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PRIMITIVE

EGYPT
BY JEAN CAPART

PRIMITIVK ART
IN

EGYPT

PRIMITIVE ART
IN

EGYPT
BY

JEAN CAPART
KEEPER OF THE EGYPTIAN ANTIQUITIES OF THE ROYAL MUSEUM, BRUSSELS LECTURER AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LIEGE

TRANSLATED

FROM THE REVISED AND AUGMENTED ORIGINAL EDITION

BY

A.

S.

GRIFFITH

WITH 208 ILLUSTRATIONS

LONDON
H.
S3,

GREVEL
1905

& CO.

KING STREET, COVENT GARDEN, W .C.

PRINTED AND BOUND BY


HAZELL, WATSON AND VINEY,
LD.,

LONDON AND AYLESBURY.

XLO

PROFESSOR
A

W. M.

FLINDERS PETRIE

TOKEN OF PROFOUND GRATITUDE

PREFACE.
^

^HIS book made

its

first

appearance

in

the form of
la

-^

a series of articles

in

the Annales de
vols,
xvii.-xviii.,

Soci^td

d' Archdologie

de
it

Bruxelles,

1903-4.

In

March 1904

was published as a separate volume,

without any modification of the text.


I

have been much

gratified

by the

offer

of Messrs. H.

Grevel

&

Co. to issue an English translation of a revised


edition.

and enlarged
be

In this
that

way my book
which
is

will naturally

brought

before

public

perhaps most

prepared both to receive and to

criticise

it.

The works
Lubbock,
Gillen,

of English ethnologists, more especially of

Tylor,

Lang,
first

Haddon,

Frazer,
to a

Spencer, and

were the

to

draw attention

whole series

of problems of the greatest importance for a study of the


origin of Art.

In submitting
I

my work
public

to the

English-speaking public,
its

am aware

that those points

which ensured

originality

for

the French

may perhaps

give the book

the

appearance of a compilation, borrowed from the works of


English scholars.

The

materials have, to a largfe extent, been


vii

drawn from

viii

PREFACE.
publications
ot

the

two

English

societies,

the

Egypt
;

Exploration

Fund and
I

the Egyptian Research

Account

from their pages

have gathered a large number of

facts

of the greatest importance.


I

owe very

special gratitude to

Professor Petrie, who,

with his habitual courtesy, has for

more than

five

years

permitted
primitive

me

to study

and

to

photograph
in

the

relics

of
at

Egypt, gathered together


I

his

collection

University College, London.


I

cannot express
in

how much

am

indebted to him for the lessons


I

Egyptian archaeo-

logy that
of the

have received from him

at the yearly exhibition If

Egypt Exploration Fund.

my
it

book
is in

is

of a
first

nature to render any assistance to students,

the

instance to Professor Petrie that thanks are due.

Two

visits to

Oxford have enabled me

to

complete

my
I

collection

of notes and of photographic reproduction.


to

am happy

have
for

this opportunity of

thanking Mr. Evans

and Mr. Bell

their

generous reception of

me

at

the

Ashmolean Museum.

Owing
Shafer,
I

to

the

kindness

of
to

Professors

Erman and

have been able

utilise
I

much unpublished
i>'ladlv

material from the Berlin

Museum.

avail

mvself

of this opportunity of offering them

my

sincere thanks.

The

cordial

hospitality

received
to

from the

Rev.

W.

Macgregor has enabled me


of important pieces
in

draw attention
collection

to a

number

his

fine

of

Egyptian

antiquities at Bolehill

Manor House, Tarn worth.

PREFACE.

ix

The Egypt Exploration Fund, the editorial staff of the German review Die Umschau. and the Society of Biblical
Archaeology,

London, have been good enough

to

place

several photographic reproductions at


It
is

also a pleasant duty to


Griffith
for

my disposal. express my warm


in

thanks

to

Miss

the

admirable manner

which

she has accomplished the task of translating this book.


AUDERGHEM, December
1904.

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.


PAGE

Chapter

I.

Preliminary Considerations

Chapter

II.

Personal Adornment

21

Painting the

Body

21

Painting the Eyes

23

Tattooing
Mutilations

30 34
35
Pins

The Hair Combs and


Wigs
Beards
Face-veils

40
42

43
45

Ornaments
Shells

47 ^7 47

Beads
Pendants
Bracelets

48
49 50
52 52

Rings
Clothing
Girdles
Tail

54
54
55

Karnata
Animal's Skin
Loin-cloth

56
56

Mantle

Chapter

III.

Ornamental and Decorative Art


J)

Generalities

.......
xi

59
sign

Transformation of a Natural Design into a Geometric Designs derived from Technique

59 60
f'3

Transformation of a Useful Object into an Ornament

64

Xll

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTEXTS.


III.

Chapter

{continued).

Object of Decoration Art


.

65
65 65

Information

Luxury and Power Religion and Magic


Knives

66 66
67
71

Spoons

Combs
Pins

72
75

Pendants
Palettes
.

76
77

Incised Palettes

82

Maces and Sceptres


Stone Vases

94
95

Skeuomorphic Decorations

98

Human

Decorations

98
99
[OI

Animal Decorations
Stone Vases of Fantastic Forms
-

Pottery

[03 [04

Basket

Work and Matting


Work
.

Pottery copied from Plaited

108 108 [08 [08 to9

\V^hite

Hard Stone

Gourds Painted Vases

Floral Designs

Representations of

,,

Human
Animals
Boats

Figures

10 10
12

,,

,,

Decorated Pottery

,,

13

in

Imitation of

Hard Stones Plaited Work


.

14
15

Representations of Mountains Plants


,,
,,

16

16
i7

Animals

,,

,,

Human
Boats
.

Beings

19

,,

20
21

,,

Various
in Relief
.

Vases decorated with Figures with Decoration inside ,,

22
25

Incised Decoration

26
26

of Fantastic

Forms

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Chapter
III.
{continued').

Xlll

PAGE

Vases of
,, ,,

Human Forms
Animal Forms

28

Decorated Boxes
Furniture and Personal Property

33

The Hearth
Ivory Carvings
Pottery Marks Primitive Hieroglyphs
"
"

[35

'39 [42

Alphabetiform

Characters
t5i

Cylinders

Chapter

IV.

Sculpture and Painting


Animal Forms

'52

Flints of

^52

Human Statuettes Men Women


Dwarfs
Captives Servants
.

54
f55

t6o

72 72

74

Vases

in

form of

Human

Figures

75
[76

Figures of Animals

Hippopotami
Lions

76
178

Dogs Apes
Cattle

183
'85

Quadrupeds Various
Birds

[88
189

[90
191

Fish
Crocodiles

[92

Scorpions

Frogs
Griffins

[92 [92

Bulls'

Head Amulets
.

'93
195

Double Bulls

Magical Instruments with Boats

Human F gures

196 199

Houses

200
201
201

Fortified P^nclosure

Sculptures in Relief

Drawing and Painting

202

xiv

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.


IV. {lontinued).

Chapter

Graffiti

Painted

Tomb

Boats

Animals

Men

.... .... ....

of Hierakonpolis

Object of Paintings and of

Graffiti

Chapter V. The Earliest Pharaonic Monuments


Archaic Statues of Koptos

Statue of Hierakonpolis
First Cairo

Votive Palettes

Fragment
at the British

Fragments

Museum and
.

the I^ouvre

Small Palette of Hierakonpolis

Louvre Palette

.....
Museum
.

Small Fragment at the British Second Cairo Fragment

PYagments

at

the British

Museum and Ashmolean


. .

Fragment

at the

Louvre

Great Palette of Hierakonpolis Small Fragment at the Louvre


Ivory and Wooden Plaques Plaque of the Chief of the Anou
Private

Votive Mace- heads of Hierakonpolis

and Royal Stelae from Abydos


.

Statues of Libyans

Cairo Statue, No. Archaic Statues


Statues of

I.

King Khasakhmui
.

Hierakonpolis Lion
Figure of

Cheops

Chapter

VL

Generalities

Dancing Music
Poetry

...... ....... ....... .......


Conclusions

Dancing, Music, and Poetry

Chapter
Index

VII.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
PAGE
Fig.
I.

2.

The Geese The Geese

of

Medum of Medum
. .

........
of Hosi.
. . .

3.

Fragment of one of the Panels


.
.

From

a photograph

4.
5.

by Petrie Fragment of one of the Panels of Hosi


Figure of a
Figures of

....
Whole Body
Grey
clay

6
7

with Designs painted over the with black clay Grey paint

Woman

......
London.

6.

Women.

University College,

with greenish paint


7.

24

Slate Palettes used for Grinding Paint

8. 9.

Ivory

Box

in

Form

of a

Duck

.....

25
*

28
ol

Tatoo-marks of the Primitive Egyptians compared with those


the Libyans.

From VAnthropologie

....
Men

ID. 11.

Libyans from the

Tomb

of Seti

Fragment of a Statuette with Tatoo-marks on the Breast and Cabmet des Medailles, Paris Right Shoulder.

33

12.

Wooden

Statuette

ornaments
13.

.........
in

the

Bologna Museum, with Ivory

P^ar

Pottery Vase with Designs in White representing


Ivory Statuette.

14.

15.
16. 17. 18. ig.

Figure of a

A Woman

crouching captive
in

Ostrich Eggs.

Glazed Pottery. From Naqada and Hu

..... .....
.

fighting

36
37

Discovered at Abydos

38

40
41

Combs and
Band

a Pin, decorated with

of False Hair.

Animal and Bird Figures From the Tomb of King Zer

42 43

Head

of one of the Libyans from the

Tomb

20. 21.

Figure from the MacGregor Collection Ornaments for the Forehead

.....
of Seti
I.
.

44
46 48

22.

Pendants
of an

23.

Bone and Ivory

Arm

24.

Ivory Rings

....... .......
Bracelets,

and a Spoon with a Handle

in

Form

wearing a Series of Similar Bracelets


XV

xvi

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
PAGE

Fig. 25.

Huntsman.
Warriors.

Wearing
Clothed

a feather on his head, and the

tail

fixed to

his girdle
,,

54
in a

26.

panther skin, or holding a shield formed


56
in cloaks,

of a similar skin

27.

Figures of

Women. Wrapped

one of which

is

decorated
S7

,,

28.

Below are fragments of leather with painted decoration Evolution of the Representation of the Alligator in Ancient
Columbian
Art.

From Holmes

,,

29.

Evolution of the Representation of the nesian Art. From Haddon


Tortoise-shell

..... ......
Human
of a

61

Figure in Poly

63

30.

Ornaments from Torres


(a).

Straits, in imitation of the

Fish-Hook
,,

From Haddon

65

31.

Magical Decoration on a

Haddon
,,

32.

Flint

Knife,

worked and retouched on both Faces.


;

Museum
,,

.......... .......
Comb
Malacca Tribe.
length, 25 cm.
to

From
66

Brussel

67
largi

33.

Gold Leaf with Incised Designs, sewn on Flint Knife to form the Handle
Figures of

,,

34.

Women

and of

,,

35.
36.

,,

Ivory Knife-handle in the Pitt-Rivers Collection Petrie Collection Ivory Knife-handle.

,,

37. 38.

,,

Small Flint Knife with Ivory Handle. Petrie collection Fragment of an Ivory Knife-handle with a Figure of an Antelope
Berlin

Museum

..... ..... ......


a

one end of a

68

Boat on a gold Knife-handle


.

69
70
71

72

73

,,

39.
40. 41. 42.
43.

,,

Ivory Spoon-handles Ivory Combs with Human Figures.

74
Petrie Collection

75 75

Ivory
Ivory

,,

Combs Combs

with Figures of Antelopes and Giraffes with Figures of Birds

76

,,

Ivory

with the Figure of an Antelope and Ornaments derived from Bird Forms

Comb

,,

44.
45.

Ivory

,,

Comb, Recto. Ivory Comb, Verso


Slate

Davis Collection

,,

46.
47. 48. 49.
50.
51.

Ivory Pius decorated with Figures of Birds and a Bull's

,,

,,

,,

and Ivory Pendants Slate and Ivory Pendants decorated with Derived Designs Stone and Ivory Pendants with Incised Line Decoration
Plaque
in the Berlin

...... ..... ........ .......


Shell
(?) (?)
.

n
78 78

Head

79 80
81

82 83 83 84

,,

Pla(]ue in the Berlin

,,

52.
53. 54.
55.

Palette with a

Museum (Recto). Museum (Verso). Shell Human Figure at the Top

....
. .
.

,,

Palette with the Figure of an Antelope, the Palette in

,,

,,

Palettes in

,,

55A. Palette in

Form of Antelopes. Form of Elephants and Hippopotami Form of a Lion. MacGregor Collection

......

Head missing

84
85

86
87

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Fig

xvu

XVIIl

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
9596.

Fig.

Decorated Vase irom Abadiyeh

.....
. . . .

pac;e

122

Vase with Representations of Giraffes, Ostriches, Crocodiles and Snakes. Berhn Museum
Decorated Vases
with

123

,.

97-

Ornamentations

,,

.......
Designs
in

Relief

and

Other

Rare
124
125

98. 99-

Black-topped Pottery with Figures

in

Relief

Vase of Black-topped Pottery with an Incised Decoration inside


Rough-faced Pottery with Incised Decorations Black Polished Vase in Form of a Woman
.

126
127

100. 101. 102. 103.


104. 105.

,,

.,

Clay Vases Clay Vases

Form of Animals in Form of Birds Clay Vase in Form of a Vulture


in

Pottery Boxes with Various Designs

..... ..... ..... ....


in

128

129

130
131

106.

Clay Fire-places decorated with Designs

Imitation of

aited

Work

134
.

107. 108. log.


1

Ivory Feet for Furniture, in the Shape of Bulls' Legs

135

,,

Fragments of Ivory carved with Various Figures

136
137

,,

10.

Fragments of Ivory Objects carved with Various Designs Carved Ivory Cylinders
Pottery Marks

M
,,

III.

112. 113114. 115116.

n
,.

Hieroglyphic (?) Signs of the Prehistoric Period Table of " Alphabetiform Signs Impressions taken from Cylinders
"'

...... ........ ..... ....


.

138
141

'45

147

150
153

117.
118.

Worked Worked Worked Worked

Form of Animals Berlin M useum Flint in Form of an Antelope (Bubalis). Berlin Museum Flint in Form of a Wild Goat. Berlin Flint in Form of a Wild Barbary Sheep. Museum.
Flints in
. . . .

'54
'55

........
Ashmolean Museum Ashmolean Museum
Berlin

155

119.

Figures of

Men

of the Primitive Period

156
157

120. 121.
1

T1

discovered at Hierakonpolis Heads discovered at Hierakonpolis Ivory Statuette from Ivory Abydos
Ivory Figures of

Men

.....
Museum
.

158

159
161

n
,,

123. 124. 125.

Steatopygous Clay Figures. Steatopygous Clay Figures.

162
163

u
,,

.Steatopygous Figure in Clay (complete).

126.
127.

Clay Female Figure.

University College,

London

164
165

128.
129.

Female Figure in Vegetable Paste. Berlin Museum Female Figures in Pottery, Ivory, Lead, and Vegetable Paste Female Figures
Figure of a
Ivory
in Ivory.

166
167

MacGregor

Collection

130.
131132.
'33-

u
,.

Woman carrying a C'iiiid on her Figure of a Woman carrying a C'hild.


.

Siioulders
Berlin

168
169

Museum

Ivory Figures discovered at Hierakonpolis

170
171

..

Ivory Figures discovered at Hierakonpolis

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
'34-

XIX

Small I'igure
IvoF}^

in Lapis-lazuli I'rom

135136. '37138.

Figures of Dwarfs

Figures of a

Vases

in

Woman standing Form of Women


in

..... .....
Hierakonpolis
in a

172

173

Large Jar

174
175 177

Figures of Hippopotami in Clay, Glazed I'ottery, and .Stone

139.

Hippopotamus

Black and White Granite

178 179

140. 141.

i4-\
'43-

.Small Figures of Lions. University College, London Small Figures of Lions Limestone Statue of a Lion from Kojjtos

.....
Dog

180
181

Ivory Carvings of a

Museum
[44.

Figures of Dogs

145146.

Part of an Ivory Figure of a

Natural Flints roughly worked to represent Baboons


Figures of

147.
[4.S.

Monkeys
in

....... ....... .... ......


....
Museum
.

Dog and of a Lion from Abydos.

Brussels
182
183

184
185

187

I'^igures of Cattle

149[50.

Camel's

Head

and Pigs. Ashmolean Museuni Clay, found at Hierakonpolis

188

189
191

Figures of Birds and of Griffins

,1.
152. 153154-

Figures of Frogs and of ,Scor])ions

193
.

Head Amulet in Ivory. Bull's Head Amulets Double Bull's Head Amulets.
Bull's

]5erliii

194

Hilton Price Collectio

55156.

Magical Instruments (?) in Ivory Magical Instrument made of Horn, from Katanga.
College,

....
Berlin

196
197

London
in

......
.

University

198 199

57158.

Models of Boats

Pottery Boat witii

Clay and Ivory Figures of Men.

59.

160.

161.
162.
.63.

Clay Model of a House discovered at El Clay Model of a Fortified Enclosure Graffiti from the Rocks of Upper Egypt Paintings on the Primitive Tomb of Hierakonpolis
.

Museum Amrah

200
201

202

204 208
209 210

Paintings on the Primitive


.Standards on
tiie

Tomb

of Hierakonpolis

164.
165.

Primiti\e Boats
in

Gazelles caught

From
166. 167.

the painted

Trap and Religious tomb of Hierakonpolis


at

('."')

Representations
211
O '> -^

Statues of the god Min discovered

Koptos

Hammered Designs on
Archaic
Statue

the Archaic .Statues of the

God

I\liii

2:5

i68.

discovered

Museum, Oxford
1

......
at

Hierakonpolis.

Asinnuleai

227

69.

Fragment
.Slate

of a Slate Palette,

("airo

Museum
Louvre and British

229

170. 171.

Palette with Hunting Scenes.

Museum
0.\ford

Slate Palette with Representations of Animals (Recto). Slate Palette with Representations of Animals (Verso).

232 233

Oxford

XX
Fig

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

CHAPTER

I.

PRELIMINAR Y CONSIDERATIONS.

^^HE special

extreme antiquity of Egyptian


attraction
to

civilization lends a
its

very

the

study of

minds are so constituted that, reaching back welcome every fresh clue that will guide us
point whence we can on paths which have
trace the
led to
first

into to

Our productions. the past, we


the
starting-

feeble steps taken

by man

more

or less brilliant civilization.

point of view Egypt has proved itself to be a mine of information. Its numerous monuments of antiquity witness to the existence of an advanced art at a period when
this

From

the rest of the world was

still

plunged

in the

Until the last few years, however,


curiosity
setting
;

Egypt has

deepest barbarism. not satisfied our

before

she only rendered it more intense from day to day, us a riddle the solution of which appeared un-

attainable.

about the

At the time of her first appearance in history, at commencement of the fourth dynast}-, she already

possessed a civilization which was practically fixed and complete. Language, writing, administration, cults, ceremonies, etc. all of

these

we found already
observe
traces

established,

and

it

was rarely that we

could

here and

there

of what

may

be

st}-led

"archaism."

One might

suppose, as did Chabas, that about iour

thousand years would be necessary to allow for the dexelopment " " is a of such a civilization. Four thousand years," he says,
period
race.

of time
If v/c

sufficient for the

development of an

intelligent

were watching the progress of transitional races, it would perhaps not be enough. In an\- case this figure makes

no pretensions to exactitude
to the exigencies of all facts

its

only merit

is

that

it

lends

itself

which are known

uj) to the present


I

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS.

So far as it was possible to trace accept any other explanation. back to the earliest dynasties, their productions rarely presented traces of archaism, and only peculiar circumstances, such as the
presence of a
that the
statues,

king's

name, permitted certain

bas-reliefs to
It
is

be
true

attributed to a period anterior to the fourth dynasty.

museums

of

Europe and Egypt contained


but
the

certain rude

which might be dated as belonging


d\'nasties
;

to the period of the

three

first

attention
it

of scholars
in

was never

seriously

drawn

to

them, and
a of

is

only

quite recent years

that their true character has

begun
of

to be recognized.^

Recently,

however,
current
at

series

important
Professor

discoveries
P'linders

has

changed
of

the

research.

Petrie

discovered
the

first

god

J//'//,

Koptos, in 1893, some roughly-worked statues on which were carved, in very low relief,

singular figures of animals, of mountains, and an archaic form At of hieroglyph employed to write the name of the god Min. the same time pottery was found of a peculiar type, which had

previously been known be correctly dated."

only

in

rare specimens,

which could not


Quibell, found

The

following year,

Dr. Petrie, aided

by Mr.

in the Naqada an enormous necropolis, where similar pottery to that found at Koptos, at the same time as the Researches carried out statues of Min, was extremely abundant.

neighbourhood of

simultaneously by M. de Morgan proved that they were dealing with I cannot prehistoric cemeteries. attempt to enter here into details
of these excavations, as
in

an article

in

have recently given an account of them I will the Revue de r Ujiiversite de Bruxelles?
I

content

myself

with

mentioning

the

principal

ex'cnts

which

followed the publication of that work. During the winter 1898-99, Professor Petrie and his fellow workers explored various prehistoric

These discoveries, b\' supplecemeteries at Abadiych and llu. material for establishing in those at afforded menting Naqada,
^

Berlin,

]5olngna,

Brussels, Cairo, Leyden,


fuoiiiimefiis cgyplicns,

London, Naples,
Brussels,
1902.

Paris, Turin.

See C'ArARP, Rccueil dc plates ii. and iii.


-

Remarks

011

Petrie, Koptos, London, 1893. Capaut, Aotes sur Ics ori<^/7tes de VEgyptc d'apri-s Us foidUcs rcccntcs, the Revue de V UiiiversUc de Biuxelles, iv. 189CS-9, pp. 105-139, tig. and pi.
^

in

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

At a preliminary fashion the main outlines of prehistoric Egypt. the same time, Mr. Ouibell and Mr. Green found (1897-8-9) on the
site

of the ancient temple of Hierakonpolis an important series of objects, dating from the commencement of the historic period, which, in a manner, formed the bridge between Egypt of historic

and of prehistoric age. These results were confirmed


excavations of Professor Petrie
dynasties at
in

in

the
the

following year by the royal tombs of the first

Abydos, which shortly before had been negligently

L
Fig. 3.-

-Frag.ment of one of the Panels of Hosi.

From

a photograph

by

Petrie.

Finally, the excavations in the explored by M. Amelineau. temenos of the temple of Osiris at Abydos (1901-2-3), in addition

to other discoveries, brought to light a small prehistoric town, which

provided the necessary materials

welding together of prehistoric

complete and incontestable and the historical dynasties. Egypt Other excavations carried out at l^l-Ahuiwah and Naga-cd-Dcr,^
for a
'

The

result of these excavations


in

Dr. Reisner will be found

is not yet publisiied. the Ardiaological Report of the

short note

by

Egypt

I'.xploration

Fund, 1900-1901, pp. 23-25 and

2 ])lates.

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS.
and

under the direction of Dr. Reisner, for the University of Cahfornia, also at El Amrah by Mr. Maclver and Mr. Wilkin, completed

the information already acquired relating to the primitive period. The evidence thus acquired supplied us with much interesting
information concerning the primitive inhabitants of Egypt, and
it

was

at

once recognized that

it

was

possible,

more

especially
to

in

the rituals, to discover

many

vestiges of that

civilization

which the archaic cemeteries bear witness.


clusions to be

The

general

con-

drawn from these

discoveries as a whole are, that

IG.

4.

KAl.Mt.NT

Ol'

ONE UF THE

1'ANEI.S

OF

llosi.

From

a photograph by Petrie.

there was a civilization anterior to the Pharaonic civilization, and


that this civilization produced works of art.

We

must here mention the principal works

in

which the

results

Most of these are in English, and of excavations were published. The most are simply reports of excavatitnis of cemeteries.
important arc
' :

Naqada}
Ballas,

Diospolis!;

The Royal Tombs of


c"vr

the First

Naqada and

with chapter by
"^

1895, by VV. M. Flinders Petrie Spurrell, London, Oiiaritch, 1896. Diospolis Parva, the Cemeteries uf Abadiyeh and lift,
F. C. J.

J.

F.

Ouihell,

189S-9, by

W. M.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


(i.

Dynasties'^

and
(i.

ii.),

Abydos'ii.),

(i.

and

ii.),

due

to

Petrie

Hierakonpolis"^

and

Green; and,
tions

finally,

El

published by Mr. Quibell and Mr. Ainrali^ gives the results of the excavain

by Mr. Maclver and Mr. Wilkin


addition
to

the cemetery at

that

locality.

In

these

books,

each of which constitutes

monograph on a prehistoric cemetery, a work by M. de Morgan must be mentioned, entitled RechercJics sur Ics on'giiics de l' Egypte.^
French which has been published on the subject. Unfortunately it appeared before the most important discoveries had been made, and by force of circumstances it
This
is

the only book in

rapidly
deal

became out of
the

date,

in

those

generally with

primitive

chapters at least which ethnology of the inhabitants

of the Nile Valley.

We

must not

fail

to

of Leipsic, who a whole class of artistic remains belonging to the archaic period,

was the

mention the work by Professor Steindorff first to give an accurate judgment on

of which mention will frequently be

made

in this book.'"

Being at
Flinders

last

in

possession
chapters by

of Egyptian artistic
A.
C.

productions
1901

Petrie,

with

Mace,

London,

{Egypt

Exploration Fund).
1 Ihc Royal Toitibs of the First Dynasty^ 1900, i. by W. M. F. Petrie, with chapter by F. Ll. Griffith, London, 1900 {Egypt Exploration Fund). The Royal Tojnbs of the Earliest Dynasties., 1901, ii. by VV. M. Flinders

Petrie, London, 1901 {Egypt Exploratiofi Fund). ^ Abydos, i. 1902, by W. M. Flinders Petrie, with chapter by A. E. Weigall {Egypt Exploration Fund). Abydos, ii. 1903, by W. M. Flinders Peirie, with chapter by F. Ll. Griffith, London, 1903 (Egypt Exploration Fund). ^ Hierakonpolis, i. by J. E. Quibell, with notes by W. M. Flinders Petrie, London, Quaritch, icyoo {Egypt Research Account). Hierakonpolis, ii. by J. E. Quibell & F. W. Green, London, Quaritch, 1902 {Egypt Research Account). El A?nrah and Abydos, by D. Pandall MacIver & A. C. Mace, with a
**

chapter by F. Ll. Griffith, London, 1902 {Egypt Exploratinn Fund). The name of Mr. Wilkin does not occur in the title of this publication, owing to
the lamented death of this

young scholar shortly

after the

excavations were

les origines de V Egypte. L'dge de la pier/e et des nictaux, by J. DE Morgan, Paris, 1896. Recherches sur les origines de rE^gyptc. Elthnographie prehistorique et tombeau royal de Negadah, by J. de Morgan, Paris, Leroux, 1897. ^ SvEi^XiOKYV, Eifie ncuc Art agyptischcr Kiinst \x\ Acgyptiaca. Festschrift
''

concluded. Recherches sur

fi'ir

Georg Ebers^

Leipsic, 1897, pp. 122- 141.

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS.
anterior to the dynasties,
it

becomes possible
in

to enquire

whether

the question of the origin of art

Eg}-pt can be raised with

any hope of arriving at a But here we are face

solution.

to face

with an unforeseen
;

difficult}-.

The remains
furnish

are extremely abundant


statuettes,

the contents of the tombs


utensils
in

pottery,

and

various

limited number.

Of

all

these what should


are
in

we choose
can claim
this

of

almost unall

these

multiple
artistic}

objects

which

they that
to

the

title
is

of

The
in
is

because
of what

difficulty replying order to arrive at a solution

question

great,

we must

give a definition

art.
it

rendering

Unhappily this only transfers the problem without more easy of solution. We know how opinions
true

Each author has his special point of view, which makes him insist more expressly on one or other aspect of the subject. So much is this the case, that
vary on
the

nature of

art.

there are 'i&w subjects in the world of which one can say with

Qnut capita tot census. were possible to transcribe the whole of the pages written by Professor E. Grosse on this subject.'^It was his work, as I specially wish to observe, which first started me on the
truth,
I

more

wish

it

researches which have resulted in the production of this book but to do this would appear excessive, and I must content m^'self

with giving a
l)rincipally
"

summary

of

them

as briefly as possible, dwelling


"

on those points which should act as our guide.


of a science," says Professor Grosse,
is

The duty

this

to

establish
is

and explain a certain group of phenomena. All science therefore theoretically divided into two parts the descriptive
: ;

which is the description of facts and their nature and the explanatory part, which refers these facts to their general Docs the science of art fulfil these conditions? h'or the laws."
part,
first

part the repl\-

may

be

in
It

the afiirmalive

but can
is

it

be so

as regards the second part?

open and here Professor Grosse j)rovcs himself very severe concerning the productions of art criticism, which, in addition to complete
it

appears that

to doubt,

systems,

"

usually

infallibility
'

which

arrogate to themselves that majestic is the distinctive sign of .swstems


cclitimi, Paris,

air
ol

of
tiie

Grossi, Lcs Debuts de I'Art, Frencli

Alcan, 1902.

lo

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

philosophy of art, of which, in fact, they constitute mere fragments. Of course," he says, " there are occasions when it may appear both useful and pleasant to be informed of the subjective opinions

on art which

may

be held by a

man

of genius

but

when they

are imposed on us as general knowledge, founded on a scientific The basis, from that moment we must refuse to accept them.
essential principle of scientific research
is

always and everywhere

the
it

same

should

whether research concerns a plant or a work of art, It is in consequence of not always be objective."
this necessity that the
in

having obeyed yet succeeded


artistic

philosophy of art has not

providing us with a satisfactory explanation of phenomena, notwithstanding the mass of material placed
the history of
lies art.

at

its

command by

"

The

task which

before the

science

of art

is

this

to

describe and explain the

denomination of
has two sides

"

an

phenomena which are classed under the phenomena of an artistic character." This task
indi\idual and a social one.
In the
first

case,

the object must be to understand an isolated


entire

work of

art, or the

work of one
artist

artist,

to discover

the relations which exist

between an

and

his

individual work,

and

to explain

the

work of

under certain conditions."

individuality working This individual side of the problem, is possible to study it with if it precision during the centuries most nearly approaching our own times, becomes more and more

art

as the product of an artistic

complex

as

we reach
side.
"

further back into the past,

we
the

find

ourselves forced to
If
it

and very soon abandon our attempt and to adopt

social

character

of a

work

impossible to explain the individual of art by the individual character of the


is

author, nothing remains to us but to trace the collective character of artistic groups having a certain extension within time or
space,
to

the

character
of our

of

nation
is

or

of an

The

first

aspect

problem

therefore

epoch. psychological, the

entire

second sociological."
logical

As

Professor Grosse observes, this socio-

aspect
as
et

cjf

the

[iroblem
in

has
his

not

been

overlooked
critiques

as

early
poesie

1719
la

Abbe Dubos,

Reflexions

sur la

opened the wa\' to the sociology of art. Herder, Taine, Hennequin, and Guyau successively attempted
peinture,

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS.
to

ii

form general theories, or


;

decessors

but

sociological

else combated those of their preunfortunately, if the results obtained b\' these studies in matters of art are reviewed, it must be

confessed that they are very poor. This can be accounted for, in the first place, by the small number of students who have
realized

the

sociological

value of

art,

but

also

and

above
all

all

by

the

erroneous

method which

forms the basis of

these

researches.

at the beginning.

other branches of sociology we ha\e learnt to begin We first study the simplest forms of social phenomena, and it is only when we thoroughly understand the nature and conditions of these simple forms that we attempt
In
all
.
. .

"

the explanation of those which are more complicated. sociological schools have, one after another, attempted to find

All

new
All

roads

the science of art alone pursues

its

mistaken methods.

others have eventually recognized the powerful and indispensable aid that ethnology can afford to the science of civilization it is
;

only the science of art which

still

of primitive nations offered by not yet capable of resolving the problem under its more difficult If we would one cla\' arrive at a scientific comprehension aspect.

despises the rough productions ethnology. The science of art is

of the art of civilized nations, we must, to begin with, investigate the nature and conditions of the art of the non-civilized. must

We

know
task

the multiplication table before resolving problems of higher


It is for this

mathematics.
of the

reason that the

first

and most

pressing-

science

of art

consists in the

study of the art of

primitive nations."
It

verily appears that, in the study of art, misfortune attaches

itself to all the exi)ressions

employed.

Wc

begin with vague terms,

which we attem[)t by degrees


our

to define, only to find

on arriving at

first conclusion that there again is a term wanting in precision and requiring definition. Which, in fact, are the nations who can be called primiti\-e ? Here again the mcjst diverse opinions ha\c been expressed, and when stud)ing the proposed classifications, we meet at every step

with errors which lead us

to
:

Only

to

quote one example

review the results with suspicion. " Between an inhabitant of the

12

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


Islands
is

Sandwich
than

and

man
in

indigenous
civilization

to

the

Australian

Continent there

a difference

greater, no doubt,

that which separates an

educated

Arab and an educated

European, and yet Ratzel, who distinguishes the 'semi-civilized' Arabs from the civilized Europeans, combines the Pol>-nesians and Australians in one group."
'
'

there any method of determining the relative degrees of civilization? That which is called civilization is so one any complicated, even in its simplest forms, that it is impossible, at
Is

any

rate in our day, to determine with


it.

any certainty the

factors

we were to compare the various civilizations in all their manifestations, we should probably not attain our end but we should be able to solve our problem fairly easil}-, if we
that produce
If
;

were

to succeed in finding

an isolated

factor,

which would be easy

to determine

and

sufficiently

important to pass as characteristic

of the whole of a civilization.

Now

there

is

a factor to be found

which

fulfils

the two condiof production

tions indicated,

and that

is

production.

The form

adopted exclusively, or almost exclusively, in a social group


is

that

to

say, the

their food

manner
a fact

is

which the members of that group produce which is easy to observe directl}', and to
in

determine with sufficient

precision

in

any form of

civilization.

Whatever may be our ignorance of the


of the Australians,

religious or social beliefs

we can have no doubt

as to their productions
It
is

the Australian

is

a hunter and a collector of plants.

perhaps

impossible for us to
Peruvians,

know but we know


:

the intellectual civilization of the ancient


that the citizens of the empire of the that
is

Incas were agriculturists

is

a fact which admits of no doubt.

To have
nation,

established what

the form of production of a given

however, would not be sufficient to attain the end that

to oursehcs, if we could not prove at the same time that the special form of civilization depends upon the special form (^f ])roduction. The idea of classifying nations according to

wc have proposed

In the donn'nunt principle cjf their production is in no way new. the most ancient works on the history of civilization one finds

already the well-known groups of nations, classed as hunters and fishermen, nomad cattle breeders and agriculturists, established in

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS.

13

their countries.
full

Few

historians, however,

seem

to

have understood

It is easier to underrate than to the importance of production. exaggerate it. In ever\' form of civilization, production is in some

way

the centre of

life

it

on the other factors of

civilization.

has a profound and irresistible influence It is itself determined, not bv^

factors of civilization but

by natural

factors

by the geographical
One would

and meteorological character of a country.


in calling

not be

altogether wrong production "the primary phenomenon of civilization," a phenomenon by the side of which other factors

of civilization are but secondary derivatives, not in the sense that

they have sprung from production, but because they have been formed and have remained under its powerful influence, although of
Religious ideas have certainly not grown out of the necessities of production nevertheless, the form of the

independent

origin.

dominant

religious ideas of a tribe can

be traced

in

part to the

The belief in souls which exists among form of production. but its particular form the Kaffirs, has an independent origin
;

the

belief in

an

hierarchic
less
;

order of the

souls

of

ancestors

is

nothing more nor

than a reflection of the hierarchic order


in
its

among

the living

which

turn

is

the consequence of pro-

duction, of the breeding of cattle, of the warlike and centralizing

tendencies which result from

it.

