Gas Hydraulics

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Gas Hydraulics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Gas pipe line hydraulics calculations Equivalent lengths for multiple lines based on Panhandle A Determine pressure loss for a low-pressure gas system Nomograph for determining pipe-equivalent factors How much gas is contained in a given line section How to estimate equivalent length factors for gas lines Estimating comparative capacities of gas pipe lines Determination of lea!age from a gas line using pressure drop method A quic! way to determine the si"e of gas gathering lines Energy conversion data for estimating How to estimate time required to get a shut-in test on gas transmission lines and appro#imate a ma#imum acceptable pressure loss for new lines How to determine the relationship of capacity increase to investment increase Estimate pipe si"e requirements for increasing throughput volumes of natural gas $alculate line loss using cross-sectional areas table when testing mains with air or gas %low of fuel gases in pipe lines $alculate the velocity of gas in a pipe line Determine throat pressure in a blow-down system Estimate the amount of gas blown off through a line puncture A practical way to calculate gas flow for pipe lines How to calculate the weight of gas in a pipe line Estimate average pressure in a gas pipe line using up and downstream pressures $hart for determining viscosity of natural gas %low of gas &ultiphase flow Nomograph for calculating 'eynolds number for compressible flow friction factor for clean steel and wrought iron pipe

Equations commonly used for calculating hydraulic data for gas pipe lines Panhandle A.

Panhandle B.

Weymouth.

omenclature for Panhandle equations (b ) flow rate* +$%D Pb ) base pressure* psia

,b ) base temperature* -' ,avg ) average gas temperature* -' P. ) inlet pressure* psia P/ ) outlet pressure* psia G ) gas specific gravity 0air ) .123 4 ) line length* miles 5 ) average gas compressibility D ) pipe inside diameter* in1 h/ ) elevation at terminus of line* ft h. ) elevation at origin of line* ft Pavg ) average line pressure* psia E ) efficiency factor E ) . for new pipe with no bends* fittings* or pipe diameter changes E ) 2167 for very good operating conditions* typically through first ./-.8 months E ) 216/ for average operating conditions E ) 2187 for unfavorable operating conditions omenclature for Weymouth Equation (b ) flow rate* +$%D ,b ) base temperature* -' Pb ) base pressure* psia G ) gas specific gravity 0air ) .123 4 ) line length* miles , ) gas temperature* -' 5 ) gas compressibility factor D ) pipe inside diameter* in1 E ) efficiency factor 0+ee Panhandle nomenclature for suggested efficiency factors3 !ample Calculations () G ) 219 , ) .22-% 4 ) /2 miles P. ) /*222 psia P/ ) .*722 psia Elev diff1 ) .22 ft D ) :12/9-in1 ,b ) 92-% Pb ) .:1; psia E ) .12 Pavg ) / < =0/*222 > .*722 - 0/*222 # .*722 < /*222 > .*72233 ) .*;9/ psia 5 at .*;9/ psia and .22-% ) 218=71

Panhandle A.

Panhandle B.

Weymouth. ( ) 21:== # 07/2 < .:1;3 # ?0/2223/ - 0.*7223/ < 0219 # /2 # 792 # 218=73@.</ # 0:12/93/199; ) ..*.2. &$%D !ource Pipecalc /12* Gulf Publishing $ompany* Houston* ,e#as1 NoteA Pipecalc /12 will calculate the compressibility factor* minimum pipe BD* upstream pressure* downstream pressure* and flow rate for Panhandle A* Panhandle C* Deymouth* AGA* and $olebroo!Dhite equations1 ,he flow rates calculated in the above sample calculations will differ slightly from those calculated with Pipecalc /121 Pipecalc uses the Dranchu! et1 al1 method for calculating gas compressibility1

Condition " A single pipe line which consists of two or more different diameters lines1 4et 4E ) equivalent length 4.* 4/* 111 4n ) length of each diameter D.* D/* 111 Dn ) internal diameter of each separate line corresponding to 4.* 4/* 111 4n E ) equivalent internal diameter E#ample. A single pipe line* .22 miles in length consists of .2 mile .2-=<: in1 EDF :2 miles ./-=<: in1 ED and 72 miles of //-in1 ED lines1 %ind equivalent length 04E3 in terms of //-in1 ED pipe 4E ) 72 > :20/.17 < ./1/73:187=6 > .20/.17 < .21/73:187=6 Condition "" A multiple pipe line system consisting of two or more parallel lines of different diameters and different length1 4et 4E ) equivalent length 4.* 4/* 4=* 111 4n ) length of various looped sections D.* D/* D=* 111 Dn ) internal diameter of the individual line corresponding to length 4.* 4/* 4=* 111 4n1

4et 4E ) equivalent length 4.* 4/* 4=* 111 4n ) length of various looped sections D.* D/* D=* 111 Dn ) internal diameter of the individual line corresponding to length 4.* 4/* 4=* 111 4n1

when 4. ) length of unlooped section 4/ ) length of single looped section 4= ) length of double looped section D E ) d . ) d/ thenA 4E ) 4. > 21/;99:04/3 > 4=0d./19.8/ < 0/d./19.8/ > d=/19.8/33.187=6 when dE ) d. ) d/ ) d= then 4E ) 4. > 21/;9::04/3 > 21.=2704=3 E#ample. A multiple system consisting of a .7 miles section of =-8 7<8-in1 ED lines and .-.2 =<:in1 ED line* and a =2 mile section of /-8 7<8-in1 lines and .-.2 =<:-in1 ED line1 %ind the equivalent length in terms of single ./-in1 BD line1

