *DC+ / *DD* respectively! Serial 4orts come in t#o NsiFesN, There are the D?Type -A pin connector and the D?Type D pin connector both of #hich are male on the bac0 of the 4', thus you #ill re<uire a female connector on your device! Belo# is a table of pin connections for the D pin and -A pin D?Type connectors!

@:> Seri,. Pinout/ (D"B ,n( D$ Connector/'


@:A Pin Function/




The use of miniaturiFation and sub miniaturiFation in electronic e<uipment design has been responsible for the introduction of a ne# techni<ue in inters component #iring and assembly that is popularly 0no#n as printed circuit! The printed circuit boards %4'Bs, consist of an insulating substrate material #ith metallic circuitry photo chemically formed upon that substrate! Thus 4'B provides sufficient mechanical support and necessary electrical connections for an electronic circuit! $dvantages of printed circuit boardsG ? *, 'ircuit characteristics can be maintained #ithout introducing variations inter circuit capacitance! -, =ave soldering or vapour phase reflo# soldering can mechaniFe component #iring and assembly! ., ass production can be achieved at lo#er cost! @, The siFe of component assembly can be reduced #ith corresponding decrease in #eight! A, 1nspection time is reduced as probability of error is eliminated!

T)pe/ o- PCBI/! % There are four major types of 4'BsG ? *, Single sided 4'BG ? 1n this, copper trac0s are on one side of the board, and are the simplest form of 4'B! These are simplest to manufacture thus have lo# production cost!
2) Double sided 4'BG? 1n this, copper trac0s are provided on both sides of the substrate! To

achieve the connections bet#een the boards, hole plating is done, #hich increase the manufacturing comple;ity ., ultilayered 4'BG ? 1n this, t#o or more pieces of dielectric substrate material #ith circuitry formed upon them are stac0ed up and bonded together! &lectrically connections are established from one side to the other and to the layer circuitry by drilled holes, #hich are subse<uently plated through copper!

@, 8le;ible 4'BG ? 8le;ible circuit is basically a highly fle;ible variant of the conventional rigid printed circuit board theme!

PCB M,nu-,cturin Proce//! % There are a number of different processes, #hich are used to manufacture a 4'B, #hich is ready for component assembly, from a copper clad base material! These processes are as follo#s

4reprocessingG ? This consists of initial preparation of a copper clad laminate ready for subse<uent processing! "e;t is to drill tooling holes! 4assing a board through rollers performs cleaning operation! 4hotolithographyG ? This process for 4'Bs involves the e;posure of a photo resist material to light through a mas0! This is used for defining copper trac0 and land patterns! &tchingG ? The etching process is performed by e;posing the surface of the board to an etchant solution #hich dissolves a#ay the e;posed copper areas !The different solutions used areG 8e'l, 'u'l, etc! DrillingG ? Drilling is used to create the component lead holes and through holes in a 4'B !The drilling can be done before or after the trac0 areas have been defined! Solder as0ingG ? 1t is the process of applying organic coatings selectively to those areas #here no solder #ettings is needed !The solder mas0 is applied by screen?printing! etal 4latingG ? The plating is done to ensure protection of the copper trac0s and establish connection bet#een different layers of multiplayer boards! 4'Bs are stac0ed before being ta0en for final assembly of components !The 4'B should retain its solder ability! Bare?Board TestingG ? &ach board needs to ensure that the re<uired connections e;ist, that there are no short circuits and holes are properly placed !The testing usually consists of visual inspection and continuity testing

&#: PO;ER S8PP9C

4o#er supply can be defined as electronic e<uipment, #hich is a stable source of D!'! po#er for electronic circuits!

4o#er supply can be classified into t#o major categoriesG ? Unregulated po#er supply Regulated po#er supply

&#:& 8nre u.,te( Po7er Supp.)G ?

