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Sixth theme: The competitivness and the export potential of the republic Moldova economy Competitivness of

2) The components of the export potential of a branch or a country: - the prduction surplus as to the absorbtion capacity of the domestic market. - the absorbtion capacity of the external markets. - the competitivness of the domestic products through the price and or thrugh the trade mark. The factors influencing the export potential of a brach or a cmpany. 1.The direction of the exports since the prices for the same products vary through different regions. 2.The compositon of the exports(degree of processing of the raw materials.) The category food staff,bevereges tabacco. - the first place comparative advantage f RM.The share of this categry in the total export: 1991- 55% 2005- 35%,2010 20,6 %. II. The wine cluster 22.Beverages,spirits and vinegars. Tiil the year 2005 RM was the number one supplier product to the Russian market.In the year 2007 was on the 22th place.Moldva started t lose its place since the year 1999(57%). 2005(37%). 2007(0.2%) 2010(6%). The factors that determined the loss of the Russian market for the wines: Undergrund sector 18% in sviet Russia. In Azerbaidjan,georgia,kazahstan is was almost 33 %. There is a tendency that women are less corrupted then men. In the case of north european countries there is a large interference of state in economy and the least underground sector. Ways to reduce the size of underground sector: a) 3 main elements of the succeseful campaign against corruption regional conference in fighting corruption in Bucharest: b) the will c) the relevant legislation d) the appropiate implimentatin of the legislation.

The advantages of the external trade in URSS: Moldovan economy was supplied with cheap energy and raw materials. -our country had a huge and stable sales market. During that period our economy acquired a lot of deficiences that appeared later after the dissolution of the USSR.

-the issolation from the world market. -the regressive and static structure of the national exports. -double dependence on Russia both for the supply of imports and the markets for the exports. -the low competitivnes of the natinal exports because of the following: 1.At the level of the enterprises the lack of competition. 2.At the level of the sector the cheap energy and raw materials were not imposing the technolgical innovations. 3.At the level of the country the lack of a efficient specialization forms. Evolution of Moldovan foreign trade during transition: 1991-1992 : drop of external trade of Moldva after the dissolution of the USSR. 1992-1997 : continuous increase f foreign trade it was not correlated with the value of GDP. This lack of correlation is explained by the expansion of the underground sector,the declining of the purchasing power of the population and thirdly, the distortion of the national structure of the economy.(Excessive specialization in the agri-food sector and sharp decrease of the other industrial outputs) Continuous increase of the deficit of the trade balance. Eleven theme: Clasification of capital export: 1) Loan capital 2) Functional capital: a) b) c) d) Greenfield investments Expantion investments Privatization investments Merger and acquisitions investments

Another clasification of functional capital: a) Direct investments b) Portfolio investments Characteristics of the contemporary foreign invesments: a) significant increase of the foreign investments with the rate exceeding the growth rates of the world product and world trade starting with the last quarter of the XX century till the year 2008. b)The TNC have become the key promoters of the FDI. c)The unequal distribution of the FDI world stock in the world countries. d) Concernig their sectorial distribution every countries ,every business,extracting industry,pharmaceuticals and many services have survived relatively well unlike the busines cycle sensitive industries such as metal manufacturing. It is possibile to distinguish the positive and the likely negative consequences of the FDI for the developing countries.: a) they may assure a efficient respecialization and integration of the country. b) by providing very often the external sales market.

c) the FDI may support the modernization and the restructuring ,increase their productivity and labor force employment. d) the FDI may improve the balance of payments of the transition country when substituting a part of imports and generating additional exports. The likely negative consequences of the FDI: Determined by the lack of adequate state policy in the transition countries.(fundamental idea): a) The loss of control of the national production. Exclussion of the domestic products.(Cuciurgan electric power station). b) The orientation of the domestic enterprises that received FDI towards the sectors registering a low value added and the excessive of the high-value added goods. c) The worsening of the balance of payments by the likely export limitation and the excessive import promotion. d) Sometimes political,social,cultural problems by the introduction of unaccepted values and the direct implication in the political sector. e) The depreciation(the ageing ) of the investments which happens when the amount of the repatriated income starts to exceed the amount of the proper FDI. Currently the level of the FDI is lower then their necessities.More over,they are unequal distributed. Table 11.1. The analysis of the FDI distribution in the transition countries reveals the main factor determining the level of FDI. 1)The development level of the country,the size of the domestic market: 2) endowment with natural resources 3) progress in transition to market economy.- we may classify the transition countries into the most advanced in reforming their economies,receving the largest FDi(central eurpean countries) and countries legging behind(receving the smallest part of FDI). b) Subiectul 2. The world experience has demonstrated that a long-term economic growth is provided by a high rate of savings and investments which should constitute not less than 25 % of tye GDP. As concerns the RM(table 11.1). IN the RM gross capital investment havent reached half of the 1991 value. As concerns the quality of investments it may be seen in the table 11.4. As concerns the provenience of the fixed capital investments table 11.3.