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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT

BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

E-WASTE
A REPORT ON GUIDED RESEARCH AND READING
Submitted by
KRUNAL P. JAJAL (130070109023)
PUSHPRAJ M. ZALA (130070109062)

In
Electrical Engineering Department

Birla Vishvakarma Mahavidyalaya,


Vallabh Vidyanagar

Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad


December, 2013

Birla Vishvakarma Mahavidyalaya, V.V.Nagar


Electrical Engineering Department
December, 2013
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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

CERTIFICATE
Date:
This is to certify that the Report entitled E-WASTE has been carried out by KRUNAL
JAJAL, PUSHPRAJ ZALA under my guidance in fulfillment of 1 stsem of Bachelor of
Engineering in Electrical Engineering (1st Semester) of Gujarat Technological Universityduring
the academic year 2013-14.

Academic Guide:
Prof. A. A. Shaikh
Electrical Engineering,
B.V.M. College.

Prof. (Dr.) B.R.Parekh


Head of Department,
Electrical Engineering,
B.V.M. College.

ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

ACKNOWLEDGRMENT
The submission of the Report gives us an opportunity to convey our gratitude to all those
who have helped us in completion of our research and providing valuable guidance throughout
the work. With immense pleasure, I would like to present this Report on the research work
related to E-WASTE.
I would first like to acknowledge to my research guide Prof. A.A.Sheikh, Electrical
Engineering Department, BVM College, VallabhVidhyanagar who has given me invaluable
support and has helped me through his invaluable suggestions throughout the duration of the
research and has been an unending source of inspiration for me. My sincere thanks and gratitude
to Dr. B.R.Parekh, Head, Electrical Engineering Department, BVM College,
VallabhVidhyanagar, for their continual kind words of encouragement and motivations
throughout the research work and for providing me all kind of required guidance.
At last we would like to extend our deepest thanks to the college authorities
&CharutarVidyaMandal (CVM) for showing trust in our abilities and providing us with an
atmosphere to work in. We were allowed to usage of all facilities and infrastructure available in
the department of BVM Engineering College.

Student Name:
1) KRUNAL P. JAJAL
2) PUSHPRAJ M. ZALA

ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

LIST OF TABLE

TABLE NO.

DESCRIPTION

PAGE NO.

Hazardous substances in e-waste

14

Non-hazardous substances in e-waste

14

Potential environmental pollutants produced

18

from e-waste management procedures

ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE NO.

DESCRIPTION

PAGE NO.

Material content of mobile phone

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E-waste toxic components and their damage to human health

16

E-waste generation and recycling 2000-2011

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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

ABSTRACT
Here, we have done work on our topic E-WASTE. We discuss about how e-waste is generated,
what the sources of e-waste are and what e-waste is consist of. We have also explored, how it is
dangerous for human health and environment and how we can recycle e-waste.

ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

INDEX
Page No.

CERTIFICATE...2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT..3
LIST OF TABLES..4
LIST OF FIGURES....5
ABSTRACT...6

CHAPTER: 1

INTRODUCTION...9

1.1 Introduction to e-waste..9


CHAPTER: 2

E-WASTE..12

2.1 Definition of e-waste12


2.2 Sources in e-waste12
2.3 Main issues...13
2.4 Hazardous & non-hazardous substances in e-waste.14
CHAPTER: 3

EFFECTS OF E-WASTE...16

3.1 Effects of e waste on human.16


3.2 Effects of e-waste on environment...17
3.3 Long-term effects on human health and the environment18
CHAPTER: 4

RECYCLE OF E-WASTE.20

4.1 Why e-waste such a problem? .....................................................20


4.2 Why cant e-waste just go into landfill? ..20
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4.3 What kinds of sources are recovered from e-waste? ...................21


4.4 Importance of recycling e-waste..21
4.5 How to properly dispose of e-waste? ..........................................22
4.6 What Happens to the e-waste after they reach the E-waste
Management Facilities? ............................................................. 24
4.7 Recycling CRTs from TVs and monitors.25
CHAPTER: 5