) 716 > .81. ) /:12 miles equivalent of ./-in1 BD pipe1 E#ample. A multiple system consisting of a single ./-in1 BD line 7 miles in length and a =2 mile section of =-./ in1 BD lines1

%ind equivalent length in terms of a single ./-in1 BD line1 4E ) 7 > 21.=27 # =2 ) 816/ miles equivalent of single ./-in1 BD line1

Gse the +pit"glass equation for systems operating at less than . psig1

where (h ) rate of flow* in cubic feet per hour at standard conditions 0.:1; psia and 92o%3* scfh hw ) static pressure head* in inches of water +g ) specific gravity of gas relative to air ) the ratio of the molecular weight of the gas to that of air d ) internal diameter of the pipe* inches 4 ) length of the pipe* feet E#ample$ Given the following conditions* find the flow in the systemA hw ) 72 inches of water +g ) 2197 4 ) 722 feet d ) 91.8; inches

(h ) 66*:27 scfh

%or turbulent flow* this handy nomograph will save a great deal of time in flow calculations where different si"es of pipe are connected1 ,he advantage over a table of values is in having all si"es of pipe e#pressed in relation to any other si"e1

E#ample 1.

.9-in1 # 7<.9-in1 in terms of /:-in1 # 7<.9-in1 0/=1=;7 < .71=;73:1;=7 ) .17/2=:1;=7 ) ;1/9 E#ample %. 'eciprocal values can be found when chart limits are e#ceeded1 /8-in1 BD in terms of /:-in1 BD falls beyond the lower limits of the chartF however* /:-in1 BD in terms of /8-in1 BD gives a conversion factor of /1.1

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&ultiply the square of the inside diameter* in in1* by the gauge pressure* in lb<in1/F multiply this by 21=;/F the answer is the appro#imate number of cubic ft of gas 0standard conditions3 in .*222 ft of line1 E#ample. How much gas in .*222 ft of .9-in1 schedule =2 pipe at =72 lb pressure .71/7 # .71/7 # =72 # 21=;/ ) =2*/82 cubic ft of gas E#ample. Appro#imately how much gas in eight miles of 1/72 wall /:-in1 pipe if the pressure is :22 psi $ubic ft ) 0/=1730/=1730:223083071/83021=;/3 ) =*:;2*222 cubic ft Dhen a section of line is blown down from one pressure to another* the total gas lost may be computed by the difference in the contents at the two pressures* using the above rule1

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,his table shows the equivalent length factors for pipe lines of different diameters1 Bt is based on the Panhandle %ormula and the factors were obtained by varying the lengths of pipe and !eeping the other variables constant1 E#ample. %ind the equivalent length of a /:-in1 pipe line as compared with a ./ =<:-in1 line1 Enter the chart at the top - /:-in1- 0/=122 BD3 and proceed downward to the ./1/72 parameter1 ,he equivalent length is /.1/1 ,his means that under the same conditions of temperatures* pressures* specific gravities* etc1* one mile of ./ =<:-in1 pipe will flow the same amount of gas that /.1/ miles of /:in1 will flow1 Another way of putting it* the pressure drop in one mile of /:-in1 pipe will be the same as that in 12:8 miles of ./ =<:-in1 if the pressures* volumes* etc1* are the same1 Dhere a line is composed of several si"es of pipe diameters or where the lines are looped* this chart should prove useful1 Bn solving problems of this sort* the line is reduced to an equivalent length of some arbitrarily selected si"e pipe and created as a single line of uniform si"e1

,o estimate capacity of one diameter line in terms of another read downward in the appropriate column to desired diameter line1 E#ample. A /:-in1 0/=1=;7-in1 BD3 pipe line has a capacity .92H that of a /2-in1 0.61722in BD3 line1 ,his chart is based on diameter factors using the Panhandle equation1 Equivalent inlet and outlet pressures* lengths of line section* and uniform flow are assumed for both lines1 0%igures give capacity of one diameter pipe as percent of another13 ominal &iameter "nternal &iameter =71/72I ==1/72I /61=./7I /71=;7I /=1=;7I /=1222I .61722I .;1722I .71722I ./1/72I =9I =:I =2I /9I /:I /:I /2I .8I .9I ./-=<:I '() '*) '+) %() %*) %*) %+) 1,) 1() 1%-'-*)

'..%.+) ''.%.+) %/.'1%.) %..'0.) %'.0.+) %'.+++) 1/..++) 10..++) 1...++) 1%.%.+) .22 ..918 .761; //6 /87 /68 :78 928 8=7 .7:7 871; .22 .=; .6; /:: /77 =6/ 7.6 ;.7 .=// 9/1; ;=1. .22 .:6 .;8 .89 /8; =;6 7// 698 :=19 7218 9619 .22 ./: ./6 .66 /9: =9= 9;= =71/ :.12 791. 821; .22 .2: .92 /.= /6= 7:= ==1; =61= 7=18 ;;17 6912 .22 .7: /2: /8. 7/. //12 /71; =71; 721/ 9/1= 971. .22 .=/ .8/ /=8 .917 .61/ /91= =;18 :916 :612 ;71= .22 ./; /7: ./12 .:12 .61/ /;19 =:1/ =71; =712 ;=1/ .22 .87 917 ;19 .21: .:18 .817 .61/ /619 =61= 7=18 .22

