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Impact of the Project Manager on Project Management Planning Processes

ABSTRACT A projects successful completion depends upon planning and the execution. As planning proceeds execution, proper planning is of the utmost importance. Since the project manager is fully accountable for the success of the project, he is responsible for verifying that all planning processes are properly executed. The objective of the study reported in this paper is to evaluate the impact of the project manager on the quality of project planning processes within the nine nowledge areas defined by the !"#$%. !articipants in the study were requested to evaluate their planning procedure on five li ert scale questionnaire& the results of the study reveal '(is "anagement) and '*ommunications) as the ones with the lowest planning quality. Analysis of the results indicates that the poor quality in these areas is a result of the insufficient now+how of the project manager and the functional managers. ,mproving the poor quality planning processes requires the development of new tools in areas such as communications, as well as organi-ational training programs designed for the functional managers.

INTRODUCTION !roject success is measured as the ability to complete the project according to desired specifications, and within the specified budget and the promised time schedule, while eeping the customer and sta eholders happy. .or proper project completion both planning and execution need to be properly implemented. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the actual impact of the project manager on the quality of project planning processes and to resolve how his decisions can be more effective. The methodology used in this study is based on the !roject "anagement #ody of %nowledge / !"#$%. According to the !"#$% a project manager is concerned with nine different nowledge areas. The processes are grouped into the following four life cycle phases0 initiation, planning, execution and closure. This study concentrates on the planning phase. These processes can be well defined by this table. Kno le!ge Area ,ntegration !roject Scope Planning Processes !roject !lan 1evelopment Scope !lanning, 1efinition Time Activity 1efinition, Activity Sequencing, Activity 2stimating, *ost Schedule 1evelopment (esource !lanning, *ost 2stimating, 4uality 5uman (esources *ost #udgeting 4uality !lanning 4uality 4uality *ontrol Team 1evelopment *ost *ontrol 1uration Other Processes !lan 2xecution, ,ntegrated *hange *ontrol ,nitiation, Scope 3erification, Scope *hange *ontrol Schedule *ontrol

Assurance, $rgani-ational !lanning, Staff Acquisition

*ommunications

*ommunications !lanning

,nformation 1istribution, !erformance (eporting,

(is

(is !lanning,

Administrative *losure "anagement (is "onitoring 6 *ontrol

(is ,dentification, 4ualitative (is Analysis, 4uantitative (is Analysis, (is (esponse !lanning !rocurement !rocurement !lanning, Solicitation !lanning Solicitation, Source Selection, *ontract Administration

$ut of the 78 processes listed, 9: are identified by the !"#$% as related to planning. ,f a project is to be properly planned, these 9: processes have to be properly executed.

Research Metho!olog"#

A field study was conducted to evaluate the extent of the project managers involvement in the planning processes and to evaluate their quality. !articipants in the study were project managers and others who are involved in project management activities. The 9; participants were as ed to complete the survey. *onvenience sampling was used in this study. The following scale was used for evaluating the intensity of use of the different products0 < / The product is always obtained = / The product is obtained quite frequently 7 / The product is obtained frequently 9 / The product is seldom obtained : / The product is hardly ever obtained ; / , do not now whether the product is being obtained

Res$lts % &in!ings#
A simple mean and standard deviation method is used to find out the results. Kno le!ge Area ,ntegration !roject Scope Time Planning Processes Mean !roject !lan = 1evelopment Scope !lanning, 1efinition Activity 1efinition, Activity Sequencing, Activity 2stimating, Schedule *ost 1evelopment (esource !lanning, *ost 2stimating, 4uality *ost #udgeting 4uality !lanning 9.8 4uality Assurance, :.9 7.7 .: 1uration 7.> 7.8 S'D :.: ;.8 ;.?

5uman (esources

$rgani-ational !lanning, Staff Acquisition

7.?

.8

*ommunications (is

*ommunications

9.7

:.: :.9

!lanning (is "anagement 9.7 !lanning, (is ,dentification, 4ualitative Analysis, 4uantitative Analysis, (is !lanning (esponse (is (is

!rocurement

!rocurement !lanning, Solicitation !lanning

7.7

:.9

(igh )$alit" areas, to which ,ntegration, Scope, Time, and 5uman (esources belong. The score for this group is around =. Me!i$m )$alit" areas, to which *ost, 4uality, and !rocurement belong. The score for this group is around 7. Poor )$alit" areas, to which (is and *ommunications belong. The score of both is around 9.7.