CONCLUSION.26

REFERENCES...27

ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

CHAPTER: 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction to e-waste


Over the last decades the electronics industry has revolutionized the world: electrical and
electronic products have become ubiquitous of today's life around the planet. Without these
products, modern life would not be possible in (post-) industrialized and industrializing
countries. These products serve in such areas as medicine, mobility, education, health,
foodsupply, communication, security, environmental protection and culture. Such appliances
include many domestic devices like refrigerators, washing machines, mobile phones, personal
computers, printers, toys and TVs.
The amount of appliances put on market every year is increasing both in (post-) industrialized
and industrializing countries:
In the European Union (EU) the total weight of electronic appliances put on the market

in 2005 ranged up to more than 9.3 million tons with a sensible growing rate,
particularly in Eastern Europe. Electronic appliances put on the market included :

44+ million large household appliances in EU15,

48 million desktops and laptops,

Approximately 32 million TVs,

776 million lamps,

In the United States of America (USA), in 2006, more than 34 million TVs and displays

have been placed on the market, while more than 24 million PCs and roughly 139
million portable communication devices such as cell phones, pagers or smart-phones
have been manufactured. It has to be highlighted that in the last couple of years the
highest growth rate has occurred in communication devices: less than 90 million were
sold in 2003, whereas 152 million are expected to be sold in 2008,
India had an installed base of about 5 million PCs in 2006, which is contributing to the

25% compounded annual growth rate in the Indian PC industry ,


In China roughly 14 million PCs were sold in 2005, as well as more than 48 million

TVs, nearly 20 million refrigerators and 7.5 million air conditioners in 2001, both
growth rate and market penetration are increasing year by year,
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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

GSM Association estimates that 896 million mobile phone handsets were sold in 2006

worldwide.
Currently, the available data on e-waste arising is poor and insufficient and estimation techniques
are required for extension of known data to regional-global coverage. United Nations
Universitys estimations indicate that current e-waste arising across the twentyseven members of
the European Union amount to around 8.3 9.1 million tons per year; global arising are
estimated to be around 40 million tons per year.
Treatment processes of e-waste aim at either removing the hazardous items or at separation of as
much as possible of the main recyclable materials (e.g. metals, glass and plastics), but achieving
both objectives would be most desired. Although very limited information on e-waste treatment
capacity in the EU Member States can be obtained, it is likely that the EU15 Member States
should have had installed sufficient capacity to treat collected e-waste already by the middle of
2007. The situation in Central and Eastern Europe is likely to be different and it currently
appears that a regional approach will be adopted. For example, Lithuania is planning to serve the
Baltic States needs and Hungary is expected to provide capacity for its neighboring countries,
which will include Bulgaria and Romania.
Given the very limited data availability on amounts of e-waste collected and treated through
official e-waste system channels, it is clear that the management of significant proportions of
e-waste currently go unreported in Central and Eastern Europe. Moreover, the alarming and
increasing reports on the e-waste situation in e.g. China, Nigeria, Pakistan and Ghana, in addition
to the stocktaking of the situation in many more
African and Latin American nations as part of the global Solving the E-waste Problem (StEP)
Initiative, illustrate the urgent need to transfer and install appropriate and innovative
technologies in the industrializing world.
Within relevant literature on environmental problems, the terms technique and technology
are often used synonymously. However, the terms technique and technology are not
synonymous within the e-waste discussion as technique refers to methods of creating new
tools, establishing products of tools and the capacity for constructing such
arteffects.Contrastingly, the definition of technology implies the know-how required to
develop and apply techniques and technical procedures. Thus it exists embodied in machinery
and equipment and unembodied in blueprints, technical instructions, manuals etc.
Consequently, the term technology reflects four different dimensions as summarized by
Hillenbrand.

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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

(1) The specific configuration of techniques and thus machinery and equipment designed to

production process or for the provision of services, which can be summarized under the
term technical hardware,
(2) The scientific and technical knowledge, formal qualifications and experienced-based

knowledge, what Hildebrand calls know-how,


(3) The management methods used to link technical hardware and know-how, known under

organization,
(4) The physical good or service emerging from the production process and thus entitled

product.
Based on the above, this report implies that technologies are not only technical installations, but
also skills, processes and combinations thereof. In this respect, e.g. also a systematic manual
dismantling of an electronic device or a well elaborated chain of different processes is regarded
as technology and can be defined as innovative.