It
life

is

for this reason that

among

hunting
cial

tribes,

whose nomad
order.

does not admit of a fixed so-

organization, one finds indeed the belief in souls but not of

the hierarchic

The importance

of

production,

however,

manifests
family.

family

nowhere so evidently as in the organization of the The strange forms which have been taken by the human forms which have inspired sociologists with still more
itself

strange hypotheses appear to us perfectly comprehensible the moment that we consider them in their relation to the forms

of production. The most primiti\'e people depend for their food on the product of the chase the term "chase" being taken in its

broadest meaning
If

and the plants which they

collect.^

we survey the world in search of tribes living in this elementary stage, we shall not find them in large numbers, (irossc ejuickly " The immense continent of Africa contains disposes of them.
'

pp. 26, 27.

14

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

but one hunting tribe


to

leaving

out of account the

pygmy

tribes

of the centre, the civilization of

whom

is

Kalahari Bushmen, huntsman find true we America In and surrounding countries. the Aleutians and the tribes only in the north and the south less agricultural, with or more others are All the I-^uegians.
us
are

these

completely
of the

unknown

the

the vagrants

the exception of

some

Brazilian tribes, such as the

Botocudos,

who
still

still

live

under very primitive conditions.


the Mincopies
of the
all its

In Asia there are


Islands,

scarcely any but

Andaman
purity
;

who
of

exhibit the primitive state in

the

Veddahs

Ceylon have been too much influenced by the Cingalese, and the Tchuktchis of the north and their ethnical relations are already breeders of cattle. There is only one continent which is still
occupied over
being
that
its

whole extent by a primitive people

made of its European colonies we can also consider from an


not

exception

this

is

Australia, a continent

ethnological point of view as

the last trace of a vanished world."

Why

artistic

Here an objection arises. take into account the prehistoric populations, whose productions are both numerous and varied ? The reason,

according to M. Grosse, is that in considering the invaluable evidence of these productions, before "being able to say with certainty that we are actually dealing here with the primitive

forms we are

in

search

of,

it

would be necessary

for us to

know

the civilizations which have furnished these records."

Happily

this

objection does not exist, at

least

degree, in the case of primitive Egypt, where the records is already such that we can picture to ourselves the
of the primitive Egyptian with sufficient accuracy I think, to distinguish those productions which merit the
to

same abundance of
in

the

life

be able,
title

of "artistic"

and with

pounded, with some


to solve
"
it.

return to the problem just proadditional likelihood this time of being able
this

we

In collections of Australian objects," says Professor Grosse,^

"one almost invariably finds wooden sticks covered with comIt is almost impossible to disbinations of points and lines.
tinguish these designs at the
'

first
loc. cit.

glance from
p. 17 ct seq.

those which are

Grosse,

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS.
'

15

found on the Australian clubs and shields, and which arc ordinarilyThere is, notwithstanding, an essential ornaments.' styled
difference between

the

two classes of
that

patterns.

Eor some time

we have
sticks

been

aware
else

the

so-called

desii^ns

upon
stick

nothing intended to remind the messenger


essential points of his message.

are

than a rude

kind

of

\\riting

marks

these

who

carries

the

of the

They have therefore a practical


In this instance our

and not an

aesthetic signification.
;

knowledge
the

prevents our falling into error instances where it is otherwise?

but

how numerous must be

could authoritatively assure us that the figures on the Australian shields are actually ornaments ? Is it not possible that they are marks of property or
tribal

Who

are religious symbols ? almost every time we look at the ornamentation of any primitive race. In very few instances can we give an answer. Notwithstanding the great niunber of
signs
?

Or

possibly these figures

These questions

arise

doubtful instances, there are also

many

in

which the purely

aesthetic

signification can never be called in question.

The

doubtful cases

also

are

far

from being valueless

for

our science.

The

birds'

heads at the prows of the Papuan canoes are perhaps primarily If the religious symbols, but they also serve as ornaments.
choice

determined by a religious consideration, the execution and the combination with other motifs, whether different or analogous, are always affected by aesthetic
is

of an

ornamentation

needs."
is easy to see what are the difficulties of the subject, and impossible it would be to discuss the cjuestion if one had resolved from the outset to izive onlv' definite and assured

It

how

data on

all

subjects.

It

is

therefore necessary to confine oneself

to multiplying observations
in

and studying the doubtful instances,


light

the

hope

that
tf)

permitting us
artistic

spring forth from them, trace with a sure hand the laws which goxcrn

one day

may

phenomena.

ideas, to
"

y\s it is necessary, a definition of Art, we will give


' '

in
sa\'
'

order

to

fix

our
:

with
'

M. Grossc
acti\it\final
is

activity
to

Speaking broadly, we mean by lesthetic or which is intended b\- its exercise, or


excite
a
direct

arti.stic

an

b\'

its

result,

sensation, which

in

most

cases

one

ot

i6
pleasure."

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


But we are careful
is
^

that

"our definition
is

add immediately, with our author, a merely scaffolding to be demolished when


to

our edifice

built."

some extent
outset

This has been a very long parenthesis, and it appears to to be a digression from "Primitive Art in Egypt." Nevertheless, I believe it will be of service in warning us at the
of the
difficulties

that

we

shall

encounter
for

at the

same

time

it

shows us what we

study thus directed that it may possibly throw light one day on the extremely interesting question of the origin of Egyptian art. Is classical Egyptian art an importation, as we have just
of the primitive art? Was there a slow and progressive evolution or is it possible to establish at any given moment a hiatus a sudden contrast between
is
it

may hope

in

the future from a

asked ourselves? or

continuation

the primitive artistic productions and

those of dynastic Egypt ? W'c cannot attempt to reply to these questions until we have arrived at the completion of our study and even then, I fear,
;

the

result

will

remain

extremely problematic

in

the

present

state of our

knowledge.

As

a precaution against error

we

will

borrow from Professor

Grosse the plan of his book, and also the method of dividing our matter shall be as follows: "Art," he says, "is divided into two
great groups

arts

of

movement and
ii.

arts of repose.

The

differ-

ence which separates them has Fechner (Vorsc/iu/e der A es^/ie///i',

been very clearly indicated by


5).

The

first

seek to please

by forms
masses
in

in

repose, the others


;

following one another in time


repose,

by forms either in movement or the first transforms or combines

and the other produces the movement of the or in time capable of attaining the result aimed at body, changes

by

art.
"

We

will

commence with
object
first

the
is

"

arts in repose,"

commonly

called

the plastic arts."

Decoration

of these, and as the

probably the most primitive adorned is the human bod}-,

we
the
'

will

most primitive
J.

begin with the study of personal adornment. folk are not content to adorn
in his

But even
the

body

Collier,

J'rimer of

Art (London,

creative operation of the intelHgence a view to utihty or pleasure."

"

the

1882),

p.

making of sometiiing

36, defines art as a either witii

PRELIMIXARY CONSIDERATIONS.
;

17

onl\they must also embellish their weapons and utensils. The ornamentation of these objects will occupy the second place in We shall then examine the free plastic our study of the subject. art (J'reic Bildnerei), which aims not at decoration but at the

creation of works which are in themselves artistic.

the transition between the

arts of repose

and the

Dancing forms arts of move-

animated (Jebende Bildnerei)


is

ment.

It

may

be defined

it

as "the art
plastic

which creates movement"


.

art.

Among
.

primitive

always united with song people dancing a convenient mode of transition to poetry.
study primitive
treated
in

and thus we have


.

Finally

we

will

music."

The

three last subjects


in

can only be

most summary fashion

their relation to ancient

Egypt. Before commencing the last portion of our task we will devote a short chapter to the earliest Pharaonic monuments, the comparison of which with the primitive remains cannot fail to

be interesting. But before entering upon our subject,


give

think

it

necessary to

some dates

in

order to fix our ideas.

Authors

differ
first

enormously

in

their opinions

on the subject of

Egyptian dynasty. which have been proposed. Champollion-Figeac gives the year Bunsen, 3623 Bockh, 5702 Lepsius, Wilkinson, 2320 5869
;
; ; ;

the date of the

Here are some of the dates

3892

Brugsch, 4455

Unger, 5613

Lieblein,

5004

Mariette,

5004

Lauth, 4157.-

Dr. Budge, Keeper of the Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities of

the British

Museum,

in his

recent History of Egyptf having quoted

the dates given by Champollion-Figeac, Bockh, Lei)sius, Mariette, " Of these writers, the Bunsen, Wilkinson, and Brugsch, ends thus
:

only ones whose chronological views are to be seriously considered

and Lepsius, Mariette, and lirugsch, between who.sc highest Viewed in the light lowest dates is an interval of over iioo years.
are

of recent investigations, the date of Lepsius seems to be too low, whilst that of Mariette, in the same way, seems to be too high we
;

Grosse, loc. cit. pp. 38, 39. in According to the chronological table drawn u[) by Wiedemann with reserve the date 5650. Aegyptisclie Geschiclite, pp. 732, 733, which gives
2

'

iiis

RuDGE, History of Egypt, London, ii)i>2. p. 159.

i.

Egypt

in

tJic

NeolitJiic

and Arcliaic
2

Periods,

i8

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


for

have therefore to consider the date

Menes

(the

first

king of the
peuplcs de

Egyptian lists) M. Maspero,


Sneferu,
first

arrived at
in

by Brugsch."
large

his

Histoire ancien7ie des

r Orient} apparently

accepts a somewhat similar dating. He places of the fourth dynasty, at 4100 B.C., "with a king

possible error of several centuries

more or

less."

Professor Petrie, in one of his


reign of

more recent Menes between 4777 and 4715.


in

works," places the

VVe can therefore admit,

taking a

minimum

date, that all the


to

monuments

dealt with in
;

this

book are anterior

the fourth

but having thus obtained a provisional date for the millenary termination of the primitive period, it would be equally advisable
B.C.

to assign

one also
is

for the

commencement

of that period.

But here

greater, and a calculation can only be based upon extremely vague presumptions. For the development of the primitive civilization Dr. Petrie demands about two thousand years,

the difficulty

still

and as he places the commencement of Pharaonic Egypt about 5000 B.C., the most ancient of the monuments which we are about
to consider

would necessarily date back


find ourselves
in

to about

7000

B.C.^

As we

our

own country

face to face with

immense periods any precise dates


be established,

of prehistoric ages, without being able to assign


to
it

the different stages of civilization which can

necessary to find a convenient terminology to enable us with ease to classify the objects found. To this end a series of deposits characteristic of an age has been
has
chosen, and to that age the name of the deposit has been given. Thus terms have been created which are universally accepted, such It would be extremely as Chellean, Mousterian, Magdalenian, etc.

been

convenient to be able to do the same


^

in

Egypt, and new Guide


first

in

fact the

Paris, Hachette,

i.

1895, p. 347, note 2.


2,

In the

Museum,
5000
-

Cairo,

1903, p.

the

same author places the

to tlic Cairo dynasty at about

B.C.

Al)ydos, \. p. 22. 3 Mr. Maclver has recently attempted to combat these conclusions, but liis arguments are not conclusive. In his calculations he has not taken into account
that the tribe wlio interred in the El

Amrah cemetery may have been nomads

only return periodically to that locality, a circumstance tiiat would completely change the conclusions to be drawn from the number of tombs. See

who would

MacIver & Mace, El Amrah and Abydos,

pp. 50-52.

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS.
Naqada
which has been explored,

19

age, so called from the principal cemetery of that period is a term already applied to the entire

In scientific books the Naqada civilization, the primitive period. men of Naqada, etc., are already commonly referred to. Petrie has

gone

still

farther,

and instead of names he has proposed

to

make

use of numbers.

Relying upon the study of types of pottery, which are extremely varied during the primitive period, Dr. Petrie has succeeded, by a series of classifications which it is impossible for me to describe
here, in separating all

known types into a scries of 50. To these he has applied numbers ranging from 30 to 80, which numbers

To these represent the successive periods of the prehistoric age. numbers he applies the term sequence dates. The contents of a
tomb, when studied on the basis of these
classifications, furnish a

maximum and
This

minimum number,

the average of which indicates

the relative age of the burial.

scheme originated by Petrie


large

is

very ingenious,
of
intact

and

is

only rendered possible by the which have been discovered.


criticisms
to

number

Notwithstanding

the

graves various
to

which

his

m.cthod has been subjected, up

the

facts

present time no one has apparently been able to bring forward to contradict his results. It is owing to this system that
a statuette or of a

we can say of the type of

scheme of decoration

that they occur, for instance, between the sequence dates 35 and 39 and it is thus that similar indications must be understood, as
;

they are met with


that

in the

pages of

this

book.

VVc must explain

numbers previous to 30 have been reserved in case a lucky find should bring to light monuments more ancient than
the

As I have previously mentioned, the point any already known. of union between the sequence dates and the reigns of the kings of the first dynasty has been established on the evidence of the small prehistoric town of Abydos, and Petrie has fixed the reign
^

of

Menes
'

as coinciding with the sequence date 79.in


;

PEruiE, Sequences in Prehistoric Remains,


Institute,

tlie

Journal of

tlie

Antliropari'a,
xi.

pological
pp. 4-12;
^

xxix.

1900,
ol'

pp.
tlie

295-301

Petkie,
in

Diospolis

S.

Reinach, Review
i.

preceding

I' Antliropologie,

u/)o,

pp. 759-762.

Petrie, Abydos,

p. 22.

20
It
is

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


on the basis of these sequence dates that we can state during the

of certain objects that they are specially numerous first or second half of the prehistoric periodI

have endeavoured to multiply the


in

illustrations,

which can
text
is

be sufficiently numerous intended merely to serve as a

never

work

where

the

summary
of
:

commentary on the
is

monuments.
cated
in

The

source

of

each

the illustrations

indi-

When, for instance, there is following manner Ixiv. and Diospolis Parva^ the in text 'j'^, Naqada, pi. quoted ix. 23, the mark 78 will be found at the side of the illustration
the

taken from Naqada, and D. 23 beside that taken from Diospolis. R. T. Royal tombs A. signifies Abydos Am., A., or El, El
\
\

Amrali

etc.

These annotations,
I

in

connection with those at the


it

foot of the page, should,

think, render

easy to trace the originals


cases,

of the illustrations.
in Figs. 7

In

some very exceptional

especially
it

and

17,

which give examples of objects which

is

necessary to
identification

refer

to again later, the indications relating to the

of the objects will be found in


in detail.^

the passage where

thc}' are treated

concluding these preliminary remarks, I do not attempt It is, in fact,, to conceal the defects this work ma\' contain.
In

hazardous to write on a subject so new as

this,

and especially

on a class of objects the number of which increases from day to dav. I sincerely hope that in a few years new discoveries
will

have rendered

this

book
it

altogether

inadequate.

have

simply endeavoured to render


that
it
it

as complete as possible,

hoping

will

remain, at any rate, a

summary

of the question as

existed at the
1

moment
example

of publication.
of

Following

the

M.

Salomon
,

Rkixach
I

in

La

Sculpture

drawn the greater part of these figures (except those signed with a monogram). These must, however, fie considered entirely as sketches, by no means intended to
C7iropeenne

avant

les

influences grcco-rotnai7ies

have

myself

supersede the original putjlications.

21

CHAPTER

II.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.

PRIMITIVE only exception

races paint almost the whole of the body. are the Esquimaux, who cover

The
their

bodies with clothing, at all events, when they quit their huts. The Australian always has a store of white clay, or of red and
In daily life he yellow ochre in his pouch. various smears on his cheeks, shoulders, or chest
is

content with

but on solemn

occasions he daubs the whole of his body.^


Is
it

possible to prove that

any

similar

custom existed among

the primitive Egyptians? First we must remark that "colouring such as red and N'ellow ochre, malachite, and sulphide materials, of antimony, are frequently found in the tombs " these
;

colouring materials are

usually contained near the hands of the deceased person.^

in

small bags, placed

There

is

no evidence,

believe, to

show

that the)- painted the

whole of the body, but there is a clay statuette which has designs painted over the whole body. This interesting object was discovered at Tukh it represents a woman, standing, with her arms
;

above her head,


ration
shall

of vases.

make

again in the decowith that subject we chapter dealing an attempt to determine, if possible, the meaning of
in

a pcxsition the

we

shall

find

In

this attitude.

designs painted on this statuette are of various kinds. In the first place there arc figures of animals, goats or antelopes,

The

which Pctrie remarks are absolutely identical with those on the


'

^ ^

Gkosse, Lcs Debuts de VArt^ P- 4iRechcrches sur lcs origincs dc I'Egyph-, Petrie, Naqada, p. 30.

De Morgan,

ii.

p. 51.

22

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

red pottery with white line decoration. should next observe the zigzag patterns, and finally the nnotives borrowed from plants.
All these decorations occur

We

the

commencement

upon the pottery contemporary with of the prehistoric period between 31 and 32

(sequence dates).

This indicates that the figure in question is of extreme antiquity, and we may consider it as one of the earliest
female figures known, with the exception of the ivories discovered

Fig.

5-

Figure

of a

THE

Woman with Designs Whole Body.

painted over

Gre}' clay with black paint.

in

the caves of the south of France


this

reproducing
find a

large

M. de Morgan, (Fig. 5). same figure, remarks that "it would be easy to number of analogies among the tribes of Central
^

Africa, of Asia,
'

and of Oceania."

Petrie, Naqada, pi. lix. 6 (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford). The examples of pottery quoted by Petrie for comparison with the paintings are the following
:

pi.

x.wiii.
-

34,

48;

pi.

xxix.

-jj,

^d,

91-95.

De Morgan,

Recherches

siir les origincs

dc I'Kgypte,

ii.

p.

56, tip.

ini.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
The most
intcrestini;

23

comparison from

this

one indicated by Petrie, who observes how designs on the body recall the tatoo-marks of the populations to the west of Egypt, those Tiinihu (Libyans) who, as we
shall frequently

point of view is greatly the painted

have occasion to remark, present

many

analogies

with the primitive Egyptians. consider presently.

The
in

subject of tatooing

we

shall

Two

clay female

figures

the Petrie collection, University

College, London, and

similar

fragment

in

the

Ashmolean

Museum, Oxford,
those on the
It

are also

painted with designs analogous with


6).

Tukh

statuette^ (Figthat

will
is

body
were
Also,

in
it

evidence relating to painting the very scanty, and only enables us to assert that women the habit of decorating the body with various patterns.
thus

be seen

we

not absolutely certain, in the objects quoted here, that it is only the discovery of have not to deal with tatooing
is
;

colourin"- materials in

the tombs that leads us

to

believe

that

they are instances of painting.-

On
clearer

the subject

of painting
for this

the

to powder and

purpose apparently mixed with some With this paint a rather broad line was drawn
:

evidence

eyes we happily possess far malachite was used, ground


fatt\-

substance.

round the eye,

which, besides being decorative, had a utilitarian purpose. As Petrie observes, Livingstone records that in the centre of
Africa he found that the best

remedy against obstinate

sores

was

powdered malachite, which the natives provided for him. '1 he same author compares the coating of colour which [)reser\-cd the e)'c from the blazing glare of the desert with the custom of
the Esquimaux, who blacken the skin round the eye to protect it from the glare (jf the snow.'

My attention has been drawn to similar figures at the Turin Museum, which show distinctly the line ol" paint below the eyes which we are about to
'

consider.
'^

For

painting

the

body

and

tatooing

in

pre-Mycenajan

Greece,

see

Blinkenberg,
civilisatiofi

de

tudc sur la plus ancwnnc prcinyccnicniics. la G/rcc; in the IVlcmoircs dc la Sucliitc royalc dcs antiqiiaircs
Atitiqtiiics

du Noni, new
^

series,

1896, pp. 46-50.


\>.

Petkik, Dlospolis parva,

20.

24

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

Fig.

6.

Figures

of

Women.

University College, London.

Grey clay with greenish paint. On the figure to the left the painting has scaled off, and only a few lines on the torso can now be distinguished.

The

following facts prove that this custom existed

in

Egypt

Shells containing green paint have been discovered in the tombs,^ and similar traces of colour have

during the primitive period.

Petrie, Naqada,

p.

6,

toml) 522

Ballas

p.

15,

tomb 23

Ballas

p.

16,

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.

25

been found on ordinary pebbles, very much polished, which are invariably found with the slate palettes.^

These

palettes, of

which we

shall

frequently have occasion to

speak in the course of this work, served for grinding the malachite, which was crushed to powder on them by means of the pebbles I have just mentioned. The fact is demonstrated in an undeniable

Fig.

7.

Slate

Palettes used for grinding Paint.

manner by the traces of green paint found on them, and also by the cavities worn in them by prolonged grinding- (Eig. 7)
Petrie

has

also

occasionally

found

traces

of

h.ematite

on

them.

The
torn])

palettes were

fated

to

fulfil

brilliant

destiny.

Later

87 Ballas.

The same use

of sliells in the fourth dynasty has also been


"
:

Tlic shell See Petrie, Median, London, 1892, pi. x.\i.\-. 17, p. 3.1 contains powdered blue carbonate of copper as paint." Petrie, Naqada, pp. 10, 19, tomb 5 Naqada. A tine specimen of a palette

established.

'

with traces of paint, from Gebelein, at Oxford. * Petrie, Naqada, p. 43.

26

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


art,

on we find them developed into real works of size and apparently employed ceremonially.

of

immense

must mention the custom that existed in the primitive of paintintj the bones of the deceased with red colour. period Australians the adolescent is painted red for the the Among
first

We

time at his
"

initiation,

when he
^

joins the

community

of the
life,
is

men.

Painting with red, characteristic of entrance into


also for death."

employed Without more evidence than we possess we cannot determine how far this custom was general among the primitive
Egyptians.
Petrie.'^
I

have only met with one instance mentioned by

Did the habit of painting the body, and more especially of drawing a line of green paint round the eye, continue in Egypt
at the historic period
?

P'rom the earliest times the skin of the


is

men on
yellow.

the

monuments

generally represented as being of a brownish red colour, dark


tone,

in

while

the skin of the

women

is

M. Maspero,
expresses

in his Histoire ancienne des peuplcs de

V Orient

classiqiief

himself thus on the subject


red
all

"
:

The men

are generally coloured

in

these

pictures

in

fact,

one can observe


at

among them

the shades

seen

among

the population

the present day,

from the most delicate pink to the colour of smoked bronze.

The women, who


the upper classes."

are less exposed to the glare of the sun, are


if

usually painted yellow, the tint being paler

they belonged

to

It even might very easily be accepted. to the the red and yellow colourings which exceptions explains we observe on a certain number of monuments, where the

This explanation

skin

of
is

the

women,
nearly

fen"

instance,

instead
colour.

of

being

painted
1

yellow,
will
in

very

the

natural

As an example

mention the figure of a daughter of Prince Tehuti-hctep, the tombs of V\ Bersheh or, again, the representations
^
;

Grossi-:, loc.

cit.

pp. 41, 42.

Naqada,
Vol.
i.

p. 25,

tomb

234.

''

p. 47.
i.

Newberry, El Bersheh,

frontispiece.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
of

27

Queen

Aahmes
flesh

at

Deir-el-Bahari,

and

of

Queen

Thiti,

where the pink


of other
ladies

colours
in

contrast with

those of thousands

painted

bright

yellow on the walls of their


in

tombs.^
I,

however,

am

disposed to see

the

singular colouring of

Egyptians a custom resembling that of primitive nations, especially as the colours employed, red and yellow, are those
the

most frequently
"

in

use

among

them.

Analysing the primitive


"
:

palette,"

Grosse thus expresses


is

himself

Red,

especially

yellowish red, it is of almost

the
all

favourite
. . .

colour of primitive
his FarbenleJire he
It
is

peoples, as

nations.

Goethe undoubtedly expresses


for this

the general sentiment

when

in

exciting

influence of a yellowish red.

speaks of the reason that

in

red has always played an important part in the toilet, especially that of men. The habit of victorious Roman generals of

painting themselves red has vanished with the Roman republic Yellow is of similar importance, and is also employed in
. .

the same manner.


I

."

believe

ciples to

by no means impossible to apply these printhe Egyptians, and although do not wish to assert
it

is

that
in

the

custom
at
all

of

painting

the
I

skin

in

this

manner
a
rise in

was
fairly

vogue

periods,

yet

suppose

that

during

long period it was sufficiently convention of representing men

general to in red and

give

to

the

women

yellow.^

The custom
can
with

round the eyes with green or, more accurately, of underlining the eye with a dash of green paint
of painting

much

greater

certainty

be

attributed

to

Egyptian

civilization.

Petrie reports that he discovered in a

(M.

I.

tomb of the first dynasty in a small i\or>- box some malachite Abydos) powdered

Naville, Dcir-el-Bahari, iii. pi. l.wii. Benedite, Le Jombcau dc la rcine Memoires de la Mission atrlieologif/i/c ffaufaisc du Cairc, v. p. 397. ^ Grosse, Les Debuts de PArt, pp. 45-47. " 3 Maspero, Histoire ancicnne dcs peiiples dc l' Orient class/(/itc, i. p 54 Je on d'liiiile.' de mrml)res ils s'enduisaieiit tons Ics bien debut fjraissc pense (lu'au
Thiti, in the
:

Why

not grease, or

oil,

however, Schweinfurth,

coloured by means of mineral or vegetable dyes ? See, Origin and present cofidition of the Egyptians, in
.xx.xvi.

Baedeker, Egypt,

5th ed. Leipsic, 1903, p,

28
in

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


the

very interesting object as prototype of paint of the same form which have frequently been found in tombs of the Second Theban Empire, and of which several museums contain specimens - (Fig. 8).
of the numerous boxes

form of a duck

of the fourth dynasty clearly show the line of green colour under the eyes, especially two door-posts at the Cairo Museum, on which is figured the wife of a personage

The monuments

named Sokar-khabiu,

"

who was

called

Hathornefer-Hotep as her

this woman's features great name, and Toupis as her short name she has a line of green paint under the recall the Nubian type ^ The celebrated statues of eyes."
;

Sepa and of Nesa have the same lines.


the
eyelids,

at
"

the

Louvre
pupils,

The

eyebrows are painted black, and below the eyes


Fig.

and the
'

S.-^kv

Box

in

Form

''^

'^

^'^^

of green."

The

mummy
com-

OF A Duck.

of Ranefcv,

who

lived about the

mencement of the fourth dynasty, was closely enveloped in linen wrappings, and on these the eyes and eyebrows were painted
green.'''

The green powder used


in

in

small bags, which

are frequently
as

preparing the paint was enclosed represented in the lists of


these
the
pictured

offerings.

They were made,


or
skin,"

show,

of leather

and

specimens

representations found in the

graves confirm the accuracy of this detail. Occasionally also the paint was placed in small vases or baskets. I cannot attempt to enter into the question of the composition of this

green paint
paints

in

in 'use at

Pharaonic Egypt, nor stop to describe the various the same period. It would have no bearing on

Petrie,
I

pi.

xxxvii.
-

Diospolis see 27
p.

fiaum,
;

p.

20.

Published

in

Petrie, Royal

Tombs,

i.

id.

ii.

p. 37.

in Petrie, Kahim, Giirob and Hazvara, pi. xviii. 10, and two Others in Leemans, Acj^yptisc/ie oiiumcntcn van Jict Nedoiandschc Muscn77i van Oudheden te Lcydcn, ii. pi. xxxvi. 565, 567. Maspero, Guide to the Cairo Museum, Cairo, 1903, p. 40, No. 62.
p.

An example
;

35
''

'

^ "

De Rouge, Notice des monu^ncnts, A Petrie, Medmn, p. 18.


Griffith, Beni Hasan,
iii.

36-38, pp. 26, 27,

pi.

iii.

27, p. 14.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
the
subject

29

of this
I

work, and

done by

others.^

it h;is ah-cady been admirably must, however, mention the traces left in

green paint. hieroglyphic sign :^&= clearly shows the line of colour drawn below the eye, and this sign, in addition to other uses, serves

Egyptian writing and

ritual

b\'

this use of

to determine the

name

Uazii

Y^ o

of the

powder and of

green paint.^
frequent allusions are made to green paint, occurring as early as the Pyramid texts, and the belief in the protective and curative virtues of the paint was such, even at that time, that the Uaait, the painted eye, was called the sound
In

the

rituals

or healthy eye.

This

point

has

been

rendered perfectly clear


in

by Maspero, who has several times The daily ritual of the divine
funerary rituals,
henlthy with
I'inally,

written on the subject.^


cult

Egypt, and also the

mention bringing a bag of green paint as a means whereby the god, or the deceased person, " makes himself
all

that

is

in

him.""*
is

curious

text

expressed
for

in

these terms

"
:

He

brings thy right eye, green paint [another paint] for thy left eye."'' The designs with which primitive man paints his skin ha\-c

to

thee

and

mcstein

no persistency of character
others
substituted.

they can be got rid of at Under some circumstances it


;

will

and
be

may

Wiedemann, A., Varieties of ancie)it Ko/il,'' in PErRU';, Medioii, pj). 41-44. Florence & Loret, Le collyre 7ioir et le collyrc vert du toinbcau dc la princesse Nonbhotep, in De Morgan, Fouilles a Dalichour, March Jnne, 1894,
'

''

1895, Review of Davies, April 22nd, 1901, p. 308. Ptahhotcpy i. see pi. v. 33 for tlie exact representation of the sign. Masi'ero, Notes au jour le jour, 25, in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archa;ology, xiv. 1902, pp. 313-316, and La table d'offrandes des tombeaux egyptiens, in the Revue de I'histoire des religions, xxxv. 1897, p. 297 (separate

pp.

153-164; also printed separately, Vienna,

16 pp.

Maspero, Revue
;

critique,

'*

reprint,

p.

23).

Fetrie, en

Medum,

pi.

xiii.

Mariette,

Monuments

divers,

recueillis en li.gypte et

Italic, T^aris, 18S9, pi. xix. b,

where

^ If
[)

occurs from a

000

mastaba of the beginning of the fourtli dynasty. " See Moret, Le rituel du culle divin journalier

en-

figyple, in the

Annates

du Musee
'

Guiifict,

Von

Bibliotheque d' etudes, xiv. p]>. 71, 109, 199. Lemm, Das Ritualbuch des Ammondienstes, Leipsic, 18S2,

p.

68.

30

PRLMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


them
indelible

desirable to render

as,

for instance, in

the case

of tribal or religious marks, and

thus

we

find the origin

of the

custom of tatooing. As we have seen

in the preceding pages, it is difficult to from the primitive Egyptian figures between distinguish clearly

what was tatooed and what was painted.


were apparently
in

The same

patterns

use for both.

As

have already stated, a

comparison has been made between the painted or tatooed patterns on the primitive statuettes and the tatoo-marks on the Libyans ( 1 iiniJiu) of the tomb of Scti I. This comparison, extended

^
Fig. 9.

IB

Tatoo-marks

of the Primitive Egyptians compared with those of the libyans.

From

V Anihyopologie.

to the tatoo-marks of the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria, has

shown

close analogy

between them

all

(Fig. 9).

We
Seti
to
I.^

reproduce here a group of Libyans from the tomb of (Fig. 10), to which we shall several times have occasion
It
is
is

refer.

especially

interesting

to

note

that

one

of

the

tatoo-marks
>cz3:;,

glyph
of

the

very accurate reproduction of the hieroand in this symbol of the goddess Neitk
a
;

connection

we

are

led

to

consider

the

name

of

the

wife

an Egyptian king of the first dynasty called Meri-Neith. " M. Maspero writes thus on the subject The name of Mcri:

Wiedemann, Die U?'2ett Aegyptens iind seine dlteste Bevolkcrung, in Die Umsc/iau, September 23rd, 1899, pp. 756-766. Lcs modes d'cttsci'elisscment dans la necropolc de Negadah ct la. question de I'origine dii peiiplc cgypticii^ in
'

De Morgan,
Naqada,
xi.
-

Rechei-ches sitr les origincs de rj^gypie,

ii.

pp. 221, 222.

Petrie,

pp. 45, 46.

Tatouages des indigejies dc I'Algerie, in

r AntJiropologie,
136.

1900, p. 485.

Lei'sius, Detikmiiler aus

Aegyptoi mid Aethiopicn,

iii.

pi.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
Neith
is

31
"

interesting," apart

we were already aware from


played
ladies

by Neith
of high

in

the

its being a royal name but other proofs of the important part The religion of the earliest centuries.
;

from

who are buried or mentioned in the mastabas of the Memphite period have, as favourite titles, those of or Neith Prophetess of Neith Prophetess of Hathor.'
position
'
'

'

appears to have been a goddess of Libyan origin, and

dominance of her
at
this

moment,

the prethe is during primitive period noteworthy when the Berlin school is Semitizing to the
cult
^

utmost the language and the population of Egypt."


/\^S/,^yvNAy

VI

I'lG.

10.

LlBYA.Nb

FROM THE ToMli UK

Si, 11

1.

of the
one.

This leads us to enquire whether the painting and tatooing body had not some other object, in addition to an aesthetic
In order to

answer

this

we must examine our

ethnolosfical

evidence.

and as
divinity

it

Family and tribal marks are generally to be recognized, sometimes happens that a tribe selects the symbol of a
its

for

distinctive

mark, there

is

chance of finding

religious signs
'

among
the

tatoo-marks.^
ctilique,

Maspero,

in

Revue

November

I2th,

1900, p. 366.

For the

contrary opinion, hut witli inadequate arguments, see MacIver & Wilkin^ For Meri-Neith see Sethe, Bcitriigc Liliyan Notes, London, 1901, pp. 69, 7c. zur dltesten Geschichte Aegyptens {U/ife/snchu/igen zur (ieschichte uiid Aller-

thuniskunde Aegypletts, herausgegeben von Kurt Sethe, ^ Grosse, loc. cit. p. 55 ct. scq.

iii.

i),

pp. 2y, 30.

32

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

Occasionally tatoo-marks are actually pictographic, and convey a meaning. An American Indian, for instance, bore on his arm.
Also, tatooing mysterious power." zigzag lines signifying may be intended to serve a medical purpose.^ The Egyptians of the classical period tatooed themselves occasionally on the
breast
or
"
^

on the
This

divinities.

arms with the names or representations of custom was perhaps exclusively confined to
;

the

Second Theban Empire

do not remember

to

have met

with

an example outside that period. It will be sufficient to mention some instances of this. Amenophis IV. and his queen

bore the names of the god Aten tatooed upon the breast and arms. With reference to this subject Professor Wiedemann remarks that Libyan influence can clearly be traced during this ^ A stela in the Pesth Museum shows a personage conreign.

temporary with Thothmes

III.,

who

bears

on

his

right

arm a

cartouche of that king.* On other examples we find the figure of the god Amon-Ra tatooed on the right shoulder, notably on a statue of a kneeling
scribe
in

the

Turin Museum.^

Another statue

in

the

Leyden

Museum (D
Amon-Ra,
'

19) bears on the right shoulder a small figure of and on the left shoulder the cartouche of Amenophis

Tentli Atmual Report of tlie Bureau of Ethnology, xvii. Washington, p. 235. E.xamples by HoERNES, 1893, \i\. Urgeschichte der bildendcn Kunst in Europa von den Anfdngcn bis jnn 500 vor There the author also mentions the Libyans Chr., Vienna, 1898, p. 31, note 4.

Garrick Mallei^y,

1888-9,

of the
^

tomb of Seti I. FouQUET, Le Tatouage medical en fUgypte dans


in

I'antiquite et a
xiii.

Vepoque
et
scq.

actuellc,

the Archives d' anthropologic criniinelle, See BuscHAN in the Ccntralblatt fur Anthropologic,
1899, p. 09.

1899, p.

270
R.

iv.

p. 75,

and

Verxeau
tlie

in I'Anthropologie, x.

Professor Petrie draws

my

attention to

of a priestess of the sixth dynasty, in Cairo, wlicre there are tatoo-mariis on the body.
^

mummy

numerous

Urzeit Aegyptens ... in Die Umschau, iii. 1899, P- 7^6, and Recherches sur les origines de I'Egyptc, ii. p. 222. For the Professor Petrie figured representations see LEPsms, Denkmdleri iii. pi. 106, 109. has remarked to me that in this case tlie so-called tatoo-marks may be, in reality,

Wiedemann, Die

in

De Morgan,

small plaques of glazed pottery fixed on fine muslin. plaques are found with the name of the god Aten.
'

At Tel-el-Amarna similar
dliistoirc,
in

Maspero, Azotes sur differcnts points de g7-ammaire et Melanges d^archeologic cgyptienne ct assyrienne, i. 1872, p. 151.
*

the

M.\SPE^o, Histoire ancie7tnedes peuplesde I' Orie}itclassique,'\\.

p. 531, figure.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
^

33

[I. ?]

a sculptor
K

Another example from the same museum (V 82) represents who bears on his breast and shoulders the tatooed sign
temple of Ptah.
Finally,

n^

a small

statuette,

of which

the upper part alone remains, in the Cabinet des Medailles in Paris, shows that on {the breast and shoulders signs were tatooed, the meaning of which we cannot always follow, and which bear considerable resemblance to the

marks found on pottery

(Fig. 11).