,o determine the lea!age in &mcf per year at a base pressure of .:1: psia and a temperature of 92-%* ta!e as a basis a one mile section of line under one hour test1 Gse the formulaA 4y ) 6 # D/ 00P. < 0:92 > t.33 - 0P/ < 0:92 > t/333 where D ) inside diameter of the pipe* in1 P. ) pressure at the beginning of the test in psia t. ) temperature at the beginning of the test in -% P/ ) pressure at end of the test t/ ) temperature at end of the test ,he error in using this formula can be about :H1 E#ample. A section of a .2-in1 pipe line one mile in length is tested using the pressure drop method1 BD is equal to .21.=9 in1 Pressure and temperature at the start of the test were .6217 psig and 7/-%1 After one hour* the readings were .6212 psig and 7/-%1 $alculate the lea!age in &mcf<year1 ,he atmospheric pressure for the area is .:1: psia1 ,husA P. ) .6217 > .:1: ) /2:16 psia P/ ) .6212 > .:1: ) /2:1: psia 4y ) 6 # 0.21.=93/ 00/2:16 < 0:92 > 7/33 - 0/2:1: < 0:92 > 7/333 ) 06 # .2/1; # 2173 < 7./ ) 2162= &mcf per mile per year

Here is a short-cut way to estimate gas flow in gathering lines1 %or small gathering lines* the answer will be within .2H of that obtained by more difficult and more accurate formulas1

where ( ) cubic ft of gas per /: hours d ) pipe BD in in1 P. ) psi 0abs3 at starting point P/ ) psi 0abs3 at ending point 4 ) length of line in miles E#ample. How much gas would flow through four miles of 9-in1 BD pipe if the pressure at the starting point is :87 psi and if the pressure at the downstream terminus is /87 psi Ans1er.

( ) 072230/.930:223 < / ( ) /.*922*222 cubic ft per /: hours Gsing a more accurate formula 0a version of DeymouthJs3A

( ) 08;.30./230:223 < / ( ) /2*622*222 cubic ft per /: hours ,he error in this case is ;22*222 cubic ft per /: hours* or about =H1

,he accompanying data gives the high heating values of practically all commonly used fuels along with their relation one to the other1 E#ample. Bf light fuel oil will cost a potential industrial customer .8 cents per gallon and natural gas will cost him ;7 cents per &cf* which fuel will be more economical !olution. Assume the operator would use .2*222 gallons of light fuel oil per year at .8 cents per gallon1 ,he cost would be K.*8221 %rom the table* .2*222 gallons of fuel oil is equivalent to .2*222 # .=: ) .*=:2*222 cubic ft of natural gas1 At ;7 cents per &cf this would cost .*=:2 # 1;7 ) K.*2271 ,he burning efficiency of both fuels is the same1 ,he savings by using natural gas would come to K;67 per year1

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to Estimate +ime ,equired to Get a "hut!in +est on Gas +ransmission Lines and Appro-imate a Ma-imum Accepta.le Pressure Loss for #e Lines

,hese two rules may prove helpful for air or gas testing of gas transmission lines1 ,hey are not applicable for hydrostatic tests1 Lalues of the constants used by different transmission companies may vary with economic considerations* line conditions and throughputs1 ,o determine the minimum time required to achieve a good shut-in test after the line has been charged and becomes stabili"ed* use the following formulaA Hm ) 0= # D/ # 43 < P. where Hm ) minimum time necessary to achieve an accurate test in hours D ) Bnternal diameter of pipe in in1 4 ) length of section under test in miles P. ) initial test pressure in lb<in1/ gage E#ample. How long should a .:-mile section of /9-in1 0/71=;7-in1 BD3 pipe line be shut in under a .*272 psi test pressure to get a good test

Hm ) 0= # 0/71=;73/ # .:3 < .*272 ) /71;7 hours or /7 hours and :7 minutes Dhen a new line is being shut in for a test of this duration or longer* the following formula may be used to evaluate whether or not the line is ItightIA Pad ) 0Ht # P.3 < 0D # 6:63 where Pad ) acceptable pressure drop in lb<in1/ gauge Ht ) shut-in test time in hours D ) internal diameter of pipe in in1 P. ) initial test pressure in lb<in1/ gauge E#ample. Dhat would be the ma#imum acceptable pressure drop for a new gas transmission line under air or gas test when a ::-mile section of =2-in1 0/61/72-in BD3 pipe line has been shut in for .22 hours at an initial pressure of .*.22 psig Pad ) 0.22 # .*.223 < 0/61/72 # 6:63 ) : lb<in1/ Bf the observed pressure drop after stabili"ation is less than : psig* the section of line would be considered Itight1I NoteA $orrections must be made for the effect of temperature variations upon pressure during the test1

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to Estimate +ime ,equired to Get a "hut!in +est on Gas +ransmission Lines and Appro-imate a Ma-imum Accepta.le Pressure Loss for #e Lines

,hese two rules may prove helpful for air or gas testing of gas transmission lines1 ,hey are not applicable for hydrostatic tests1 Lalues of the constants used by different transmission companies may vary with economic considerations* line conditions and throughputs1 ,o determine the minimum time required to achieve a good shut-in test after the line has been charged and becomes stabili"ed* use the following formulaA Hm ) 0= # D/ # 43 < P. where Hm ) minimum time necessary to achieve an accurate test in hours D ) Bnternal diameter of pipe in in1 4 ) length of section under test in miles P. ) initial test pressure in lb<in1/ gage E#ample. How long should a .:-mile section of /9-in1 0/71=;7-in1 BD3 pipe line be shut in under a .*272 psi test pressure to get a good test