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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

CHAPTER: 2
E-WASTE
2.1

DEFINATION OF E-WASTE

E-waste is the term used to describe old, end of life or discarded appliances using
electricity and battery.
E-waste is a popular name for electronic products nearing the end of their useful
life.
Electronic waste, e-waste or WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
EQUIPMENT (WEEE) is a waste consisting of any broken or unwanted
electrical or electronic appliances.
E-waste contain toxic substance and chemicals which are likely to have adverse
effect on environment and health, if not handled properly
Although e-waste is a general term, it can be considered to cover TVs, computers,
mobile phones, white goods (e.g. fridges, washing machines, dryersetc.), home
entertainment and stereo systems, toys, toasters, kettles almost any household or
businessitem with circuitry or electrical components with power or battery supply

2.2

SOURCES OF E-WASTE

Large household appliances (ovens, refrigerators etc.)


Small household appliances (toasters, vacuum cleaners etc.)
Office & communication (PCs, printers, phones, faxes etc.)
Entertainment electronics (TVs, HiFis, portable CD players etc.)
Lighting equipment (mainly fluorescent tubes)
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E-tools (drilling machines, electric lawnmowers etc.)


Sports & leisure equipment (electronic toys, training machines etc.)
Medical appliances and instruments
Surveillance equipment
Automatic issuing systems (ticket issuing machines etc.)

2.3 MAIN ISSUES


The main issues posed by e-waste are as follows:

High volumes:
High volumes are generated due to the rapid obsolescence of gadgets combined with the high
demand for new technology.

Toxic design:
E-waste is classified as hazardous waste having adverse health and environmental
implications. Approximately 40 per cent of the heavy metals found in landfills comes from
electronic waste.

Poor design and complexity:


E-waste imposes many challenges on the recycling industry as it contains many different
materials that are mixed, bolted, screwed, snapped, glued or soldered together. Toxic materials
are attached to non-toxic materials, which makes separation of materials for reclamation
difficult. Hence, responsible recycling requires intensive labor and/or sophisticated and costly
technologies that safely separate materials.

Labor issues:
These include occupational exposures, informal sector domination causing health and
environmental problems, lack of labor standards and rights.

Financial incentives:
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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

In general, there is not enough value in most e-waste to cover the costs of managing it in a
responsible way. However, in line with EPR policies, new opportunities can be realized with the
rise in the price of many of the materials in electronics, such as gold and copper. Furthermore,
with rising e-waste quantities, formal recyclers are increasingly entering the e-waste recycling
sector.

Lack of regulation:
Many nations either lack adequate regulations applying to this relatively new waste stream, or
lack effective enforcement of new e-waste regulations.

2.4

HAZARDOUS AND NON-HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN


E-WASTE

SUBSTANCE

SOURCE

Lead (Pb)

Solder in the printed circuit boards,


Glass panels and gaskets in computer
Monitors.

Cadmium(Cd)

Chip resistors and semi-conductors, Nickel cadmium batteries.

Mercury(Hg)

Relays and switches, printed circuit Boards.

Hexavalent Chromium
(Cr)

Corrosion protection of untreated and galvanized steel plates,


decorator or Hardener for steel houses.

Plastics Including(PVC)
Barium (Ba)

Cabling and computer housing.


Plastic housing of electronic equipment And circuit boards.

Americium
Beryllium Oxide

Smoke alarms (radioactive source).


Filter in some thermal materials such as thermal grease used on
heat sinks for CPU and power transistors, magnetrons, X ray
transparent ceramic windows, Transfer in vacuum tubes and gas
lasers.
Bipolar junction transistors.

Germanium

Table: 1 Hazardous substances in e-waste


SUBSTANCE
Tin
Copper
Aluminum

SOURCE
Solder coating on components +leads
Supper wire , printed circuit broad tracksComponent leads
Nearly all electronic goods using more than a few watts of power
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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

electrolytic Capacitors.
Iron
Silicon
Nickel
Lithium
Zinc
Gold

Steel casing cases and firings


Glass ,transistors, ICS, printed circuits boards
Nickel cadmium batteries
Lithium ion batteries
Plating for steel parts
Connecter plating primarily in computer Equipment.