These po#er supplies, supply po#er to the load but do not ta0e into variation of po#er supply output voltage or current #ith respect to the change in $!'! mains voltage, load current or temperature variations! 1n other #ords, #e can say that the output voltage or current of an unregulated po#er supply changes #ith the change in $!'!mains voltage, load current and temperature! $ bloc0 diagram as sho#n belo# can represent unregulated po#er supplyG



8ig! *(!* B76'K D1$5R$

68 U"R&5U7$T&D 46=&R SU447M

&#:" Re u.,te( Po7er Supp.)! %

These po#er supplies are regulated over the change in source voltage or load current i!e! its output remain stable! Regulated po#er supplies are of t#o typesG ?

C8RRENT REG89ATED PO;ER S8PP9IES These are constant current supplies in spite of change in load or input voltage! VO9TAGE REG89ATED PO;ER S8PP9IES These supplies supply constant output voltage #ith respect to the variation in load or source input voltage!

Circuit o- re u.,te( po7er /upp.) 7it6 6,.- 7,5e recti-ier



T1 10TO1 D1 D2 D3


C1 1000uF

C2 0.1uF

>ere diode D*, D-, D. and D@ forms half #ave rectifier! 'apacitor '* is filtering capacitor! 1'? +C(D is used for voltage regulation! 'apacitor '- is used for bypassing, if any ripples are present then it eliminates those ripples! $s 1'?+C(D is used so it gives Dv dc regulated voltage ideally! 1f #e ta0e *) volts transformer then #e #ill get C!D+v at output! Thus voltage is regulated!


The 8ingerprint Based 9oting achine consist of t#o unitsG ballot unit %BU, and control unit %'U, and a fingerprint module for the verification of the user! 8irstly the database of the voters is being stored in the fingerprint sensor for creating a database #hich authenticates the voter at the time of voting!


&&:& B,..ot 8nit!

**!*%a, B76'K D1$5R$ G

8igure **!* Bloc0 diagram of ballot unit

**!*%b, 5&"&R$7 =6RK1"5G *! =hen the po#er of Ballot unit is turned on, the ballot unit a#aits a J $T'> 86U"DL from control unit! -! $fter getting J $T'> 86U"DL, ballot becomes ready to accept a ne# vote from its candidate panel! .! 6nce the voter presses the button corresponding to the candidate of herEhis choice, a four? bit code is generated and sent to the control unit!

@! The ballot unit #aits for the J96T& S15"$7L to become lo# from control unit, #hich indicate that control unit has counted that for respective candidate! A! $fter J96T& S15"$7L goes lo#, the ballot unit sho#s the number of votes of each candidate on the 7'D screen!$t this time, the buFFer also generates a beep sound! This indicates to the voter that herEhis vote has been processed! )! The machine returns to the step * and starts all over again for ne;t voting!

&&:" Contro. 8nit!

The control unit comprises of the fingerprint module #here the fingerprint is being sensed and if a match is found then a signal is being generated on the 7'D screen for the casting of vote ;or3in /tep/! *! The po#er is turned on and the fingerprint module is turned on! -! Then the fingerprint of the voter is put on the sensor for matching #ith the database 3. 1f the fingerprint matches #ith the database then a signal is given on the 7'D to J'$ST& $ 96T&L @! 1f the fingerprint does not match then J "6 $T'> 86U"DL signal is being displayed!


&":& Co+ponent/!


Co+ponent N,+e *! icrocontroller Section icrocontroller 1' %41'*)8+B, 'rystal 6scillator %.!A+ >F, 'eramic 'apacitor %(!*u8, 'eramic 'apacitor %--p8, &lectrolytic 'apacitor %--((u8, &lectrolytic 'apacitor %*(((u8,

Ju,ntit) * * *@ -

-! 'andidate 4anel 4ush?to?6n S#itches Resistors %*(Kohm, .! achine Ready 7&D 7&D Resistor %*Kohm,

. * * *

@! 7'D 4$"&7 7'D %*)B- characters, Resistors %*(Kohm, A! 4o#er supply 7&D Resistor %*Kohm, Diodes?*"@((+ )! 1's U7" ?-((. $B?-.-

* * * * @

* *

+! Relay C! BuFFer

* *

So-t7,re/ u/e(!