Hm ) 0= # 0/71=;73/ # .:3 < .*272 ) /71;7 hours or /7 hours and :7 minutes Dhen a new line is being shut in for a test of this duration or longer* the following formula may be used to evaluate whether or not the line is ItightIA Pad ) 0Ht # P.3 < 0D # 6:63 where Pad ) acceptable pressure drop in lb<in1/ gauge Ht ) shut-in test time in hours D ) internal diameter of pipe in in1 P. ) initial test pressure in lb<in1/ gauge E#ample. Dhat would be the ma#imum acceptable pressure drop for a new gas transmission line under air or gas test when a ::-mile section of =2-in1 0/61/72-in BD3 pipe line has been shut in for .22 hours at an initial pressure of .*.22 psig Pad ) 0.22 # .*.223 < 0/61/72 # 6:63 ) : lb<in1/ Bf the observed pressure drop after stabili"ation is less than : psig* the section of line would be considered Itight1I NoteA $orrections must be made for the effect of temperature variations upon pressure during the test1

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E#ample. Determine the relationship of capacity increase to investment increase when increasing pipe diameter* while !eeping the factors P0in3* P0out3 and 4 constant1 !olution. ,he top number in each square represents the percent increase in capacity when increasing the pipe si"e from that si"e shown in the column at the left to the si"e shown by the column at the bottom of the graph1 ,he lower numbers represent the percent increase in

investment of the bottom si"e over the original pipe si"e1 All numbers are based on pipe capable of .*222 psi wor!ing pressure1

Estimate Pipe "i*e ,equirements for /ncreasing +hroughput 0olumes of #atural Gas

'eflects the capacity to pipe si"e relationship when 4 0length3* P. 0inlet pressure3 and P/ 0outlet pressure3 are constant1

Calculate Line Loss 'sing Cross!sectional Areas +a.le )hen +esting Mains )ith Air or Gas

Bnitial volume ) 0Pi < PC3 0A43 %inal volume ) 0Pf < PC3 0A43 where Pi ) initial pressure* or pressure at start of test* psia

Pf ) final pressure* or pressure at end of test* psia PC ) base pressure* psia A ) cross-sectional area of inside of pipe in ft/ 4 ) length of line in ft ,he loss then would be the difference of the volumes* found by the above formula* which could be writtenA 4oss during test ) A4 00Pi - Pf3 < PC3 ,o facilitate calculations* ,able . contains the cross-sectional areas in ft/ for some of the more popular wall thic!ness pipe from .-in1 through /:-in1 nominal si"e1 E#ample. Assume =*79/ ft of 81./7-in1 inside diameter pipe is tested with air for a period of /9 hours1 ,he initial pressure was ..9 psig* the final pressure ../ psig* and the barometer was .:1: psia in both instances1 Bt is desired to calculate the volume of loss during the test using a pressure base of .:197 psia1 Bf the area IAI is obtained from ,able .* and information as given above is substituted in the formula* we would haveA 4oss during test ) 21=92 # =*79/ # ?0..9 > .:1:3 - 0../ > .:1:3@ < .:197 ) =721. cubic ft

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&.!. &a4is* +pecial ProMects* Bnc1* Cailey Bsland* &aine ,he rate of flow of fuel gases at low pressures* ordinary temperatures* and under turbulent conditions in pipe lines is reflected by an equation. based on sound theoretical considerationsA q ) =1.87 # Delta0h3217:= # d/19= < s21:98 where q ) rate of flow of gas* cubic ft per minute Delta0h3 ) pressure drop* in1 of water per .22 ft of pipe d ) actual inner diameter of +chedule :2 steel pipe* in1 s ) specific gravity of gas at the prevailing temperature and pressure relative to air at 98-% and =2 in1 of mercury1 ,he equation can be solved readily and accurately by means of the accompanying nomograph constructed in accordance with methods described previously1/ ,he use of the chart is illustrated as follows1 At what rate will fuel gas with a specific gravity of 219:2 flow in a .2-in1 +chedule :2 pipe line if the pressure is 21.92 in1 of water per .22 ft of pipe %ollowing the !ey* connect 21.92 on the Delta0h3 scale and 219:2 on the scale with a straight line and mar! the intersection with the alpha a#is1 $onnect this point with .2 on the dJ scale for nominal diameters and read the rate of flow at 9/: cubic ft per minutes on the q scale1 +ome authorities give the e#ponent of s as 21:28 when for the data given the rate of flow as read from the chart would be decreased by /1;H 0.; cubic ft per minute3 to attain 92; cubic ft per minute1

5eferences .1 Perry* N1 H1* ed1* Chemical Engineers' Handbook* =rd ed1* p1 .786* &cGraw-Hill Coo! $o1* Bnc1* New Oor! 0.67231 /1 Davis* D1+1* Nomography and Empirical Equations* /nd ed1* $hapter 9* 'einhold Publishing $orp1* New Oor!* .69/1

L ) ;:81;0(,3 < d/ # P # 7/2 where L ) velocity* feet per second ( ) &cf<hour at standard conditions d ) inside diameter of the pipe* inches P ) pressure* psia , ) average gas temperature* -' E#ample. Given a pipeline having an inside diameter of :12/9 inches* a gas flow rate of .*222 &cf<hour at a pressure of .22 psig* and an average gas temperature of 92o%* find the velocity of the gas1 !olution$ L ) 0;:81; # .*222 # 092 > :9233 < 0:12/9/ # .22 # 7/23 L ) :9.16 ft<sec

Bn designing a gas blow-down system* it is necessary to find the throat pressure in a blow-off stac! of a given si"e with a given flow at critical velocity1 ,he accompanying nomograph is handy to use for preliminary calculations1 Bt was derived from the equationsA

where Pt ) pressure in the throat* psia D ) weight of flowing gas* lb<hr d ) actual BD of stac!* in1 ' ) gas constant* ft lb<-% P ) $p<$v $p ) specific heat at constant pressure* Ctu<lb<-% $v ) specific heat at constant volume* Ctu<lb<-% ,. ) absolute temperature of gas flowing* -' ) 0-% > :923

