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CURRENT TRANSFORMER....

Current transformer is also same as the power transformer with slight difference, current transformer is not used for step up or step down of voltage levels as in case of power transformers. It is mainly used for step down the current levels. Generally in transmitting of power is done at high currents and voltages, but our ammeters and energy meters are does not with stand such high currents, on other hand protective devices like relays are also unable to with stand the high currents. So by step down the current with certain ratio and that value is used for protection and metering, then by multiplying with that factor we can get the real values that in line. So generally secondary current range is 1A or 5A. And primary current was is in order of 1000 amps. MAIN DIFFERENCE between POWER TRANSFORMER and CURRENT TRANSFORMER In power transformer primary current depend upon secondary current, but in current transformer primary current will depend upon on only load not on secondary burden or secondary current. DIFFERENT TESTS OF CURRENT TRANSFORMER.... 1. MEGGER... 2.POLARITY... 3.RATIO TEST... 4.WINDING RESISTANCE... 5.KNEE POINT VOLTAGE TEST...(for PS class only) MEGGER....(INSULATION RESISTANCE) Q. What is the need of doing this test? A. We all know the winding in transformer (either primary or secondary) should be isolated from the ground and primary and secondary winding should be connected magnetically but not electrically. so transformer should maintain some insulation from ground and other winding, and also CT should maintain insulation between cores(in case of multi core CTs). always apply 500v megger for secondary to earth and core to core megger test. Q. Why we should only apply only 500v ? A.The secondary circuit of CT was designed to withstand only low voltages up to 500 volts.If we apply high voltages it will destroy (insulation problem). while doing the megger, specify the temperature why,because resistance 1 / temperature. PROCEDURE : Remove all external connections before conducting the test.

1. Connect the positive lead of megger to primary conductor and negative lead to earth,apply megger voltage for one minute and note down the reading. 2. Connect the positive lead of megger to secondary winding and negative lead to earth,apply megger voltage for one minute and note down the reading. 3. Connect the positive lead of megger to primary conductor and negative lead secondary winding,apply 500v megger voltage for one minute and note down the reading. 4. Connect the positive lead of megger to core 1 and negative lead remaining cores, one by one (in case of multi core CT),apply 500v megger voltage for one minute and note down the reading. POLARITY TEST.... Q.What is the need of doing polarity test? A.Polarity is very sensitive in case of differential and restricted earth fault protections,so it is necessary to identify the polarity of CT. PROCEDURE: remove all external connections before doing test. 1.Connect analog galvanometer to secondary core winding(+ve to S1 and -ve to S2). 2.Apply dc voltage in impulse fashion ( apply and remove) to primary conductor (+ve to P1 and -ve to P2). 3.Observe the deflection in meter. 4.If the deflection is in clock wise then its polarity is correct.other wise polarity is wrong. Q. Why we are using galvanometer not ammeter? A. Galvanometer only senses small currents (as we are applying 1.5 volts to primary,secondary current is low). Q. Why we apply dc voltage is in impulse fashion,not continiously? A. For pure dc we cannot generate time varying flux,if not transformer action will not developed. Q.What will happen ac voltage? A. pointer in galavonameter will continiously oscilates which we cannot idetify the polarity RATIO TEST.... Q. What is the need of doing ratio test? A. We will check the ratio according to manufacture specification. PROCEDURE: 1. Remove all external connections. 2. Short the secondary winding. 3. Inject 25% of rated primary current by using auto transformer and loading transformer. 4.Note down the secondary current by using leakage current tester. 5. Check the ratio by dividing primary current by secondary current. 6. Repeat the same procedure for 50% , 75% , 100% of primary current.

7. Repeat the same test for different tappings. 8. Discharge the charge after completion of test. WINDING RESISTANCE.... Q.What is the need of doing winding resistance test? A. For different types of CT 's we have different secondary resistance values which are specified on name plate details.It will mainly depend upon burden to be connected to CT and knee point voltage of CT. Q.Can this test done by multi meter? or should we use any kit? A. We can do by using multi meter because CT winding resistance is some what higher so multi meter probe resistance will not effect so much. PROCEDURE: 1. Isolate secondary of CT from any other winding. 2. By using multi meter measure winding resistance. 3. Repeat the same for different taps if it has tappings. KNEE POINT VOLTAGE TEST.... Q.What is the knee point voltage? A. It is the point at where 50% of secondary current increases in order to increase 10% of voltage in secondary winding. Q. Why it is important in only PS class? what about metering class and over current and earth fault protection (5P class) ? A. for metering and 5P class, secondary circuit is small so the voltage drop across burden is small,it implies that voltage across secondary winding is small,then it will not saturate in normal case.But in PS(the class used only for differential protection purpose) class secondary burden is very high so the voltage across secondary winding is also high which may be divert our CT to saturate position in normal condition also,so generally by designing specially(secondary current only 1amps, as to minimize ohimic loss in secondary circuit). So generally manufacture provide knee point voltage maximum compared to other classes). Q. What is burden? A. The load connected to secondary winding (sum of relay impedance or meter impedance and control cable resistance and CT secondary winding resistance). Q. why we are doing this test? A. We are just checking the manufacture specification is correct or not. PROCEDURE: 1. Isolate the CT from all external connections. 2. Apply 10% of knee point voltage (provided on name plate details) to the secondary circuit by using auto transformer. 3. Measure secondary current by using leakage current tester. 4. Increase the voltage by 10% step by step and measure current as said above.

5. Repeat the steps up 100% of knee point voltage. 6. After knee point voltage , current will not increase as starting (proportionally). 7. Repeat the same procedure for different tapping..