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Ideal Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus Type II

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Precipitating factors: frequent or chronic infections eating too much sweets development of glucose intolerance during drug therapy delivery of over 9 lbs infants diet sedentary lifestyle

Predisposing factors: 1. family history of ! 2. obesity 3. "ge above 4# )nsulin resistance

$%haustion of beta cells

)nsulin production* decrease secretion of insulin egradation of proteins

"bsorption of glucose by the cell

'rea(down of fat

&ell starvation

+timulation of hunger mechanism via hypothalamus

,unger

/0.1/,"2)"

-'+ 14# mg*d.

,1/$32.1&$!)"

-'+ to 14# mg*d.

8erve

emyelini9ation

5idney filtration mechanism impaired

&apillary basement membrane thic(ening

2.1&0+63)"

8$630/"7,1

"cidity of urine iffuse glomerular sclerosis 6rethral flora 8$/,30/"7,1

/aresthesias : numbness )mpaired pain sensation 808<,$".)82 6.&$3+ elayed wound healing

67)

;aginitis

3enal failure $nd<+tage 3enal isease

&irculating blood volume ,ypovolemia

/0.163)" : ".'6!)863)"

2angrene

,1/07$8+)08 : 7"&,1&"3 )"

- : $ imbalance

8umber of solute relative to water

/otassium ion retention

+odium ions lost

&ardiac arrythmias $"7,

7issue dehydration

/0.1 )/+)"

)ncrease viscosity of blood

&apillary basement membrane thic(ening "bnormal retinal vascular permeability +carring 3$7)80/"7,1

7hic(ening of blood vessel walls 0cclusion of plaque

!usculos(eletal effects

)mpaired glucose absorption in the muscle tissue =oint contractures !yocardial ischemia !yocardial infarction iminished peripheral pulse

'lood flow bloc(ed

'lood pressure ,1/$37$8+)08

-"7)26$

'lurring of vision +tro(e

'lindness blindness

,eart -ailure

'rea(down of fat

-atty acids : glycerol (etone bodies in the general circulation hydro%ybutyric acid acetoacetic acid &onvulsions !etabolic acidosis "cetone breath

-at content of the blood ,yperlipidemia

>eight .oss

-ormation of fatty deposits on the walls of the blood vessels "therosclerosis

8ausea and vomiting

"bdominal pain

? &ellular /otassium

'ody attempts to prevent further decrease in p,

epressed central nervous system

/oor appetite

&ardiac arrhythmias

5ussmaul@s respirations

,eadache

&oma

"mino acid in the general circulation ,yperaminoacidemia

!obili9ation * degradation of proteins

ecreased urinary nitrogen

-urther sodium ion loss

/otassium ion retention

ehydration

&ardiac arrhythmias $"7,

hunger