Table: 2 Non-hazardous substances in e-waste

Figure: 1 Material content of mobile phone

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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

CHAPTER: 3
EFFECTS OF E-WASTE
3.1 EFFECTS OF E-WASTE ON HUMAN
Lead is toxic to the kidneys, accumulating in the body and eventually affecting the
nervous and reproductive systems. Childrens mental development can be impaired by
low level exposure to lead.
When burned, PVC produces dioxins, some of the most hazardous carcinogens known.
Brominated flame retardants have been linked to fetal damage and thyroid problems.
Barium produces brain swelling after a short exposure. It may cause weakness in muscles
as well as heart, liver and spleen damage.
Hexavalent chromium damages kidneys, the liver and DNA. Asthmatic bronchitis has
been linked to this substance.
Mercury is known to harm developing fetuses and is passed through the mothers milk to
newborns. In adults it can cause brain and kidney damage.
Beryllium causes acute or chronic beryllium disease, a deadly element affecting the
lungs.
Cadmium is a carcinogen and long-term exposure leads to kidney and bone damage.

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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

Figure: 2 E-waste toxic components and their damage to human health

3.2 EFFECTS OF E-WASTE ON ENVIRONMENT


Mercury accumulates in the food chain. It is responsible for death, reduced fertility,
slower growth and development in animals.
Cadmium is harmful to micro-organisms and to eco-system.
As per report of April 2013 40 million metric tons of e-waste are produced globally each
year.
About 9 million tons of this waste discarded televisions, computers, cellphones and other
electronics are produced by the European Union according to the United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP).

Substance

Occurrence in

Typical concentration
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Global emissions

ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

e-waste

in e-waste (mg/kg)a

(tons)b

Halogenated compounds:
PCB
TBBA, PBB,
PBDE
CFC
PVC

Condensers, Transformers
Fire retardants for plastics
(thermoplastic components,
cable insulation)
Cooling unit, Insulation foam
Cable insulation

14

280

Heavy metals and other metals:


Antimony
Arsenic (As)
Barium (Ba)
Beryllium (Be)
Cadmium (Cd)

Chromium (Cr)
Copper (Cu)
Lead (Pb)
Lithium (Li)
Mercury (Hg)

Nickel (Ni)
Rare Earth
elements
Selenium (Se)
Tin (Sn)
Zinc sulphide

Fire retardant, plastics


Small quantities in the form of
gallium arsenide within light
emitting diodes
Getters in CRT
Power supply boxes which
contain silicon controlled
rectifiers and x-ray lenses
Rechargeable NiCd-batteries,
fluorescent layer (CRT screens),
printer inks and toners,
photocopying-machines (printer
drums)
Data tapes, floppy-disks
Cabling
CRT screens, batteries, printed
wiring boards
Lithium (Li) Li-batteries
Fluorescent lamps that provide
backlighting in LCDs, in some
alkaline batteries and mercury
wetted switches
Rechargeable NiCd-batteries or
NiMH-batteries, electron gun in
CRT
Fluorescent layer (CRT-screen)
Older photocopying-machines
(photo drums)
Solder metal glue, LCD
Interior of CRT screens, mixed
with rare earth metals

Others:
Toner Dust

Toner cartridges for laser


18

1,700

34,000

180

3,600

9,900
41,000
2,900

198,000
820,000
58,000

0.68

13.6

10,300

206,000

2,400
5,100

48,000
102,000

ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

Radio-active
substances

printers / copiers
Medical equipment, fire
detectors, active sensing element
in smoke detectors

Table: 3 Potential environmental pollutants produced from e-waste management


procedures.

3.3 LONG-TERM EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH AND THE


ENVIRONMENT
The degree of hazard posed to workers and the environment varies greatly depending on
the individuals involved and the nature of operations. What is known is that the pollution
generated by e-waste processing brings about toxic or genotoxic effects on the human
body, threatening the health not only of workers but also of current residents and future
generations living in the local environment (Liu et al., 2009).
It is evident from several studies in China that the rudimentary recycling techniques
coupled with the amounts of e-waste processed have already resulted in adverse
environmental and human health impacts, including contaminated soil and surface water
(Zhao et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Frazzoli, Orisakwe, Dragone & Mantovani, 2010;
Tsydenova & Bengtsson, 2011). Health problems have been reported in the last few
years, including diseases and problems related to the skin, stomach, respiratory tract and
other organs (Nordbrand, 2009).
Workers suffer high incidences of birth defects, infant mortality, tuberculosis, blood
diseases, anomalies in the immune system, malfunctioning of the kidneys and respiratory
system, lung cancer, underdevelopment of the brain in children and damage to the
nervous and blood systems (Prakash & Manhart, 2010). However, long-term health
studies of e-waste workers have yet to be conducted.
Long-range transport of pollutants has also been observed, which suggests a risk of
secondary exposure in remote areas.
Atmospheric pollution due to burning and dismantling activities seems to be the main
cause of occupational and secondary exposure (Seplveda et al., 2010).