ANA*+SIS AND DISCUSSION Assuming that for successful completion of a project, all processes in the nine nowledge areas should be of high quality, we should discuss ways to improve the poor

performance areas. !erformance in a specific area is a function of the project managers now+how of that area, the now+how of other professionals, such as functional managers, who are involved in the specific process, and with the project managers ability to affect the area and its attendant processes. ,n general, functional managers are accountable for the proper execution of the specific wor pac ages assigned to them, whereas the project manager is responsible for integration and infrastructure+related wor pac ages and activities. !rocess now+how means being familiar with the required inputs, the tools and techniques used, and the desired outputs of the process. ,f this is not the case, then ris management, or any other relevant processes, cannot be effectively handled on a wor pac age level or on the integrated level. ,$alit" 5igh Kno le!ge Area ,ntegration !roject Planning Processes Other Processes !roject !lan !lan 2xecution, 1evelopment 5igh Scope Scope !lanning, 1efinition ,ntegrated *ontrol ,nitiation, Scope 3erification, Scope 5igh Time Activity 1efinition, Activity Sequencing, Activity 2stimating, Schedule "edium *ost 1evelopment (esource !lanning, *ost 2stimating, "edium 5igh 4uality 5uman (esources *ost #udgeting 4uality !lanning 4uality *ontrol 4uality Assurance, $rgani-ational !lanning, Staff Acquisition Team 1evelopment *ost *ontrol 1uration *hange *ontrol Schedule *ontrol *hange

!oor

*ommunications

*ommunications !lanning

,nformation 1istribution, !erformance (eporting, Administrative

!oor

(is

(is

*losure "anagement (is "onitoring *ontrol (is (is

!lanning, (is ,dentification, 4ualitative Analysis, 4uantitative Analysis, (is !lanning "edium !rocurement !rocurement !lanning, Solicitation !lanning (esponse

Solicitation, Source Selection, *ontract Administration

CONC*USION As the person who is fully accountable for the success of the project as a whole, the project manager is responsible for overcoming the difficulties encountered in guaranteeing that all planning processes are properly executed. ,n order to resolve the problems, the project manager should identify the events that have a negative impact

on the successful completion of the project and develop explicit mitigating plans to accommodate them. ,n some areas, such as '*ommunications) and '4uality), the project management community should develop better tools and techniques to support the project managers efforts. ,n other areas, such as '(is ) and '*ost), more emphasis should be placed on the training of functional managers in the use of the relevant tools and techniques. ,n other words, the functional manager should also get intensive, but adapted project management training. The agent for such a fundamental change in the organi-ational culture cannot be the project manager alone. ,t is essential that it be sponsored at a high level of the organi-ation, and even treated as a project by itself.

References# :. !roject "anagement ,nstitute, A @uide to !roject "anagement #ody of %nowledge, !roject "anagement ,nstitute, Aewton Square, !ennsylvania, BSA, 9;;;.

9. Catson, C. 2. 6 #ehn e (. (., 'Application of 2xpectancy Theory and Bser $bservations in ,dentifying .actors which Affect 5uman !erformances on *omputer !rojects), Dournal of 2ducational *omputing (esearch, 3ol. ?, Ao. 7, :88:, pp. 7E7+7?E. 7. .leming, 4. C. 6 %oppelman, D. "., 'The 2arned 3alue #ody of %nowledge), !"A2Twor , "ay :88<. =. @riffith, T. F., 'Aegotiating Successful Technology ,mplementation / A "otivation !erspective), Dournal of 2ngineering 6 Technology "anagement, 3ol. :7, Ao. :, "arch :88E, pp. 98+<7.

Project Planning Assessment ,$estionnaire


Name---------/en!er-------0!$cation------'' Occ$pation-----Organi.ation-------'' Age----''+ears

!lease fill the questionnaire by using following scale < / The product is always obtained = / The product is obtained quite frequently 7 / The product is obtained frequently 9 / The product is seldom obtained : / The product is hardly ever obtained ; / , do not now whether the product is being obtained Planning Product Project Plan Project Deliverables Work Breakdown Structure Project Activities Activity Duration Estimates Activity Start : : 9 9 7 7 = = < < ; ; : : 9 9 7 7 = = < < ; ; Aever : : : 9 9 9 7 7 7 = = = Always < < < 1onot now ; ; ;

and End Dates Activity Required Resources Quality Mana ement

<

Plan !ommunications : Mana ement Plan Risk "ist :

<

<

Risk Mana ement Plan

<

Ta1le of Content#

Abstract. ,ntroduction. Fiterature (eview (esearch "ethodology. Analysis

;: ;9 ;7 ;7 ;<

*onclusion. (eferences.

;? ;>

Impact of the Project Manager on Project Management Planning Processes

S$1mitte! To#

Dr' &aisal Tehseen Shah

S$1mitte! B"# Changai. Khan CIIT2&A334MSPM45632*(R

COMSATS Instit$te of Information Technolog" *ahore'