Fig.

II.

Fragment

of a Statuette with Tatoo-marks on the Breast AND Right .Shoulder.


Cabinet des Medailles, Paris.

With regard
rare

to

decorative

tatoo-marks, they arc

somewhat
occur,

on Egyptian remains of the classical period. however, on a small figure of a woman in faience

They
in

the Bcrlm

Museum
'

(No. 9,583),- on a stela in the Cairo

Museum

(No. 20,138),

Leemans, Aegyplischc Monitmente7i van hct Ncdcrlandsche Muscinn van Oudhcdcn ic Lcyden, ii. pi. 4. ZfifStratz, Ueber die Kleiditng der ligyptischen TUnzennncn in tlic
'^

schrift

fur dgyptische

Sprachc,-i^\.\\\\\. igoo, p. 149.

34

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


is

where a man
finally
PL

decorated on the breast with tatoo-marks,^ and


of

in

representation

tomb

of the

Second Theban
is

m pi re."

The

perforation of the ear, the nose, or the lips

done with
hole

view to
;

placing
this

some kind of ornament

in

the

thus

obtained

form of mutilation

may
or

therefore be considered

as a natural step towards the second

ment, which
the body."
'^

consists
I

in

placing
certain

method of personal adornhanging ornaments upon


the prehistoric
I

am

not

that

practised these mutilations, nevertheless,

Egyptians wish to draw attention


;

to the use of ear-studs in the classic period

and,

first,

we

will

Libyans of the tomb of Seti I. is from the plates published by Belzoni wearing ear-studs, judging and by Champollion. Lepsius, in the plate of which our
observe
that

one of the

Fig.
Fig.

lo
19.)

represents

part,

has

not

noted the ear-stud.^

(See

In
at

the

Egypt the wearing of ear-studs is fairly frequent, but only commencement of the eighteenth dynasty. As Erman
these

remarks,''
rings.

ear-ornaments are either broad

discs

or

large

During the reign of Amenophis IV. one wore these ear-ornaments as much as women."
'

finds that

men

Lange & ScHAEFER, Grab- mid Denksteine des. mittlcren Reichs (Cataiv. logue general des antiquites Egyptiennes du Musee du Caire), i. p. 163
;

pi.

Ixxxvi. p. 465.
-

Lepsius, Denkytidlcr,
216.

fig.

p.

p.

54,

iii. 2. See Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, p. 230 and See Maspero, Histoire a7tcien7ie des peuplcs dc V Orient classique, i. and note 3. See Alfred Herz, Taftozuirimg, Art und Verhrcitung,

Leipsic,

tatooing
'

1900 (Doctor-dissertation, Universitat Erlangen). and painting the body among the Greeks,

On
see

the subject of

Wolters,

P.,

Hermes, xxxviii. pp. 265-273. Deniker, Les races et Ics peuples de la tcrrc, Paris, 1900, p. 209. Belzoni, Plates illustrative of the Researches and Operations of G. Belzoni in Egypt and Njihia^ London, 1821, pi. viii. Champollion, Mofinments de For a reproduction of the head after this plate see Perrot & r/igypte, pi. ccxl. It is much CiiiPiEZ, Histoire de I'ait dans Vantiqiie^ i. fgvpte, tig. 528, p. 796.
'

EXacpoaTiKTos, in

to be regretted that the various publications of this important representation vary so greatly in tlic details. It is very desirable that an edition definitive should

be made.
''

Erman, Life in A?icient Egypt, p. 228. Steindorff, Vier Grabstelcn aus der Zeit Atnenophis

IV., in the Zeitsclnift

filr Aegyptische Sprache, xxxiv. 1896, p. 66.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.

35

The woman represented in the charming statuette of the Bologna Museum (Fig. 12) "is very proud of her large ear-ornaments, and is gravely pushing one of them forward, either to
show
it
^

off

or to assure
discs

herself that

the jewel

is

safely in

its

place."

These

are

found not

infrequently

in tombs of the Second Theban Empire, and a certain number

appear to have
fixed
in

been
of

intended
the
ear,

to

be

the

lobe

which
greatly

must

necessarily

have

been

distended.^

Professor

Schweinfurth
brocatel

lished a ring in

pubbelonging to
judging from its

has

the

primitive
its

period,

which,
also

from

shape
profile,

and
can

external

only have

been

used as a

lip-ring.'"

We now
Egypt.

pass to the consideration


in

of methods of hairdressing

ancient

On one

of the earliest vases of


"

the kind called


pottery,"

by Petric which was only

cross-lined
in

Fig. 12.

use

at

Wooden Statuette THE Bologna Museum,. WITH Ivory Ear-ornaments.


IN

the beginning of the

primitive period (sequence dates 31-34), a combat between two men is represented One of the combatants has his hair divided on the (Fig. 13).

toj:)

of the head into four tresses, which hang

down

his back.'

Maspero, Histoire ancieime des petiples dc V Orient classiqitc, ii. p. 533 and where the author states, probably erroneously, that tlie statuette belongs to the Turin Museum. Petrie's photograph of the same, from which he has reproduced it, is No. 83 of the Italian series, but has the letter B, indicating Bologna. If it is doubted that such a distension of the car, in some cases very considerable, can be a fact, such examples as are represented by Scmuktz, Urgcschichtc dcr Kiilti/r, Leipsic, 1900, p|). 65 and 396, will carry most comElliott SMrni, Report on the Mitmmv of the Priestess Ncsiplete conviction. tet-neh-ta/ii, in the Annates di/ service des Antiquites de VEgypte^ iv. 1903, p. 15S.
'

fig.,

'

Schweinfurth,

Uetier einen Attiigyptischcn

Ring aus

Brocatelle, in the

Verhandlungeti der t)erl. Anthropol. Gesellscha/t {Vcbvuixxy, 1902, pp. 99, 100). " M. Schweinfurth avait emis I'idee (juc Petrie, Diospolis parva, p. 14 les n^olithiques egyptiens se teignaient les cheveux en blond (par decoloration
' :

'

'

36

primitivp:

art

in

egypt.

in

a variety

Other remains of more recent date show the hair arranged of ways, the hair worn long and divided into

two rows of
face

curls,

framing the
to the
in

and hanging down


^
;

shoulders
"

or

short

hair

small curls, either round or of


form, arranged in rows from the nape of parallel the neck to the crown of the

corkscrew

"

head-;

again, in other inwhole of the hair the stances,


or,

massed

in a

single thick plait,

which, falling from the crown of the head, hangs down the

back

(Fig.

14).

All these

methods of

hair-

dressing

for

found

on

the

men are also monuments of


respect
to

the Ancient Egyptian Empire,

where

in

this

the
faith-

Egyptians appear
fully followed

have

the traditions of

their predecessors.
plait,

The
no
this

single

however,
;

is

worn by men

by

longer time it

a I'aide de chaux ou d'urine) ou en roux (par coloration avec du hemic).

M. Vircliow
.

croit devoir ecarter cette


.

." Salomon Reinach, hypothese. review of ViRCHOw, Ueber die cthnoIo<iischc Stelbitig der priihistorisclicn

FiG.

13. Pottery Vase with Designs in White representing Men fighting.


\.

mid protoliistoriscliei) Acgypter [Abhandhmgcn der Preuss. Akadetnie


der VVisscfischaften,
lAnthropolof^ic,
ix.

Berlin,

1898),

in

1898, p. 447.

QuiBELL, HierakonpoUs, pi. ii. and vi., and Petrie, The Races of Early Egypt, in tlie Joiirtial of the Anthropological Institute, xxxi. pi. xix. Ii and 12. ' QuiBELL, IIierako?ipolis, i. pi. xi. and xxvi. , and Petrie, Royal Tombs of
-

Id. pi. V.

the Earliest Dynasties,

ii.

pi. iv. 4.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
is

37

worn only by children, or as one of the distinctive marks of In this case, princes and certain high sacerdotal dignitaries.

when we see it represented on the monuments of the Second Theban Empire, the plait has usually lost its original form, and is transformed into a fringed band hanging over the ear.^ The earliest female figures have no trace of any hair whatever,
and
it

might be considered that the head was entirely shaved.

Fig. 14.

Ivory

Statuette.

A
It

crouching captive.

The

hair, in a thick plait or twist, is

hanging down the back.

is

of
'

probable, however, that this is owing to the inexperience the artist, who did not understand how to render hair.-'
For the types of wigs of
pp.
tlio

Ancient Empire, see Erman, Life in


of
children

Amicnt
i/>.

Egypt,

2ig-222.

P'or

the side-locks

and of

j)rinces,

pp. 117, 235, 314, reproduction of the lock transformed into a decorated bandeau. This forms an interesting example of the laws of evolution of clothing as laid down b}' Darwix, G. H., IJ evolution dans le veienwfit, in the Revue de

rUniversite de Bruxellcs, v. 1899-1900, pp. 3S5-411, ill. (Separate reprint, Brussels, Lamertin.) Translation from MacMillan's Magazine, 1872. ^ Later on we shall see that hair-combs are especially abundant at this
period.

38

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT


find

Towards the end of the primitive period, on the contrary, we two distinct modes of hairdressing, a short and a long one.
the
first

In

case
side

the hair

is

divided on
is

the forehead, and, falling

on each

of the

face,

cut

short

above the shoulders.^

When worn
tresses

long

the

hair

hangs loose down the back, some

being drawn over the shoulders and hanging over the breasts.A statuette discovered at Abydos (1902-3) by Professor

I'iG.

15.

Figure

of a

Woman

in (Jlazeu

Poitery.

Discovered at Abydos.

Petrie

being drawn

shows yet another arrangement, the whole of the hair slightly to one side in a thick plait, which hangs
I5)-

down
'

the right shoulder-blade^ (Fig-

QuiBELL, Ilicrakonpolis^ i. pi. i.v. Petrie, Royal Tom/js, ii. pi. iii. a, 8. QuiBELL, loc. cit. i. pi. i.v. xi. Sec, farther on, various female figures which show numerous examples of the two kinds of hairdressing. It is possible that a certain number of rings, hitherto classed as bracelets, were employed in hairdressing to support the curls, as they are found used in Greece {tettiges) and in the Funic tombs. See Gsell, Foitillcs de Gouraya : Sepultures puniqucs de la
-

cote algcrieiine (publication of the Association

Histonque de I'Afrique du

A'ord),

Paris, Leroux, 1903, p. 39.


'

Petrie, Abydos,

ii.

pi. iv. p. 25.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.

39

Here, again, \vc find modes of dressing the hair identical with those in use among women at the commencement of the Ancient
statues of Nofrit, at Cairo,

Empire, such as are represented, for instance, in the celebrated and of Nesa, at the Louvre.'

Savages of the present day delight in decorating their hair with various objects, such as feathers, shells, carved combs and
pins,

and

we

find

this

same
first
;

custom

prevailing
feathers,

among

the

primitive

men
worn

Egyptians. stuck in their


of
this'

We
hair

meet with
is

which the

this
in

specially
Louvre.'^

noticeable

on a

fragment
in

slate

palette
ostrich

the

The
is

feathers

way

are

feathers,

and

it

a question
this

whether there was not

religious

significance

in

method

of employing them. The feather is found later as the headdress of the goddess Maat, and also it is employed in writing

her name, which, in the Pyramid texts, On bearing the feather on its head.-'

is

determined by a hawk
of the

the ancient statues dis-

covered at Koptos by Petrie, the emblem surmounted by an ostrich feather.^


I

god

Min

is

must mention here that


tombs,

ostrich

eggs have been found in

prehistoric
(Fig.
16).

showing

The custom
been

several
history.'^
'

times

painting and engraving of depositing ostrich eggs in tombs has observed at different periods of Egyptian
traces

of

At Hu

Petrie discovered clay models of ostrich eggs

See Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, pp. 222, 223. Heuzey, figyptc OH Chaldce, in the Co7nptes rendus dc VAcademie des See, farther on, our Fig. 25. inscriptions et belles lettres, 1899, P^- " P- ^6. ^ Griffith, in Davies, The Mastaba of Ptalihetcp and Akhethctep at
2

Sa(/(/are/i,
^

i.

p. 15.

'

Petrie, Koptos, pi. 3. !Qe Morgan, Recherches

siir les or'igines


;

de rfUgyptc,

ii.

pp. 35, 69,

and

100.

Petrie,

A V/fl'^^,

p.

19,

tomb 4

p. 28,

tomb 1480 (Aslimolean Museum,

O.xford).

At the historic period, ostrich eggs and feathers were imported from tlie land of Punt, and perhaps also from Asia, if we credit a scene in the tomb of Harmhabi. See Bouriant, Le Tombcaii d' Harmhabi, in the Mcmoires dc la Mission ^Ve must archcologi(/iir franraise du Cairc, v. pp. 420 and 422, and pi. iii. and iv. also remember the discovery of painted eggs in the Punic tombs of Carthage (GsELL, Fouilles de Gonraya, Paris, 1903, pp. 35-37, where the author (piestions whether ostrich eggs were not decorated by the Greeks of Kgypt or of Asia Minor), and even in a tomb of the valley of Betis in Spain {l' Anthropologic, xi. 1901, It must, See also Petrie, A'aukratis, i. p. 14 and pi. x.x. 15. p. 469).
nevertheless, be

remembered

tliat

the ostrich egg

was employed

for industrial

40
one of these
of cords
^
;

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


is

decorated with black


are

the others

simply

zigzag lines in imitation ^ painted with white spots

(Fig

i6).

The ostrich feather almost without exception is found placed in the hair of lightly-armed soldiers of ancient times, and a trace of
this
is

preserv'ed
Scti
I.

in

the

hieroglyph

i^

.^

The Libyans of

the

tomb of

have two feathers stuck

in their hair.

^^^

Fig.

i6.

Ostrich

Eggs.

fragment with incised figures; also clay models showing traces of painting. Naqada and Hu.

From

The women
for fastening

delighted in the use of decorated combs and pins up their hair these were made of bone or ivory,
;

p. 18.

See Tylok <& Griffith, T/ie Tomb of Paluj-i at El Kah, pi. iv. and purposes. Petrie, Illahi(7i, Kalmn and Giiroh, pi. xxii. and p. ig. Petrie, Kahim, Gurob atid Haivara, p. 32. Mr. J. L. Myres contributes the following interesting note relative to the persistence of the commerce in ostrich eggs in the north of
Africa
"
:

The transsaharan
in

trade in ostrich eggs persists.

The

eggs, as far as

Tunis and Tripoli (in 1897), come via Kano, along witli the consignments of featliers, and emerge at the Mediterranean seaboard termini, where they are in request as pendant ornaments in the mosques." Petrie, Diospolis parva, pi. v. and p. 33 (tomb B 101). Hit, tomb B262 and B 56 (2 examples), (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford). ^ See the remarks of Max Muller, Asien imd Eiiivpa nacit altdgypHschen
could ascertain
'

Denkmdlcrn,

p. 3 et scq.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
and were often decorated
occasionally
at

41

even

human
combs

top with figures of animals; Petrie figure is found on them.


the

remarks

that

these
of

were

especially

numerous
^t,

at

the

commencement

the

prehistoric

period

between

and 44

(sequence dates), while the pins, of which the most common

type

is

decorated with a small


of a
bird,

figure

are

found
of

throughout
prehistoric

the

whole
^

the
17).

period
these

(Fig.

We
of

shall

have an opportunity

examining
but

more

in

detail
art,

that

when studying ornamental we will here observe it is possible these combs


hairpins
is

and

purpose, as
in

had a magical notably the case


decorating
the

China."

The
hair

art

of

and of arranging it in a complicated manner does not


appear to have been raised to

any

high

level

in

primitive

Egypt.
certain
to

Nevertheless, there are


indications which
to
it

seem
to
Fig.
17.

point
Is

more
not

elevated

ideal.

possible

Combs
Anim.\i.

recognize in the of certain kings,


divinities
'

head-dresses
queens,

WITH

and a Pin, decorated and Bird Figures.

and
of
the
classical

on

monuments

period

survivals

of

and

See pi. vi., where pins, a combined comb p. 2[. and also a spoon are to be seen still entangled in the hair of a woman. "Among J. J. M. DE Groot, The Religions Systefu of China, pp. 55-57 the hairpins provided for a woman's burial is almost always one whicii is adorned with small silver figures of a stag, a tortoise, a peach, and a crane. These being emblems of longevit}-, it is supposed that tlic pin which is adorned with them will absorb some of their life-giving power, and communicate it to the woman in whose hair it is ultimately fastened." Example (juoted by Frazer, The Golden Bough, 2nd ed. i. p. 48.
Petrie, Diospolis parva,
pin,
i.
:

42

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


Observe, for example, the head-dress worn by

earlier fashions?

the queens, which is formed of the feathers of a vulture, with the head of the bird arranged in front of the forehead.^ large number of instances of decorations for the hair comparable with

those of

Egypt can be furnished by ethnology."


solitary
fact

One

bears

witness

to

the

honour

in

which

elaborate hairdressing was held in primitive Egypt, and that is the custom of depositing in the tombs head-rests, which were

used during sleep to preserve artistic coiffures, not intended to be renewed every day, and which it was desirable to keep in good order as long as possible.^

Fig. i8.

Band
King

of False Hair.
Zer, of the
first

From the tomb

of

dynast}'.

Under the
and
a of his

Ancient Empire the charge of the king's hair wigs was bestowed on great personages. Maspero
inspector
of

mentions
director

an
of

wig-makers to
to

the

king,

and

also

with

the fourth

wig-makers king, contemporary and fifth dynasties.^ Petrie discovered in the


Zer, of the
i8),
first

the

with

tomb

of

King
(Fig.

dynasty, at Abydos, a band of

false hair

composed
this

of curls, and apparently intended

'

See an example of

the Louvre (C 13), dating

head-dress upon the stela of Queen Nubkhas in back to the tiiirteenth dynasty. It is the earliest

example I know. Grosse, Les Debuts de VArt, pp. 67, 68. ^ SciiURTZ, Urgesc/iic/ite der Kultm; Leipsic, 1900, p. t^'^c) ct scq. * Maspero, llistoirc anciamc dcs pciiplcs dc V Orient classh/Jte,
note
I.

i.

p.

278,

PERSOxXAL xADORNMENT.
to

43

be
I.

worn on the forehead.^


are

Seti
hair,

which
19).

The Libyans of the tomb of rows of two simihir curls between their wearing is divided and falls on both sides of the head

(Fig.

their beards

Very numerous examples show that the men ordinarily wore trimmed to a point. We shall meet with some of these when we are considering representations of the human
figure.

Fig.

19.

-Head of one of the Libyans from the Tomb of


ear-ring, the

Seti

I.

Showing the

rows of curls on the forehead, and the hair


over the right shoulder.

falling

We
in

must here pause a moment

to consider a curious

figure

the the

MacGrcgor
beard,
is

Collection- (Fig. 20),


in
it

where the
as

hair, as well

as

pletely
1

conceals

enveloped them. If
iv.

a
is

kind of
not,

pouch which comsuggests,

Naville

"a

Petrie, Abydos,
It is

i.

pi.

made, entirely on a band of


that age.
=*

hair,

and p. 5 "The fringe of locks is e.\(iuisiteiy showing a long acqnaintance with hair work at
:

now

in the Pitt-Rivers

Museum

at

Oxford."
ii.,

Navillk, Fiiiiiriiics cgyf)ticnncs dc Vepoquc nrr/njn/ife, iravaux rclalifs a la philologic ct a Varchcologic cgyptifiincs
1900,
pi. vi.

in the

Rccucil dc
x.xii.

ct assyrh'tincs,

and

p. 68.

44

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

conventional or childish representation of hair," one might here recognize an object related to the royal toilettes of the classical
period,

where a

false

beard

was affixed by means of

straps.

Was can have been the object of this sort of covering ? it used in order to ensure purity, for instance, during religious ceremonies? May not the custom which prevailed among the
What
Egyptian
simply
a
priests

of completely shaving

themselves
all

have been

radical

measure

for

avoiding

contamination that

Fig. 20.

Figure

from the MacGregor Collection.


sheatli to protect the

With

a bag for the hair

and beard, and a

lower part

of the bodj^

might
to
'

arise

from
I

the

hair

and
out,

beard

This
I

is

suggestion which
insist

throw

and on which

do

merely a not wish

unduly.'-

comparison might be suggested with the

One might compare this with the liabit of our modern surgeons, who occasionally cover the hair and beard during operations in order to avoid any risk of infection for the patient.
* On the subject of wearing a natural or false beard see Erman, Life Ancient Egypt, especially pp. 225, 226, and tlie vaiions passages quoted in the index under "Beard." The motive suggested byMoKET, Coup d'ocil sur V llgypte primitive, p. 5, for the wearing of wigs and false beards, seems to me to be unfounded.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
paddn of the Magian^
religion
;

45

or, again,

with the Jewish custom

of covering the beard as a sign of mourning.^ There is a small series of interesting objects which affords a

proof that the custom of covering the lower part of the face with a veil was already known in the second half of the primitive These are small objects of shell, period (sequence dates 50-61).
of limestone, or,

more

rarely, of copper,

which were suspended

in

front of the forehead.

At

the base

is

a hook, which, as Petrie has

conjectured, was used to support a

veil.

One

of these pendants

has been found


the

still

in position
it

manner

in

which

was

upon a skull, and shows clearly worn. One specimen, decorated

lines in imitation of plaited work, points to the fact that these pendants were also made of woven fibre, and this would explain their rarity in the tombs, as only those in more enduring

with

materials would the

survive

(Fig.

21).

Other specimens have not

hook

at

the
as

worn merely
belonging
figures.
It
is

end, and must therefore have been Two specimens ornaments on the forehead.

lower

to

the

Petrie

Collection

are

in

the

form of female

possible

that

the

pendants and
as

veil

before

the

face

were worn by

men

as well

by women, or even exclusively


the

by men,
of

to

judge by the custom of


Arabs.-^

certain

After
this

prehistoric

Touaregs, and also times in Egypt there


the
face,

are
'

no

traces

of

custom

of

veiling

and

it

In the Magiaii religion the officiant has the lower part of the face covered veil, the paddn (av. paitidana), which prevents the breath from defiling Cf. Darmesteter, Zc7id the sacred fire, and the hands covered with gloves.

with a

He also wears i\\^ paddn in eating, in order not to contaminate Avesia, i. p. l.xi. the food, which he swallows at one gulp between two intakings of breath
ib.
ii.

The paddn was worn by the magi of Cappadocia, at No. 31. the time of Strabo (Augustus), xv. 733c", nupas ttiXcotus KadeiKVius iKaTipmdiv (Note contributed by M. Franz /xf\pi Toi) KdXviTTfiv Tu XeiXi] Tiis Tvapciyva^idas.
p. 214,

Cumont.) Benzinger, Hcbrdischc Arclidologic (Grundriss der theologischen Wissenschaften, Zweite Reihe, Erster Band), Freiburg i. B. and Leipsic, 1894,
p.

165.
^

Frazer,

Tlic
all

Golden Bought 2nd

ed.

i.

p.

313:

"Among

the

Touaregs

of the Sahara

(and not the women) keep the lower part of their face, in especially the mouth, veiled constantly; the veil is never put off, not even " Amongst the Arabs men sometimes veiled eating or sleeping." Also note 3
the
:

men

their faces."

46

PRIMITIVE ART LX EGYPT.


introduced
it

was the Arabs who


century A.D.^

once

more

in

the

seventh

Grosse, in his book Les Debuts de

r Art'^

refers to
in

an interesting
selecting

remark

of Lippcrt

"
:

The

principle

followed

the

Fig.

21. Ornaments for the Forehead.


for

The two upper ornaments have been used

hanging a

veil

before the faee.

portions of the

body

to be

adorned with ornaments

is

governed
con-

by
'

practical

considerations,

and

is

principle

into which

Petrie, NcKiada, \A. Ixii. 21-23, '^"'^ P- 47 D/ospolis pafua, pi. iii. and p. 22. P?xhtstoric Egyptian Catin/igs, in Alan, 1902, No. 1 13, pp. 161, 162, and pi. 1. 5-7. See SociN, A., Doctrines of El Islam, in Baedeker, Egypt, 5th ed. 1902, " The practice of wearing veils dates from very remote times (Gen. xxiv. p. Ixvii.
J

Isa. iii. 22, 23), though 65 ancient Egyptians, as veiled


;

it

is

doubtful whether

it

was customary among the

women

never appear upon the monuments.''

Pp. 63, 64.

PERSOXx'\L
siderations

ADORNMENT.
enter.
.

47
.
.

of ideal

arrangement do not
to

The

parts

of the

carry ornaments are those contracted above larger portions which are bony or muscular. the forehead and the temples, These parts are the following with the projecting bones below and the support afforded by

body which are destined


:

the ear, the neck and shoulders, the sides and hips with the legs with the arms, the biceps, the it is the part above the ankles
; ;

wrist,

and
all

in

a lesser degree the fingers.


;

Primitive

man makes

use of

these for affixing ornaments

but he was not led to this

choice by aesthetic reasons, but by purely practical considerations." have already spoken of the arrangement of the hair among

We

the primitive Egyptians.


waist-belts, bracelets,

We
rings,

and

must now study their necklaces, and see in what manner clothing

may have
The

developed out of these entirely elementary decorations. simplest form of such decoration consists in attaching to

" body thongs of leather, sinews of animals, or herbaceous fibres."^ These in turn were hung with shells,

different parts of the

beads, claws of animals, etc.


In

Egypt

shells frequently occur in prehistoric

tombs.

Pierced

with a hole, they were evidently used as ornaments,- and their use was continued into historical times, when shells were even imitated
in glazed pottery, or in metal, to form parts of necklaces. I must content myself with a mere reference to the marvellous jewels found at Dahchour by M. de Morgan.^

large

number of beads have been discovered

in

the

tombs

of the primitive Egyptians, of which the forms remain practically the same throughout the whole of the prehistoric period. This is not the case with the materials of which they were made

and Petrie

has

drawn

up a

chronological

list

of these with

considerable detail.^

Most of the ivory objects found


as necklace ornaments.

in

the tombs, \\hich


I

Petrie

believes to be stoppers for leather bottles,


"

am

inclined to consider

They

are a s[)ecies of pendant, formed

DknuvER, Lcs races

ct Ics peitples de la tcrrc, p. 211 ct scq.

'

De Morgan, Rcclicrchcs siir lcs origincs de Vflgyptc, ii. p. 59. De Morgan, Fouilles a Dahchour, March June, 1894, Vienna,
and
xxiv.
pi. iv.

1895,

pi.

xxiii.
^

Petrie, Diospolis parva,

and

p. 27.

48

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


rib or tusk of

by the severed end of the


at the top

wards

deeply grooved

consequently,
at

an animal, often pierced

they must have been worn point downthe wider end, and covered with broken
22).

lines or with

rudimentary geometric designs"^ (Fig.


;

Some

of

others are hollow, and may have these pendants are of stone been used as vases. At the upper end of most of these there is a deep groove to allow of their being suspended by means of a

thong, which also passed through the hole with which many of them are pierced. Numerous traces of leather have been found
in these cavities.^

0-J1

Fig. 22.

Pendants.

Showing the

imitation of claws and of horns, decorated with incised or painted Hnes.

have opportunity to discuss these pendants more It should, however, in detail when we treat of ornamental art. be observed that a certain number of these ornaments are made
shall
in

We

imitation

of horns or claws, and

copy of still " the cords made of them with the collars of the Bushmen, tendons and painted with red ochre, from which are suspended shells, teeth, claws, the carapaces of turtles, antelope horns, and other objects, serving partly as receptacles for tobacco and
^

merely a conventional We can compare more rudimentary ornaments.


are

De Mohgan,

Recherches

siir Ics origines

Petrie, Naqada, pp.

46, 47, pi. lix.-lxiv.

de I'Agypte, ii. p. 62, 63, Diospolis parva, p. 21, pL


;

iii.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
unguents, partly as amulets, and for the of personal adornment."
^

49

most part as objects

need scarcely remark on the prevalent use of beads and A collection such as that of pendants in Pharaonic Egypt.
I

with regard to these objects. necklaces comprising claws,

Professor Petrie at University College, London, is highl}- instructive Such a wealth of pendants for

shells,

and

various

amulets

is

well worth studying, as

they are

rarely

found

figured

on the

not always justifiable to deny the existence of a custom from an argument based solely on the absence of
It
is

monuments.

an object from the figured monuments of Egypt. Beads and other pendants were not only used for necklaces they were also employed as decorations for girdles, bracelets, and The jewellery found by Petrie in the tomb of King anklets.
;

Zer,

of

the

first

dynasty, enables
b\'

us

to

appreciate

the

skill

the Egyptians at that period in combining already acquired and grouping various materials and producing results which are
truly marvellous.

The

perfection of the jewellery

is

so great that,
is

as Petrie remarks, with the exception of the gold beads, there

no bead
for

in

an>'

one of the bracelets which could be exchanged

any other of another bracelet, without completely destroying the harmony of the whole.^
But, besides these
bracelets
circlets

formed

must notice the simple


are

made

of separate pieces, we of various materials. They


flint,

found

in

ivory,

bone,
into

copper,

shell,

hard stone^
the

etc.^

This use
first

survived
at

historical times,

and

tombs of the

Abydos have yielded an immense number of dynasty fragments of bracelets in ivory, horn, shell, slate, and stone.' A
'

'

Grosse, Les Debuts dc PAii, ]>. 68. Petrie, Royal Tombs, ii pi i. pp. 16-19. See QuiBELL, El Kab, pp. 6, 7, 9, 10, 18, and
pp. 34, 42, 47. pp. 14, 47.
5,

pi.

li.

2.

Petrie, Xa(/ada,
tb. pp. 14, 47. Ivory: Petkie,

pi. xliii.

Alabaster: Petrie, Naqada,

p. 29.

Shell:
p. 37.

Horn,

lb.

Copper: Petrie, Diospolis parva,


29,

Naqada, pp.
ib.

14,

47;

Diosjjolis, pi. X. 23.


"

Beads:

ib.

Bone: Petrie, Diospolis parva, p. 21, pi. x. Flint Schist Petrie, Naqada, p. 14. p. 33.
:

pp. 14, 51, 59; Diospolis, p. 36; Abydos,

i.

p.

16.

Shell
ib.
:

Petrie, Abydos,
pp. 24, 35,
i.
;

Ivory: Schist

ii.

Abydos,

p.
ib.

17.
ii.

Horn: Petrie, Eoyal Totnbs, ii. p. 39. Stone: Royal Tombs, ii. pp. 35, 37. 37 Abydos, p. 5. Bracelets of Aha Royal Tombs, pp. 5, iS, 29 ii. p. 5.
\.

p.

17.

i.

i.

Bracelets of Zer

i)p.

17,

iS.
.1

-r

50

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


^

spoon

(Fig- 23), the handle of which resembles an


in

arm adorned
to

with a large number of these bracelets, similar

size

shows us that they were worn


sort of

in

numbers

sufficient

and form, form a

armature.

Pleyte observes that this recalls the

"Danga
child,

Bohr

"

which Schweinfurth found among the Bongoes.discovered


a

Petrie

tomb containing
with
this
fact,

the

body of a
rings,

wearing on the arm nine or ten of these ivory


mentions,
in

and he
of
a

connection

that

carving

woman

of the

reindeer age in France

shows the same system

o^

0.26

C
Fig. 23.

miKraiid?
Bone
and Ivory Bracelets, and a Spoon with a Handle
in

Form

OF an

Arm Wearing
It
is

a Series of Similar Bracelets.

of ornamentation.^

probable that these


in

rings

were also

worn on the

legs, as

shown

the representation

of the chief

of the land of Punt at Deir-el-Bahari.*

As

question

of

stone-working
rings
in
flint.''

it

is

astonishing to

find

primitive
'

man making

Many

conjectures have

Petkie, Naqada, pi. .\liii. i (Ashmolean Museum, Oxtord). Pleyte, Chapitrcs siipplc7ncntaires du Livrc des Marts, Schweinfurth, Artes Africanac, Leipsic and London, 1875, pi. ^ Petrie, Naqada, pp. 42 and 47.
^
*

i.

pp.
12.

147,

148.

iii.

Pleyte,

ib. fig.

facing p. 147.
siir les

De Morgan,

Recherches

origines de V]i,gypte,

ii.

pp. 60, 61,

pp:rsonal
been
liazarded
to

adornment
manner
the
to
in

51

explain
it

the
for

which

jthis

was

accompHshed, Seton Karr at Wady-el-Sheikh


the work.^

but

remained

fortunate
all

discoveries of

show us

the

phases of

frequent occurrence on Egyptian monuments of Pharaonic times of collars, bracelets, and anklets has frequently

The

been remarked on, and we need not therefore dwell longer on


that point.-

primitive Egyptian was also well acquainted with fingerrings, especially in ivory, either plain or decorated with a knob.

The

Tw^o very curious

specimens show that

occasionally they were

O.i'i

D.

23

D.iS

Fig. 24.

Ivory
;

Rings.

one of these has two feline decorated with figures of animals animals on it,-^ and on the other are four haw^ks ^ (Fig. 24).

So
and

far

we have not
is

dealt
not,

with the decoration of the hips,


to

knowledge, any monument of the primitive period which shows us such a decoration. There exists no statuette, no drawing, on which we can see a thong
this

because there

my

of leather

round the

Rut
'

it

is

difficult to

pendants. say whether the beads and pendants which

waist

adorned with beads

or

ScHWEiNFURTH, Aegyptischev Ringe aus Kiescbnassc, in the Zcitschrift Forbes, Ott a collection of stotie fiir EtJmologic, xxxi. 1899, p. 496 ct scq. implements i)t the Mayer Musciitn, made by M. H. IV. Seton Katr, in mines of
Egyptians discovered by hitti on the plateaux of the A'ile Valley, in the Bulletin Liverpool Museum, ii. Nos. 3 and 4, pp. 78-80, and tig. on p. 82. 2 Erman, Life in Aticicnt Egypt, p. 227.
the ancient
'
'

Petrie,

X. 24,

specimen in the MacGregor Collection, Tamworth (No. 1,409 rt). Ixiv. 78 and p. 47. Diospoiis, Naqada, pi. Ixii. 30 25, and pp. 21, 22.
;

ix.

23

52

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


may
not ha\-c decorated
that part of the
as appropriately as they did the neck, arms,

have been discovered

body

and

legs.

By
;

analogy, therefore,

we can imply

and here we verge on the


clothing.

the use of ornamental girdles interesting subject of the origin of

"The
round
mantle.

skin of an
throat,

animal

is

suspended
it

from

the

cord

tied

the

and

forthwith
this

is

transformed
of

into

With

the

Fucgians

piece

skin
it

that, in order to protect the

body

effectually,

is so scanty has to be turned,

following the direction of the wind. The thong round the waist, the belt, is also hung with various appendages, and becomes a
petticoat.
"

The

leafy branches

their waist-belts,

the

which are thrust by the Veddahs under pieces of bark held by the same belt
'
'

among
supplies

the

Niam-Niam, the

sarang
^

of the Indo-Malay, -which

the elements both of petticoat and of girdle

all

these

are the prototype of the petticoat." Writing of the indigenous inhabitants Islands, Grosse expresses himself as follows

of
"

the

Andaman
is,

There

however,

one

tribe the

women

of which wear nothing round the waist but


;

a very fine string, from which some quite short fibres hang this must evidently be a mere ornament."" Erman has already remarked that, under the Ancient Empire,

the Egyptians of the lower classes, principally those who were brought by their occupation into habitual contact with water,
are

occasionally

represented

as

absolutely

nude

while

their

fellow workers, for the

most

part, are wearing only a narrow girdle

with a few short strips hanging be called articles of clothing


call

down
;

in front.^

These can scarcely

them
I

ornaments,
that
in

if

one

and yet one would hesitate to were not assured by numerous


cases
this

ethnological parallels.

may add
loins

some
as

simple
this

cord

knotted
I

round the
quote the
V
^
'

served

an

amulet.