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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

Informal sector e-waste activities are also a crucial source of environment-to food- chain
contamination, as contaminants may accumulate in agricultural lands and be available for
uptake by grazing livestock.
In addition, most chemicals of concern have a slow metabolic rate in animals, and may
bio accumulate in tissues and be excreted in edible products such as eggs and milk.
E-waste-related toxic effects can be exacerbated throughout a persons lifetime and
across generations. E-waste therefore constitutes a significant global environmental and
health emergency, with implications far broader than occupational exposure and
involving vulnerable groups and generations to come (Frazzoli, Orisakwe, Dragone &
Mantovani, 2010).

CHAPTER: 4
RECYCLE OF E-WASTE
4.1 WHY E-WASTE SUCH A PROBLEM

The issue of e-waste is relatively new to the world, given the digital age only began to take off
with the invention of the World Wide Web in 1989. The idea of 'socially responsible recycling' is

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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

still catching on and the idea of how to dispose of our e-waste is something most of us don't
think about.
The problem is that when we do need to get rid of a computer or TV, we tend to look for the
cheapest and quickest option. However, the e-waste recycler who offers to take your e-waste
cheaply or for free may be the one who is shipping your e-waste overseas and that's bad
news.Even in this age of information, e-waste from the developed world is still being dumped in
countries whose rules about e-waste are more relaxed. This often means it will arrive in a thirdworld country where it will have direct and devastating effects on the environment and the
people who are making a very small living recycling it for us

4.2 WHY CANT E-WASTE JUST GO INTO LANDFILL?

1.

Conservation: Recycling means we can recover and reuse the earth's precious finite
resources, such as copper, lead, iron, gold, and silver etc. Before recycling we were dumping
items, containing these valuable non-renewable resources, into landfill and mining for new
resources to produce new items.

2.

Health: E-waste is toxic and when it is dumped in the ground as landfill, these toxins can
leach into the ground, ground-water and streams and cause harm to human health and the
environment. By recycling we are looking after the health of plants, animals and people.
Recycling provides for the safe removal of toxic substances that pollute the environment. The
materials of main concern are lead, cadmium, brominated flame retardants, mercury and PVC
plastic.

3.

Sharing: Some of the e-waste that comes to be recycled is still useful. A percentage of
PCs and laptops that others have no use for can be refurbished for marginalized individuals
and groups who would otherwise be excluded from participating in the digital age!

4.3 WHAT KINDS OF SOURCES ARE RECOVERED FROM E-WASTE?


The recycling of a computer can recover many of the materials that were used in the
manufacturing process. The main material components of a Personal Computer are: Silica
(24.8%), Plastics (23 %), Iron (20.47 %), Aluminum (14.17%), Copper (6.9%), Lead
(6.3%), and Zinc (2.2%).
Trace Elements of value are Gold (0.0016%) and Silver (0.0189%).
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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

Primary production of materials from natural resources provides manufacturing industries


with many of its requirements. Recycling provides a strong secondary source of valuable
materials and reduces the amount of disposable refuse that goes into landfill.