Gsing the following values for natural gas* ' ) 881888 and P ) .1=.* the above equation reduces toA

E#ample. ,o use the accompanying nomograph* assume that the rate of flow is !nown to be /122 # .29 lb<hr* the BD of the stac! is ./ in1 and the flowing temperature is :82-'1 +tart from the abscissa at the 'ate of %low* D* and proceed upward to the BD of the pipe1 %rom this intersection proceed to the right to the flowing temperature of :82-'1 ,urn upward from this intersection to the Pt scale and read the answer - =67 psia1

,o calculate the volume of gas lost from a puncture or blowoff* use the equationA ( ) D/P. where ( ) volume of gas in &cf<hr at a pressure of .:16 psi* 92-% and with a specific gravity of 2192 D ) diameter of the nipple or orifice in in1 P ) absolute pressure in lb<in1/ at some nearby point upstream from the opening E#ample1 How much gas will be lost during a five minute blowoff through a /-in1 nipple if the upstream pressure is .*222 psi absolute ( ) D/P. ( ) 0/3/ # .*222 ( ) :*222 &cf<hr (7 min ) :*222 # 7 < 92 ) === &cf

Here is a short cut way to calculate gas flow in pipe lines1 Bt is based on the Deymouth formula1 At 92-% and specific gravity of 2192* the answer will be accurate1 %or every .2- variation in temperature* the answer will be .H error1 %or every 212. variation in specific gravity* the answer will be three-fourths percent in error1 %ormulaA

where ( ) cubic ft of gas per /: hoursF 8;. is a constant d ) pipe BD in in1 P. ) psi 0abs3 at starting point P/ ) psi 0abs3 at ending point 4 ) length of line in miles E#ample. How much gas would flow through one mile of 9-in1 BD pipe if the pressure at the starting point is :87 psi and if the pressure at the downstream terminus is /87 psi !olution.

) 08;.30./230:223 ) :.*822*222 cubic ft per /: hours E#ample. Dhat would be the flow through four miles of .2-=<:-in1 quarter-in1 wall pipe using the same pressures

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5ule. %ind the volume of the pipe in cubic ft and multiply by the weight of the gas per cubic ft1 ,o find the latter* multiply the absolute pressure of the gas time = and divide by .*2221 ,he basis for the latter is that gas with a specific gravity of 192 at ;2-% weighs =129 lb<cubic ft at .*222 psia1 And everything else remaining equal* weight of the gas is proportional to absolute pressure1 ,hus to find the weight of gas at* say* 722 psia* multiply = # 0722 < .*2223 ) .17 lb1 0.17= is more accurate31 E#ample. %ind the weight of gas in a .*/72-ft aerial river crossing where the average pressure reads 9/71= on the gaugesF the temperature of the gas is ;2-% and specific gravity of gas is 1921 !olution. $hange psig to psiaA 9/71= > .:1; ) 9:2 psia Deight of gas per cubic ftA =129 # 09:2 < .*2223 ) .1678 lb<cubic ft

Lolume of .*/72 ft of /=-.<:-in1 BD pipe ) =*987 cubic ft Deight of gas ) ;*/.; lb1 ,his method is fairly accurateF here is the same problem calculated with the formulaA D ) 0L30.::30Pabs3 < ', where D ) weight of gas in lb L ) volume of pipe Pabs ) absolute pressure of gas ' ) universal constant .*7:: Q molecular weight of gas , ) temperature of gas in -' 0,o find the molecular weight of gas* multiply specific gravity # molecular weight of air* or in this case* 19 # /8167 ) .;1=;13 D ) 0=*98730.::309:23 < 0.*7:: Q .;1=;30;2 > :923 D ) ;*/26 lb

Estimate Average Pressure in Gas Pipe Line 'sing 'p and Do n "tream Pressures

,o find the average gas pressure in a line* first divide downstream pressure by upstream pressure and loo! up the value of the factor R in the table shown1 ,hen multiply R times the upstream pressure to get the average pressure1 E#ample. %ind the average pressure in a pipe line if the upstream pressure is ;;7 psia and the downstream pressure is :/2 psia1 Pd < Pu ) :/2 < ;;7 ) 217: Bnterpolating from the table* R ) 21;8 > : < 7 0212/3 ) 21;69 Pa4erage ) 21;69 # ;;7 ) 9.; psia ,his method is accurate to within / or = psi1 Here is the same problem calculated with the formulaA

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of Gas

%or gas flow problems as encountered in oil field production operations* the %anning equation for pressure drop may be used1 A modified form of this equation employing units commonly used in oil field practice isA.*/*=*:*7*9 P ) %40&$%D3/+,5 < /2*222 d7Pav 'e ) /21.:0&$%D3+ < dS where P ) pressure drop* psia % ) friction factor* dimensionless 4 ) length of pipe* ft &$%D ) gas flow at standard condition + ) specific gravity of gas , ) absolute temperature 0-% > :923 Pav ) average flowing pressure* psia d ) internal pipe diameter* in1 'e ) 'eynolds number* dimensionless S ) viscosity* centipoises Bn actual practice* empirical flow formulas are used by many to solve the gas flow problems of field production operations1 ,he Deymouth formula is the one most frequently used since results obtained by its use agree quite closely with actual values1 'ecent modification of the formula* by including the compressibility factor* 5* made the formula applicable for calculation of high pressure flow problems1 ,he modified formula is as followsA (s ) :==1:7 # 0,s < Ps3 # d/199; # 00P./ - P//3 < 4+,53.</ where (s ) rate of flow of gas in cubic ft per /: hours measured at standard conditions d ) internal diameter of pipe in in1 P. ) initial pressure* psi absolute P/ ) terminal pressure* psi absolute 4 ) length of line in miles + ) specific gravity of flowing gas 0air ) .123 , ) absolute temperature of flowing gas