On

subject

will

curious

observ'ation

of Dr.

Stacqucz,

who, on

the

Deniker, Les races et les peiiplcs de la terrc, Grosse, Lcs Debuts de VArt, p. 70. Er.man, Life in Ancient Egypt, \>. 212.

p. 312.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
subject of the
:

53

modern population of Thebes, writes thus " The greater number of boys were entirely nude, and among them were some who might have been fifteen years old. But they
all

wore a

fine

thread round their bodies

in

form of a eirdle

To go
these
to

entirely naked was the natural course of events for folks, but it would have been the height of indecency
tie

have omitted to
of such
it

thread round their


in

loins,

and no one
I

would have dared to show himself


reason
existed

that
told

state.

asked the

that

a custom, and

was

that

it

had always
their

was considered that the thread concealed


it

nakedness, and that


not

wear owing

to

represented the garments that they could the high temperature of the country. I

myself believe that the thread should be considered as a species


of amulet, and
the
for

this

reason

in

some

parts

of

Egypt

it

is

have a small cord tied by the sheikh round the wrists and ankles as a preservative against sprains and other
habit
to

accidents while working or walking. It is therefore possible that the thread encircling the loins among the inhabitants of Thebes
is
is

a similar
forgotten."
It

practice
^

passed into a habit, of which the reason

should also be remembered that under the Second Theban


slaves and

Empire the young female


ornamented.^

the

dancing

women wore
have been

as their only clothing a girdle, which occasionally

may

Let us see how

this

was during the primitive

age.

On

the

famous painted tomb of Hierakonpolis, with which we shall later have to deal at length, there are several personages whose only garment appears to be a girdle knotted round the waist. The

same

is

locality,

on the palettes and mace-heads from the same where the fcjrms are already verging on those of the
seen

Ancient Empire.''
Stacquez, I'Egypte, la basse Niihic ct Ic Sinai, Liege, 1865, pp. 252, 253. See also Maspero, Histoire anciauie des peuples dc V Orient dassiquc, ii. ]x 526. Erman, loc. cit. p. 216. Stratz, Ueber die Klcidung dcr iigyptischcn
Tdnzerinnen,
''

'

in

the Zeitschnft fiir dgyptische Spraclie


fete de

mid

Altertuinskundr,

xxxviii. 1900, ])p. 148, 149.

Capakt, La
1901, p. 255.

frapper

les Anait, in the

Revue

d' histoire des religions,

xliii.

54

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


To
this

girdle

various

objects

were

attached,

and
with
the

two
conother

of

these

can

be

recognized

on
the

siderable
is

precision.
for

One

is

tail

existing objects of an animal

a sheath

protecting

or

concealing the lower part of the


find

bodv.

The

warriors

or

huntsmen that we

represented on the

fragment of the Louvre palette wear the tail of an animal, possibly It is interesting to a jackal, attached to their girdle (F"ig. 25). note that this caudiform decoration is
found

among
tail

a considerable

number

of

nations.^

age, the

In Egypt, during the Pharaonic is an ornament of princes

and

priests,

and the Marseilles Museum

actually

The

a specimen in wood.representations of tails on the objects


possesses
at

found

Hierakonpolis form exactly the transition between the tails of the

Fig.

Huntsman. 25.
a

primitive period of the Louvre palette, and those of the king and gods on

Wearing

feather on his
tail

head, and the


to his girdle.

Egyptian

classical

monuments.
to

fixed

With

reference
its

the

sheath

just

and
well

its

mentioned, purpose has been recognized It can be specially signification explained by M. Naville.'^
the
statuette
in

recognized on

the

MacGregor

Collection

figured above (Fig. 20), and also upon a considerable This is ivory figures which we shall consider later.

number

of
is

how

it

described by M. Naville:
statuette
is

"The most

characteristic feature in this

the large sheath or horn, which, held by a narrow girdle, covers the genital organs. ... It appears to be made of some resisting material, such as metal, wood, or thick leather.

It is composed This sheath extends half-way up the stomach. of a cylinder, to which is joined another narrower one, at the
^

For a

fine example see DenUvER, op. tit. frontispiece. Maspero, Histoire ancieime dcs peiip/es dc V Orient
3.

classique,

i.

p.

55,

note
^

Grosse, Les Debuts de VAi't, p. 70, mentions among the Botocndos of de Wied, an " etui de feuilles qui cache Ics parties See Yrjo Hn<N, The Origins of Art, London, 1900, pp. 215, 216. genitales.''
Brazil, according to Prince

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
commencement
'
. .

55

of which are two ovoid protuberances, which are ." an attempt to imitate nature. M. Naville was enabled to identify this with complete
certainty

by a

similar covering, which


trait

is,

he says,

"

a tradition,

characteristic

of

that

Libyan
itself

group
the

w^hich,

during
of
the

the

nineteenth

dynasty, allied

with

Mediterranean to march against Egypt."


the

This

people sheath
;

during
called

Egyptian

period

bore

special

name

it

is

to

same time the girdle, it was


the

At

that the

tail

and the sheath were attached

also possible to

hang from

it

the skin

of

an

animal, a

created.

The

ornament on

a piece of stuff, and the loin-cloth was animal's skin could with ease be placed as an the shoulders it was easy to wrap oneself in a

mat, or

mat, a skin or a piece of

woven

stuff,

and

in

this

manner

the

mantle was evolved.


in

All these elementary garments are

found

the historic period, and also in the primitive age. The skin of a panther, girded round the loins and covering the lower part of the body, was still in use among the negroes

Placed of the Upper Nile at the time of the nineteenth dynasty. on the shoulders, it had become one of the insignia of certain
priests

One

and nobles as early as the beginning of the Ancient Empire.*' of the w^arriors of the painted tomb of the primitive age
is

at Hierakonpolis

adversary
'

clothed in a panther's skin, while his holding a shield formed of a similar skin (Fig. 26).
is

thus

'

Naville, Figiirincs cgyptiomes de Vcpoqiic arcJtaiquc, ii., in the Recucil dc travaux relatifs a la pjiilologie ct a Varclicologic cgyptietmcs ct assyricniics,
xxii. p.
^

Zi(7- antht'opologischcn Stellung der alien Acgypier, Globus, Ixxi.w 1901, pp. 197-200: "Aenliclie Taschen nun giebt es heute nocli im Westlichen Sudan, besonders bei den Moba im Nordlichen Togo, wo sie
in

69 et seq. See F. VON LusHAN,

ganz allgemein von alien Mannern getragcn werden." Maspero, Histoire ancienne des paiplcs de l' Orient classiqiic, and p. 53, note a.
'

i.

pp. 53

and

55,

" I take the figure of tlie Greex, Hierakonpolis, ii. j)!. Ixxvi. his back, and has it on lie Itas had the as tliat skin liolding up showing had to remove it to nse as a shield. It is the origin of the shield from the loose clothing skin, and from that the stiff shield with wood frame was derived.
'

Qlmbell

&

man

I do not think that by Professor Petrie.

But

it

is

here

shown as

a defensive shield alone."

-Note

56

PRIMITIVE ART IN P:GYPT.


The
loin-cloth, either

narrow or wide, is frequently represented on the primitive monuments on the palettes and maces of Hierakonpolis, in the tomb paintings, and again on the ivory figures.^
I

am
is

not at

all

certain that the

women wore wide


I

loin-cloths,

and

it

with
of

considerable doubt that

refer

here

tomb

Hierakonpolis.

cannot assume

to the painted with any certainty

that the two figures at the top of Plate Ixxvi. Hierakonpolis^ ii. are intended to represent women and yet the similarity of their
;

attitude with that of the


to be noteworthy.

female figures on the pottery appears

has been

long cloak, the use of which in historic times ably dealt with by M. Maspero," appears several times on the remains of the primitive age. There is, for instance,
Finally, the

so

Fig. 26.

Warriors.
Museum,^ and several ivory show the cloak, sometimes

Clothed in a panther skin, or holding a shield formed of a similar skin.

the figure of a

woman

in the British

statuettes from Hierakonpolis, which plain

and sometimes decorated with geometric patterns."' Petrie has very justly compared the decorated mantle on one of these
figures with the

by him

at

fragments of leather painted in zigzag lines found Naqada, and they again may be compared with the
.Seti
I.''

clothing of the Libyans of the tom.b of


'

(Fig. 27).

These

For the loin-cloth or short skirt in Egypt during the Ancient Empire see in Ancient Egypt, pp. 202-206, and Sfiegelberg, Varia, xlviii. Zii dent Galaschurz dcs alien RcicJtcs^ in the Rcciieil dc travatix rclatifs a la pliilo-

Erman, Life

Ivgie et d VarcJicoloi^ie cgyptienftcs ct assyricnncs, xxi. 1S99, pp. 54, 55. Maspero, Histoirc aticienne des peuples de rOtie7it classiqtie, i. pp. 55-57.
^
''

'

Budge, A History of Egypt, i. p. 53. Qui BELL, Hieraiconpolis, pi. ix. and x. Petrie, Naqada, pi. Ixiv. 104 and p. 48. See
i.

also Petrie, T/ie

Royal Tombs

0/ the Earliest Dynasties,

ii.

pi. iv. 3, 4, 5.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
decorations
ivory

57-

probably represent

embroideries,

as

shown

in

the

of a king of the first dynasty discovered by Abydos, of which reproductions are given farther on.^ Finally we must mention a small figure of a woman tightly
statuette

Petric at

Fig. 27.

Figures

of Women.
of

Wrapped

in cloaks,

one of which is decorated. Below arc fragments leather with painted decoration.

wrapped

in

a cloak, discovered by Petrie at Abydos, and dating


first dynasty.cloak was fastened by means of studs intended to

from the commencement of the

The long
'

'

Petrie, Abydos, ii. pi. ii. and xiii. p. 24. Petrie, The Royal Tombs of the Earliest Dynasties,

ii.

pi.

iii

a,

and

p. 21.

58

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

be slipped through loops, on the principle of ouv military frogs. Petrie discovered examples of these in glazed pottery in the teinenos
of the temple of Osiris at Abydos.^ have now arrived at the close of our study of personal adornment as it existed in primitive Egypt this earliest mani-

We

festation

which

is

}'et

so rich in artistic feeling.

The immediate
is

conclusion to be drawn from

these

researches

that

it

is

not

at possible

sequence of ideas to prove that there were sudden and radical changes at the commencement of
an\' rate
in

this

the Pharaonic

period,
ot

and that there

is

no glaring discrepancy

between the habits


find

the primitive people and those which

we

seen whether
is

under the Ancient Egyptian Empire. It now remains to be we can maintain this conclusion when our attention

directed to the examination of ornamental art.


'

Petrie, Abydos,

ii.

pi.

i.

and

viii.

141-143, and

p.

26.

On

the subject of

comparing primitive clothinc; in Egypt with that of the Ancient Empire, I think it After describing the garments found in the well to quote a remark of Fetrie's. tombs of the fifth dynasty at Deshasheh, he adds '' It is remarkable that not one dress was found of the form shown on the monuments, with shoulder-straps but the actual form seems to have been developed out of that by extension of the Hence the monumental dress must have been shoulder-straps along the arms. Petrie, Deshasheh, London, only an artistic survival in the Old Kingdom.'"
:

1898, p. 31.

59

CHAPTER

III.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE

ART.

THE
and
at

decorative art
the

problem of the earliest beginnings of ornamental and is one of the most difficult to deal with,

same time one of those which appear to have been most neglected by art critics.^ In the last few years, however, ethnologists have contributed numerous indications which give us some hope of arri\'ing at a solution. We will follow the paths thus marked out, and see what solid results can be gained.
"

The

characteristic feature of decorative art


"
is
is

people," says Deniker,

this

among primitive All artistic designs are inspired


for

by

real

objects

there

no feeling
for
still

what

is

purely and
reasons, are

voluntarily ornamental, nor,


there

more

forcible
till

any geometrical
of

figures, as

was believed

recently.

All

figures

which appear to be of
animals,
objects,
etc.

this

ings

The

nature are simplified drawdesigns which occur most

frequently are those borrowed from animals (zoomorphic designs), from the human figure (anthropomorphic), and occasionally from manufactured objects (skeuomorphic) those taken from plants
;

Often the entire object (phytomorphic) are extremely rare. is transformed into an ornament, and becomes wholly unsuited for the purpose for which it was destined. ... It is interesting
. .
.

to notice that

the

more a nation

loves decoration, the less

it

is

able to draw a design, properly so called." This is the wa\- in which objects arc dccoratetl
'

but
:

why

is

Nevertheless, two important works on this subject must he (juoted Semi'KU, De7' Stil in den technischcn iind tck/onischcn Kiatstcn, Miiuchen, 187S-9, 2 vols.

and RiEGL,
Berlin, 1893.
^

Stilf7-a;^cn,

(i}-it)t(ilcgu}vj;c)i

zii

ciiin-

Gcschichtc dcr Ornamciitik,

DENUiKK, Lcs races

et Ics pciiples

dc la

/rire, Paris, 1900, ]ip. 237-240.

6o
it

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


that

they are thus ornamented

Those who have studied

we must also add the problem tell us that from a of motives are ornamented from a view variety body to art, to information, a desire for luxury or for power, and
the

and objects

finally

from religious or magical motives.^


principles
in

These
to

are

established,

but

before

apply them
consider

the

case of

the
it

primitive

proceeding to Egyptians, in order

is necessary that we should some complementary details which bear upon these general principles, and give various examples which will enable us more easily to understand their bearing. To begin with, let us see how a graphic representation of

render our statement clear,

this geometric design will enable us to discover the laws which govern the treatment
;

an

animal can

be transformed

into

of natural models.

One
view
is

most interesting examples from this point of furnished by Holmes' important work on the ancient
of the

art of the province of Chiriqui,

Colombia- (Fig.
alligator,

28).

The

principal

theme

is

the

which, passing

from

degradation to degradation, from simplification to simplification, ends by becoming transformed into a series of absolutely regular geometrical designs. Fig. 28 shows more clearly than any

tion,

do the successive phases of this transformalogically accounted for by two great principles which dominate the whole question. The first is the principle
explanation

can

which

is

of simplification,
child,

by virtue
to to
is

of

which

primitive

represents

attempts give a form which

animals

and
this

man, like the objects which he

fixed

and easily recognizable, and

which he simplifies more and


to

idleness

diverging,

in

can only be owing more and more widely consequence,

more

from the original model.^


'

Haddox, Evolution
1895, pp. 4,
5,

in

Art as

illi(stralcd by the Life-histories

of designs,
in the

London,
-

illustration

on

p.

see also pp. 200-306.

Holmes, W.

H., Aucietit art

of the province of Chiriqui^ Colombia,

Sixth

Annual Report of
is

the

My
^

mention of the work

Bureau of Ethnology, 1884-5, Washington, 1S88. taken from Haddon's book mentioned in the precedI'Art, pp. 107

ing note.

Grosse, Les Debuts dc

and

19.

ORNAMENTAL AND DFXORATIVE


The second
preceding,
is

ART.
with

6i
the
says,

principle,

which

unites
order,

itself

closely
as

that
art

of

rhythmic
least

which,

Grosse
in
"

"dominates the

of the

civilized

nations

the

same

manner

that

it

does that of the most advanced."

We may

truly say," continues the

same author,

"

that

rhythm everywhere

^'''Zi>-^^^S^

!^^

^^^O

c\yo

<^^;^i;^^;g^

/sis\

J3

Fig. 28.

EvoLUTioN_OF

the Reprlsent.mion of the Alligator Columbian Art.

in

Ancient

From Holmes.
affords

the

Rhythm consists in pleasure to mankind. of a sound, of a regular repetition of any sort of imit
the isame

movement,

or, as

in

this case, of a
'

figure."

Gkosse,

/oc. cit. p.

113.

62

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


And
if

we seek
its

to

review
"

the

origin

of

tliis

taste

for

rhythm among primitive men, Grosse gives


planation of
genesis
:

us

concise

ex-

If

we
is

attribute an aesthetic importance

to this rhythmic order,


art

which

of hunting tribes,

we do

so prevalent in the decorative not in any w^ay pretend that its

origin was of the same order.

We

are,

on the

contrarx',

con-

vinced that the primitive artist did not invent the symmetrical principle, but that he found it, and that he found it in the

work

of

the

material in a
habit,
at

basket-maker, regular manner.


for
;

who
It

is

obliged

to

arrange
it

his

is

probable that
that
textile

was from

and not
imitated

aesthetic
it

pleasure,

designs were

was only by degrees that their aesthetic was value recognized, and that the artist began to combine and enrich these regular series. Obviously it would be difficult
first

to

say where
;

mechanical imitation
in

ends

and where

aesthetic

work begins
assert

any

case,

it

would be equally
has
as

justifiable

to

that

regular
in

arrangement

experienced
that
it
^

observing

is

that

symmetry, pleasure which has provoked


designs
inspired

produced the would be it


regular

pleasure
to

assert

arrange-

ment."
In

other words,

by manufactured objects
on designs derived
to
its

(skeuomorphs) have imposed from natural objects.


Thus,
in

their derivatives

the foregoing example,


alligator
;

there

is,

begin with, a

copy of an

this

is

next reduced to
its

most characfeatures, its

teristic features,

and from the time

fundamental

of the general lines, have been recognized, the representations the and to animal are symmetrically combined, space adapted

The whether square, oblong, or circular. the successive here leads to order of repetition rhythmic principle of the same figures, in such a way as to form the decoration
to

be

decorated,

of the whole

of

an object, and

under the

influence

of these

two principal factors the most diversified geometrical designs are derived from one and the same representation of the
alligator.

Another example borrowed from


'

Polynesian

art

(Fig.

29)

Grosse,

loc. cit.

pp. 114, 115.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


distinctly

ART.

63

shows the degradation of the human


principles.^

figure, following

the

same

The
fairl}^

stone idols of the

Aegean Islands

afford another

proof.

In addition to small figures, where the

representation is there also others "in the are accurate, shape of a violin."floral

human

design it will be sufficient to quote the instance of the lotus, which has been so admirably worked out by Goodyear'^ as to render it unnecessary to dwell longer on this point.

For the successive transformations of a

Fig. 29.

Evolution

of the Representation of the Polynesian Art.

Human

Figurf- in

From Haddon.

With regard
the

to

designs

inspired
to

two most important types


from the
;

by manufactured be mentioned are


:

designs

objects^

derived
unite
'

thongs

two objects

or cords which originally served toand designs copied from the work of the

See another Haudon, Evo/uM'on Ari, hg. 124, 125, 127, 128, pp. 271, 273. example in Collier, Primer of Art, London, 1882, fig. 3, series of paddles, p. 7 (now in the Pitt-Rivers Collection, University Museum, Oxford). Blinkenbekg, Cm?., Aittiquiics prcinycciiioiiu's, in tlie Mcmoircs dc la
Socicte royale dcs antiqiiaircs
'

Goodyear, W.

H.,

du Nord, new series, 1896, pp. The Granwiar of the Lotus, 1891.

13,

14.

64

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


Both of these occur with equal frequency, and a
suffice

basket-maker.

few words

will

to

When

two objects

for

explain
of
the

how they came


and handle
the
latter

instance, a blade

are
an
in

into

being.

by strapping, the

interlacing
If

straps
is

forms

joined actual

geometrical decoration. material in one single

copied

another

would naturally occur piece, these mind to to the primitive interlacing lines, and reproduce this is what invariably occurs.
the
idea
1

will

recall the
its

well-known instance of architecture


forms to architecture
in stone.

in

wood

Another very communicating typical example has also been established as presented on the
I refer to the decoration repottery of almost all countries. formed on vases most frequently at their a cord sembling widest part, which is nothing but the remaining trace of

the cord of coarsely -twisted fibre which keeps the vases separate from each other while they are being dried in the sun previous
to being baked.^

industry of basket-making plays an important part in the daily life of primitive people, and almost always makes its appearance earlier than ceramics. It appears that pottery-

The

making

often

commences with

"

cast taken

from an interior

mould, usually a basket, or some other object of basket-work which burns immediately in the baking." It is easily understood that in this case the combinations of
or exterior
'^

regular lines of the

woven basket

left

their

marks on the

soft

clay, and formed an actual geometrical decoration on the baked pottery, which continued to be reproduced after pottery was

manufactured by another method.


is

of this chapter I stated that an object transformed frequently by decoration, and becomes unfit for the purpose for which it was originally destined. We shall have
the

At

commencement

-occasion later on to deal with curious


this

examples of

this.

To make

point

clear

without delay

will,

however, quote the very

'

Petri E, Eiryptian Decot-ative A?-i, p. 92. SciiwEiNFURTH, DenuvER, op. cit. p. 184.

Onuimcutik
b.

dcr

dltcstcn

Cultur-Epoclic Acgyptc7is, in the Ver/iaiidli/ngc?i dcr


J>ologie, Ethnologie,

Gcscllsck.

fur

Antliro-

imd

Urgeschichte, 1897, pp. 377, 378.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


interesting instance of the tortoise-shell
Straits, which,

ART.

65

ornaments from the Torres

diverging from the copy of a simple fish-hook, modifications and symmetrical development ^ acquire successive by ornamental forms, which only recall the original model in the

most distant manner

"

(Fig. 30).

We
objects.

will

now

briefly

examine some examples of the various


in

motives which actuate primitive man

the

ornamentation of

The

first

motive

for

decorating an object

is

purely

artistic,

and requires no additional explanation.

Fig. 30.

Tortoise-shell

Ornaments from Torres Straits,


OF the Fish-Hook
(a).

in imitation

From Haddon.

Decoration

is

also

may

be that

the

maker

it emplo)-ed with a view to information on an a mark which places object


;

constitutes an actual signature, or


him.self gives
sign.
it

it

a mark of ownership such,


typical

may

be that the proprietor


for instance, as a tribal

The most
their

example

is

that
in

mark
'

arrows with a distinct sign,


for

of the savages, who order to be able to

For the origin of the taste


398.

symmetrical decoration see Schweinfurtu,


44, p.
"]].

loc. cit. p.
^

Haddon, Evolution

in Art,

fig.

66

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

determine the rights of each man to the animals killed in the chase. This point is important, for it has played a considerable
part in the history of writing of its development.
It

during the most primitive stages


rise

was the desire


objects,

for

ostentation which gave


to

to highly

decorated

especially
into

weapons of
It

state,

which thus
desire for

rapidly developed

tokens of power.

was the

luxury which produced those objects which are absolutely useless, but the possession of which ensured to their proprietor a substantial reputation

among

the tribe.

In a parallel manner, votive


to

objects developed where the attempt was made value by employing either a more precious

augment

their

material,

or

by

applying more studied and complicated ornamentation.

tiG. 31.

Magical

Decoration on a Comb of a Malacca Tribe.

From Haddon.
for decorating objects magic, and the magical combs of a Malacca The women wear furnish us with an excellent example.

F"inally,
is

one of the most usual reasons


or

religion

tribe
in

their

hair a variety of decorated

combs, with the object of


maladies.
for

preserving the

wearers

from certain specified


in

They

possess about twenty or thirty of these maladies, and cause them to be placed

combs
their

different

graves as a

safeguard
world.

for

possessor from those ailments in the ne.xt different design corresponds to each malady, and the
their

designs are purely geometrical^ (Pig. 31)well known, show us how important it
plaining
the

is

Other instances, equally to be cautious in ex-

ornamentation of any object. It may have some meaning, but without explanation from the natives we cannot
Unfortunately, with objects of interpretation. the necessary explanations are almost entirely wanting. antiquity, These fundamental principles are established, and without losing
find

the

correct

sight of them,

we can now

enter upon the study of the ornamental

or decorative art of the primitive Egyptians.


'

To

begin with,

is

Haddon, Evolution

in Art, p. 236 et

sec/.,

tig.

120, p. 240.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE

ART.

^-j

there not already artistic feeling in the act of the primitiv^e man,

who, not content with supplying himself with tools suited to the requirements the>' are intended to fulfil, attempts to give

them
have

forms
the

as

perfect

and
of

opportunity

elegant as possible ? pointing out how far the


in

We

shall

primitive

Egyptians attained perfection


review.

each class of objects


believe
in

we

pass in

We
gerate

will

begin
I

with
in

flint

knives.

do not exag-

when

say that

no other country

the world has the

Fig. 32.

Flint

Knife,

worked and retouched on both


Museum;
length,

Faces.

Brussels

25cm.
It
is

to

working of admire

flint

been carried to such perfection.


the
perfection

not easy

sufficiently

of

the

working and the

beauty of the forms of the large, finely finished knives discovered " in the tombs. The flakes have been struck off these objects with

by the work upon the edge and the back are symmetrically arranged, and correspond with each other. The meeting of the ribs forms a very regular ridge down
left

such precision that the ribs

the centre of the blade "^ (Fig. 32).


'

De Morgan,
107-109.

Rcchcrchcs

stir les

origines de Vl'igyptc,
pi.

i.

pp.

iri,

112;
in

ii.

pp.

See Petrie, Naqada^

Ix.wi.,

and

passages indicated

the

68

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


The

part of the knife which was held in the hand was probably covered with leather. Specimens exist which have gold and

Fig. 33.

Gold Leaf with Incised Designs, sewn on to one end of a large


Flint Knife to form the Handle.

ivory handles decorated with figures. these handled knives is in the Cairo

The most remarkable of Museum.^ The eold leaf

index under "Flint Knives," especially pp. 57-60; Diospolis parva, pi. iv. and pp. 23, 24, where the development of the shape of the knife during the prehistoric See Quibell, Flint dagger from Gebclcin, in the Annales dii period is traced. service des antiquites de I'Jigy'ptc, ii. 1901, pp. 131, 132, etc.
etre a

De Morgan, Kecherches, i. p. 112, "Environs d'Abydos, peut" " ii. Saghel-el-Baglieli on a Abydos mcme Qui provient de p. 266, Guebel-el-Tarif." A's\Kh\NKA\j, Les nouvellcs fouil/cs d'Ahydos, 1895-6; Comptc
'

Provenance:

rendu in exlenso, Paris, 1899, p. 267: " Les fouilles d'El-Amrah ont fourni ^galement des silex en petit quantity. Lor.sque j'eus retire les ouvriers, I'un d'eux resta sur le lieu des fouilles pour fouiller illicitement il trouva le couteau reconvert d'une feuille d'or qui contenait la representation d'animaux divers.''
:

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


which covers a part of the knife
is

ART.

69

not

soldered, but

sewn on

by means of gold
terlaced
rosettes
;

the point at one side two inserpents are engraved, the spaces being filled up with on the other side there are nine figures of animals
thread.

On

lions, gazelles,

antelopes, and a fantastic animaP

(Fig. 33).

The
meet

design
with, as

of interlaced
it

serpents

is

especially

interesting

to

is

also seen on the


at

Chaldean monuments."
is

In the
solid

same museum

Cairo there

also a

dagger with a

The handle

gold handle fixed to the blade by means of three rivets. on one side are three is decorated with incised figures
:

women, one of

whom

holds a fan

on the other

side, there is

a boat

Fig. 34.

Figures

of

Women and

of a Boat on a gold Knife-handle.

Another dagger from the same place had an ivory and in the Pitt-Rivers handle, only fragments of which remain
(Fig. 34).
;

Collection,

Farnham, Dorset, there


is

is

a large Hint knife, the ivory


series

handle of which

decorated

on both faces with a

of

animals* (Fig. 35).


Finally, in
'

the Petrie Collection, University College, London,


and
ii.
;

De Morgan,

Re.cher&hcs,

i.

pp. 112-115,

fig.

136

[)1.

v.

Sculptured vase of Gudea. See Heuzey, Mhscc national dii Louvre: Catalogue des antiqidtes chaldcennes ; Sculptiife et grai'/ire d la pointc, Paris,
^

1902, pp. 280-285.

QuiBELL, Flint dagger from Gebeleitt, loc. cit. p. 131. Petrie, Nar/ada, pi. l.\-xvii. and p. 5 1. De Morga.n, Rcclwrchcs, ii. pp. 266, 267. The whole of the knife has been produced in a plate intended for a work on the A Pitt-Rivers Collection, but which, I believe, has never been published.
''

copy of

the University another copy is m the Edwards' Library, University College, London. Its provenance is indicated thus upon the plate: "Obtained by the Rev. Greville Chester in 1891 from Sheyk Hamadeh, near Souhag."
this plate is exhibited in the Pitt-Rivers Collection at
;

Museum, Oxford

^o
there
are

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


two interesting pieces. bearing on one of its
feline

One
faces

is

a handle, possibly of

frequently a
there
is

knife,

design
;

which
on
the

occurs
other
sees

animal

chasing

gazelle

a quaint representation, in which

Professor Petrie

the hippopotamus goddess Tanrt seizing a crocodile, perhaps to

Fig.

35. Ivory Knife-handle

in

the Pitt-Rivi:rs Collection.

devour

it.

With her

right
left

hand

she

grasps
its

a
(Fig.

foot
36).

of

the

crocodile, and with her

she holds

tail

Upon
is

a steatite prism discovered by Greville Chester at Karnak, and

presented

Ijy

him

to the

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford,

there

standing and holding a crocodile by the tail. This representation may perhaps be connected with the figures of the

man

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVP:


intaglios of the

ART.

71

Greek

islands,
tail.^

on which personages are figured


flint

holding animals by the

The

other object

is

a small

knife with an ivory handle.

Upon one of the sides of the handle are two interlaced serpents and rosettes,
as on the great knife at Cairo; on the reverse there is a lion, a leopard, and

another animal, considered to be a hedgehog^ (Fig. ^y). of a similar specimen


in

by Petrie

A fragment
the
Berlin

Museum
(Fig.

that this animal

(No. 15,137) proves, however, is a species of antelope In the case of the knife, 38).
in

the

way

which the handle

is

fastened

to the blade entirely confirms a

remark
to

made by Mr.

Quibell with regard

the ivory-handled knife at Cairo.


states that the part of the knife
is

He
which

fixed to the handle

is

so minute that

certainly the

knife

could

only
cere-

have

been

employed

monially.-'

The same

representations of
jt

animals arc found on decorated


spoons, of which several interest-

ing specimens have been discovered^ (Fig. 39). Mr. Quibell

Fig. 36.

Ivory

Knife-handle.

Petrie Collection, University College,

has

published

the

handle

of

London.

some instrument, now disappeared, which has two small animal


Evans, Arthur J., Further disco7>cries of Cretan a?td Aegcati Script with Libyan and proto- Egyptian Co?nparisons, in \.\\q Journal 0/ Hellenic Studies, .wii.
'

898, pp. 362-372.


-

Petrie, Prehistoric Egyptian Carvings,


pi.
1.

in

Mail,
cit.

ii.

1902,

No.

113, p. 161,

and
'

3,

iii.,

and

4,

iv.

Quibell, Flint dagger from Gcbclcin, he.


:

p. 132.

See Lefehure,

E.,

Rites cgyptiens

des

lett?-cs,
^

Construction cl p7-otection des edifices {^Publications dc I Ecole d' Alger), Paris 1890, p. 37,
pi.
Ixi.

Petrie, Naqada,
Rechcrches,
ii.

2,

3,

5,

6,

8,

p.

47

Diospo/is,
i.

p.

22.

De

Morgan,

p.

131.

Quibell, Hierakonpolis,

pi. xii. 9.

72
figures^

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


(Fig39,

No.

instrument a spoon

or a knife
is

7)

and there
in

is

also

the

handle of an

form of a
in the

lion,

which probably

came from Hierakon polls, and


Oxford.

now

Ashmolean Museum,

much greater variety of types, and enable more closely the evolution of the forms. Both single the most frequent type was that and double combs were used

Combs

present a

us to follow

of a small

or animal figure, furnished with teeth at the lower part, as a means of fixing it in the hair. There are several

human

--'

^
_:-:.^**'

Fig. 37.

Small

Flint Knife with Ivory Handle.

Petrie Collection, University College, London.

specimens which have for ornament the human face, drawn in a summary manner, and gradually simplified until merely the
outline of the face

The
is is

represented (Fig. 40). representations of animals offer still

is

more

variety.

It

remarkable

how

the antelope, which


to
in

is

very clearly characterized,


unrecognizable,

by degrees degraded

the

point of being

and of being confused, as


1

the last specimen of Fig. 41, with

QuiBELL, FIhit dagger f1-07)1 Gcbclein, he. cit. pi. i. 7. De Morgan, Rccherchcs, Petrie, Naqada, pi. lix. 5.
fig.

i.

p.

147,

fig.

342,

and

ii.

p. 62,

136.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


the type derived from the figure of
in
;i

ART.

T:

bird.'

Petrie beUeves that


I

two instances he can


it

identify representations of the giraffe.

believe that

is

more probably a
is

simplification

of the type of

antelope- (Fig. 41).

Another type

the

head of a
shall see

bull,

full

face,

also

found

among

the amulets, as

we

later."'

The

figure that occurs

most frequently is a bird, which is also used for decorated pins. Here we pass from forms copied with considerable fidelity, to

Fig. 1^.

Fragment

of an Ivory Knife-handle with a Figure of an Antelope.


Berlin

Museum.

simplified forms,

which only remotely suggest the


again intervenes to

original.

The
end

symmetry by placing the same conventional

principle of

augment

the confusion,
'

figure of a bird

at each

Petrie,
i-

ih. Ixiii.

59, 63,

66

Ixiv.

cS;

and

p.

87.

De Morgan,

Recherches,

fig-

343. P- 148.

^
*

Petrie, Petrie,

ib. pi. xliii.

60-62,

and

p. 47.

ib. pi. xliii. 57, 57^:.

Petrie, Naqada,
Recherches,
i.

pi.

Ixiii.

and

Ixiv.

Diospolis,

ix.

x.

and
i.

p.

20.

De

Morgan,

p.

148.

Budge,

History 0/ Egypt,

p.

54.

74

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


comb
(Fig. 42).

of the axis of the

Other specimens, again, show


'

the combination of the


(Fig- 43)-

two designs of quadrupeds and birds


I

Owing

to the

generous kindness of Herr von Bissing,

am

able to reproduce here a magnificent ivory comb decorated with This comb belongs to M. Theodor M. Davis, figures of animals.

and

\'^on

Bissing

will

shortly

publish a detailed

account of

it.

IDITJTT^-^^ ^^m^-^t^

Fig. 39.

Ivory

Spoon-handles.

which

will

enable us to draw interesting conclusions from this

very Before

fine piece of

work
this

(Figs.

leaving reader of the magical role which these intended to fulfil, and on which I have
length.
^

44 and 45). subject, I must once more remind the

combs were apparently already dwelt at some

De Morgan,

Recherches,

i.

y.

148, fig. 243.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


hair-pins, while they show same zoomorphic designs as birds and bulls' heads the combs

ART.

/ 3

The

the

have
first

'

also regular
itself,

incised

lines

on the pin

which form the


of an

fl'

example we meet with

ornamentation derived from technique.

They evidently represent


wrapped round
it

the binding
pin,

the
\ <

which attached

the carved ornament


bird, etc.

firmly

to
Fk.

Uii^

bull's

at the top

head,

40.

Ivory

*1|MU^
Combs with Human

Figures.
Petrie Collection.

(Fig. 46).

KhM

6^

lli.VLVii
Fig. 41.

Ivory

Combs with Figures of Antelopf.s and


l.viii.

CiIkakI'Es.

'

Petrie, Naqada,
I4<S,

pi.

i.

pp.

149.

MacIvkr

&

and l.\iv. D/ospolis, pi. \. Dk Mokgan, RcchcrchcSy Mace, El Ainrali, jii. .\ii. 2, 3.
;

76

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


When wc
turn
to
tlie

consideration

of

pendants,

we

find

reappearing on a whole series of Their purpose is not easy stone, ivory, objects were mere ornaments. They have to determine possibly they a groove and hole at the lower end, and if suspended by them,
exactly the
in

same

designs

and bone.

Fig. 42.

Ivory

Combs with Figures of Birds.

to enable

This may be a device the figures, of course, hang upside down. These objects the wearer to see them as they hang. are carved with representations of human figures (F'ig. 47), with
birds
'

more or

less

conventionalized, with bulls' heads,* and also

Men: Petrie, Naqada, pi. lix. Ix. Birds: ib. lix. Ixii. and Ixiv. DiospoUs xi. xii. Dk Morgan, (Jrigmcs, ii. pp. 64 and 143. MacIvkr & Mace, El Amrali and Abydos, pi. x. 7. Bulls: Petrie, Naqada, pi. Ixii. 37 and 51;
;

pi. X.