*! >i?Tech ' 'ompiler -! >yperTerminal

EKuip+ent/ u/e(! *! Soldering iron, solder, flu;! -! 4ersonal computer! 3. DBD connector!

&":" Proce(ure -or *ui.(in t6e Fin erprint B,/e( Votin M,c6ine
Step *G Bloc0 diagram and layout of the proposed system is designed and finaliFed! Step -G $ll the components and soft#are platform to be used are selected #hich are also mentioned above! Step .G $ll the hard#are components are soldered on their respective printed circuit boards #ith the help of soldering iron, solder and flu; according to the hard#are schematic Step @G The logic flo# of the #hole system is decided and accordingly flo#?charts are being created Step AG $ccording to the flo#?charts dra#n, codeEprogram of the proposed system is developed using ' language #ith the help of soft#are platform %Keil u vision.,! Step )G The he; code of the program being created by the soft#are platform is burnt into the flash code memory of our microcontroller 1'! Step +G Testing is done at various levels to finaliFe the appropriate program for the most proper #or0ing of the system

&":> Circuit Di, r,+


&":A Circuit De/cription


The above circuit sho#s that firstly coming to the po#er supply section , the -.(9 $!'! coming is being converted to *- 9 supply using a step do#n transformer! Then the *- 9 $!'! is converted to unregulated *- v D!'! by using a bridge rectifier and filter capacitors! The unregulated D!'! voltage is being converted into regulated supply by using a +C*- voltage regulator!*- v supply is being re<uired by the 1' #hich is used for interfacing microcontroller #ith the relay! $ A 9 $!'! is being obtained by the +C(A voltage regulator re<uired for the #or0ing of the microcontroller #hich turns on the po#er 7&D! 1' 41'*)8+. is being used #hich have reset at pin* #hich is an active lo# signal ie '7R!'loc0 fre<uency is being provided at pin D and pin *( #hich has an inbuilt crystal oscillator! $n 7'D is being interfaced at the port B of the microcontroller ! >ere #e are using a @? bit 7'D and thus @ data pins are being connected and t#o control pins #ith the port B! 8or the connection of the fingerprint module and thus the serial communication a DB?D connector needs to be inter faced #ith the 41' and for that #e re<uire a $B-.- 1' #hich is used for conversion of logics as the 41' is based on TT7 logic! So pin no! *+ and *C are used for transmission and for receiving of data! 8or providing indication signals a buFFer is being connected #ith the relay and foe the interfacing of the relay #ith the 41' #e re<uire 1' U7"-((. #hich has C darlington pairs #hich reduces the current thereby maintaining the gain #hich is connected at the port '! $t port $ three s#itches are connected #hich are used for casting a vote!

&":B Pc* 9,)out


&":< Co(in


void main%, Y unsigned int i,j,0,lP unsigned short count*,count-,count.P char t;tZA[P 46RT'!bit.I(P count*I(P count-I(P count.I(P 7cdR1nitialiFe%/46RTB,P 7cdR'ommand%7cdR'7&$R,P 7cdR'ommand%7cdR'URS6RR688,P 7cdR6utput%*, *, N81"5R4R1"T96T1"5N,P 7cdR6utput%-, *, N1nit!!!!!!!!!!!!N,P delayRms%-(((,P UsartR1nitialiFe%D)((,P #hile%*, Y 7cdR'ommand%7cdR'7&$R,P 7cdR6utput%*, *, NS#ipe 8ingerN,P shorttostr%count*,t;t,P 7cdR6utput%-, *,t;t,P

shorttostr%count-,t;t,P 7cdR6utput%-, ),t;t,P


shorttostr%count.,t;t,P 7cdR6utput%-, **,t;t,P

if%UsartRDataRReady%,, Y iIUsartRread%,P

#hile%KUsartRDataRReady%,, Y \ jIUsartRRead%,P #hile%KUsartRDataRReady%,, Y \ 0IUsartRRead%,P #hile%KUsartRDataRReady%,, Y \ lIUsartRRead%,P