4.4 IMPORTANCE OF RECYCLING OF E-WASTE


Globally, 50 million tons of e-waste is generated annually and has all potential to grow at much
faster rate than any other waste streams. It is very interesting to note that even after the due use,
this particular waste is of great significance & value. Generally speaking, e-waste consists of
more than 92% recoverable and reusable commodities, some of them are highly precious and
limited and in terms of absolute numbers, 50 million tons of e-waste consists of 15 million tons
of steel (more than annual production of SAIL), 4 million tons of aluminum, 6 million tons of
copper over & above glass, plastic, silver, gold, palladium, platinum, iridium etc. In spite of so
resource rich, 80% of e-scrap goes in land fill because of high recycling costs in developed
nations. And, the developing nations, where recycling is a natural phenomenon, unfortunately do
not deploy environment friendly practices. Effectively, both the sets of countries are equally
harming the environment and polluting air, water &soil and finally we breathe in polluted air,
drink contaminated water and eat grains, vegetables, fruits, fishes etc. with several toxics.
To reproduce the above commodities, we need to go deeper in to the mines and excavate in
multiples to produce required quantities of respective commodities, invest in infrastructure, use
billion of units of electricity, millions of man years, generate carbon foot print and meet in
Copenhagen to resolve. The above certainly justifies that end of life electrical & electronic
equipments are really Resource and by recycling we can save lots of other inputs which may
be used elsewhere for other socio economic developments.
It is evident that demand of such gadgets will continue to increase because of change in
technology, status & style.Besides the incremental demand for obvious reasons, computing &
communication are the barometers of socioeconomicchange. And therefore, I strongly believe
that we should not bother about the increase in the quantumof e-waste, what we should really
focus on the method of collection till disposal of hazardous substances and needless to say that
these facilities should be completely environment friendly so that we need not to meet either in
Basel or Copenhagen for such negative and non-productive kind of objectives.
Man made products have certain life cycle and at the same time natural resources are not in
proportion to our need & greed, therefore we must realize that recycling is a parallel industry and
we must act faster.
It becomes more important if we look at the several other indirect benefits over & above cleaner
& greener environment because of proper recycling, better health less hospitals, better
productivity lesser price, significantly less investment in recycling facilities in comparison to the
infrastructure industries to reproduce same commodities, less mining less imbalance to the
equilibrium so on and so forth.
At the same time, there are certain challenges, which are equally important to note, a few of them
are:
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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
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1. Reverse Logistics
2. Returns
3. Responsibility
Post sales the products gets spread over nationally (considering local sales only), to collect back
used material from door to door is not that commercially viable & feasible as in the beginning,
look at the used mobile phones or used water bottle. Therefore, it is very essential that
responsible reverse logistic system is made mandatory for each &every generator of the
discarded equipments to drop or get transported the e-waste at the designated collection points.
Ecoreco has developed a network of collection for its more than 250 corporate entities across
India and their several offices. Similar model can be put in to place for the individuals also
provided they get together and accumulate inventory at one location, like wise educational
institutions can allow students and their families to bring their e-waste on certain intervals and
inform to Ecoreco to collect.
Another major challenge in India is that majority of the generators of e-waste expects huge
returns and also expect the recyclers must take away from their door steps & process at their
costs & expenses , barring a few, who loves safer environment. This attitude gives birth to
unorganized dismantler, who does not care for the environment and openly burn or dilute several
items in acids/other hazardous chemicals to recover metals besides many other polluting
methods. A paradigm shift is required in the approach to give priority to environment above
financial gains.
Third major challenge relates to the responsibility, there is no specific provision under the law
which makes it mandatory for the manufacturer to take back after use and to the consumers cash
returns are more important, in such circumstance it is difficult for the recyclers to get the e-waste
for environment friendly recycling, until &unless there is a regulatory pressure.

4.5 How to properly dispose of e-waste


As technology continues to advance at lightning fast speeds, so does the amount of e-waste,
accounting for obsolete items and those unwanted due to favorability of newer models. E-waste
stands for Electronic Waste and includes items such as old televisions, computers, printers,
VCRs and even mobile phones. These can either be in working condition or not.

Selling off your outdated technology:


Taking advantage of sites such as eBay, craigslist and gum tree, or even the humble, old
fashioned garage sale can help you to eradicate the unused technology piling up around your
house. This is an easy way to make some fast cash off of your unwanted goods rather than just
dumping them. Old Nintendo video games for example are always highly sought after on eBay
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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

and depending on the title can sell for up to $40. Similarly, in most cities, stores such as Cash
Converters are more than happy to take those old DVD players and laptops off your hands while
reimbursing you for your trouble!
However, while some have old electronics due to upgrades, others simply have broken printers
or crashed computers sitting around their homes. While these obviously wont collect as much
money through the usual avenues you should remember that even if something isnt in working
condition there are always Mr. Fix-it types after a challenge!
Get rid of your useless e-waste responsibly:
Nevertheless, there is always something that no one else will want, whether it is a TV with a
cracked screen or old PlayStation games scratched beyond recognition. For items such as these
which cannot be otherwise environmentally disposed of, services such as 1800ewaste are
available. They collect your e-waste at a fee and take it to recycling facilities.
Other recycling methods for old recyclable electronic goods:
Another popular service is the website recyclingnearyou.com.au by Planet Ark which details
recycling information and facilities according to your State and postcode in order to ensure the
correct disposal of recyclable materials including e-waste. This includes the current printer
cartridge recycling program; outlets in your area at which you can dispose of old printer
cartridges are displayed when you enter your State and postcode details.