DiospoUs,

vii.

1.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


with a singular ornament which of bird (Fig. 48).
is

ART.

17

perhaps derived from a type


is

formed by the pendants of necklaces, which have already been mentioned in Those of most the chapter on personal adornment.

Another

class of decorated objects

frequent occurrence are merely engraved on the two sides with various short strokes at regular intervals.

The

decoration of others
starting

is

in

imitation of a cord,
coils

which,

from

the

base,

round

the

pendant
lines,

to the top.

Others, again, have intercross-

ing forming very simple patterns. Occasionally the two systems of decoration are combined (Fig. 49, and also Fig. 22). When we recall the observations

we have

already made, there is nothing to prevent our considering these decorative lines on the pendants
as having a magical purpose.^

In the Berlin

Museum

there

is

a small shell
13,797),

(?)

plaque

of

fine

workmanship (No.

which

perhaps should be considered as a pendant for a necklace. It is decorated with figures of animals,

which
and

should be

compared
on
the

with

those

we

shall

presently
51).^

study
all

slate

palettes

(Figs.

50

question it is the slate palettes which provide us with the finest examples of evolution of form that it is possible to imagine. Petrie has

Beyond

m
V\G.

43

Ivory Comb
^''^^
'^"^ figure of an antelope

worked out the chronological succession of these palettes, and we need not therefore dwell long on
the subject.'*

and ornaments
ticnved

The

earliest of these

are rhomboids,

from

bird forms.

and

this

form was probably suggested, accordmg to


slate rock.

Petrie,

afterwards
'

by some natural cross-cleavages of the natural forms appear, which we


pi.
l.\i.

Shortly

shall

now examine,

Petrie, Naqada,

ixii.

and

Ixi;-.

Recherches, i. pp. 62, 63, with a blackisli piaster.


^

fig.

137-147.

The

De Morgan, Diospolis, pi. x. incised lines are frequently filled up


;

Ko7ii<(lichc Miiscen

zu Berlin
iii.

AusfilJirlicJics

Vc7-zeiclttiis

dcr ligyptisclicn

Altertilmcr ujid Gipsabgilssc, 2nd ed. Berlin, 1899,


^

p. 38.

Petrie, Diospolis,

pi.

78

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

and from which new forms were eventually derived which were
solely geometrical.
I

know only one


52).

palette

which represents the human form.


in the

It

London belongs to the Petrie Collection, University College,


Another specimen

(P"ig.

same

collection

is

a palette

head of which figure of an antelope (?), the on the contrary, other has disappeared (Fig. 53). With specimens, of it is the entire palette which represents grosso viodo the lines

surmounted by the

Fig. 44.

Ivory

Comb, Recto.

Fig. 45.

^IvoRY

Comb, Verso.

Davis Collection.

Davis Collection.

the animal.
notice

Among

one where

the palettes representing antelopes we must Petrie recognizes the ibex or the mouflon^

Other specimens are carved in imitation of the elephant, ^ hippopotamus- (Fig. 55), and lion (Fig- 55^). The palettes in
(F"ig. 54).
1

Petrie, Naqada,
i.

of Egypt,
pi.
Ix-iv.
-

p.

59,

Budge, History 1-4; Dwspolis, pi. xi. i. pi. xlvii. 20,910 and 35,049. Quibell & Green, Hierakonpolis, ii.
pl. xlvii.

17.

Petrie, Naqada,

5-8; Diospolis,

pi. xi. 4, 5.

Berlin, No. 11,341.

MacGregor

Collection.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE ART


;

79

form of a tortoise are very instructive we see there that, after having entirely mistaken the character of the feet, they did not scruple to let them disappear entirely, or even to transform

them

into heads of antelopes^ (Fig- 5^).

Fig. 46.

Ivory

Pins decorated with Figures of Birds and a Bull's

Head.

Fish palettes, which are often shaped with great care, end by A remarkable example is losing all characteristic form (Fig. 57).
^

Petrie,

Naqada,

pi.

xlvii.
i.

9-12,

14,

and 18; Diospolis,


Berlin, No. 10,595.

pi.

.\i.

6,

9,

10.

Budge,

History of Egypt,

p. 60, 23,061.

8o

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


in

one

of our F\^. 57, where the tail of the fish has itself been transformed into a still smaller fish.^
the centre

4f

Fig. 47.

Slate

and Ivory Pendants.

University College, London.

The most
recognizable^

curious case
(Fig.
58),
it

is

that of the

bird.

At

first

easily
It
is

promptly becomes modified.


;

Petrie, Naqada, pi. xlviii. 51, 52, 60 Diospolis, pi. Newberry, Extracts frotn tfiy Notebooks, v. No.
xxiv. 1902, p. 251

xi.

15-18, 27, 29.


in
pi.

36,

the Proceedings
ii.

of the Society of Biblical Archceology,

and

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


carved
palette
;

ART.

8i

in duplicate, in

the

plain

surface

order to give a symmetrical form to the on which the colour is rubbed is

lengthened out of all proportion until, after a long succession of changes, the head of the bird, the only part remaining, finally becomes absorbed, and the palette presents a form where

would be impossible to recognize the original type, had not the intermediate specimens been preserved ^ (Fig. 59).
it

c^

^ w
i^O

0@GOO

"^

r~^
I

Q O

O)

HiiH ^niim

im

"-UWUUUOLUlUUAAAiJ
Fig. 48.

Slate

and Ivory Pendants decorated with Derived Designs.

wish to draw special attention to a palette


belonging to
the
Pctrie

in

form of a
College,

bird

Collection,

University

London, which closely resembles the figures of birds carved in the round that we shall have occasion to study later on (Fig. 60).
Other forms might be quoted which do not appear to belong to any of the above types.

So much

for

the

shapes of the
21, 23, 24, 29,

palettes.

An
.\li.x.

attempt

was

Petrie, Naqada,
S6, 89, 91, 92.

pi. xlvii.

30,

32

pi.

64, 6y, 72, 81, 82,

Diospolis,

pi. xii.

35, 38.

82

PRIMITIVE ART
to

IN
like

EGYPT.
models by the aid form of a fish, where the
their

made

render them

still

more

of incised lines, especially on those in

shape was
or
birds.^

less

characteristic than

those

representing

antelopes

complementary lines there are palettes of geometrical forms which also have figures incised on them. On one of these the figure of an elephant has been foundothers have representations of the crocodile,"" and also
;

In connection with

these

Fig. 49.

Stone and
IN

Ivory Pendants with Incised Line Decoration, some Cases filled up with a Blackish Paste.

figure of
at

an indeterminate animal* (Fig.


Diospolis

61).

A
in

palette dis-

covered

(tomb B

102)

also

bears

low

relief

figure difficult to identify^ (Fig. 61).


In addition to the jialettes mentioned
will

'

tlie

pr( ccdini^

notes,
ji.

numerous
vii. viii.

specimens
pi.
xi.
xii.

be found
p.

in

Petrie, Naqada,

pi.

xlvii.-l.

and

43; Diospolis^
jil.

and

20.

MacIver
pi. v.

&
xii.

Mace, EI
43.

yb/iiali

and

A/iydos,

and
*
^
*

X.

Petrie, Diospolis,

and
j).

Ue Morgan, De Morgan,

Origincs,
ib.

ii.

144,

and Berlin Museum, No.

12,877.

Petrie, Diospolis,

pi. v.

102.

-0RNAMP:NTAL

and decorative
belonging
to

art.

83

very

fine

specimen

the

Petrie

Collection,

Fig.

50.

Plaque

in

the Berlin Museum (Recto).


Shell (?).

University

College,

London,

is

engraved

on

both

faces

with

1'

iG.

51.

Plaque

in

the Berlin
Shell (?).

IVIuseuhi (Veuso).

ibex

facing

each other
62).

cavities

(Fig.

Two

ivory beads are inserted in the eye other specimens, one discovered at

84

TRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

(Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) and the other of unknown provenance (University College, London) are inscribed with very

Hu

Fig. 52.

Palette with a Human Figure at the Top.

Fig.

Palette with a 53. Figure of an Antelope, THE Head missing.

summary

designs of animals
is

(Fig. 62).

Finally,

the

most

in-

teresting discovery
'

somewhat recent one by Mr. Maclver,


by Petrie, Diospolis,

The

first is

the specimen published without description

pi. XX. 20.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE ART


who found
carved
in

85

palette

relief

on the

important point wc
palettes

signs resembling hieroglyphs Before stopping to dwell on this must remark that a considerable number of
face.

with

two

arc

that they could

employed

proves be hung or carried on the body ready to be for grinding colour while the smaller ones indicate
;

pierced

with a

hole

for

suspension, which

that in course of time these palettes were occasionally converted

Fig.

54.

Palettes

in

Form of

Anieloi'es.

into amulets.
tion

The accuracy

of this instance of the transforma-

of the ordinary object into an ainulet is attested by the fact that in the MacGregor Collection at Tamworth, there are

some very minute

palettes, the

dimensions of which absolutely

preclude the possibility of employing them for grinding paint. One of these is the shape of Palette 69, of our Fig. 59, and

measures 44 millimetres in height the others, of rhomboidal form, measure respectively 80, 58, 56, and 39 millimetres.
;

Fig.

55.

Palettes

in

Form of Elephants and Hippopotaml

Fig.

56.

Palettes

in

Form ok Tortoises.

Fig. 55A.

Palette
MacGregor

in

Form of a

Lion.

Collection.

X
en

O
0;

tn

H H U -1 <

88

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

We

must now turn our attention


Maclver
at

to

the
6],).

palette

found by
are

Mr. Randall

El

Amrah

(Fig.

What

the

signs carved on it, and what is their meaning ? In an article published at the time of the discov'cry of this ^ "It is by far the earliest example palette Mr. Maclver wrote
:

yet found of the use of hieroglyphs. Hieroglyphic writing has been known to exist in a well-developed form as early as the first dynasty, but this slate belongs to a period considerably
before Menes, the

king of the first dynasty." Writing again with modified views on this subject
first

in

his

'^m"^

Fig. 58.

Palette

in
;

Form of a Bird.
height, lo cm.

Brussels

Museum
at

memoir on
out, with

the excavations

El

Amrah, Mr. Maclver points

Petric

and
of

Griffith,

palette

with

one

the

the analogy of the sign on the standards of ships (wc shall speak the

of these
statues

later),

and with the signs engraved on

archaic

of the
his

he carries

god Min discovered by Petrie at Koptos, and hypothesis no farther than the statement that
a
sign
similar
to

we

have

here

the

emblem

of

this

god
less

Min.2

Reduced
'

to these proportions,
R.,

the discovery

became no
in

MacIver, D.

P7-ehistoric

Cemetery at

El Amrah

Egypt

Pre-

limi?iary Report of Excavations, \n


^

MacIveh

&

Man, i. No. Mace, El Amrah and Abydos,

40, April, 1901.

pp. 37, 38.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE

ART.

89

Fig. 59.

Pai F.TTKS

of Bird Form.

90

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


remarks,
it

important, because, as the author example of palettes carved in relief.


furnishes

was

the

first

The MacGregor

Collection

us

At
the

the

top

with another example of this (Catalogue i,758h). of this palette two birds are carved in relief;
their

they face each other, and


palette.

bodies
piece

follow
is

the

outline

of
it

The

interest

of this
the

very great, as

between the preclearly possible historic palettes and the proto-dynastic palettes of which we have such remarkable specimens (Fig. 64).

shows

as

as

transition

Our

first

acquaintance with these was owing to the excava-

tions of Mr. Ouibell at Hierakonpolis,

which led

to the discovery

Fig. 60.

Bird-shaped

Palette.

University College, London.

of two

These constitute evidence of the


the

marvellous palettes covered with carvings in low relief. first order for the history of

making of Egypt.

They have

definitely fixed the period

merit of having to which should be allocated various


the

great

fragments of objects of the same kind

preserved
for

in

different

Here museums. which are found


at

the
in

simple
earliest

palettes

grinding
of

malachite,

the the

greater

number

prehistoric

tombs
into

period objects of lu.xury, votive offerings deposited

the

of

dynasties, have
in

developed
the temples

and

perhaps intended to commemorate important rcligimis festivals. This is another instance of the evolution of decorated objects
of which

we spoke

at the

cuinmencement of

this chapter.

VVe

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


shall return
later to the scenes depicted

ART.

91

on the assumption
to decorative art.

that

they relate

on these great palettes, more to sculpture than

The same may be

said

of the votive maces from the

same

temple of Hierakonpolis, which furnish another instance of

common

Fig.

61.

Palettes

decokatkd with Incised Figures.

objects

becoming actual objects of luxury, of huge proportions,


consequence rendered
entirely
unfit
for

and

in

their

origmal

purpose.

be divided into Speaking generally, stone macc-heads may two principal classes. The first, and the most ancient, arc ni
the form of a disc.

These are most frequently found

in

syenite

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

o c o

"o

if

ORNAMENTAL AND DFXORATIVE


and
in

ART.

93

]X)rphyry,
alabaster.^

and

more
are

rarely

The
and
in

others

are
in

pear-shaped,

found

basalt, haematite, breccia, alabaster,

and above
limestone.

all

a compact white
latter

This

form ap-

pears at least as early as the fourth dynasty, and throughout the history of Egypt as an all

emblem
A-

in

the hands of the king.


sign,
j,

hieroglyphic

which

conve\-s the idea of whiteness and


distinction,

has

.^SB^

also

perpetuated

the-figure.-

Two specimens discovered


at
1 i

Fig. 63.

Palette.
handles,^ one

D
of

With

a sign (hieroglyphic ?)
in relief.

po

Parva

still

retain their

ivory

and
a

one

of

horn.

Some
with

mace-heads are of a different form,


resembling

double

hammer

not considered to be mace-lieads.

At the British Museum these objects are See Budge, Guide to the Third and Fourth Egyptian
1

tiuit

The proof Roo7ns, 1904, p. 48, Nos. 63-84. these pieces are really mace-heads will be
in tlie representations on painted coffins See Lei'SIUS, Aclicste of the Middle Empire.

found

altiigyptischcn
Berlin, 1867,

Texte des Todtcnbuchs nach Sarcophagen dcs Reichs iin Berliner Museum,
pi.

xx.wiii.

Lacau, Sarcophages
empire

: Catalogue general des antiquites cgyptiennes du musee

antericurs

au

nouTel

Fig. 64.

Palktte.
Collection.

du

Caire, 1904,
-

pi. Ixiii.

277.
p.

Petrie, DiospoUs parva,


pl. xvii.

24 and

pl. iv.

With two

birds carved in reliei.

Naqada,
*

MacGregor

Petrie, Diospolis pan'a,

pl. v.

94
^

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

Tliese mace-heads are usually without pointed ends (Fig- 65). ornamentation. Nevertheless, a specimen in limestone was dis-

decorated with black spots.^ I am disposed to believe that some objects discovered by Petrie at Naqada

covered at El

Amrah

are
toy,

of the

same

class.

He
^

considers

them

to

be a form of

having regard to the limestone and soft sandstone

materials of which they are


(Fig. 66).

made

At Hierakonpolis,

besides the

show

pieces

have just alluded

to, Mr. Quibell discovered an enormous number of mace-heads,^ which must have been merely for ceremonial use, judging, with

Mr. Ouibell, from the

fact

that

the hole for the handle

is

not

Fig.

65.

Mace-heads from Hierakonpolis and Naqada.

always completely pierced. Mace-heads are occasionally found decorated with incised lines extending from the summit to the base (see Fig. 65, No. 23). The Berlin Museum possesses a
curious

mace-head
in

in

hard stone, which has been carved with


15,716,
is

weird effect

the

shape of a tortoise (No.


15,142)

Fig.

6j^.

Another
three
shall

in

the

same museum (No.


from the
bull's

decorated

with

designs derived

head type, of which we


Collection at

speak

presently.

The MacGregor

Tamworth

possesses two mace-heads, on one of which a human head is carved, and on the other two human heads, similar to those on
the vase of our
'

P'ig.
pi.

69 (Nos. 3,495 and


xvii.

3,779).
Oxford).

Petrie, Naqada,
in the

23 (Aslimolean

Museum,

liaminer-

shaped inace
an animal's
''

MacGregor Collection (No.

1,720) is terminated at

one end by

liead.

MacIver
Quibell

&
&

Petrie, Na(/ada,

'

Mace, El Amrah and Ahydos, pi. x. 6 and p. pi. vii. and p. 35 (Aslimolean Museum). Green, Hic7-akonpolis, ii. pi. xxvii. p. 41.

16.

ORNAMENTAL AND DFXORATIVE


Finally, there

ART.

95

two macc-heads or sceptres which cannot One is of ivory, and is be compared with any others known. carved with three rows of captives, represented with their arms
are
tied

behind their backs, and fastened together the other a cord passed round their necks
^
;

in
is

single
in

file

by

serpentine,

carved

in

relief

two pieces and are masterpieces of workmanship

with alternate figures of dogs and lions." These belong to the commencement of the historic period,
(Fig. 68).

perfection of the form of these mace-heads, made of the without at any rate in the earliest period hardest stones, and

The

Fig.

66.

Di corated
tools,
is

Mace-heads

in

Soft Stone.

the

aid

of

metal
if

marvellous.
the stone

Our amazement can


vases

onh' increase
in

we examine

which arc found


prehistoric

the

tombs
these

as early as the
"
:

commencement

of the

period.

Of

Petrie

writes

Throughout the whole

prehistoric

age, from immediately after the rude savage burials of (sequence

QuiEKLL, Ilierako)ipolis, i. pi. xii. and ii. pi. xx.xvii. xix. OuiBELL & Green, Hierakonpolis, ii. pi. xxiii. Ixvi. and p. 38; ]>1. On Fig. 68 is another mace-head from Hierakonpolis representing the lore part of two l)iil!s or rams. Hifrakonpolis, i. pi. xix. 3, xxv. and p. 8 ii. p. 38. An analogous specimen from IIu is now, like the preceding pieces, in the Ashmolcan
'

i.

Museum, Oxford.

96
date) 30

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.


down
for

to the end, stone vases are abundant. Moreover, hard stone was kept up in the Iiistoric times; hundreds of stone bowls were buried with each king of the first

the taste

and many are found in tombs of the third and fourth But in the twelfth dynasty the softer serpentine and dynasties. alabaster supplanted the fine diorites and porphyries, and in the
d}-nast\',

eighteenth dynasty the art of working" hard stones was forgotten

Fig. 67.

Mace-heau

Carved

in

Form of a Tortoise.

Berlin

Museum.

for

and

anything but statuary. From the point of view of magnificence, skill in using hard and beautiful stones, wc must say that
to
their highest level in the later
sixth, twelfth
Avith

the Egyptians gradually rose

prehistoric and early dynastic times, and that the

or eighteenth dynasties cannot for a archaic splendours." ^


^

moment compare
p. 18.

the

Petrie, Diospolis parva,

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


We
must not
linL,^er

ART.

97

here to study in detail the forms of content myself with referring the reader to Petrie's remarks, and to the numerous plates on which all the
these vases, and
I

will

forms discovered up to the present time are reproduced.^

We

must turn

to

the decoration of pottery, and to those examples

Pig. 68.
'

Scepihe-

or Mace-heads from Hierakontoi.is.

Petrik, Diospolis parTdy p|i. 18, 19, and pi. iii. for the diagram showing the evolution of forms during tiic preliistoric period (Mr. Petrie tells me that he has reserved his opinion with regard to the evolution of the stone vases of cylindrical

98

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


itself

where the vase

has been

given a form

either

animal or

human.

Most frequently the vase


there
is

is

without decoration

a simple representation of a

occasionally cord which encircles the


;

neck, and

care

has been
it

other

instances
cases,
is

is

taken in working out the detail. In mere sinuous rounded line, which, in
continuous.'

some

not even

More

rarely

the

vase

is
^
;

decorated with regular ribs worked with wonderful perfection or, again, it is faced with a decoration of shells closely arranged
in

rows and overlapping each other. On one vase there is a network


in

of of
is

plaited
fillet,

cords
in

repre-

sented
vase

slight

relief,

forming
placed.'^

sort

which the

might have been


to

This

an example of those
earlier
in

skeuomorphic designs
chapter.
vase,

which we have referred

the

second

is

to be found in the
is

fragment of a marble
basket."^

where the exterior

carved to represent a plaited

the

most part from of the historic period, show us figures in relief heads and figures of human beings, animals, etc. will rapidly

Finally, a whole series of vases, dating for the

commencement

We

pass them in review. of only one vase which is decorated with human heads. the Petrie Collection at University College, London, and from its form it should belong to the time between the comI

know
is

This

in

mencement

of the prehistoric period and the sequence dates 60-70

form, of which the sequence dates were based on Mr. Quibell's observations, and which Mr. Petrie did not himself check closely) Naqada, pi. viii.-xvi. ;
;

Mace, El Ani7-ah and Abydos, pi. xvi. Petrie, Abydos, i. pi. xxvii. xlii. xlvii. Royal To??ibs, ii. pi. Ixvi.-liii.^'^ Abydos, pi. ix. x. QuiBELL, El A'ab, pi. ii. iii. vi. x. xxvii, Ouibell & Green, Hierakonpolis, i. ii. These indications refer also to the pi. xxxi.-xxxiv. xxxvi. xxxvii. pi. xxx. vases of the first Egyptian dynasties. See also A. H. Sayce, Ihc Sto?ie Vases of Ancient Egypt, in The Connoisseur, a Magazine for Collccio7-s, iv. 1902,
Dtospolis,
pi. ix.

MacIver

&
;

i.

pp. 159-165, with beautiful photographs of vases in

tlie

Berens Collection.
ii.

Examples: Petru:, iXaqada, pi. and liii./. Quibell, Hicrakoupolis,


^

'

x.

Royal Tombs,

pi. xlvii./',

Iii.

liii.

liii.^?

\.

pi. xxxiii.

De Morgan,

Rechcrchcs,

ii.

p. 184.
i)l.

Petrie, Royal Tombs, ii. pi. xlix. ^ Petrie, Royal Tombs, ii. pi.
Rcctie7-chcs,
ii.

v.

12
;

Quibell, Hierako?ipolis, and 2. pi. xxxviii.


i.
1

i.

pi.

iix.

7.

vi.

27, xxix. 21-25,

'i"*^'

-'^''-

94-

De Morgan,

fig.

823, p. 245.
ii.

Petrie, Royal Tombs,

pi. ix.

12.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


it

ART.

99

is

therefore entirely of the prehistoric period.

human
the

heads, sculptured

in

relief

There we see two on the body of the vase, and of


with.

same type we have already met

The mouth
'

is

indicated

by a strongly accentuated horizontal line, and the eyes marked by means of two beads fixed into the cavities of the stone (Fig. 69).

Two
relief

fragments of vases in the Berlin Museum bear in light barks and human figures (Nos. 15,084 and 15,693). The
is

fragment No. 15,084

specially remarkable for the representation

Fig. 69.

bro.NE

Vase.
heads.

Decorated with two

human

of a warrior

armed with a
of this
figure

hatchet, driving a prisoner before him.


is

The
later

style

somewhat

similar to those

we

find

on the votive maces and palettes (Figs. 70 and 71). At Hierakonpolis Mr. Quibell discovered a whole series of
with
figures

vases decorated
feline creatures
'

of animals.

There arc heads of

above a sign which resembles the hieroglyph CM^,In-

A fragment of a similar vase was found Petrie, Naqada, pi. xlii. 26, and p. 42.
*

Mr. Ouibcll at

iiallas.

See

Quibell, Hierakonpolis,

i.

pi. xvii.

100

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


a
figure

of
;

'

scorpion
finally,

(Fig.

72)

and,

very curious group, which I am tempted to consider


as

pictographic
without,

repre-

sentation,

howIt

ever, being able to suggest

any reading of it. more especially the


of the
that
to

is

fact

bow being depicted


it

makes me suspect
of
"

be something

this

description (Fig. Jj^). Other pieces, unfortunately frao-mentarv, show a bird's head, and also a strange
object terminated

by a star.^ The royal tombs of the


dynasty
afforded
at

first

Abydos
frag-

have

few

ments of
Fig. 70.

this nature.

On
none

Fragment
Berlin

of Vase Warrior ARMED WITH A HaTCHET.

Museum.

some, curious are carved in

ornaments
relief,

of which, unfortunately, can

be identified with certainty. An alabaster vase from the

same
the

locality

is

incised

at

base

with

series

of

signs,

'

xvii.
^

QuiBELL, Hierakonpolis, i. pi. and xxiii. Id. i. pi. xix. XX. and xxv. Oun^ELL & Green, Hicrakonii.

polis,

pi. lix.

Petrie, Royal
vi.rt,
ii.

Toitibs,
pi.

ii.

pi. v.

Fig. 71.

Fragment of Vase with Boat


Low
Berlin

in

15,

22,

23;

i.

xxxviii.

4,

Relief.

and

pi.

Ii.//,

335.

Museum.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


We
To
curious

ART.

loi

must mention that ivory was


from
a
in

also

used

for vases, and,

judging was decorated


pass
is

very
the
vases

fine

fragment
fantastic

discovered

at

Abydos,
the

it

same manner
of

as stone.^

to

shapes,

one

of

most

that discovered

by

Petrie at

Abydos,

whicli represents

Fig. 72.

Stone

Vases with Animal Ficures

in

Relief.

leather

bottlebirds,

(Fig.

74).

Other

s[)ecimeiis

from

Naqada

At represent frogs, and hippopotami (Figs. 75 and jG). Mr. and Hicrakonpolis Quibcll discovered two vases of steatite In the MacGregor Collection at serpentine in form of birds.'*

Tamworth
*

there

is

a small steatite
ii.

vase,

at

the base of which

Petrie, Royal Totnbs,


Id.
i.

pi. vi.

22.

^ '

pi. xx.xviii. 3,

and

p. 28.
i.

Qun^ELL, Hicrakanpol/s,

pi. .xx. 2

and

4,

and

p.

ii.

p. 38.

I02
is

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


the vase

the head

to

support

and four paws of a small animal, which appears with its body (Catalogue 3,544). In the
there
is

same

collection
its

a vase

shaped

like

a frog, which

still

preserves with gold


the
artist

ancient gold mounting. The lateral handles covered leaf are crossed by a thin strip of metal, to which

has

given

the

form

of a
to

delicate gold chains are attached

serpent. Very fine and the serpent, and serv^ed to

suspend the vase.

Fig.

73.

PicTOGRAPHic {!)

Inscription on a Stone Vase.

The Berlin Museum possesses several unpublished pieces. One is a stone vase in form of an elephant (No. 14,146); another
is

a third is of a hippopotamus (No. 14,147) Another is a a vase in form of a dog (No. 12,590)' (Fig. yy).
;

a vase in form

vase in form of a frog (No. 14,403), and the last of the series
represents a fish (No. 16,025). In the Petrie Collection at University College, London,

is

vase
'

which

represents

what

is

probably an

elephant.

Two

KdiiigUche Musceii sit Berlin Ansfilhrliches VerzeicJuiis der iigyptischen Altcrlihncr U7td Gipsabgiissc, 2nd ed. Brrlin, 1899, p. 36 and fig. 2, where one can indistinctly see No. 12,590.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE

ART.

103

fragments from the same collection exhibit two hippopotamus heads, and there is another of which it is difficult to recognize

Fig.

74. Stone Vase in Form of a Leather Bottle, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

the

subject.
?

Is

it

in

reality

representation

of

an

animal

(Fig. 78)

Fig.

75.^Stone Vase

in

Form of a Bird.

Most of the forms met with


of the

in

stone vases, and also most


shall find again in potter}-.

decorations found on them, wc

104

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


we must enquire whether,
hypothesis
as regards Egypt,

But, to begin with,

we can

verify

the

which

attributes

the

origin

of

Fig. 76.

Stone

Vases

in

Form of Frogs, Hippopotamus, and Birds.


least, to

primitive pottery to moulding, or, at


in

copying a basket
?

plaited work.^

Did the primitive Egyptian understand basket work

In

Fig. 77.

Vase
Berlin

in

Form of a Dog.

Museum.

the
in

earliest

prehistoric

tombs

cither

the

body was wrapped


lined with

matting, or the

bottom of the tomb was

a mat.^

' For the same fact in primitive Greek civilization, see John L. Myres, Textile Impressions on an Early Clay Vessel froiti A?norgos, in the Journal of the Afiihropolof^ical Institute^ xxvii. November, 1897, pp. 178-180 and pi. xii.

Petrie, Naqada,
722.

p. 15,

tomb

MacIver

&

tomb 31 p. 23, tomb B14; Mace, El Attirah and Abydos, p.


;

p. 25,

tomb 42
pi.

p. 27,

31,

and

xi. 5, 6.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


Ancient Empire, both as carpets

ART.

105

Mats were frequently employed throughout the] whole of the and for decorating the walls of rooms. The representations of tombs of the fifth dynasty show to what a degree of perfection they had attained at this
period.^

In the tombs of the prehistoric cemetery of El Amrah were found baskets of the usual spherical form containing malachite.^ The patterns on several specimens recall the baskets made at

Fig.

78.

Vase,

and Fragments of Vases,

in

Form of Animals.

day in the Soudan. The same comparison was made by M. Amelineau on discovering in one of the chambers of the
the present

tomb
work
:

of

King Khasakhmui a "... I found there,"


chamber.
I

large quantity of objects in basket

he

"

says,
I

fairly

long
these

pieces

of

wood covered with matting.


out the

These

met with again throughpieces

promptly recognized that


covered
with

of

wood with matting round them were remains of broken


for

chairs,

one of the
at

ends was not


least

matting.
broad,

These
which

chairs were

o"'40

high and about


of a

o"'6o

gives Upon species of high stool. these chairs were placed other specimens of basket work, which,
Petrie, Egyptian Decorative Art, pp. 44, 45. MacIver, a prehistoric cc7nctery at El AtnraJi in Egypt, No. 40, p. 52 MacIver & Mace, El Amrah and Alydos, pi. xi.
^
;

the

well

known form

'

in
2,

Man,
and

1901,

p. 42.

io6

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


made
asked
in the

plaited with a kind of parti-coloured straw, resembled the basket

work

still
I

Soudan and

sold in the bazaar at Assouan.

When

my workmen whether they had anything

of the

MH^

mm
in

Fig.

79. Rkd Vases with White Paint,

in Imitation

of HASKiiT

Work.

same kind
told
mc'

inside their
tlie

houses, they replied in the negative, but

tliat

the Berbers.

work closely resembled the Margone made by The word struck me, and I immediately recalled

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


the

ART.

107

word

MAPKflNI,
1

which

had met with

in

the Coptic hTe

of Pakhome. ..."

Fig. 80.

Black

Incised Pottkkv, with Decoratio.n

i.n

Imit.\tio.n

of

Basket Work.

Independently
_r.
'

of

ceramic

art,

the

indiistr\-

of

the

basket
1896-7.

Amelineau,

Lcs

nonvellcs
I'aris,

fouilles
1902,

d'Abydos,
pp.
176,

second
I.es

season,

Co7npte rendu in cxienso,

177;

iioiniellcs fouilles
i.

d'Abydos (1896-7),

Paris,

1897, p. 40.

Sec Petrie, Royal Tombs,

p.

15.

io8

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


left

maker, as Pctrie has remarked,'


decorative art of the
first

numerous

traces

on the

dynasty.

imitation of the basket in prehistoric potter)' is especially The first of these is what noticeable in two classes of pottery.
is

The

called

by

Petrie

cross-lined pottery

polished

red

surface

with designs in white, which is only found in the most ancient tombs (sequence dates 31-34); the other is a black pottery,
with incisions
(Figs. 79
filled

and 80). work also belong to the class of decorated pottery.^ Here we must also note that a considerable number of pottery vases are decorated to imitate hard stone, and are intended as substitutes for vases made of more valuable materials. Petrie has remarked that in tombs where fine stone vases arc found,
of pottery vases there arc few or none.^ With the mention of occasional instances of vases modelled

with a whitish paste, and probably imported ^ Several specimens with imitations of basket

from a gourd, as

in

we

have,

think,

example published by Herr von Bissing,^ observed all the principal cases where designs
the or

which
with.

are

skeuomorphic

derived

from technique
of
the

are

met
inde-

We
The

will

now

consider

the

decoration

vases

pendently of the
first

origin of the various designs found on them. class of pottery which should arrest our attention is

that of vases of a brilliant red colour, on which the designs are

painted in white. As to the earliest period.

this pottery and that has several times been pointed out.
^

we have already remarked, these belong The striking analogy which exists between made at the present day b}- the Kabyles

Petrie, Royal Tombs, ii. pp. 35, 39. Petrie, Naqada, p. 38 and |j1. xxviii. 34, 36, 46, xxix. 52-79, xxx. Diospolis parva. p. 14, pi. xiv. 55-70. MacIver & Mace, El Amrah atid Ahydos, pi. xv. Petrie, Naqada, p. 40, and pi. xxxiii. 12, 29. Schweinfurth, Orna?nentik der dltestcn Cidtiir-Epoclie Acgyplcfts, in the Verhandltingen der h. Gcscllsch.
^
;

'

Jur Anthropologic, Ethnologie, and


^

Petrie, Naqada,
1

p. 40, pi. xxxiii.

Urgeschichte, 1897, pp. 397, 398. i, xxxv. 62, 63, 65, 67; Diospolis pjrva,

pp.
''

and

18.

V.)\ BissiNG, Lcs 07-igincs de I'Plgypte, in


pi. iv. fig.
i.

V Antliropologie,
p.

ix.

1898, p. 254

and
"

Petrie, Naqada,
p.

pi.

xxvi. 40-43, 50-52.


;

Petrie, Diospolis parva,

14

Naqada,

38.

MacIver

&

V\ ilkin,

ORNAMENTAL AND DFXORATIVE


We
have said that pottery was often decorated
of
imitation

ART.
\\ith h'nes

109
in

basket work

but

in

addition

to

these

we

find

floral designs,

representations of animals antl

human
the

beings,

and
as

also

a series

of zigzag

lines,

the

whole

in

same

style

the painted

patterns on the archaic statuettes which we have

already described.

When

floral

designs

make

their

appearance

it

is

as simple

Fig. 81.

Vases

painted in

White with Flokal

Designs.

branches

much

conventionalized, with which one


similar

is

tempted

to

compare the

decorations
Santorin.^

of

certain

Greek

prehistoric

vases discovered at

We

give

reproductions

of two

Libyan Notes, frontispiece. John L. Myers, Notes on the History of the Kabylc tiie Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. January Jiuie, 1902, p. 248-262 and pi. XX. Von Bissing, Les origines <lc I'Kgyptc, in V Anthropologic, ix. 189S, pi. iii. I and 3. Petrie, Naqada, pi. xxviii. 40-42; pi. xxix. 69, 76, 85^/; the application of the laws of transformation of natural designs into geoim-trical will be found in the specimens HgurL-d, pi. xxviii. 40, 42, 46, 48; jil. xxix. 52, 54, 61,
Pottery, in

63, 64, etc.

MacIver

&

Mace, El

Amrah and Abydos,

pi. xv.

10, 20, 21.

lO

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


are fairly decorative.
in

vases showing branches which

Both sides
distinctly

of the smaller vase arc

figured

a position to

show

the floral decorations^ (Fig. 8i).

The other face of the vase in the centre of F"ig. 8i, decorated with human figures, has already been reproduced as an illustration of the hairdressing of the men (Fig. 13). Two other vases

Fig. 82.

Bowl
at

painted in

White with Figures of Hippopotami AND A Crocodile.


the other at

discovered

one

Abydos and

Meala

also

show

human

figures."

Representations of animals arc more numerous. The hippopotamus occurs most frequently antelopes of various species are also found, and other animals which cannot always be identified
;

Petrie, Prehistoric Egyptian Pottery,

in

Man,
j^l. iii.

1902, No. 83, pi. H,


fig.
i.

2.

De Morgan,

Nechcrches,

i.

pi.

ii.

and

Von

Bissing,

loc. cit.

pp. 246, 247.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


with
certainty

ART.
It

1 1 1

fish,

birds, crocodiles, scorpions, etc.

will

be

sufficient to describe a
in

few instances of these.

large oval
is

l)o\\i

the Petric Collection, University College, London, the

decorated

in

centre with
;

crocodile

at

the upper

part with three

hippopotami

below, at the lower part, with lines crossing each

other at right angles, which, according to Petrie, may indicate ^ Another vase from the same the ripples of water (Fig. 82). collection is decorated with a floral design, a deer, and an

animal that Petrie

calls a

hedgehog, although

am

not absolutely

v.^_
Fig.
83.