if%i]+, Y

7cdR'ommand%7cdR'7&$R,P 7cdR6utput%*,*,N"o atchN,P 46RT'!bit.I*P delayRms%*((,P 46RT'!bit.I(P delayRms%A((,P 46RT'!bit.I*P delayRms%*((,P 46RT'!bit.I(P delayRms%-(((,P \ else Y 7cdR'ommand%7cdR'7&$R,P 7cdR6utput%*,*,N=elcomeKN,P 7cdR6utput%-,*,N'ast 9ote!!!!N,P 46RT'!bit.I*P delayRms%*((,P 46RT'!bit.I(P #hile%46RT$!bit(II( // 46RT$!bit*II( // 46RT$!bit-II(, Y \ if%46RT$!bit(II*, Y #hile%46RT$!bit(II*, Y \ count*Icount*O*P \ if%46RT$!bit*II*, Y #hile%46RT$!bit*II*, Y

\ count-Icount-O*P \ if%46RT$!bit-II*, Y #hile%46RT$!bit-II*, Y \ count.Icount.O*P \

\ \ delayRms%*((,P \ \

&":= So-t7,re (e/cription


>ere firstly the counter and the 46RT' bit . is initialiFed as (!the 7'D is being initialiFed at port b and displays 81"5&R4R1"T 96T1"5! $n infinite loop is made and displays the message s#ipe finger! The fingerprint sensor ta0es the data in the form of @ bits #hich are entered into the integer!#hen the portc bit is high then buFFer blo#s ! if a match is found then buFFer blo#s one time and if the match is not found then it blo#s t#o times! $t port $ s#itches are connected so! So the counter of the candidate increases according to the bit corresponding to that s#itch becomes high!


8ast trac0 voting #hich could be used in small scale elections, li0e resident #elfare association, JpanchayatL level election and other society level elections! 1t could also be used to conduct opinion polls during annual share holders meeting!
1t could also be used to conduct general assembly elections #here number of candidates

are less than or e<ual to eight in the current situation!



"umber of candidates could be increased by using other microcontroller or an C-AA 1'! 1t could be interfaced #ith printer to get the hard copy of the result almost instantly from the machine itself! 1t could also be interfaced #ith the personal computer and result could be stored in the central server and its bac0up could be ta0en on the other bac0end servers! $gain, once the result is on the server it could be relayed on the net#or0 to various offices of the election conducting authority! Thus our project could ma0e the result available any corner of the #orld in a matter of seconds


&ngineering is a #ay of education in #hich #e see a clear balance bet#een theoretical andpractical aspects of anything! The theoretical #or0 done in the college during B!&! is not sufficient, therefore it is essential to go under 4ractical 4roject #or0! 8ingerprint Based 9oting achine is designed to ma0e the procedure of voting easier and more convenient as it is a modified system!it has proved to be very advantageous in providing security &9 is capable of saving considerable printing stationery and transport of large volumes of electoral material! 1t is easy to transport, store, and maintain! 1t completely rules out the chance of invalid votes! 1n total, the complete system %including all the hard#are components and soft#are routines, is #or0ing as per the initial specifications and re<uirements of our project! So certain aspects of the system can be modified as operational e;perience is gained #ith it! $s the users #or0 #ith the system, they develop various ne# ideas for the development and enhancement of the project!


Tutorial on microcontrollerG ###!41'*)8+B!netEmicrocontrollerRtutorials Tutorial on 7'DG ###!picprojects!netElcd?interfacing httpGEE###!efy!comEminorprojectsEmicrocontrollerEpic*)8+B 41'micro 8amily TreeN, 41'*)8 Seminar 4resentation httpGEE###!microchip!com!t#E4D8E-((@RspringE41'*)8^-(seminar^presentation!pdf