+tandard conditions for measurementsA ,s ) standard absolute temperature Ps ) standard pressure* psi absolute 5 ) compressibility factor Lalues of e#pression d/199; for different inside diameter of pipe are given in ,able .1

Another formula quite commonly used is the one determined by %1H1 EliphantA

where ( ) discharge in cubic ft per hour :/ ) a constant P. ) initial pressure in lb<in1/* absolute P/ ) final pressure in lb<in1/* absolute 4 ) length of line in miles a ) diameter coefficient ,his formula assumes a specific gravity of gas of 2191 %or any other specific gravity multiply the final result byA

,he values of diameter coefficients for different si"es of pipes are given belowA

%or pipes greater than ./ in1 in diameter the measure is ta!en from the outside and for pipes of ordinary thic!ness the corresponding inside diameters and multipliers are as followsA

%or determining gas flow rates for specific pressure drops for pipe si"es used in production operations* ,ables =* :* and 7 may be used1 ,he tables are calculated by the Deymouth formula for listed inside diameters of standard weight threaded line pipe for the si"es shown1 ,ables =* :* and 7 give the hourly rates of flow of 21;2 specific gravity gas* flowing at 92-% and measured at a standard temperature of 92-% and at a standard pressure base of .:1: psi > : o"1 gauge pressure of .:197 psi1 %or specific gravity of gas other than 21;2 and for flowing temperature other than 92-% correction can be made by use of the factors shown in ,able /1 %or instance* to determine the flow of gas of specific gravity 2129 flowing at the temperature of /2-% the value obtained from the gas flow ,ables =* :* and 7 would be multiplied by .1./* the factor obtained from ,able /1 2a3le % 2emperature - specific gra4ity multipliers

,o find from ,ables =* : and 7 the volume of gas delivered through any length 4* the volume found from the table should be multiplied by . < sqrt0431 4 must be e#pressed as a multiple of the length heading the table in use1 %or instance if the delivery is to be determined from a :*722 ft line* the volume found for a .*222 ft line in ,able = should be multiplied by .sqrt0:1731 At the bottom of each of the two tables in question multipliers are given to be used as correction factors1 Gse of ,ables =* :* and 7 may be illustrated by the following e#ample1 E#ample. Dhat is the delivery of a /-in1 gas line* =*922 ft long with an upstream pressure of /22 psi and a downstream pressure of 72 psi ,he specific gravity of gas is 212;F the flowing temperature* ;2-%1 %rom ,able = the volume for .*222 ft of line* for 21;2 specific gravity gas and 92-% flowing temperature for /22 and 72 psi up and downstream pressure* respectively* is .2617 &$% per hour1 $orrection factor for the pipe length* from the same table is 17=1 $orrection factor* from ,able / for specific gravity and flowing temperature is 166.1 ,hereforeA Delivery of gas ) .2617 # 17= # 166. ) 7;*7./ cubic ft<hr

Multi!phase $lo

As stated at the beginning of this chapter* the problems of the simultaneous flow of oil and gas or of oil* gas* and water through one pipe have become increasingly important in oil field production operations1 ,he problems are comple# because the properties of two or more fluids must be considered and because of the different patterns of fluid flows* depending upon the flow conditions1 ,hese patterns* in any given line* may change as the flow conditions change* and they may be coe#istent at different points of the line1 =*7*; Different investigators recogni"e different flow patterns and use different nomenclature1 ,hose generally recogni"ed areA .1 Cubble flow - bubbles of gas flow along the upper part of the pipe with about the same velocity as the liquid1 /1 Plug flow - the bubbles of gas coalesce into large bubbles and fill out the large part of the cross-sectional area of the pipe1 =1 4aminar flow - the gas-liquid interface is relatively smooth with gas flowing in the upper part of the pipe1 :1 Davy flow - same as above e#cept that waves are formed on the surface of the liquid1

71 +lug flow - the tops of some waves reach the top of the pipe1 ,hese slugs move with high velocity1 91 Annular flow - the liquid flows along the walls of the pipe and the gas moves through the enter with high velocity1 ;1 +pray flow - the liquid is dispersed in the gas1 ,he above description of flow patterns has been given to emphasi"e the first reason why the pressure drop must be higher for the multi-phase than the single-phase flow1 Bn the latter the pressure drop is primarily the result of friction1 Bn the multi-phase flow* in addition to friction* the energy losses are due to gas accelerating of waves and slugs1 ,hese losses are different for different patterns* with patterns changing as a result of changes in flow conditions1 ,he second reason is the fact that with two phases present in the pipe* less cross-sectional area is available for each of the phases1 As previously discussed* the pressure drop is inversely proportional to the fifth power of pipe diameter1 ,he literature on multi-phase flow is quite e#tensive1 'eference ; gives ;/ references on the subMect1