Vases

painted in White with Representations of Animals.

convinced of the accuracy of this identification


of Fig. 83). A vase which

(vase in centre

apparently comes from Gebelein shows some


figures.

extremely curious

On one
;

side

above a
with
a

series of zigzag lines

on the other

by two
it

body greatly elongated, and At first one would be disposed to consider pf)inted ears. giraffe, but the way in which the body is drawn jiiccludcs
in

placed animal strange a small head surmounted


side, a

two antelopes,

'

''

lb.

Petrie, Prehistonc Egyptian Pottery, No. 83 and ])!. H, 4.'

Man^

1902, No. 83

and

pi.

H,

5.

112
this

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

A fragment discovered at Naqada (xxix. 98) hypothesis, shows us in how characteristic a fashion the giraffe was represented.

May

not the animal here figured have been the okapi,

recently discovered in the Belgian Congo, and which was certainly known to the ancient Egyptians, as Professor Wiedemann has

demonstrated

(Fig. 83).

vase

found, according

to

Herr Von Bissing,


at Gebelcin,
is

at

Abydos,

according to M. de Morgan,
of

our

attention.

equally worthy It is a
this

most curious specimen of


class of vase.
is
it

In the centre
;

a
are

scorpion various

surrounding animals a
:

hippopotamus,
birds,

crocodiles, fish,

tortoise,

and
are

other

figures
nizable.

which

unrecoginter-

But the most


is

esting object of a ship, similar


Fig, 84.

the drawing
to

those
to

Vase
After

we
painted in

shall

soon have

ex-

White with

A Boat and Various Animals.

amine, and which ordinarily

rA iilliropologie.
are
sufficient

appear upon another class of


pottery^ (Fig- 84). to give an idea of
vases

These

examples

showing animal figures,'' and it only remains for us to mention two specimens decorated with geometrical designs and with strange figures of which the explanation has yet to be found.
Wiedemann, Das Okapi im alien Acgypteti, in Die Ihnschau, vi. 1902, pp. Das (igyptisclie Se(-T/i/rr, in the Orieiitalistischc IJtteratio- Zcitung^ col. Hetrie, l')-eliistoric Egyptian Pottery^ in Man, 1902, 220-223. igo2,
'
;

1002-1005
V.

No.
^

83, pi. II,

I.

De Morgan,

Redierches,

i.

jil.

ii.

5.

Von

Bissing,

loc. cit. pi.

iii.

fi<T.

2,

and
96;

pp. 246, 247. * See also Petrie, Naqada,


Prefiisioric

pi.

x.xi.v.

91-97;

Diospolis,
j)l.

pi.

xiv.

93;^,

Egyptian
i.

Pottery, in
iii.

Man,
2,

1902, No. 83,

II, 6.

MacIver
?).

&
i

Mace,
and 3;

Pll /hfirah
Peciie?rJies,
pi.
iv.
5.

and Abydos,
pi.
ii.
i
;

pi. .\v. 17,


pi.

18 ? (conventionalized animal
3.

De Morgan,
iii.

Von

Bissing,

loc.

cit.

pi.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE ART


These
College,

113

two

vases

belong
(Fig. 85).

to

the

Petrie

Collection,

University

London^

Of an

entirely different type

is

the "decorated pottery,"^ to

Fig. 85.

Vases

painted

in

White.

University College, London.

which we must now turn our attention.


'

The

earliest

specimens
:

Petrie, Pre/iisto?ic Egypfiati Pottery, in Man, 1902, No. 83. pi. H, 3, p. 133 upper figures might be adzes or hoes, the lower figures are curiously like lictors' fasces, but no such forms are known in Egypt; they may, however, be a form of stone axes set in handles. Certainly neither can be the hieroglyphic fteter sign, as tiiat had double projections down to dynastic times.'' ^ HoEKNES, M., Urgcschichtc der bildciidcn Kunst in Europa von d^n

"The

Anfmigen

fn's uni ^00 vor C/ir., Vienna, Vasennialerci in Acgypten, pp. 687-689.

1898,

Naciitrage,

2,

Ncolithische

114
are

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

almost contemporary witli the white painted pottery, but it is after the sequence date 40 that they are most frequently met witli. It appears that the origin of this kind of pottery

should

be sought for at a distance, and if the specimens of the white painted type are related to Kabyle pottery, it is in the direction of the Syrian coasts of the Mediterranean that

Fig. 86.

Vases

painted

in

Imitation of

Hard

Stones.

we look
"
It

for

the

starting
^

point

of

the

manufacture of
the

these

decorated vases."
will

be

rem.embered

that,

in

specifying
in

classes

of
It

pottery,
is

we mentioned vases coloured


breccia^
;

imitation

of stone.

sometimes
nummulitic
to

that

is

thus

copied,

sometimes
imitation
series

various
is

kinds
of

of marble

but the

most

interesting

that

limestone,

represented

by

of
b}-

spirals,

according
'

most

ingenious

identification

made

Petrie

Petrie has termed these vases "decorated pottery," and we will continue to apply this term to them. Petrie, Naqada, pi. xxxiii. i, and p. 40, xxxi. 6 (wavy handled) DiospoUs, MacIver & Mace, El c (wavy handled); xvi. 64, 76 /^ pi. XV. 5, 18/7 and
;

Amrah and Ahydos,

pi. xiv.

W/3 (wavy

handled).

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


and Scliwcinfurth.^
after

ART.

115

Little

by
the

little

the

spirals

were developed,

the
lost,

recollection

of that which

was

and

eventuall\-

they originally represented decorator was satisfied to trace


his vase

two or three enormous


tion''

spirals

on

by way of ornamenta-

(Fig. 86).

This ornamentation has been wrongly interpreted by several observers, who considered the spirals to be intended as a repre-

Unfortunately for this theory, spirals and of representations ships are never, to the best of my knowledge, met with on the same piece of pottery.^

sentation of the sea.

We

must

call

attention to

the representations of vases of hard stone which are found


in

certain

tombs of the Old

Empire, representations which follow the same lines as those


of the primitive decorators.^ Other vases and this is
Fig. 87.

Vases

decorated in Lmitation OF Basket Work.

merely a repetition of what I have previously stated are decorated with lines representing the covering of plaited straw with which the vase was covered, a covering sometimes loose, at other times
tightly twisted.'^

thus that a vase published by De Morgan, discovered in Upper Egypt, and showing a slightly different style of work,
It
is

those reproduces most exactly, according to Schweinfurth, great baskets for milk that the present inhabitants of Somali-

"

land

weave with much

skill

out

of

the

roots

of

leather-like

toughness of the bushy Asparagus retrofiexus"^ (I"ig- 87).


Petrie, Naqada, pi. xx.w. 67 c?, b, c, and p. 40. Schweinfurth, Ontaffientik Cultur-Epoche Aegyplcns, in the Verhandlungen dcr b. Gcscllsch. fur Anthropologie, Ethnologie imd Urgcscliichtc, 1 897, pp. 397, 398. ^ Petrie, Naqada, pi. x.x.\;iv. 3irt-33-5'; Diospolis, pi. xv. ^c. * A propos des bateaux cgypticns, in VAnthropologie, xi. 1900, pp. 115, 347. Davies, The Rock Totnhs of Deir cl Gcbrawi, i. pi. xvii. xix. and pp. 22, 23.
'

der

(tltesten

'>

Petrie, Naqada^

pi. xxxii.

xxxv.

Diospolis,

pi. xv. xvi.

MacIver

& Mace,
pi.
ix.

El Amrah
"

atid Abydos^

pi. xiv.
i.

76.

De Morgan, Recherches, pi. ix. i. Compare Petrie, Naqada, Von Bissing, Lcs origines de VEgypte, in V Anthropologic,

xxxv.
1898,

ii6
It
is

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


undoubtedly
find
in

this

method of decoration
those
parallel
lines

that

we mayin

hope

to

the

origin

of

scattered

more or less regular groups over the surface of the vase. In some specimens they are carefully arranged in chequer, suggesting
a

merely

lines

in other cases, again, they are draughtboard effect which appear to be drawn at hazard^ (Fig- 87);

Frequently, also, we find on the vase, sometimes combined with imitations of plaiting or of other designs, a series of small In one instance triangles which probably represent mountains.^
there
are

human

exactly as on the

beings and animals placed on the triangles, famous statues of Min discovered at Koptos,

a resemblance pointed out

by Petrie^

(Fig. 88).

Fig. 88.--

Vases decorated with a Series of Triangles.

One
which

of

the most

curious
is

representations
of
a

which

has
in

been
a
pot,

found upon these vases Schweinfurth has

that

plant

grown
the

recognized

to

be

aloe,

plant

which does not belong to the spontaneous flora of Egypt. One still meets with it in Egypt, cultivated in cemeteries or placed
pp. 247, 248.

Schweinfurth, Uebct den (h'sprwtg der Aegyptcr,

in the Ver-

ha?idhingett der b. Gesellsch. fur Anthropologic, Ei/mologie und Urgcschichte, Ornamcntik der dltesten Cultur-Epochc Aegyp/cus, ih. p. 397. 1897, p. 281
;

'

Petrie, Naqada,

pi.

xxxiii.

11,

12,

20,

21, 23,

24,

26; Diospolis,

pi.

xv.

3,

^f, 20b, 20c, 2\b, 2^a.


*

"The

See MacIver & Wilkin, Libyan Notes, London, 1901, p. 65, note 2: so-called 'mountain' pattern found on prehistoric Egyptian decorated pottery occurs everywhere in Kabyle work, where it has clearly nothing to do with mountains, but arises from a combination of the triangles which enter as
units into almost all these rectilinear designs." ^ Petrie, Naqada, pi. xxxiv. and Ixvii. 13-15,
17,

and

p.

49

Diospolis,

pi. xvi.

53

f,

54, 59^,

78

r.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


above the doors of houses as a symbol of
a
vital

ART.
force

117

and as

preservative against the evil eye.

The

plant should be borne in mind, and to refer to it later on^ (Fig. 89).
this

we

funerary character of shall have occasion

Other
trees,

representations
sufficiently

appear
like

to

be

intended
()

to

indicate
this

and are

the

hieroglyph

to permit

I identification. suppose it is to these that Petrie alludes when he speaks of representations of bushes, which, combined with signs of mountains, should indicate the landscape, in the midst

of which are animals, men, and boats."

r^^

Fig.

89. Representations of Aloes and Trees.

The animals
ostriches
tional

One finds represented are few in number. and various kinds of gazelles and antelopes in excepcases the crocodile and the chameleon appear.^ A very
;

remarkable

vase

discovered

at

Abydos shows

the figure of a

kudu and of two long-horned


'

sheep,' and also a representation


iiltesteii

ScHWEiNFURru, Ontamentik dcr


Petrie, Diospolis, p. Petrie, Diospolis, p. 16.
392.
16.

Ctiltur-Epoche Aegyptcns,

loc.

cit. p.
=*

ScHWEiNFURTii,

Sabel- und

Ofviat/icnti/c, etc., p. 399: Beisa-Antilope {Oryx leucoryx und

"

Man
O/yx

erkeiiiit

uiiter ihiieii

die

Antilopen, be/iehuiigsvveise Wasserbocke,


TiiiLE.Nius,

Bcisa), ferner vielleicht aiuli Kudus."'

Addax-

la philologie ct

DiJRST

&

Das (is^yplisc/ie Haiisschaf in the Rccucil dc iravaux relatifs a I'arckcologic cgyplictincs ct assyricnucs, x.\ii. 1900, pp. 199-212. Claude Gaillai^d, Studicn fiber die Geschichtc dcs iigyptischen
ib.

Hausschafcs,

xxiv. 1902,

|ip.

44-76.

ii8

FRLAirnVE ART IN EGYPT.

Pig. 90.

Decorated

Vase with Representations of Animals, and a Tree WITH Birds perched on it.

Fig. 91.

Various

Designs on Decorated Pottery Boats, Animals, Trees, Shields (?), etc.


in a different

Human

Beings,

of a tree, figured

manner from
ami

that

meet

with,

and on wliich birds arc perched.^


'

we ordinarily With this wc can

Petrie, Abydos,

i.

pi.

1.

p. 23.

ORNAMENTAL .AND DECORATIVE


compare
a vase

ART.
^

119

showing an aloe on wliich are two birds

and

another similar fragment' (Fig. 90).

More
ones
will

rarcl\-

human

figures

appear

of
first

these

the

principal

be found on Fig. 91.


;

Here we

find female figures,

extremely diagrammatic
indicated
;

the

body

is

occasionally even the arms are not resolved into two triangles sui)crimposed

one on the other, and surmounted by an oval black mass for the head." Ordinarily the females appear in an attitude identical
with that of the statuette reproduced which, if we may judge from the
similar representations on the
in

Fig.

of this book,

and

tombs

of the Ancient Empire, should be a


characteristic
If

indication of dancine.'
is

accepted we shall see presently what foundation there


is

this

interpretation

for

it

the
a

two persons
dancer
El
"

represented the vase discovered


will

before

"

on

at

Amrah

be recognized, as they are by Mr. Maclvcr, as castanctte players '

(Fig. 92).

With the exception


I

of this instance

Fig. 92.

Vase with
From
El

Representa(?).

have just referred

to,

when men

are

tions OF Castanette Players (?)

them upright and sometimes with indications walking,


represented
the
see

we

BEFORE a Dancer

Amrah.

of

sheath or karnata described in Chapter II. On one specimen an attempt has perhaps been made to represent them chasing antelopes; they carry sticks or boomerangs (?)" (Figs. 88

and

91).

The most
1

startling objects

met with on these primitive vases


pi. .\iv.

MacIver

&

Mace, El

Amrah and Abydos,

1)49.

Petrie, Naf/ada,

pi. Ixvi. 3.
pi. .\iv. I)

MacIver & Mace, El Am?-ah and Abydos,

^ob.

De Morgan,

Recherchcs,

ii.

p. 65.

MacIver & Mace, El Amrah and Abydos, pi. xiv. D46, and p. 42. Vases with human figures Petrie, Naqada, pi. x.xxv. 'Jl Ixvi. 5, 7 Ixvii. 17. Cecil Torr, Sur quelc/iccs pretendus ?tavires cgypt/rus, in l' Anthropologic, ix. De MORGAN, 1898, p. 33, fig. p. 34, figs. 3rt and 3/-'; ]). 35, figs. 5^; and z^b.
'"

'

Recherchcs,

i.

|)1.

x.

ia, 2b.

I20

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

are the representations of ships. They occur on a fairly large number of vases boats with oars or even with sails, and com-

bined with figures of


of trees

human

beings and animals

in

a landscape

and mountains, they enliven the pottery with scenes We must content the signification of which we shall study later.
ourselves
for

the

moment
The

with

remarking, with Schweinfurth,

that without
side

exception, these

(larboard).

boats are drawn showing the left Egyptians, he remarks, orientate them-

selves

right

hand and the


that

towards the south, and for them the west being on the east on the left, the position of the boats
they are being
94).

indicates
(Figs. 91

navigated

against

the

current

and

Fig. 93.

Vase

Decoration representing Gazelles fighting.

We
return

must here
later.

refer to a class of objects to

which we
several

shall

These are pottery


is

boats, found

in

tombs,

one of which
figures

very unsophisticated manner with painted of rowers, each with an oar in his hand- (Fig. 91).
in a
is

There
fight

a curious vase where


gazelles
;

the
a

artist

has

between

also

fish,

crocodile,

represented a an ostrich, and

two boats.
which
I

strange ornamentation is several times repeated, believe to be unique, consisting of lozenges, half black,
'^

half white

(Fig. 93).

Occasionally on

these

decorated
to

vases,

close

to

the boats,

one
'

finds

zigzag

lines,

intended

represent

water.

Several

ScHWKiMURTH, Oniamefitik, etc., p. 400. Petrie, Naqada, pi. xxxvi. 80 and Ixvi. i. 3 Legrain, Aoles d'mspeciion, vi. La necropole archdiquc du Cebel Silsileh, in the Aiinales du service des atitic/uiies de VEgypte, iv. 1903, pp. 218-220, and
2
;

figs.

5,

6.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


vases

ART.

121

show a curious object difficult to identify, considered by Petrie to be a mast and sail, and which in that case mi^ht
to

be compared

the

hieroglyph

)^

.^

Schweinfurth sees

in

them

shields

made

of skin, which, by analogy with the

similar

weapons of the Dinkas, Baris, and Kaffirs, would be secured

by

means of
at the

a long pole,

and these

in

Egypt would

carr}' the

ensign

upper end- (Fig. 91). the vases are also found a series of signs in the form of S, N, and Z,^ for which it may perhaps be difficult to account. When, however, we remember that we have previously remarked

On

hair-pins decorated with

birds which occasionally present forms

Fig. 94.

Vase

with Various Representations.

From dc Morgan.

very similar to an S, we may, I think, presume that these signs are derived from a summarized form of a row of ostriches. I

am much
a vase
series

inclined to find a similar abbreviation Petrie


I

of forms

upon
is

by of the sign O, which


figures

discovered

at

Abadiyeh,^ where

there

regard as a very

summary drawing

of female

represented

with the

arms raised above the

head

(Fig. 95).

There are other vases the decoration of which can scarcely be classed with any of those we have passed under review.

Among
star""';

these

arc

the

vases

on

which there

is

five-pointed
in a

another with
'

human

figures

drawn reversed and


10,

very

Petrie, Naqada,

pi. l.xvi. 6, 9,

and

p. 49.

^ 3

.Schweinfurth,
Jh. p. 398.

Or>iatiicntik\ etc., p. 399.

*
'

Petrie, Diospolis,
Ih. pi. XV.

pi. xx. 8.

22

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


fashion
^
;

summary
arc

crocodiles one
-

and, finally, a small of which


97).
I

number

of vases on which

is

and serpents

(Fig.

pierced with harpoons scorpions, include in this series a specimen

in the Berlin Museum, on which are painted serpents, crocodiles, ostriches, and giraffes (No. 15,129; Fig. 96).

We

must now deal with the

rare vases decorated with designs

in relief, of which a specimen discovered at Naqada shows the ' (Fig. 97). figure of a lizard and another of a scorpion

Fig. 95.

Decorated

Vase from Abadiyeh.

On

a vase in the British

Museum

(No. 36,328) decorated with

ostriches, triangles, and boats, two of the handles are surmounted with figures of birds. On the same vase there are two figures

which cannot

be

identified,

Another specimen
relief

at University College,

symmetrically arranged, in relief.^ London, is decorated in

In

with figures of a crocodile, a crescent, and a harpoon. the collection of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, there

lb. pi.

Peirie, Naqada, pi. xxxv. xxxv. 78; Diospolts,


pi.

Jj.

3
*

Petkie, Naqada,
]5UDGE,

pi. xvi. 78*5, 78c, J^d. xxxvi. 87, and p. 41 Guide to the First afid Second Egyptian Rooms,
.

ir\i\

ed.

1904,

p. 32,

No. 164.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE

ART.

12-

are three red vases, witli the upper edge blackened (black-topped pottery), which date from the commencement of the historic
period,

and

possess

special

interest
i''

(Fig.

98).

On

the

first.

found at Naqada (tomb


in

1,449),

seen
line

a
in

relief;

this

is

carried

on by a

head roughly worked relief, \\hich descends


I

perpendicularly, becoming

gradually thinner.

believe this re-

FiG. 96.

Vase

with Representations of Giraffes, Ostriches, Crocodiles, and Snakes. Berlin Museum.

presents

the

body of the man.


relief arc

From each

side near

the top,

two ascending lines in arms. Near the base,


line,

detached, which represent the at a certain distance from the central


also
in
relief,

can

be

ciistinguished,
lines

two

circular

knobs,

from which two


the
vase.

ascend

somewhat
clasping

abiu[Hl\' to

the top of
a

The man must be

the vase, in

position

124

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


is

which

difficult

to imagine,

and can only be explained by the


artist,

inexperience

of

the

primitive

who has not omitted

to

represent the head full-face (the two photographs in the centre The special of Fig. 98 arc two fragments of a similar vase).
interest

of

this

curious

vase consists

in

its

permitting

us

to

watch the operation of that law of extreme simplification which we have recently been considering. This is carried still further

Fig. 97.

-Decorated Vases with Designs

in

Relief and Other Rare

Ornamentations.

on two other vases from


according to specimen, and show as
sisting

Hu

(tombs

179 and

15

10 1), which,

sequence dating, arc

more recent than the Naqada decoration two ornaments in relief, con-

the top of the vase. the figure on the vase

simply of a circular knob, from which a line rises to It is thus an exact copy of the legs of
first

described.

think, as a consequence
lost,

of frequent copying, the

meaning

of the lines was

and, more

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


especially in the

ART.

125

Hu

specimens,

any connection with tlie sembles two serpents facing each


if

was not known that they had human figure. Thus tlie ornament reit

other,

and

should not be surprised


the vase.^

the primitive artist had that idea

when he made

vase

in

the

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford,

discovered

at

Naqada (tom.b 1,871, sequence date 46) introduces us to a very rare scheme of decoration. The vase itself is red, with the
blackened upper edge.

The

interior

is

also blackened, as

is

usual

Fig. 98.

Black-topped
;

Pottery with Figures

in Relief.

with these vases

but there

is

besides, roughl}' cut in the clay

previous to baking, a
figured as

number of crude

designs, which probably

represent serpents and


a

It may possibly have plants (Fig. 99). vase is What is that, with the certain magic (?). exception of two small fragments, of identical technique, in the

same museum, there


knowledge at
'

is

no piece

in

existence at

least,

to

my

all

comparable with
left is figured,

this.'-^

The

vase to the
pi. xiv. 66.

without description

in

the text, by Pktrik,

Diospolis,
*

See Petrie, Naqada,

pi.
is

xxxv. 71.

A vase in tlie British

JVluseum, decorated

inside with fantastic signs,

apparently only a modern fraud.

126

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

certain

number
lines,

of vases of rough-faced pottery arc decorated


this

with incised

but

mode
^

of ornamentation appears to have

been employed only rarely

(Fig. lOO,
classes

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford).


ornamentation with which

Such are the various


archaic

of

Egyptian pottery was decorated.

So

far

as

they

can

be cursorily

summed

up, they are

all

either skeuomorphic, or else

derived directly from some natural object mountain, plant, animal, It is an etc. excellent in man, proof support of the theories

Fig. 99.

Vase

of Black-topped Pottery with an Inxised Decoration inside.

propounded
it

at the

commencement

of this chapter, and on which

not necessary to insist further. We must now rapidly review the pieces of pottery to which the primitive artist has attempted to give either a human or an
is

animal form.-

An
'

extremely curious vase, of

brilliant black glaze,

found

in

DiospoUs,
xvi.
;

Petrie, Naqada, p. 41, and pi. xxxv. 74, 76 xxxvi. 93a and b\ xxxvii. 41. xvii. 49. In our figure the upper vase = DiospoUs, pi. xvi. 74 h and 93 c i =^ ']\b below, beginning at the left, Naqada, xxxvi. 93;^ (smoke-blacked
; ;

93 f (llu, U 126); 3 (Hu, B158); 4 49 (Hu, U 170). I reserve for the chapter on sculpture some vases in stone and claj' representing human figures where the "vase" disappears before the sculptured figure.

brown pottery):
xvii.

Diospolis,

xvi.

DiospoUs,

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


of the

ART.

127

Dr. Petrie's excavations at Abadiyeh, was discovered in a tomb first half of the pn historic period (sequence dates 33-41).

The primitive artist has endeavoured to give to the vase a female form, and he has succeeded in making a figure which does not
from the clay female statuettes of the same period, which we will consider later, and of which we have already given specimens as illustrating clothing and personal adornment. A mere pinch in the clay serves to indicate the nose, the ears, and
differ greatly

yjj-^rf^
,M

.MttJI-

1-iG.

100.

Rough-faced
breasts
are

Pottery with Incised Decorations.

shoulders

the

summarily formed and pendant,

as

they are with negresses.


behind, attempting to

Einally, the vase swells

out suddenly

portray the extraordinary development of the buttocks (steatopygy), which is also seen on the statuettes^
(Fig. loi).

Another vase

of

human form

must

be

mentioned which

appears to represent a captive crouching on the ground in a most uncomfortable attitude. The primitive artist has only attempted
to render the
'

head with

fidelity.\)\.

Petrie, Diospolis,

v.

102.

//'.

pi. vi.

83.

128

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


The same excavations
at

Hu-Abadi}-eh also effected the

dis-

the form of hippopotami. In one, care has been taken to render the form of the animal as accurately as in the other the design is very summary, and decorated possible

covery of

two vases

in

with two lateral handles


c-

(Vig. 102).

The same

is

the case with

a vase

in

the form of a hippopotamus,

now

museum at Cairo, which was published by Von Bissing some


in

the

years ago.^

The

special

interest

of

this

last

the paintings which have piece been added by the primitive artist.
lies in
"

Herr von Bissing speaks thus of it The hippopotami of the Middle


are

Empire
flies,

decorated,
lotus,
live

as

remarks, with reeds,

Maspero and butterthe

because they

in

midst

of reeds, where butterflies are flitting round them. In the same way the
artist

ccnild

decorate the two sides of

the the
their

hippopotamus-shaped long series of marsh


long

vase
birds,

with with
feet,

necks
of

and
the

large

characteristic

most

ancient

Eg\'ptian saw the

art,

because

hippopotamus
b\'

they actually in nature

surrounded
Fig. ioi.
I.N

such birds.

Another

-Hlack Polished Vase

explanation
or three

must

be found for the


in

Form of a Woman.

harpoons, which arc

groups of two

upon Apparently it was desired to show the hippopotamus hunted and taken by harpoons."^ These ver)- apt remarks arc interesting, and we shall again
lip,

the handles, under the

the head, and the

tail.

'

Petrie,

painting
^

On the latter specimen traces of pi. vi. K 134, and pi. xiv. 67. may still be seen, notably harpoons painted under the body of the animal. Fr. W. v. Bissing, Altiigyptische Gcfdsse h?i Museum 211 Gisc, in the
/I/,

Zcitschrift fur dgyptischc Sfirachc, xxxvi. 1898, pp. 123-125. ^ have already remarked the same detail in a representation of crocodiles.

We

ORXAMl'ATAL AND Dl^COK ATI VIC ART.


have occasion to
refer to

129

them.

Ilcrr

von

13i.ssin<;

notes at the
in

same time the frequent occurrence of vases of animal forms


primitive Egyptian art, Among these vases of ancient
as
in

the

art

of

all

primitive

people.
as
fish,'

Egypt

are

some shaped

and others more numerous

in bird form'-^ TFig. 102).

Occasionally

the vase represents two birds side


Collection,

by side^ ^Fig- 102). The Petrie University College, London, contains a certain number

P'iG.

102.

Clay
one

Vases

in

Foum of Animals.
is

of hirrl-shaped

vases,

of which
'

very remarkable as an
103 and
p.

altcinpL at representing a vulture


'

(Figs.

104).

Pi.iKii;,

Nru/ada,
ii.

\)\.

xxvii.
p. 50.

68rt-<r,

and

37.

QuiBELL
i.

&

Green,
481.

JJlcra/con/jolis,
^ '
'

pi. Ixvi.

and

Petkie, Nat/ada, Pethie, Aac/ada,


"
I

pi. xxvii. ()i.)a-c.


pi.

IJe

MfjuGAN, Rcchaxhcs,

p. 160, fig.

xxxvi. 90.

am

inclined to connect this bird (with

with

tlie

bird vase said to be nsed

peacock; I'rom jjy Professor Petrie.

month on top and spout in front) by tlu; Ansairiyeh in .Syria, called Tnns'Uhe Note wiiich they nneive sacramental wine in their secret rites."

I30

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE

ART.

131

Here, again, the copy differs widely from the model, and it is only by the aid of the intermediate forms that we can realize

what
In

it is

the primitive artist wished to represent.^

some tombs small rectangular pottery boxes have been discovered, which are decorated on the outside in the same

Fig. 104.

Clay Vase

in

Form of a Vulture.

manner

as the vases.

One

a row of triangles in
parallel lines,

of these boxes from Diospolis shows imitation of mountains, and also rows of
in

which slope
(Fig.
105,

alternate directions

from one row


decorated

to the next

D 73).
to the British

Another specimen belonging


'

Museum

is

Petrie, Diospolis,
lb. pi. xvi. 73.

pi. vi.

1^

131

xix. 71.

132

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


boats,
1

with
signs

ibex,
105).

groups of parallel
similar

lines,

and with S-shaped


the Petrie Collection,

(Fig.
is

There

a cover of a

box

in

University College, London. Before baking the clay, the primitive workmen engraved on the cover an ostrich, a scorpion, and two human figures, one of the most ancient representations of this
class that

we know.Mr.

Finally,

Maclver,

in

the

El

Amrah

excavations,

dis-

Fig.

105.

Pottery
the

Boxes with Various Designs.

covered

box
in

of

same

kind,

on

which

different

scenes

were drawn

one of the sides appears a hippopotamus, on the second a boat, beneath which is a crocodile.
charcoal.

On

The third side is at present inexplicable,'' while with regard to the fourth, various interpretations are attempted. Mr. Maclver sees in it a series of six animals with long necks (probably
^

Budge,
Pethik,

History of Egypl,

i.

p. 98, fig.

British
in

Museum, No.
1902, No.
is

32,630.
|).

Prehistoric Egyptian Figures,

Man,

14,

17

and

pi.

B, 22.
^
i

See Petrie, Naqada, \A. liii. the design on this side (Fij^. 105).

13.

where

a pf)ttery marlv

given similar to

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


giraffes)

ART.

133

proceeding towards the right

their bodies, he remarks,

drawn diagrammatically, and resemble palings. Below these The drawings of the period, greatly is a row of triangles.^ have not accustomed us to such extremely as arc, they simplified
are

diagrammatic representations of animals. I consider it as more probabl}' a palisade, of which the upper part of the posts are It has been proved on several occasions decorated with bucrania.
period animals' skulls were emploNxd not only for decoration, but also for magical or religious ])urposes (Fig. 105).
that at this

We

have now arrived at the close of our examination of

There is another series decorative pottery of the primitive era. of designs which we must menti(jn in this connection, although
these they can scarcely be considered as a form of decoration are the marks and signs engraved on the pottery, the study of
;

which

is

of primary importance.

As, however, this subject would


of

lead us to treat of questions

somewhat outside the domain

decorative

art,

it

will

the chapter, when objects of the primitive period.

be preferable to reserve it for the end of we have finished our examination of decorated

The furniture of the primitive Egyptians, as may easily be The materials employed imagined, was extremely rudimentary. for this purpose, less resistant than ivory or potter)^ have been
almost or quite destroyed by the action of time. We cannot, therefore, be surprised that we have but little information on this
subject.

We
can,

must wait

for the

commencement

of

the

historic

period to find precise indications.

We
by
in

hcnvever,

mention several objects brought to


first

light

recent excavations, and

houses,

of which

Professor

the fire-places of the primitive Petrie discovered several examples

the small prehistoric

temple of Osiris at Abydos.


pottery cisterns.

town which lay close round the earliest These fire-places closely reseinble Charcoal was burnt in them, and cinders were

found

in

(jne of

them.
'^'I's

'

decorated box
-

MacIver & Mace, El Amrah and Abydos, pi. .\ii. 10-13, is now in tlie Ashniolcaii Museum, O-xforci. Capart, La fete de frapper les Anon, in tlic Rn'ne d'histaire
1901, pp. 252, 253.

^'^''^^

P- 4--

dcs re/ii^ions,

xliii.

134

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


They
all

have designs in imitation of plaited work incised Two specimens are specially in the pottery on the flat rims. The design represents a serpent, whose head projects remarkable.
inside the rim so that

the creature appears to be hanging over

the

fire.

The

decorator, remarks Professor Petrie, has


fetish ot

combined

the agathodemon, the domestic the hearth-place^ (Fig. io6).

prehistoric times, with

have already spoken of fragments of furniture with plaited work attached, found in the roval tombs. The excavations of
i\I.

We

de Morgan at Naqada, of Messrs. Amelineau and Petrie at

j^.n

A.18.
Fig.
Io6.

Clay

i^S^Z-j

^
in

Fikk-places df.corated with Designs Plaited Work.

Imitation of

Quibell at Hierakonpolis, have unfortunately only produced fragments of small importance, which give a very vague idea of furniture in the primitive age. All that has been
Air.

Abydos, and of

found

arc
are,

parts

of

small

coffers,

or

of

seats

or

low
feet

beds.
wliich

They

however,

sufficient

to

show

that

the

supported these pieces of furniture were in the form of legs of bulls, and were treated in a manner which reminds Dr. I'etrie of
Italian cinque cento work, rather than of archaic efforts'- (Fig. 107).
Vv.XKW., Excavations at Abydos, Abydos, |)1. liii. 13-] 8, and p. 25. ^ pKTKn., Royal Toml>s, 1. ]). 27.
'

i?i

Mail, 1902, No. 64,

p.

8y and

tigs. 6-8.

i.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


It
is

ART.

135

tlie pronounced taste of in ivory, wood, and Small plaques inlaying. are with incised lines numerous.^ very glazed pottery

specially interesting^' to observe

the decorators for

Fig.

107.

Ivory

Fekt for Furniture,

in

the Shape of Bulls" Legs.

The

models

which

inspired

the

decorators

are

borrowed
figure

principally from matting, cords,


'

and

feathers.

The human
and

Petrie discovered at

Abydos

a large

number of glazed pottery


ii.

tiles wliioh

had served as a wall decoration. See Petrie, Abydos, This entails an entire revision of the opinions given
Berliner

pi. viii.

p.

26.

Gcschichte dcr Pyi-aviiden I. Thiir ai/s dcr Museum, No. 1185, in the Zeitschrift fur iigyptischc Sprac/ic, x.\.\. 1892, pp. 83-87 and pi. i. Wieijemanx, review of Ouibell, Hicrako/tpo/is, i., in the Oricntalistiiche Littcraturzeitiing^ iii. 1900, col. 331. Petkie, Royal Tombs,
ii.

Borciiardt, Zur Stufcnpyramidc hei Sakkara,


in

p. 36.

136
is

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


and already one
later

also used as a support,

finds kneeling captives

supporting seats, as they are found


^

on during the historic

period (P^ig. 14). Certain ivor}' fragments found at Hierakonpolis arc perhaps the arms of chairs they are ornamented with figures of
;

animals
knives.

in

the

same

style

as

those
of

found on the
is

handles of

The most remarkable

these

fantastic

animal

with the ne:ck lengthened out of all proportion. Occasionally a man, standing, seizes the neck of one of these animals with

both hands, in an attitude which is specially familiar to us Mycenaean and Chaldean art" (Figs. 108, 109).

in

Fig.

108.

Fra(;ments

of Ivory carved with Various Figures.

at Hierakonpolis brought to light i\'ory decorated with cylinders figures of men and animals, treated in the same style. Judging by the sceptre discovered at Abydos,^

The same excavations

they might be considered as fragments of a sceptre.


in particular,

One

of these

which bears the name of King Nar-Mer, is cylinders interesting as a curious example of a pictographic and hieroglyphic
'

OuiBELL, HicrnkofipoUs,
lb.
i.

pi. xi.

and
;

pi.

xii.-xiv. xvi.

xvii.

xxxii.

p. 7; ii. p. 37. fantastic animal,

pi.

xvi.

and

xvii.

Evans, The Mycenccan


illustrations

tree

and

pillar cult

and its Meditcfrancan

relations,

with

from

recent

Journal of Hellenic
'

Studies'),

Cretan finds, London, 1901 (reprinted from the shall later have p. 65 ct scq., and figs. 43-45.

We

occasion to return to this point.

Petrie, Royal Tombs,

ii.

pi. ix.

i.

ORNAMENTAL AND DFXORATIVP:

ART.