Figure: 3 E-waste generation and recycling 2000-2011


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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

4.6 What Happens to the e-waste after they reach the E-waste Management
Facilities?

Most of the e-waste consists of old laptops, computers, televisions and mobile phones. Here is
recycling process at a glance.
E-waste management has become a global phenomenon these days. The rate at which the
electronics industry is progressing, a new device is not so new after just 6 months of its
introduction. As a result people get obsessed with it and the device ends up either in their garage
or for sale.
A better way to utilize your useless gadgets is to opt for e-waste management which is
universally becoming gradually popular. But have you ever thought that after the facilitys truck
take away your stash after paying you the promised money, what happens to the stuff. Well, this
post will give you a clear idea of the same.
Most of the e-waste consists of old laptops, computers, televisions and mobile phones. These
contain really precious materials which can be resold or reused in the form of raw materials.
As much as 98% materials by weight can be recycled as per the following process. Also the
destruction of confidential data takes place intermittently which is a really important part of
recycling that protects the sensitive info from being leaked.

First of all the waste is sorted using hands and all the crude copper materials and batteries
are separated and sent for quality control.

The remaining items are safely shred to pieces not more than 100mm so that the size is
apt so that the e-waste can be meticulously sorted. This is the stage where data
destruction also occurs.

The debris so collected is subject to vibrations to make sure that the debris is evenly
spread before it is even finely ground. Any dust extracted in the process is gotten rid of in
an eco-friendly manner.

Iron and Steel are segregated from the debris using powerful magnets.

Metals like Copper, Brass and Aluminum are segregated from the non-metallic
components so that these can be sold as pure raw materials.
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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

Then water is implemented to separate Glass and Plastics. Once all these materials are
segregated, they can be easily resold.

4.7 Recycling CRTs from TVs and monitors

CRTs consist of some really harmful elements like lead which affect both the environment and
the human lives. So these need to be handled really cautiously.

First of all the body shell is separated from the CRT so that the shell can be utilized as in
the former mentioned process.

The screens and tubes now left are shredded and the dust is taken care of in an ecofriendly manner again.

Iron and Steel are parted from the glass using powerful magnets. To segregate Aluminum
and Copper, eddy currents are passed through the debris.

The remaining material which is mostly glass is then moved through the washing line to
get rid of any phosphors, oxides or dust extracts. This leaves only clean glass.

The final stage separates the unleaded glass form the leaded glass. These can now be used
to recreate new screens. This process is also called the closed loop recycling process.

CHAPTER: 6
CONCLUSION

What is e-waste? Quite simply e-waste is all of those old electronics that we've got that have
become outdated and we don't want them anymore. But e-waste is very dangerous for human
health and environment because it has many hazardous substances. This is having a horrible
effect on our world.
So one can do this things:
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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

Well first off, don't just throw your old cell phones or computers away. CRT monitors (the big
bulky ones) are particular hazardous. So what can you do with them? Find a place that shows
responsibility in them way they handle and recycle or reuse.
If your old units still work but have merely been eclipsed by newer models, then by all means
donate them to a needy cause that will either put them to good use or resell them to help fund
their programs. Youll earn a tax deduction for a charitable donation and, by keeping the
equipment alive, prevent the manufacture of new units and thus, if ever so slightly, reduce the
footprint of your operations.
I know it can be tempting to go buy that latest and greatest electronic device, but think a little bit
about what all these electronics are doing to the environment and whether its something that you
really need or not.

REFERENCES

1. RECYCLING FROME-WASTE TO RESOURCES Report by United Nations


Environment Programme& United Nations University, 2009
2. E-WASTE IN INDIA Report by RESEARCH UNIT (LARRDIS), RAJYA SABHA
SECRETARIAT, NEW DELHI, JUNE, 2011.
3. http://ewasteguide.info/introduction/e-waste
4. www.ewaste.com.au/
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ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
BIRLA VISHVAKARMA MAHAVIDYALAYA, V.V.NAGAR, ANAND.

5. http://www.pacebutler.com/blog/
6. http://www.renewablerecyclers.org.au/

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