21o-Phase Hori8ontal 9lo1 Ever twenty correlations have been developed by different investigators for predicting the pressure drop in the two-phase flow1 Gnder the proMect sponsored Mointly by the American Petroleum Bnstitute and American Gas Association at the Gniversity of Houston* five of these correlations were tested by comparing them with /*9/2 e#perimental measurements culled from more than .7*222 available1 ,he statistical part of the report on the proMect concludes that of the five correlations tested* the 4oc!hart-&artinelli correlation shows the best agreement with the e#perimental data* particularly

for pipe si"es commonly used in oil field production operations18 ,he method may be summari"ed as followsA=*: .1 Determine the single-phase pressure drops for the liquid and the gas phase as if each one of these were flowing alone through the pipe1 ,his is done by use of previously given equations1 /1 Determine the dimensionless parameter

where DP4 and DPG are single-phase pressure drops for liquid and gas respectively1 =1 ,he method recogni"es four regimes of the two-phase flow as followsA %low 'egimes Gas 4iquid ,urbulent 4aminar ,urbulent ,urbulent 4aminar 4aminar 4aminar ,urbulent :1 ,he type of flow of each of the phases is determined by its 'eynolds number 0%igure /31 71 Determine factor % from a chart as a function of R for appropriate flow regime1 91 ,he two-phase pressure drop is thenA

,he single-phase pressure drop of either gas or liquid phase can be used1 ,he results are the same1 %or the two-phase flow problems in oil field production operations* certain simplifications can be used if only appro#imate estimates are desiredA .1 Bnformation which would permit determining the volume of oil and gas under flow conditions from equilibrium flash calculation is usually unavailable1 ,he following procedure may be usedA Gas volume is determined by use of the chart in %igure . which shows gas in solution for oil of different gravities and different saturation pressures 0in this case the flowline pressures31 Bf the gas-oil ratio is !nown for one pressure the ratio for another pressure can be determined from the chart as followsA Assume gas oil ratio of 922 cubic ft<bbl at 622 psi for a =2o APB oil1 Determine the gas oil ratio at .*=22 psi1 %rom the chart* at 622 psi* the gas in solution is /27 cubic ft<bbl and at .*=22 psi is =22 cubic ft<bbl* an increase of 67 cubic ft<bbl1 ,herefore* at .*=22 psi the gas oil ratio will be 922 - 67 ) 727 cubic ft<bbl1

Bncrease in volume of oil because of the increase of the dissolved gas can be obtained from charts for calculation of formation volume of bubble point liquids1 However* for appro#imate estimates in problems involving field flowlines* this step frequently can be omitted without seriously affecting the validity of results1 /1 Bn a maMority of cases here under consideration* the flow regime is turbulent-turbulent1 ,herefore the chart in %igure shows the factor for only this regime1 ,he procedure is illustrated by the following e#amples1

E#ample 1. Determine two-phase pressure drops for different flow ratios and different flow pressures under the following conditionsA Eil - =.-APB Liscosity - 7 cp at .22-% +eparator pressure - 622 psig Gas oil ratio - 9;2 cubic ft<bbl %low line - / in1 Dellhead pressure of .*=22 psig was assumed and calculations were made for flow rates of .22 and 72 bbl per day1 ,he single phase pressure drops were calculated for the gas and liquid phases* each of them flowing alone in the line* according to the %anning equations1

$alculation of pressure drop for liquid phaseA Hf ) f 4 0bbl<day3/ 0lb<gal3 < .8.*6.9 D7 where f ) friction factor 4 ) length of pipe* ft D ) inside diameter of pipe* in1 $alculation of pressure drop for gas phaseA see pp1 /82-/8.1 %or the two flow rates and the two pressures* these single-phase pressure drops were calculated to be as followsA

Dith two pressure drops determined for two flow line pressure for each of the flow rates* lines can be drawn showing pressure drop for different flow line pressures for these two rates 0%igure =31 %rom these tow lines relationships can be established for pressure drops for other rates and flow line pressures1 ,he procedure is as followsA +tart with* for instance* 822 psia line1 %or the rate of 72 bpd at 822 psia flow line pressure* the pressure drop from the chart is 12;: psia<.22 ft1 %rom the 72 bpd rate on the scale in the upper part of the chart* go downward to the line representing 12;: psia pressure drop1 ,his gives one point of the 822 psia line1 %or the rate of .22 bpd the chart indicates that at 822 psia flowline pressure* the pressure drop is 1 .;7 psia<.22 ft1 %rom the .22 bpd rate in the upper part of the chart* go downward to the 1.;7 psia<.22 ft line1 ,his gives the second point of the 822 psia line1 ,he line can now be drawn through these two points1 4ines for other pressures can be constructed in a similar way1 ,he chart issued as followsA %or conditions represented by this particular chart* what is the twophase pressure drop for the rate of 92 bpd and average flow line pressure of .*222 psia

+tart at the rate of 92 bpd on the upper scale of the chart1 Go downward to the intersection with the .*222 psia pressure* then to the left* and read the two-phase pressure drop as 21;7 psia<.22 ft1

E#ample %. Bf pipe diameter is to be determined for the desired pressure drop and the !nown length of line* flow rate* and the properties of fluids* then the problem cannot be solved directly1 ,he procedure is as followsA An estimate is made of the diameter of the two-phase line1 ,he best approach is to determine* for the conditions* the diameter of the line for each of the phases flowing separately1 Bn a maMority of cases* the sum of these two diameters will be a good estimate of the diameter for the two-phase line1 $alculations are then made for the two-phase pressure drop using the assumed diameter1 Bf this drop is reasonably close to the desired one* the estimate is correct1 Bf not* a new estimate must be made and the calculations repeated1

Bn hilly terrain additional pressure drop can be e#pected in case of the two-phase flow1 4ittle published information is available on the subMect1 Evid Ca!er suggested the following empirical formulaA.2