^37

Q
in

>

O 2 <

>
< u
(/)

H U M

P3

O m H Z H o <

o o

138
inscription

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


similar
to

that

engraved on a
shall

slate

plaque
^

in

the

Cairo

Museum,

of which

we

speak

later

on

(Eig.

no).

types of decoration that we have had occasion to pass in review, there is one which appears to be more especially striking. The primitive Egyptians were accurate

When we

recall the various

observers of nature

men,

plants,

supplied

them with models.

and animals almost exclusively We have rarely met with what

H^

H5.

.H6

M3jm
Fig.

no.

Carved

Ivory Cylinders.

might be called geometric patterns beyond those which sprang spontaneously from the imitation of materials employed by primitive
In fact industries, especially from basket work and matting. decorative genius, as distinguished from a fancy for decoration, It appears to have been absent among the primitive Egyptians. must be admitted that they achieved very mediocre results from the

natuial models they copied. This mediocrity is especially flagrant " in the decorated pottery," and one may even ask oneself if
'

OunjELL, Hierakonpolis^

i.

[il.

xv. 7, inscription of

Nar-Mer.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


the primitive

ART.

139

man who

traced on the cla\' those representations

of boats, birds, plants, gazelles, and men, rcalK' wished to decorate

the vase, or whether they had not

some other

object

in

view.

Art

for the

sake of art

is,

believe,
is

an exception
shall
I

among

primitive

people, and a purpose which

truly az^sthctic can only very rarely

be found
of the

among them. The study we tomb at Hierakonpolis will,


which
is

devote to the paintings believe, partly enable us

to elucidate this point,

appreciation

of the

decorative

of great importance for the just art of the primitive Egyptians.

The

greatly

period of the Ancient Egyptian Empire does not differ very in this respect from the primitive age, and on this point also it is difficult to find any radical modification between the

two periods.
our seeing
in

There

is

nothing,

think, which
fifth,

should

prevent

and sixth dynasties the natural outcome of the gradual development of ideas which were
the art of the fourth,
first
I

evolved
to

hope mastabas of the Ancient Empire arc no other than the development of the ideas which the primitive Egyptians expressed in adorning their pottery with painted figures. Besides scenes and
designs borrowed directly from nature, these tombs merely show us imitations of hard stones, of plaiting and weaving, or even
of the graining of wood.^

by show

their
in

distant

predecessors

of primitive

times.

due course that the decorations of walls of

To

return

to

those

marks

found

on

potter}',

which

can

scarcely be
these incised

regarded as decoration. The motives for inscribing lines seem to have been various, although at the
it

impossible always to determine them with Professor Petrie has recognized that in some instances certainty. they appear to have been a mark of property, various pieces of
present

day

is

pottery

in

one tomb bearing

the

same mark.-

Frequently,

think, they should


b\-

be considered as a kind of signature placed upon the vases' which issued from his hands. Dr. Petrie has rciuarkcd to me that all these marks were inscribed
the potter

after the
'

baking of the vase.

It

should be observed that there


jjp.

Petrie, Egyptian Decorative Art,


Petrie, Nagada,
p.

44, 89,

and

cluip.

iv.

Stntrtitral

decoration.
''

44.

I40

PRIMITIVE ART
oti

IN

EGYPT.

are two classes of pottery the black-topped and the

which they are commonly found


polished.

red

On
the

the

other pottery

we have
not occur.^
If

studied,

the

cross-lined

and

decorated,

they do
different
i

wc

follow Petrie in classifying these

marks under
In

headings, the results

we

shall gather are as follows^ (Fig-

n)-

The human
animal, the

figure
is

rarely
to

appears.^
identify,
is

one
the

instance

an

which
of

difficult

apparently devouring
mythological frequently, and with

head

man, a group which


of

recalls

Makes}

Eigures

animals occur more

one exception they differ little in style from those painted on vases, and perhaps resemble most closely those on the crosslined pottery.

The most

usual types

are

the

elephant,

hippo-

potamus, various kinds of antelope, and possibly the

giraffe.'''

Birds are less frequent, and the species represented are not one recognizes, however, the bird with long easily identifiable
;

feet,

and with the neck curved


the

into

occurs on
often

decorated
Floral

pottery."

found.'

of the
to
1

palm-tree determine.^ Boats,

designs are and of various kinds of

an S, which frequently Crocodiles and serpents are limited to summary sketches


are

while

they

rare,

vegetation not easy are not entirely

Petrie, Naqada, p. 44. The marks D 20 are from a slate


in

palette which Petrie has omitted to

describe
is

Diospolis.
earlier

The
in

original

is

in the in

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and


with
palettes

reproduced ornamentation.
'

the

book

dealing

with

incised

Petrie, Naqada, pi. li. i, 2, 7. According to Pleyte, Chapitres suppWncntaires d^c IJvre dcs Marts, i. p. 41, " Ce n'est pas qu'apres la xx^ dynastie que le titre on nom de Mahes davient un nom de dieu." I believe the representations of this god to be rare. I will quote Naos D 29 at the Louvre (PiERRET, Pantheon egypticn^ fig. on p. 79), a whip
*

handle

at

the

and
'

magical

"]"] Leyden Museum, (Leemans, Mo7iunients, boomerang at University College, London,


i.

ii.

pi.

Ixxxiv.),

of

the

twelfth

dynasty.

Petrie, Naqada,

pi.

li.

7-27

Diospolis,

El Amrah and Ahydos,


V.

pi. xvii.

19-24.

MacIver & Mace, pi. xx 13-29. Newberry, Extracts from 7?ty Notebooks,
xxiv. 1902,

No.
^
'

37, in the /Proceedings

of the Society of Biblical A?x/i ceo logy,


Diospolis, pi. xx. 30-35, xxi, 51.
pi. xxi.
pi. xxi.

p. 251

and

pi.

i.

5.

Petrie, Naqada, Petrie, Naqada, Petrie, Naqada,

pi
pi.
pi.

li.
li.

28-32
52-69

33-38; Diospolis,
;

36-43.
53-72.

lii.

Diospolis,

MacIver

&

Mace,

El Amrah and Abydos,

pi. xvii.

25-29.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


absent, but they on the decorated

ART.

141

only

recall

very vaguely those that

we know

pottcr\-.^

D44.

Fig.

III.

Pottery
boats, etc.

Marks.
giraffes, birds,

Men, elephants, hippopotami, hons, antelopes,

plants, reptiles,

hcsc are almost the only representations which


'

it

is

possible

Petkie, i\a(/ada,

pi. Hi. 70,

71

Diospolis,

\A. xxi. 52.

142

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


first

to recognize at a tion

glance.

of

these

marks,

we

Before continuing our examinashould therefore ask ourselves a

question of

some importance.
those
figures

Among
In

which

are

easy of

identification,

do

we meet with
an

signs that

other words, ought

we could designate as "hieroglyphs"? we to consider hieroglyphic writing as


;

importation brought by conquerors from Asia, from Upper or is it possible to discover Nubia, or from some other region

anything on these objects belonging to the primitive Egyptians that suggests that they employed a method of writing of which
the later hieroglyphs are but a development
?

We

must

recall

some remarks of Von Bissing on the subject

of the African origin of hieroglyphs.

character

"Hieroglyphic writing," he says, "in which is entirely Egyptian.

my

opinion presents a
large

fairly

number

of extremely ancient signs are drawn from plants and animals. The papyrus is assuredly an Egyptian plant. Now a group
\\hich

occurs

sents the stem

frequently with the meaning of verdant repreand flower of this plant. It is also the standard
sign for the north.

of
it

Lower Egypt and the


occurs
so
often

As
in

to the lotus,

that

the

sign

for

thousand

Egyptian

is

actually the

stem of the NyinpJicca

on

the

water.

The
the

flowers
letter

of

ceridea, with a leaf floating NympJuva on a basin is the

earliest
I

S where the papyrus enters later. do not know that the Nymphcea cerulca and the Nynipluva
form of
are

lotus

of Asia, and it is precisely these plants, as Messrs. Borchardt and Griffith, which one meets with proved by
natives
earliest

Egypt, while the Nymphcea nciuii/bo, which probably comes from Asia, is not found except on the
in

from the

times

monuments of the late period. " With regard to animals, the


the
crccodile

result

is

the same.

Above
could
the

all,

and
the

the

hippopotamus,
civilization

which

one

not

separate

from

archaic

and

from

earliest
in

mythological conceptions of the Egyptians, Asia (the Indian species differ considerably from

do not exist
the

African
is

specimens figured on the monuments). The eagle, which reality a black vulture, the bald-headed vulture (sacred

in

bird

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


of
the

ART.
should

143

goddess

Mut),

the

sparrow-hawk
all,

fwhich

be

termed a
of Asia.
" It is

falcon), the owl, and, above

the

ibis, offer types

which

are absolutely African, or, at least, are in

no way characteristic

the

same with the


the

different animals, such as the Jackal,


(I

symbol of various gods of the dead


nearly a
fox),

am

told that

it

is

more

gazelles
in

(among others
the

the

On'.r

le^ikoryx,

which

is

unknown

Asia), even

elephant, which
others.
If

presents

the African type, the hyaena, and


snakes, insects, and fish
as existing in

among

many
:

all

these

we

find

we come to species known

Egypt

at that period

the

iirceits,

scarab, scorpion,

and various
in

fish

that one sees in the hieroglyphs

and meets with

Naturagain the have must been with a ally long Egyptians acquainted large number of the animals here mentioned before they learnt to

the mural decorations

of the Ancient Empire.

them the conventional meaning they received. How times did they see the hippopotamus thrust his head out many of the water to breathe in air, before finding in the head of the
attribute to

animal
that

appearing above the water a graphic expression for which we call a iniimtel For a long time the ancient

before seeing

Egyptian must have watched the beetle making his mud balls, him the symbol of perpetual creation, the in
formation of the egg.
If
it

were possible that the hippopotamus,


arrivals at their
first

strictly speaking,

had struck the new

entry

Egypt, and had suggested to them the very strange idea of symbolizing an instant, it cannot at any rate have been the
into

case with the beetle.

Egypt
as

could have

In any case, the Egyptians before entering had no word for ait i>istaut or to become,
to

the

very
1

words which designate these ideas arc native

Egypt."

Basing his argument partly on these considerations and partly on the pottery marks, and the graffiti of which we shall speak presently, M. Zaborowski came to the conclusion that

F.

VON BissiNG,
Ill

pp. 409-411.

I.es origines dc I'/igypte, in V A7ithropologii\ ix. 1898, these last lines there appears to me to be a confusion, which I

am

convinced the author would not

make

at

the present time.


p. 17.

See Ek.ma.x,

Aegyptischc Gfammati/c, 2nd ed. Berlin, 1902, 36,

144
the
origin

PRLAIITIVE
of hieroglyphic
these

ART

IN EGYPT.
in

writing should

reality

be sought

for in the graffiti.^

At
and
to
it

first

sight

conclusions

are

extremely

attractive,

seems rational to evolve the

classical

hieroglyphs

from

a system of elementary pictography.

V^on

Bissing,

being

effected

in

This evolution, according Egypt, the deductions of


correct.
it

M. Zaborowski appear to be absolutely more closely into the question, however,

On looking does not appear to

me

to be a certainty.

The inscriptions of the first d}'nasty have not the appearance of hieroglyphs in course of formation. The concordance of the the dates of the kings of the Ancient sequence dating with
of his
little

Empire, as Dr. Petrie .has established them from the results excavations in the temenus of Osiris at Abydos, leaves

hope

at

present

of

discovering

any

hieroglyphs

that

form a link between the pottery marks, the graffiti, and the classical hieroglyphs. We may ask, however, whether there
could
is

not

chance that excavations

may some day

lead to

the

" discovery of some relics of those worshippers of Horus," whose real significance Professor Sethe has recently been able to solve.^

The
south,''

pottery marks

we have already mentioned


a sign
is

include
of

few
the

hieroglyphs.

There

is

representing

the

plant

and another which

nothing

else

than the crown of

Lower Egypt,* the crown of the goddess Neith, which, being of Libyan origin, as we have mentioned previously, might very
well have been introduced as a pictographic sign into a system of writing which was already constituted.
will also refer to the sign engraved on a slate palette, the of the god Min, which occurs rather frequently among these sign pottery marks.^ This could only have become a hieroglyphic
I

the

Zaborowski, Origiues africaincs dc la civilisaiioti dc Vancicnne J^gypte, in Revue scieniifique, 4th series, xi., March iltli, 1899, pp. 293, 394. ^ Sethe, Beitriige zur dltesten Geschichte Aegyptens {UntersucJiungen siir
'

Geschichte
pp. 3-21
^
' :

und Altcr//iict?iskiinde Aegyptens, herausgegeben von Kurt


die
'*

Setlie,

iii.

i),

Hon/sdiecr."
pi. hi. 74.

Petrie, A'aqada,
I/k pi.
Jb. pi.
iii.

75.
1

liii,

17-122

Diosfiolis, pi.

x.xi.

67, 69, 73-79.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


sign
It

ART.

145

by the adoption of an indigenous god by the conquering


also

population.

seems

possible

to

recognize the
I

sign
it

which would confirm the interpretation which


years ago (Fig. 112).^

gave of

some
is

Another sign which


possible to explain
scription
it,-

is

found on the pottery, where


the

it

not
infirst

is

found apparently on an interesting

discovered

in
it

tomb of
so
far

King Den

of

the

dynasty, where also


112, No. 78).

has

proved inexplicable^ (Fig.

These indications are very


serious conclusions.
I

faint,

and do not warrant any


fresh

believe, until

evidence

is

obtained,

fAn

^
.111.

.74.

\V^

-IT.

^^VtDl
Fig.
112.

Hieroglyphic (?)

Signs of the Prehistoric Period.

we cannot

assert that the ancient Egyptians were in possession of any system of hieroglyphic writing. Were they in possession of any other kind of writing ? One of the greatest surprises of the later discoveries has been to

perceive

the

possibility
It
is

of their

characters.*

precisely

these

having employed alphabetifofm characters that have been


it

discovered

among the we must now deal.


'

pottery marks, and

is

with these that

Petrie, Diospolis,

\A. xxi.

48, 68, 97.

Capart, Note suy

la decapitation en

Egypte, in the Zeitscinift fiir agyptische Sprache, xxxvi. i8g8, pp. 125, 126. Petrie, Nac/ada, pi. lii. p. 78 et scq. ^ Petrie, Royal Tombs, i. pi. x. 11, and pi. xvi. 20; ii. pi. xxvi. 59, andxxvii. 102. See Evans, Arthur J., Ftirther discoveries of Cretan and Aegean Script witli Ijhyan and Proto-Egyptiati Comparisons, in \.\iQ Journal of Hellenic Stndies,
xvii. 1897, p. 378.
'

must apologize

for this barbaric term, uhicli


tlie

in

my

eyes possesses the

advantage of not prejudicing the question of

value of the signs.

10

146

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


In the course of the

excavations at
of

Naqada

Professor Petrie
forms,

found

certain
"

number

marks

of

geometrical

and

few of them are striking, or Hke any definite nor are any to be found in sequence to suggest series alphabetical that constant ideas were attached to them."^ he states that
;

But the excavations


supplied new
researches

in

the

royal

tombs

of

Abydos have
and the

materials for the study of this

question,

of Mr. Evans among the Cretan pictographs and the linear systems of the Creto-Aegean world prepared the way for the conclusions that Petrie has drawn from them.

The examination
our subject, and
indications,
will
I

of this

question

would lead us

far

from

must content myself with a few summary and with referring the reader to works where he
the pottery of the royal

find

more complete information.tombs of the


identical
series of

Dr. Petrie noted on


first

dynasty a

marks which showed themselves

with the alphabetiform marks of the prehistoric vases. At the same time he confirmed what Mr. Evans had already observed

that

is

to say, the identity of the

Creto-Aegean linear alphabets

with

pottery marks discovered in Egypt at Kahun and on vases of the twelfth and eighteenth Egyptian dynasties. Gurob,
the
in advance was taken in showing that the marks of the twelfth and eighteenth dynasties correspond exactly with the marks of the royal tombs of the first dynasty and of the prehistoric pottery. Finally, the primitive

This time a step


tabulated

alphabets of Karia and Spain present a series of identical signs. If the table drawn up by Petrie^ is examined, it is seen that
See also liii. et scq. Diospolis, pi. xxi.-xxiii. Mace, El Amrali and Abydos, pi. xvii. Petrie, Royal Tombs, i. pp. 31, 32. Evans, Prhnitive Pidograplis ami a Pre-Phcetiician Script f?-om Crete, in the Journal of Hellenic Studies, xiv. 1894, Further Discoveries of Cretan and p. 270 et seq., and London, Ouaritch, 1895 Aegeati Script, with Libyan and Proto-Egyptian Comparisons, ib. xvii. 1897, PP- 327-395, and London, Ouaritch, 1898. Sergi, The Mediterranean Race: A Study of the Origin of European People, London, 1901, pp. 296-305, and figs. 79-93. The sources whence this table was derived are as follows, from information
^

Petrie, Naqada,
in

i.

p. 44, pi.

some marks

MacIver

&

'

kindly supplied by Dr. Petrie.

Petrie,

Naqada

Royal Tombs,

i.

Kahun,

Sayce, The Karian Language and 1890. Inscriptions, in the Transactiois of the Society of Biblical Archeology, ix. 1887, Boudard, p. a., Essai sur la mcmismatique iberiennc, Paris, 1859. pp. II 2- 1 54.

Gurob and Ilawara, London,

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE

ART.

^A7

few of the signs are missing from any one of the series, and that the signs which are found in all rarely present variants which differ seriously from the most ancient signs (Fig. 113).
It

must,

therefore,

have

been
first,

was well established from


modifications
in

the

system of signs which and that underwent io.^

It may even with some course of ages. with the be Libyan signs, and with tifinagh, compared probability which are still employed in the present day in the writing of

the

the Touaregs.
^.-^.c^

The

conclusion

that

may

be

drawn from these

148

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


Here
is
is
:

" Dr. Petrie's reply Certainly the so-called Phcenician letters were familiar long before the rise of Phoenician influence.

What

really

due to the Phoenicians seems to have been the

selection of a short series (only half the

amount of the surviving

alphabets)

for

numerical

purposes,
etc.

as

A=

i,

E=

5,

10,

This usage would soon render 100, 500, 50, these signs as invariable in order as our own numbers, and force the use of them on all countries with which the Phoenicians

N =

traded.

Hence

before long these signs drove out of use

all

others,
^

except

in the less

changed
I

civilizations of

Asia Minor and Spain."


ar'cJieologiqiie^

M,

Weill, in a recent article in the

Revue
his
it

contested
in

these results, but

must confess that


I

arguments have

no
to

way convinced me.


"

do not think

possible for

any one

say, as the result of his demonstration, as he himself says, that

of

Dr.
is

Petrie's

table

and deductions not one word nor one


It

fact

left

standing."

seems to
;

me

that he has lost sight of

one point of primary importance it is the presence of " alphabeti" form signs on prehistoric pottery from the commencement of
the primitive period.
linear
it

If

we must admit,

as he wishes, that the

signs

are

merely a degradation of the hieroglyph signs,

would

also be necessary to believe that, previous to the earliest

known
form.

had been long enough

remains, a hieroglyphic system was in existence which in use for the signs to develop a linear Of these only a very small number had been retained

(thirty-three in Petrie's table), which


in the
it

must have been propagated

Mediterranean world
after

in

so strange a

manner

as to render

possible,

several

thousands of years, to compare them

with the identical signs (to the number of thirty) discovered on the primitive remains in Spain. Up to the present time we have failed to recover those hieroglyphs which have left only

very doubtful traces of M. Weill, who,


question,
tables
'

on
I

prehistoric

remains, and
faced
to

the criticisms
side

think,
to

has
in

not

that

of the
Petrie's

do not seem

me

any way

have touched

and deductions.
i.

Petrie, Royal Tombs,

p. 32.

Weill,

R.,

La

question de Vccrittire lineaire dans la Mcditerrance primitive,


i.

in the Rcviic archeologique, 1903,

pp. 213-232.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE

ART.

149

" " Now, how can we explain the fact that these alphabet! form signs are found in Egypt at the prehistoric age, and under the I think there first, the twelfth, and the eighteenth dynasties ? At these are two hypotheses which should be considered.

different

periods

Egypt

may have

been

in

touch

with

the

country where this system originated, or else the Egyptians from primitive times may have preserved the knowledge of this

system

in addition to their

hieroglyphic writing.

have already remarked on the analogies with the Libyans presented by the primitive Egyptians. We have mentioned the
resemblances
primitive alphabetical system with the and also the relations between the Libyan and Libyan alphabets, the Creto-Aegean peoples have several times been established.

We

of

their

do

not

think
of

it

is

too

bold
at

to

definitely

attribute

the

appearance
history
to

these

marks
the

different

periods

of

Egyptian
or

contact with

Aegean

people,

either

directly

through
indicated
special

the intermediary of the Libyans.


at
;

These

relations

are

the

same time by the appearance of vases of a


the
;

type
in

this is

black

incised

pottery, with a
this

whitish

paste

the

incisions

specimens
at

of

found

in

Spain and
I

Bosnia,

Hissarlik,
in

pottery in Crete
it

liave

been

and

in

Sardinia,

and when found

Egypt

is

(Knossos), evidently an

importation.^
attributed

believe also that to these relationships

must be

the

appearance

in

Egypt
since

thirteenth dynasties of small

nude
art
in

during the twelfth and figures of women, which had


primitive
times.

disappeared from

Egyptian

Again,

one finds them reappearing

the eighteenth dynasty, and the phenomenon is interesting to note. The proof of the relations of Egypt with the Libyo-Aegean people during the first dynasty
is

easily

found

in the vases

discovered by Dr. Petrie at Abydos, in

the royal tombs, and in the temple of Osiris; during the twelfth dynasty, in the fact that at Knossos there are Egyptian remains of
that period, and perhaps also in the appearance of
'

"

pan grdves."

MacIver & Mace, El Anirah and Abydos, p. 43. I^ktkie, Methods and Aims in Arc/urology, London, 1904, fig. 61, pp. 160-162. ^ The description of these will be found in Petrie, Diospolis, pp. 45-49 the
i

term employed by Petrie, "pan graves,"


graves."

is

merely an abbreviation of "pan-shaped

ISO

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


The presence
end of the
of these graves in the vicinity of Abydos, at route from the oases, indicates the direction
after the twelfth
is

the

which must have been taken

dynasty by these
Foreign relations,

people, whose Libyan character

so evident.^

!;Trw:TlCDrrrcrr.crrnr,nnr-r|i

IvJ'

tLCLIrrncprrnrrrrnhDlDlJIiy'^

1 "

Vi
I

fA.561.

.M.StO.

r
.a.Ti.e

kSvs^

!(1

m;

.P>T.I.9.

1/

^-"oa
,

.R.T. I.IOJI.

R,

T.I

-101.

.J^.W.

-P.

T.1L.35.

I'lG.

Impressions 114.
Mycenaean
dynasty,

taken from Cylinders.

especially

with

the

civilization,

were
useless

so
to

numerous
insist

during
this

the
;

eighteenth

that

it

is

on

we have already pointed out point under Amcnophis IV.


1

the

Libyan influence

MacIver

&

Mace,

loc. cit.

pp. 67, 6S.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


As
signs
in

ART.

151
"

" to the hypothesis of a continued use of alphabetiform

Egypt,

it

must,

think, be

rejected,

for
"

the reasons

pan graves," pointed out by Mr. Mace in connection with the and the objects there discovered. He also estabHsbes the fact with that this incised black pottery we have just mentioned is

the exception of one or two sporadic examples under the third dynasty completely absent during the whole of the period which separates the prehistoric people from those of the pan graves.^

I must apologize for these reflections, of the unsubstantial As I have discussed the nature of which I am fully aware.

primitive writings,
to
refer to

earliest

chapter appearance at the period of the history of Egypt, only to disappear with
I

may be

permitted

in

closing

this

the cylinders,

which make

their

considerable rapidity.
inscriptions,

of so

present archaic a style as to connect them completely with the thus return to our subject, from which in primitive art."

of these, in addition to hieroglyphic representations of personages and animals

Some

We

these last pages


'

wc have somewhat diverged


loc. at. p.

(Fig.

114).

MacIver
I

&

Mace,

69.

wish specially to quote two ivory cylinders at Berlin, Nos. 15,337 and " 1 ScHAEFER, Nette Iterthuvter der " new race atis Ncgadah, in the Zeit5,338. Petrie, Royal Tombs, schiift fiir dgyptische Sprache, xxxiv. 1896, p. 160, fig. 4. De Morgan, Rccherches, ii. p. 160, fig. 560, and p. 170, fig. 561. ii. pi. X. Petrie, Abydos, i. pi. Ii. No. 1 1 Royal To77ibs, i. pi. xix. 8, 9 ii. pi. xiii. 95
-

xiv. 101-104.

Max Muller, An

archaic cylmder

from Egypt,
Dennis,

in the Orientalisib. col.

tische Litter atiirzeitiing,

v. 1902, col. 90-92, and fig. Evans, Further Discoveries of Cretan and Aegean

210, 211.

Script, in the

Journal of

Helletiic Studies, xvii. 1897, p. 362 et seq.

CHAPTER

IV.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

WE
hitherto

have now arrived at the

most

difficult,

and
our

at

the

same time

the

most

interesting,

part

of

study.

Objects illustrating our subject become increasingly numerous, and will, perhaps, enable us to decide some points which

have been
here

left

in

uncertainty.

One

of

our greatest

difficulties

has been to establish the exact line of demar-

cation

commencement
to

between remains of prehistoric times and those of the of the Egyptian historical age. It has seemed
advisable
for

me

the

present

not

to

attach

too

great

importance to this distinction, and to reserve for the chapter devoted to the earliest Egyptian remains those objects only

which can be

classified

an inscription or royal nucleus, round which the various objects which arc closely to them can be grouped.

with certainty, owing to their bearing name. These specimens form a distinct
allied

To

begin

with,

we

will

consider

flints

which

have

been

shaped into the forms of animals.

As

early as 1890 an

example

Professor representing a hippopotamus was discovered at Kahun. Petrie is inclined to assign it to the twelfth dynasty ^ but the
;

whole group of similar finds induces

me

to consider

it

rather as

being of the primitive period. In the Petrie Collection, University College,


are
'

London, there

several

most interesting examples

snake from Koptos,


;

Petrie, Kahun, Gurob and Hawara, London, 1890, p. 30 and pi. viii. 22 Years' Digging in Egypt, 2nd ed. London, 1893, p. 127 Prehistoric Egyptian Figures, in Man, 1892, No. 14, p. 17 and pi. B, 20.

Ten

152

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


a

153

dog (?), and also a bird represented in flight' (Fig. 115). The Berhn Museum possesses three remarkable specimens, in the form of an antelope {buhalis), a wild goat, and a wild Barbary
the figures of sheep, which resemble in a most striking manner M. Schweinfurth, animals engraved on the vases (Figs. 116-118).

has recently published them, also compares them with the At the British which we shall consider later on.Sraffiti,

who

Museum

there
1

(No. 30,41

),

an unpublished specimen in form of an antelope and also another in form of a bull's head (No. 32,124).
is
=^

Fig.

115.

Worked

Flints in Form of Anim.\ls.

In the MacGregor Collection, Tamworth, there is a large specimen of the bull's head form, about 19 cm. in height. few specimens have been found i/i situ among other remains of the i^rimitivc age.

These are crocodiles and hippopotami (?), discovered prehistoric town surrounding the temple of Osiris
'

in

the small

at

Abydos.^

Petrie, Prehistoric Egyptian Figures,

loc. cit. p.

17, pi.

B, 17-iq.

Schweinfurth,

G.,

Acgyptische

Umschau, vii. 1903, pp. 804.-806 d'aiiimaicx fabriqtces en silcx et provenent de I'Fgypte, in
d'Anthro/iologie de Paris,
'

Tierbilder als Kicselartefalde, in Die French translation and fig. Figures


:

tlie

Revue de VRcolc

x\.

1903, pp. 395-399.

figs.

87-89.

Budge,

'

History of Egypt, i. fig. of p. 84, No. 32124. Petrie, Excavations at Abydos, in Man, 1902, No. 64, p.
292-294, and
p.

89,

No. 3; Abydos^

i.

pi. -x.wi.

\1.

154

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


testify to

These curious pieces

remarkable dexterity

in

flint

working (Fig.

115).

The only analogous

pieces

known
in

in

other countries

have been discovered

Russia and America.^

Fig. 116.

Worked Flint IX

Form of an Antelope
(BUBALIS).
Berlin Museum."

Small figures of human beings are very numerous, and specially

My colleague, Baron de Loe, keeper of the prehistoric antiquities of the Royal Museums of Brussels, has been good enougli to communicate to me his A flint in form of a fish comes from Archangel. Another, notes on this subject. A specimen from the in form of a bird, from the Government of Vladimir.
'

same neighbourhood perhaps represents a human figure. Several worked flints from the Volossovo bed, Government of Vladimir, present, he says, exceptional
forms.

Some show
;

the outline
profiles

of a boat

others the

of animals,

more
.

or less deter-

mined, among which a bird may be distinguished. Volossovo


.

was

a centre of habitation in the

neolithic age.

... In the Government of Irkutsk a flint lias been discovered, also of bird form. These specimens are all

of extremely fine work, the contour being retouched with extraordinary delicacy. Other similar pieces have been discovered in tlie valleys of the Ohio and

See Wilson, Th., representing a bird, another a serpent. Classification des pointcs dc /leches, des pointcs des lances, et des couteaux de in the Compte rendu du Congirs i7itci-national d' anthropologic ct pief're,
Mississippi, one

d'archeologie prehistoriq71.es,
pp. 320-322, and
-

twelfth session,

at

Paris,

in

1900,

Paris,

1903,

fig.

14.

Reproduction after Die UviscliaH. Ubersicht iiber Fortschritte und Bewegungen auf dem Gesamtgebiet der Wissenschaft, Technick, Litteratur und
Kunst.
Francfurt a/Main, H. Bechhold, Verlag.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


at

155
in

the

earliest

period of Egyptian history

various materials
pottery,

clay, stone, ivory, glazed


I

they are found

and

lead.

will

remind

the

reader of the figures of men carved on the combs, and also of the pendants of human

form
there

of

which

illustrations

have

been

given earlier in
is

the

book, and of which


further.

no need to speak
statuettes

The
rare
:

of

men

are

somewhat
by

not

one

specimen was found

Petrie in

the vast necropolis of Naqada.

At

Diospolis a few

rude examples were


at ^6

found,

made apparently
dates).
;

and 33-55
figures

(sequence

Several

are

represented standing

be seated.
or sheath
In

On
;

another appears to most of them are to be


of the kaimata,
Fig. 117.

seen distinct

indications
is

Worked Flint in
Museum. -

Form of a Wild Goat.


Berlin

the beard
it

carefully marked.^
said
is

general,

may

be

that

the
that of the
in

rendering of these figures


the

not more perfect than


representations
relating
to

human
(Fig.

we examined
decorative

chapter
119).

art

Another
Gebel
el

statuette,
in

in

pottery, discovered
Tarif,
is

the

necropolis

yellowish of
It

more

interesting.

Fig. 118.
IN

Worked

Flint

Form of a Wild Barbary Sheep.


Berlin Museum.^

shows a bearded personage kneeling, the Here arms hanging down the body.
already the face is better formed, and the nose and ears are well indicated.*^

Petrie, Diospolis, are of clay, painted red.


:

and p. 36. The two statuettes U96 were discovered by Mr. Garstang, at iii. Alawanyeh see Garstang, Mahdsna and Bet Klialldf, London, 1903, pi. See also two specimens in ivory in the MacGregor Collection. Naville, Figurines
1

pi. v.

U96;

vi.

19,

Two

similar pieces

in the Rccueil de travaiix relatifs a hi egyptieimes de Vepoqiic archaique, ii., et a ct assyrienncs, xxii. 1900, pi. v. Varchcologie cgypUmnes philologie,
-

After Die Unisdiait,


lb.

lac. cit.

3
*

De Morgan,

Rcchcrches sur

les origines,

i.

p.

151, hg.

373

'

^8-

"'-

P- 54-

156

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

Mr. Evans has drawn an extremely able comparison between this figure and a marble idol found at Amorgos. "Though

Fig.

119.

Figures

of

Men of the Primitive

Period.

differing,"

Aegean
the
its

Islands

he says, "from the primitive marble 'idols' of the in its bent knees and arms held close to
it

side,

yet

shows a remarkable
;

resemblance to them
flat- topped

in
it

general

shape

while

in

its

recurved

head

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


characteristic features reproduces one of their most
"
^

157
ig(Fi^

119.

M.

R
In

III).

the

excavations

at

El

Amrah

Mr.

Maclver discovered

several figures type as the specimens found at Diospolis, and always characterized

of men of the same

by the karnata or sheath- (Fig. 1 19). There are several other statuettes in the Berlin Museum/ and one
without
legs,
its

history unkrtow^n,

in the Petrie Collection,

University

Figures of men College, London. occur more frequently in the mass of ivories discovered at Hierakonpolis,

and

at the

same time we note


the

a real
pieces.

advance on

preceding
are unfor-

These

ivories

tunately in rather and a serious effort

bad condition,
is

necessary in

order
before
see,

to

realize

their

they were We can mutilation.

what

however, that they were standing figures, clothed in a loin-cloth held


its

in

was

place by a girdle, to which The attached the karnata.

Fic.

beard,
in

when

represented,

is

enclosed

Ivory Figures of Mex i.:u. DISCOVERED AT HiERAKONPOLIS.

In the bag already described. the most short, it appears that

The heads probably do not belong to the bodies. Ashmolcan Museum,

Oxford.

frequent

type

was that of which

Mr. MacGregor's ivory figure supplies the best specimen' (Figs.


20,
'

19,

120,

and

121).

Evans, Further Discoveries of Cretan and Aegean Script, in the Journal of Hellenic Studies, xvii. 1897, p. 380, and tig. 33, p. 381. * MacIver & Mace, El Afurah and Abydos, pi. ix. 1, xii. 7, pi'. 4'. \-' ScHAEKER, Nctcc Altertiwicr der "new race" aus Negadali in the Zcitschrift
1

fiir dgyptisclie Sprache, xxxiv. 1896, pp. 160, 161, figs.

8,

11.

QuiBELL,

Hie?-akotipolis,

i.

pi. vii. viii. x.


ii.,

and pp.

6, 7.

Naville, Figurines
travaiix rclatifs a la

egyptiennes de Vcpoque archai'r/ue,

in

the

Neci/eil dc

158

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


From an examination
Petrie

statuettes, Dr.

considers

of the physiological type of all these that they represent individuals


to

of the

Libyans have already met with several times. There is an ivory head (Fig. 121) which is especially characteristic.^
primitive

race, anterior

the Egytians

those

whom we

Fig.

121.

Ivory

Heads discovered at Hierakonpolis.

On

another head of a

man we

see

kind of high-pointed

There are philologie et a Varcheologie egyptiennes et assyriennes, xxii. igoo, p!. v. two small ivory figures in the MacGregor Collection similar to the specimens
found at Hierakonpolis. QuiBELL, Hierakonpolis,
'

i.

pi.

v.

vi.

4,

5,

p.

6.

Schweinfurth, Die

tieiiesten

Griibcrfundc in Obcnigyptett uiid die Stellung der noch lebenden Wilsten-StaDimcti zii de?- altagyptischcn Bcvolkerung, in the Verhandlungcn dcr

berl.

anthropo/ogischcn Gcsellsdiaft, 1898, pp.


in i\\e

Early Egypt,
pi. xviii. 6.

Journal of

lite

180-186. Petrie, TJlc Races of Anthropological Institute, xxxi. 1901, p. 250,

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

159

casque, suggestive of the white crown' (Figs. 121 and 132), and the same head-dress is found on a small ivory statuette discovered
in

the temple of Abydos, which dates from the

commencement

This is undoubtedly the masterpiece of of the historic period. of the Professor Petrie speaks thus ivory carving primitive age.

on the

subject,

and we

may

entirely

rely

on

his

judgment

Fig.

122.

Ivory

Statuette from Abydos.