Hori8ontal three-phase flo1 Lery little is !nown about the effect on the pressure drop of addition to the gas-oil system of a third phase* an immisicible liquid* water1 %ormation of an emulsion results in increased viscosities1 %ormulas are available for appro#imate determination of viscosity of emulsion* if viscosity of oil and percent of water content of oil is !nown1 ,he point is* however* that it is not !nown what portion of the water is flowing in emulsified form1 %rom one published reference.. and some unpublished data* the following conclusions appear to be well foundedA .1 Dithin the range of water content of less than .2H or more than 62H* the flow mechanism appears to approach that of the two-phase flow1 /1 Dithin the range of water content of from ;2 to 62H* the three-phase pressure drop is considerably higher than for the two-phase flow1 %or solutions of three-phase flow problems of oil field flow lines* the following approach has been used1 ,he oil and water are considered as one phase and the gas as the other phase1 Previously given calculations of a two-phase drop is used1 ,he viscosity of the oil-water mi#ture is determined as followsA S4 ) 0Lo # So > LD # SD3 < 0Lo > LD3 where S4 * So * and SD are viscosities of mi#ture of oil and of water respectively* and Lo and Lw represent the corresponding volumes of oil and water1 No test data are available to determine the accuracy of this approach1 Gntil more information is developed on the subMect the method may be considered for appro#imate estimates1

5eferences .1 Cameron Hydraulic Data* .=th ed1* Bngersoll-'and $ompany* New Oor!* .69/1 /1 Flow of Fluids Through al!es" Fittings and #ipe* ,echnical Paper No1 :.2* Engineering Division* $rane $ompany* $hicago* .67;1 =1 +treeter* Lictor 4* Handbook of Fluid Dynamics* &cGraw-Hill Coo! $ompany* Bnc1* New Oor!* .69.1 :1 Prof D1E1 DurandJs Discussions in Handbook of the #etroleum $ndustry* David ,1 DayF Nohn Diley T +ons* Bnc1 71 Ca!er* Evid I+imultaneous %low of Eil and Gas*I The %il and &as 'ournal* Nuly /9* .67:1 91 $ampbell* Dr1 Nohn &1* IElements of %ield Processing*I ,he Eil and Gas Nournal* December 6* .67;1 ;1 $ampbell* Dr1 Nohn &1* IProblems of &ulti-phase Pipe 4ine %low*I in I%low $alculations in Pipelining*I The %il and &as 'ournal* November :* .6761 81 Duc!ler* A1 E1* Dic!s* BBB* &oye* and $leveland* '1 G1* I%rictional Pressure Drop in ,woPhase %low*I ($ChE 'ournal* Nanuary* .69:1 61 4oc!hart* '1 D1* and &artinelli* '1 $1* IProposed $orrelation of Data for Bsothermal ,woPhase* ,wo-$omponent %low in Pipes*I Chemical Engineering #rogress :7A =6-:8* 0.6:63* .21 Evid Ca!erJs discussion of article IHow Gphill and Downhill %low Affect Pressure Drop in ,wo-Phase Pipe 4ines*I by Crigham* D1 E1* Holstein* E1 D1* and Huntington* '1 41F The %il and &as 'ournal* November ..* .67;1 ..1 +obocins!i* D1 P1* and Huntington* N'1 D1* I$oncurrent %low of Air* Gas* Eil and Dater in a Hori"ontal 4ine*I Trans ()*E 82A .*/7/* .6781 ./1 Ceal* $arlton* I,he Liscosity of Air* Dater* Natural Gas* $rude Eil and Bts Associated Gases at Eil %ield ,emperatures and Pressures*I #etroleum De!elopment and Technology* AB&E* .6:91 .=1 +wit"er* %1 G1 #ump Fa+* Gould Pumps* Bnc1 .:1 #ump Talk* ,he Engineering Department* Dean Crothers Pumps* Bnc1* Bndianapolis* Bnd1 .71 +wit"er* %1 G1* The Centrifugal #ump* Gould Pumps* Bnc1 .91 5alis* A1 A1* IDonJt Ce $onfused by 'otary Pump Performance $urves*I Hydrocarbon #rocessing and #etroleum ,efiner* Gulf Publishing $ompany* +eptember* .69.1

#omograph for calculating ,eynolds num.er for compressi.le flo friction factor for clean steel and rought iron pipe

Bac:ground ,he nomograph 0%igure .3 permits calculation of the 'eynolds number for compressible flow and the corresponding friction factor1 Bt is based on the equationA

where D ) flow rate* lb<hr +g ) specific gravity of gas relative to air qs ) volumetric flow rate* cubic ft<sec 0at .:1; psia and 92-%3 m ) fluid viscosity* centipoise Bf the flow rate is given in lb<hr* the nomograph can be used directly without resorting to %igure / to obtain qs1 %igure / converts volume flow to weight flow rates if the specific gravity of the fluid is !nown1

E#ample. Natural gas as /72 psig and 92-% with a specific gravity of 21;7* flows through an 8-in1 schedule :2 clean steel pipe at a rate of .*/22*222 cubic ft<hr at standard conditions1 %ind the 'eynolds number* and the friction factor1 At +g ) 21;7 obtain q ) 96*222 from %igure .* S ) 212..1 Connect D ) 96*222 Bnde# With S ) 212.. d ) 8 in1 ;ar: or 5ead Bnde# 'e ) 7*222*222 f ) 212.:

Flow of Fluids Through al!es" Fittings" and #ipes* ,echnical Paper No1 :.2* = - .6* $rane $ompany* $hicago* Bllinois 0.67;31

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