"

He

is

figured

as wearing

the

crown of Upi)cr

I'^gypt

and a

thick embroidered robe.


stiff
it

embroidery
found.

edge represented, no such dress


:

P^rom the nature of the pattern and the looks as if this robe were quilted with
is

known on any Egyptian

figure yet

The work belongs

to an unconventional
;

school, before
in It

it of fixed traditions might have been carved and where any age country good natural work was done.

the

rise

'

QuiBELL, HicrakonpoUs,

i.

pi. vii. viii. 6.

i6o

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


a

shows

power

of

dealing

with
in

individuality

which

stands

its unshrinking figuring of age apart from all the later work and weakness with a subtle character. It belongs to the same

school of art as the figures

and these reveal a


as

style

which

has hitherto been

quite

unsuspected,

preceding
122).
;

the

more

formal style of the Old

Kingdom

"

(p-ig.

position of the ears should be noticed perpendicularly on the head, and seem to
size.

The

they are placed be of abnormal

It may be questioned whether this is not a trace of a custom of intentional malformation of the ears, the more so that the same anomaly, with even greater exaggeration, is seen on

other ivory heads

from

Hierakonpolis and Abydos"' (Fig. 132,


far

No.

14).

Female
to

statuettes are

more numerous, and enable us


It is

to

follow closely the evolution of the type.

necessary, however,

begin by setting completely on one side certain figures of extraordinary appearance, of which we have already given
illustrations

of

two

specimens when treating of painting the

body (Fig. 6). These figures are characterized by an exaggerated development of fat, principally in the lower limbs, and especially the
It is known that this deformity is frequently thighs (steatopygy). found among the Hottentots, and it has been compared with a representation in the temple of Dcir el Bahari of an African

and xiii. Mexican statue in the Ethnographical See Woerman, Gcschichte Museum, Berlin, shows a similar deformity. der Kunst allcr Zeite7i iind Volker, i. Leipzic, 1900, fig. p. 88. Pliny, Natural " The island of the Fanesii, in which the inhabitants, History^ iv. 27, 5 who are naked, completely cover themselves with their ears, which are ol
'

Petrie, Abydos,
lb.
ii.

ii.

p. 24, pi.

ii.

3,

'^

pi.

iii.

17-19,

and

p.

24.

size.'' Male, E., Lart reUgeux du xiii'. siecle en France, Paris, 1902, " Men with ears as large as winnowing fans." 77 (the Portal of V6zelay) Delakosse, M., Snr des traces probables dc civilisation cgyptientic et d'lwvnnes " Ces de race blaitclie a la cote d'ivoire, in V Antliropologic, xi. 19CO, jx 679,

excessive
p.

leurs oreilles etaient si grandes qu'ils peau blanclie vue d'un homme de la terre." P. 684, " Tous ceux (jui en ont vu ou en ont entendu parler disent que, pour ne pas etre reconnus, ils prenaient Icurs oreilles avec les mains et les ramenaient sur Information contributed by MM. Bayet, Macoir, M. Hebert, leur visage." and F. de Zeltner.
fils

du Ciel avaient
.

la

s'en cachaient leur visage a la

sculpturp: and painting.


queen, the queen of Punt.'
positions,

i6i
in in

These curious statuettes arc


or
seated.-

two
the

cither

standini^

The specimens

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford,

reproduced here, are

of a greyish clay, covered with a brilliant red glaze,

and
black
124,

still

show

traces

of

paint
125).

(Figs.

123,

The

Berlin

Museum
one
I

possesses a seated
I

figure, the

only complete
of (Fig. 125).

know

We

here encounter an

important

problem

con-

^1

cerning the history of the of migrations primitive


peoples.

Should
statuettes

these

Egyptian
taken
as

be

proof of the
a

presence
Dr.
after

of

Hottentot

race in prehistoric

Egypt

Fouquet

writes,

the

examination of
discovered
"
:

the

bones

in

the

tombs

At

South

for
for

Naqada, the cephalic index the men, 72, y^i


I

the

women,

y^,

13

induces a comparison with those of the Hottentots,


the

123.

Steatopygous

Bushmen
(72,
itself

Clay Ashmolean Museum.

TiciURKS.

(72, 42) the


54).

Kaffirs

Naqada

The discovery made of steatopygous statuettes


y,.

b}-

Flinders
to

Petrie

at

suggested

him the

Petrie, Naqada,

34.

and Cairo,
-

1878, ii. pi. 62, j)]). 72, les peuples de la ictre, 10, 111. jip.
i

M.ariette, Voyage dans Ic Haute Agypte, Paris See, however, DenmvER, /.es races et 73.
p 34
I I

Petkie,

i\a(/aif<i,

\)\.

vi

1-4,

l62

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


idea,

same
final

which he does not appear to have adopted on a It is known, however, that this race penetrated analysis. is it and into France, possible that they returned by way of
Egypt." This impression appears at the first glance to be extraordinary but we hasten to add that it is identical with that entertained
;

by

all

those
^
:

writes

"

who have examined these objects. M. de Villenoisy The excavations at Brassempuy have effected the dis-

covery of a series of ivory statuettes representing women with whose head-dress there is nothing analogous except in Egypt,

Fig.

124.

Steatopygous

Clay Figures.

Ashmolean Museum.

and whose physiological characteristics are found only in Africa, among the most ancient inhabitants of the soil the duellers in
:

the land of Punt (now Somaliland) in the time of the Egyptian Queen Hatasu (eighteenth dynasty), Abyssinians and Bolofs (who

must

at

and Hottentots.
out,
'

one time have been neighbours of Egypt), Bushmen The insistence with which M. Piette pointed

on

the

Pyrenean

palaeolithic

figures,

peculiarities
taillec

which

FouQUET, Redierches

sitr les

cranes de I'epoque de la picrrc


ii.

en Kgypte,
Piette,

in

De Morgan, Kcchcrchcs sur les orighies^ ^ De Villenoisy, Lhiatus prehisiorique

p. 378.

et les decoiivertcs

dc

M. Ed.

in tlie

Bulletin de la Societc de spelcologie, April to June and July to September,

1896, pp. 97, 98.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


among women
African,

163

of contemporary races are found to be exclusively

did

not

at

first

succeed

in

fixing

attention

it

was

considered that they were merely the result of accidental circumstances, or lack of skill on the part of the sculptor. great in advance was of taken at the the Acadeniie when, step meeting

dcs
the

Inscriptions,

November
that

23rd,

great

similarity

exists

M- Maspero recognized between the legless figures of


1894,

He Bassempuy and those deposited in the tombs of Egypt. believes them to be inspired by the same religious conception."

Fig.

125.

Steatopygous Figure
Berlin

in

Clay (complete).

Museum.

in F AntJiropologie} expresses himself in the same " with The comparison way regard to the Hierakonpolis figures may have very slender foundation, yet I cannot resist finding a certain resemblance between some of these reproductions and

M. Boule,

those on the sculptures found by M. Piette at Mas d'Azil, and I received the same impression on examining the steatopygous

female figures Tound by Professor Flinders Petric and Mr. Quibell


at

Naqada and

Ballas."

V Anthropologic,

xi.

1900, p. 759.

164

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

Notwithstanding Boule's doubts, it seems probable that this resemblance is not without foundation. We find analogous
figures in the P^rcnch caves/ in
Malta,-' in

the regions of Thrace

and

Illyria,

at Butmir, Cucuteni,

Sereth, in
Crete."''

Poland/

in

Greece/

and the Aegean

Islands, notably

But by the side of these steatopygous


in

figures,

Egypt

as also in France, statuettes of another

type are found, characteristic of a race of less

The best specimen that bulky proportions.'' can be quoted is the figure decorated with
There paintings already reproduced (Fig. 5). are statuettes of this type in clay, ivory, and lead, where the legs are summarily indicated.

means

Frequently the arms are merely represented by of a nip in the clay, causing the shoulder
at other

to project.

indicated
of them.
'

Occasionally the breasts are clearly times there is not a trace

We

must notice a curious specimen,

Petrie, Naqada, p. 34, where he quotes I' AnthropoHoERNES, Ufgcsc/iic/i/e dcr bildettlogic, vi. 1895, 129-151. deii Kunst, pi. ii. figs. 9-13. Reinach, S., Statuette de
luic decoitverte

femme

dans

tine des grottes


i.

de Menton,

in

l'

Anthro-

pologic,
-

ix.

i8g8, pp. 26-31, pi.

ii.

in
i.

Mayk, Die vorgeschichtlichen Denkiniilcr von Malta, tlie Abhandlungcn der k. baycr. Akadonie dcr ll'iss.,
CI., xxi.

Bd.,
I

iii.

Abth. Mi'mchen, 1901, pp. 699-703, and

pi. X. 2, xi.

and

2.

Review by Arthur Evans,


fig. 3,
;

in

Man,

1902, No. 32, pp. 41-44,


Fig,
126.

Clay

xi.

Female Figure.
pi.

reproduces fig. 2 of pi. of Mayr more clearly tatoo-marks are distinguishable. HoERNES, Urgeschichtc dcr bildcndc7i Ki/nst,\). 192 and
p. 43,
'

iii.

The

statuette of Cucuteni (Rounuuiia)


in

University Col'ege,

London.

Iceland

are reproduced

Reinach,

(separate reprint, p. 39). of our Fig. 23.


1

Europe avant les injiriences Compare especially tlic


Histoii'c

and that of en greco-romaines, fig. 94 and 95 figure from Poland with those
S.,

I.a sculpture

Perrot

&

Chipiez,
fig.

de Part dans rantiquitc,

vi.,

Jm

Grece

piimitive, I'art mycenien,


^

Evans, Arthur, The

325, p. 736, and figs. 333 and 334, p. 741. Neolithic Settlcjnent at Knossos and its Place in the

History of Early Aegca?t Culture, in Man, 1901, No. 146, pp. 184-186, and fig. They appear again in Egypt in the eighteentli dynasty. See MacIver & Mace, El Atnrah and Ahydos, pi. iv. D 8. Garstang, EJ Arabnh, London, 1901,
pi.

xix.
^

178.
p. 34.

Petrie, Naqada,

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


of

165

unknown provenance,
hands
the
are

at

University

College,

London, where
the

the

clasped
(Fig.
is

as

of

body
in

126).

though There

to
is

hide
also

lower

part

specimen which

Museum
127).

almost perfect at the Berlin 14167 (Pig. vegetable paste, No.

Another very early example (sequence date 38) in vegetable paste moulded on a reed core is
painted red and
face
black.

The lower

part

of the

the

appears to be covered with a veil. thighs there is a belt curved at the


at

Round
lower

both ends so as to form a point between edge There the legs when joined^ (Fig- 128, No. 11).
is

specimen in the Petrie Collection, University College, London, as well as another


a similar
lead (Fig. 128). Tlie excavations at Diospolis

in

have furnished other

examples,
date
34),

tomb B
with

loi

(sequence

notably, from a small figure


(Fig.
128,

the
loi).

arms

carefully

carved-

D.

B
In

same necropolis, in tomb B 83 excavations date have 33-48), brought (sequence a female statuette, already worked to light more in detail, where the legs and also the
the
hair

arc

at

least

indicated

(Pig.

128,
in

D.
the

B
of

83). fig. i27.-Female

The arms
rudimcntary

are

still

represented
as
in

same
the

fashion

the

Figure ^^^^
Berlin

in

Veget-

figures

Museum.

Aegean
In

Islands."*

mous.

the series of ivory female statuettes the progress is enorUnfortunately there has been no specimen found in the

course of scientific excavation to furnish a relative date for these


objects.

The examples we can


lix.

(^uote present a great variety in

moleaii
P-

Petrie, Naqada, pi. Museum, Oxford. Petrie, Diospolis,

11; Diospolis, p. 26. Identical fragments \\\\Diospolis,

Now
\A.

at
v.

the

Ash-

B mi, and

33'

yX. v.

p.

33.

lb. pi. vi.

83, p. 32.

66

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT

Fig.

128.

Female

Figures

in

Pottery, Ivory, Lead, and Vegetable Paste.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


the
position
;

167
the

of

the

arms.
the

body
left

sometimes
to

only

Sometimes they hang down right arm is pendant, while

the

folded

appears on the

support the breasts.


breast
;

One

figure

has

the

arms

others

have one hand

placed

on the

stomach, while the second hides the lower part of the body. Most have the head shaved some, on the contrar}', wear the
;

hair

long,

with

two

locks

hanging

down

in

front

over

the

Fig.

129.

Female

Figures

in Ivory.

MacGregor

Collection.

shoulders,

on

the

framing the lower part of


arranged
inlaid

face.

On some
body
is

the

specimens the hair crudely rendered by a


e\-es

series

of holes,

carved,

sometimes
of these

fan-shape. with round

The

are
^

sometimes
(I'igs.

bone beads
at

128

and

129).

Some
means
'

later

figures

have a tenon
fastened
to

the

base,

by
to

of

which

they

were

stands,

similar

British Museum, 32,125, 32,139-42. Budge, A History of E<rypt, i. p. 52. MacGregor Collection Navilll", University College, London see our Fig. 128 Fi>rurhirs c_<(v/)ficiincs de Icpoquc arc/iai'f/itc, ii., in tlie Rccucil dc travai<xrclatifs (} la f'hilolo'^ie ct a I ardicoloi^ie cgyptifiiftcs ct assyricnnes, xxii. 1900, pi. iv. of
: :

liicli

our Fig. 129

is

a reproduction.

68

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


some of
British
tlic

those of

Hierakonpolis ivories which wc are about


(No. 32,143) possesses a statuette of a
in

to consider.

The woman
which

Museum

standing, wrapped
is

a large
left

cloak, the

fringed,

leaving

the

breast

upper edge of uncovered on her


;

shoulder she carries a child, whose body is hidden beneath the folds of the cloak ^ (Fig- 130). type of the woman carrying her child also occurs in an ivory figure in the Berlin

The

Museum
tremely
(Fig.

(No.

14,441)
style

of
of

exwoi
1-:

rough

130-

At Hierakonpolis we find the same female figures, and


these enable us to decide that
the examples described in the preceding lines, which are of

uncertain provenance, are to be considered as belonging to the


Fig 130. Figure of a

Woman carrying A Child on her Shouledrs.


British

age shortly befoie the


the
fact,
first

rise
is,

of
in

Museum.

dynasty.

There

progress

made

between

one group and the next, and altliough the pose and the arrangement of the hair mav be the same, one is conscious that the artist has a feeling for the individuality of the type which is
preceding examples, a fair number of these statuettes have the e^'es inlaid. I cannot attempt to describe all these carvings. I'hcy present but few varieties beyond those I have mentioned. In higs. 132
figures.

completely

absent

in

the

earlier

Like

the

and 133 are reproductions of the best ivories found at Hierakonnow at the Ashmolean Museum. Oxford. wish polis, and
I

however,

to

draw attention

to

the

figures

cloaks which

we have already

dealt with,

large wrapped and also to remark on


in
sts'lc

in

two small
1

statuettes,

on bases,^ identical

with an ivory

Budge,
For
tlie

History of gyp/, i. p. 53, No. 7. Hierakonpolis ivories see Quibell, Hierakonpolis,

i.

\)\.

ix.

x.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


statuette

169

discovered

during
first

the

winter of

1902-3

and dating from the


of children

carved

in

excellent

Egyptian dynasty. style, and

at Abydos, These are figures

free

from

conven2).

No. tionality^ (Fig. 132, Nos. I Stand 21, and Fig. 133, at The same excavations

Abydos
carvings

have
of

contributed
children,

other
the

with

fineer in the

attitude^ which

mouth, a traditional we had previously


in

met with
konpolis
Also,
at

in

a figure from Hierachrysocolla.''

carved

Abydos,
of

two
a

ivory

statuettes

women were
shows
the
128,

found,

one

of

which
to

strong

affinity

carvings'* (Fig.

Hierakonpolis Ab 5) while
;

the other, according to Dr. Petrie,

already shows signs of the formalist style of the Ancient Empire."''

There are various other figures which are unimportant, with the
exception of some specimens
clay and
in

glazed pottery," and the gla/cd pottery


illustrate

pretty statuette in

reproduced
dressing (Fig.

to
15).

hairFig. 131. list

Finall}', to

terminate this

-Ivory Figure of a Wom.\n CARRYING A ChiLD.


Berlin

of female figures,

we must mention

Museum.

an interesting statuette

The

in lapis-lazuli, discovered at tlicrakonpolis. the of hands, the slender proportions of the body, position
ii.

* '

lb.

I^ETRIE, Abydos, ii. pi. ii. 7, 8

\A.

ii.

1,

and

j).

23.

])1.

iii.

18.
i.

QuiuELL, Hierakonpolis,
ii.

])1.

xviii. 4.

Petrie, Abydos, female fit^ures fouiul


pi.
\\\.b,

in

and p. 21. comptc rendu in cxlenso, T'aris, 1899, pi. xxxi. Petrie, Abydos, ii. pi. ii. 2 and pp. 23, 24.
8,
''

ami j). 24. The same is the casse with the the royal tombs at Abydos. Petrie, Royal Toi>d>s, ii. Amelineau, Les nouvelles foi/illt:s d' Abydos, 1895-6.
pi.
ii.

"

Ih.

ii.

pi. ix.

184,

xi.

23c.

lyo

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

o cu z o < w

X V

O
3 U 3
01

E~

<

in

IN

CO

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

171

-J

o z o

<

a w
> o

^ o
S 3 o
in

11
^ 5

<

"1

o >

172

pRiMirivi':
bciKliiiL^f

ART

IN i<:GYi'r

and the

of

tlic

knees recall to an astonishing degree the

small figures of the Greek Islands^ (Fi^- ^34)I

and female
tomical

have intcntionall}' omitted a class of male figures, because they represent anamalformations
curious
at
"

which
-

Some
figures

and these
f>f

specimens once elicited a comparison with the Ptah in embryo" (A the historic age.''
in

suggest rickets. have been published,

There are two examples

ivory

in

the Petrie

We shall C(;llcction, University College, London. ])rcscntl)' have occasion to enquire what was the
meaning of these deformed
reason
figures,
in

and

for

what

they were
H'^ig.

deposited

the

tombs and

temples

13SJ.

We
Fk;.

must

also class in a separate category the

134. S.mall Figure IN Lapis-

I.AZULIFROM
inr.KAKOM'oi.is.

which represent human beings either squatting or in positions which seem to be imThis is the case with men represented possible.
statuettes
'

AFlimolean

standing
.Li

or kneeling, with the arms


1

bound behind

Ti is an i here the back, and apparently captives. in the to this with instructive point, regard ivory figure, very from was O.xford it Ashmolcan Museum, brought I'^gypt in
u
1

Museum.

i-\

1891
'

by Greville Chester (159-91

J,

and

is

stated

to

have been

QUHJELL, Hierako7ipoUs, i. pi. xviii. 3, and i>. 7 ii. p. 38. Navu.le, Fijj^urines egypiienncs de iepoque archait/ue, ii., in the Recueil de travanx rclatifs a la philologie et a Varcheologie cgyptieimes et assyriennes, x.\ii.
;
"

1900,
pi. xi.

pi.

5.

13UUGE,

History of Egypt,
\).

ix. p. 52, 2.

Quibell, Hicra/conpolis,
ii.

i.

and

xviii. 7, 19,

and

ii.
;

i)p.

37, 38.

Petrie, Abydos,
in the

i)l.

v.

44,

48

X.

213, pp. 25, 27.


'

See Vn^cHOW, Die I'hokovtelen ufid das Barcinvciby


berl.

VeJ-hatidlungcn

Gcsetlsdiaft fm- Antliropologie, Jithnologie und Urgeschichte, 1898, Dk. Parrot, Sur I'originc d'tme dcs fortnes du pp. 55-61, uith fig. and |)late. dicii I'tali, in tiie Rcciicit dc travaux telatifs a la pliilologie et a I'archcologic et assyricfutcs, ii. 1880, pp. 129-133, and plate (reproduction I'rom the

der

cgyptiennes Bulletins de la Societe d' antliropologie de J'aris, 1878,

p.

296).

Dr. Eifer,

L'Achondroplasic, in See .SchweinI'URI 11, Verhandlungen der


Urgeschichte,

tin?

Correspo7tdant medical, vi. 120, September 15th, 1899. Ueber wcstafrikanischc Figiiren aus 'I alksidiicfcr, in the
Gescllscluift fiir
fig.

berl.

Anthropologic,
"

Jiilinologie

und

1901, pp. 329, 330 and " SciiAEFEK, Neue Altertilnier der

new

race

aus Negadah,
3, p.

in the Zeitschrift

filr Hgyptisrhc S/>rarhe, xxxiv. 1896, p. 159,

and

fig.

160

SCUTJ^TURE
found
well
at

AND

PAINTING.
tliis

173
lies

Thebes.

The main

interest of

f;l>jcct

in

the

preserved leather belt, which


in

represents

the

tightly

drawn

In all crouching position. other specimens this leather thoni^ has disappeared, but this example shows how similar statuettes should be interpreted (type

thony that held the captive

his

of our Fig. 132, No.

19;.

The Hierakonpolis

ivories

give

several

examples of these

Ik-;.

135.

iv(ji'.y

J-

iolkls

(if

Dwaki...

MacGregor

Collection.

captives, the

arms bound
There

beliind

the-

back

'

(Fig. 14).

Objects of
noticed at

the

same

type, but in glazed pottery, were found at Hierakonpolis


is

and Abydos.^

al.so
in

a small
a

figure

to

be

University College, London, of rock crystal, and another


top
'

hard red limestone, with eyes

of the

head.-'

Objects
i.

of

fragment of crystal inlaid (>\\ the the first dynasty, where scenes

fjuiBELL, JJieraUoiipolis,
Jb.
i.

pi. xi. xii,

'^

''

F-'etkik, Ahydos, ii. pi, v. 37, and p. 25. I'ETRIE Prehistoric Egyplian Figures, in Matt, 1902, No. 14, p. 17,
pi.

xxi.

2,

3, xxii.

3.

pi.

Ii, 1.

174

primitivp:

art

in egypt.

occur representing captives, and which we shall consider farther


on, afford proof of the accuracy of this interpretation. Finally we will deal with the statuettes representing servants.

At Naqada,

in

tomb (No.

271), Petrie discovered a

row of four

ivory statuettes placed upright, on the east side of the tomb, several

centimetres apart.

They represented

it

personages (whether male or female is difficult to say) having a vase

on the head.

The eyes
at

are indicated
7).

by beads
of

(Fig. 119, No.


is

One

these

London, and

also

University College, the head of a

similar piece in alabaster.

There are some specimens at the Berlin Museum, which arc supposed
to

have come from


be
included

Naqada, which
in

must
Fig. 136.

this

list

of a

Figure
S3,

statuettes,
of a

although

they

are

of

Woman

STANDING IN A LaRGE JaR.

very different style.

Some

of these

(Fig. 119,

8,

and

11).

formed part of the crew of a boat One of the most curious is the figure

standing in a large jar, occupied in crushing someThe left hand is upon her hip, and with thing under her feet. the right she supports herself by resting it on the edge of the vase ^ (Fig. 136).
of a
I

woman

have reserved
Petrie, Naqada,
is

for

this

chapter some vases of


p. 21
;

human form

pi. lix. 7,

and

Diospolis, p. 26,
dit

where the sequence


1902, pp. 96, 97,

date 38

given.

Compare Heuzey, Musee national


gravure a
*'

Louvre, Catalogue des

antn/uites chaldeettyies, sculpture ct


105, III, 305, 306, 313-318.
^

la pointe^ Paris,

ScHAEFER, Neue
at

Altertibfter der

new

7-ace'''

fiir dgyptische Sprache, .xxxiv. 1896, pp. 160, 161.

Naqada see Petrik, Naqada, pi. xxxvi. 95, and p. 41 id. unknown provenance (Fig. 119); an unpublished piece at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and a head at University College, It seems that the woman, standing in the jar, is occupied in the London. See Borchardt, Die preparation of beer, made by means of bread.
has been found
;

aus Negadah, in i\\c Zeitschrift A fragment of a similar figure

pi.

xxxvi. 96, another piece of

Dii'ucrstatuen aus den Grdbcrn des alien Reiches, in the Zeitschrift, xxxv. pp. 128 et seq. and lig. p. 129; Kat. 1895, No. 91.

1897,

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


published

175

by M. Naville as belonging to the primitive period, and which appear to belong rather to sculpture than to decorative The first of these are two vases of hard stone and the art.

Fig.

137.

Vases

in

Form of Women.

fragment of a third vase belonging to the

fine collection
in

of Mr.

MacGregor.
this object

One

is

a kneeling
1

woman, holding
that

her hand an

object resembling a horn.

was struck with the analogy which


attribute

presents with the

appears on a large

176

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


of

number

European

prehistoric

sculptures.^

The

other

is

dwarf of a t)-pe already known, while the fragment appears to M. Naville compares these with be part of a female figure.two terracotta figures in the Athens Museum. With Erman

and

Petrie,

do not hesitate to attribute them to the eighteenth

dynasty.^

regards the figure of the standing woman, bought by M. Naville at Luxor and published at the same time as the two

As

preceding ones,
work,

have

difficulty in believing

it

to

be Egyptian
school
of

and
art

am
which

inclined

to

connect
the

it

with
incised

the

ceramic

produced

black

pottery
137).

with

strange to remark that the primitive artists in general understood better the rendering of animals than of human figures. They carved a great of and sometimes in both hard and materials animals, variety
It is

whitish paste, of which we have spoken earlier Figures of animals are extremely numerous.

(P'ig.

valuable.
classifying

Of

these

we

will

note the most interesting specimens,

them according to their species. The hippopotamus has been found in almost all the excavations at Plierakonpolis, Abydos, Diospolis, and at Gebelein Sometimes it is in clay,' sometimes in glazed pottery," and also,

at times, in stone''

(Fig.

138),

There

is

figure

of

hippo-

Reinach,

S.,

La
13,

sculpture en
18-20,

Europe avant

les influences

greco-romaines,

Angers, 1896, pp.

and

figs. 26, 28, 44,

46-49.

^ Naville, Figurines egyptiennes de I'epoque archatque, ii., in tlie Recucil de travaux relaiifs a la philologie et a I arclieologie egyptiennes et assyriennes, xxn.

1900, pp. 65, 66,


'

pi. i.-iii.

Naville, ib. xxi. 1899, pp. 212-216, pi. ii. iii. These vases may be compared with those fonnd at Abydos. See Garstang, El Arabali, pi. xix. K 178. MacIver & Mace, El Anirali and Abydos, pi. xlviii. and notice of J. L.
1
,

Myres,
*

ib.

pp. 72-75.
pi. v. B 101 (Ashmolcan Musenm, Oxford); Abydos, (Musees royanx de Bruxelles), and p. 26; ii. pi. ix. 188, and p. 27,
i.

Petrie, Divspolis,
35

pi.

liii.

x.

225.

Von

Bissing, AltagyptiscJie Gejdsse


1898, p.
pi. xviii.

fur iigyptische Sprache, xxxvi. Amrali and Abydos, pi. ix. 5.


^

124,

im Museum zuGise, in the Zeitsclmfi and fig. MacIver & Mace, El


(i^)

QuiBELL, Hierakonpolis,
:

i.

18 (see xlviii.

(Ashmolean Museum
;

Petrie, Abydos, ii. pi. vi. 70, 71, 73, and p. 25. Limestone Petrie, Diospolis, pi. v. B loi, and p. 33 (Ashmolean Museum) Naqada, pi. Ix. 22, and p. 46 (bought at Gebelein, University College, London). Calcite: QuiBELL & Green, Hierakonpolis, ii. pi. Ixiv. 5, and \i. 50, tomb 153
Oxford).
''

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


potamus
which
at

177
to

merits

special
it

attention

it

belongs
the

the

museum

Athens, where
It
is

forms
black
is

part

of

Di Demetrio

Collection.

carved

in

and white

granite,

and

is

extremely polished. block the head only has been treated with some
;

The

beast

scarcely disengaged from the


detail.

The

Fig.

138. Figures of Hippopotami

in

Clay, Glazed Pottery, and Stone.

University College, London, and Ashmolean Museum.

whole

effect

is

heavy and
piece, does

thickset,

but

nevertheless

it

is

not

without
to
this

character.

Professor

Wiedemann, who drew


to

attention
it

curious

not hesitate
:

attribute

to

the

(Ethnograpliical Museum, Cambridge). Alabaster Petrie, Ahydos, ii. pi. 226, and p. 27, a specimen in quartzite in the MacGregor Collection, Tamworth (3,334). Three similar pieces belong to the Randolph Berens Collection at the South
.\-.

Kensington Museum.

12

178

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


(Fig.
139),

Naqada period^

and

this impression

is

confirmed by-

comparison with the figures of lions belonging to the primitiv^e period which were discovered by Dr. Petrie at Koptos.^
type is specially interesting. The earliest were discovered by Mr. Ouibell in a tomb at Ballas.
lion

The
in

pieces

They
head

are
low,

ivory,

and
tail

show
twisted
part

the

animal
the

and
they

the

over

lying back.

down,
It
is

the

considered

that

formed

of a

game.^

Other specimens, almost

Fig.

139.

Hippopotamus

in

Black and White Granite.

contemporaneous, were purchased by Dr. Petrie, and arc now at University College, London. They were probably found at
Gebelein, w^hcre there
is

a vast prehistoric necropolis, which un-

fortunately has not yet been subjected to regular and scientific excavation. These lions in limestone are of a type similar to the Ballas lions but already one sees in two of them a
;

movement
'

of the head which

is

found

in

almost

all

the later

Wiedemann, Zu Nagada
Petrie, Koptos,
pi. v. '5,

Periodc^
p. 7

in

the Orientalisiisdic Litteraturzeitung

iii.

1900, col. 86.


^

and

(one of these at the Ashmolean Museum,.


12, 16,
17,

Oxford).
^

Petrie, Naqada^

pi. vii.

Q711,

pi. Ix.

and pp.

14, 35, 46.

SCULPXaRE AND PAINTING.


ones^ (Fig. 140).

179

more
with

Another example of uncertain provenance is massive, and is scarcely disengaged from the block of

limestone.^

The
has

royal

tomb of Naqada, apparently contemporary


lions

Menes, yielded two figures of crystal, of crude work, recalling the earlier

one

of

rock

pieces'^;

the other of

Fig.

140.

Small

Figures of Lions.

University College, London.

sculptor has endeavoured details, carefully indicating the ears and mane.^
ivory,
in

which

the

to

render

the

'

Petrie, Naqada,
Ib.,^\.
Ix.

pi. Ix.

24-26.

'^

23.

De 'M.owGhn^RcchejxJics sh?- Ics oriifincs,\\-'^'^-loo,T\.w(\

pp. 193, 194.

There

is

second example, probably also from Naqada, in tlie MacGrcgor Collection (No. 533). * De Morgan, Recherches siir Ics origines, ii. figs. 699 and b, and pp. 192-194. Von Bissing, Les origines de I'^gypte in l'A7ith7-opologie, ix. 1898, pi. iii. 8, and

A similar specimen is in the collection of Mr. Hilton Price, London. 249. See Hilton Price, Notes i/pon so?ne Pre-dynastic and Early Dynastic Antiquities
p.

from Egypt

in

the writers

collection,

in
is

Archceologia,

Ivi.

1899 (published
in the

separately, p. 5, fig. 5/;, Collection (No. 504).

and

p. 10).

Tliere

another specimen

MacGregor

i8o

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

The ivory lions discovered in one of the private tombs which surround the tomb of King Zer, show a further improvement in form. On one of these Professor Pctrie notices two
spots

marked above the

eyes.

This

peculiarity

is

not

met

with on Egyptian work, but is frequently observed in that of he also points out that the position of the tail Mesopotamia
;

Af.^3

Fig.

141.

Small

Figures of Lions.

in

this figure, twisted over the

back and curved at the end,


prehistoric

is

identical

with
to

those

of

the
is

carvings.^
lines
in

The
relief

final

peculiarity define the outline of the muzzle (Fig.

be observed

that

two
in

clearly

141).

The

excavations

of

Amelineau,

the

Abydos, had previously produced a


'

lion in ivory,-

same and

tombs
also a

at

head

Petrie, Royal Tombs, ii. pi. vi. 3, 4, and p. 23. Amelineau, Les tioiivel/cs fouillcs d' Abydos,
pi.

1895-6,

Compte

reiidit

in

extenso, Paris, 1899,

xxxi.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


on which the two
h'ncs

i8i

of the muzzle are inore clearly defined.^

There
is

an example of larger size in which this peculiarity of special interest. This is a limestone statue discovered by
is

Petrie at Koptos, which

reproduces the principal characteristics

of the small figures TFig. 142).

One would

gladly assign

it

to

Fig.

142.

Limestone
and
the
this

Statue of a Lion from Koptos.


O.'cford.

Ashmolean Museum,

the

age

of

Zcr,
at

date

would

equally

apply
to

to

the
are,

hippopotamus
however, not

museum

at Athens.
to

These si)ecimcns
fix

sufficiently

abundant

enable us

with

certainty the appearance of a type.'

Amelineau, Les nouvelles foiiilles d^Ahydos,


p. 7.

jil.

xlii.

p.

307,

where they are

quoted as figured on pi. xli. ^ Petkie, Koptos, pi. V. 5, and

82
In

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


the

Randolph Berens

Collection,

now deposited

at

the

South Kensington Museum, there arc two large lions in black granite and in alabaster found at Abydos. They bear witness to
an art
far

more powerful than


carried

that of the great lion of Koptos,


I

and they should be attributed,

think, to the
in

first

The excavations
Abydos

on

the

temple

dynasty. of Osiris

at

during the winter 1902-3 yielded a series of ivory lions

Fig.

143.

Ivory

Carvings of a IJog

'

and of a Lion- from Abydos.

Brussels Museum.

Dr. Petrie, from the style, attributes of excellent workmanship. them to a date later than that of Zer or Menes. Two of them
are lionesses, and, strange to say, they arc wearing collars.

Did

the

artist

intend thus to

indicate

that

they were domesticated

animals?
1

Another has the eyes


the

inlaid with chalcedony.^

Petrie, Abydos,

thhiites in

ii. iii. CArAUx, Antiquites de Vcpoque 22, p. 24. pi. Bulletin des Musees royaux des arts decoratij's et indiistriels

a Bruxcllcs, iii. 1904, p. 83, fig. ^ Capart, ib. p. 83, fig. 4.


in

2.

Petrie, Abydos, chalcedony 29.


:

ii.

pi.

iii.

23-29,

and

p.

24.

Lionesses

26 and 28.

Eye

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


The excavations
remarkable figure
at

183

of a

Hierakonpolis led to the discovery of a lion in terracotta, which we shall have

opportunity to discuss in connection with the earliest Egyptian To conclude our examination of figures of lions, antiquities.

ue must notice an example


from Abydos.^
Figures of dogs are
into
less

in

glazed pottery, which also comes

numerous.

two principal

groups the

They must

be divided

more archaic

type, represented

by glazed pottery

figures discovered at Hierakonpolis

and Abydos,-

h^

13.

H.iO

Fig.

144.

Figures

of Dogs.

and the
suggest

later

type represented by ivory carvings, which already resemblance to the lion figures of the time of the
143).

earliest sovereigns of

the first dynasty^ (Fig. have a collar round the throat (Fig. 144)Petrie, Ahydos, ii. \i\. xi. 246, and p. 28. OuiBELL, Hierakonpolis, pi. xx. 13 and p. Petrie, Ahydos, ii. pi. vi. 67, 68 (?j, and p. 25.
'

These dogs

i.

13

(monkey)

ii.

p.

38 (monkey?).

and p. 192. RccJicrches stir Ics origincs, ii. figs. 698 rz and Lcs origines dc V Egypt, in I'Aiithropologic, ix. 1898, pi. iii. Petrie, Royal Tombs, ii. pi. \\.a, xxxiv. 21, 22, and figs. 7, 9, II, and p. 249. Ahydos, ii. pi. ii. 13, iii. 22 (Mnsees royanx de Bruxelles), and p. 24. p. 37 There is also a specimen in tlie MacGrcgor Collection, Tamwortli (No. 534).
^

De Mokga.x,
BissiNG,

l>,

Von

i84

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


:

There are two breeds of dogs to be distinguished a kind of mastiff, strong and powerful, which was employed in lion-hunting^
;

breed of large running dogs, of slender build, with the head much like our modern foxhound, and ears, pendant with a coat either black and white, or white and reddish brown. ^
also a
It
is

and

to

this

class

of animal

that

the

dog belongs which


at

is

now

ivory represented by in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford^ (Fig-

an

carving

discovered

Hierakonpolis,

HS)

^'so

two

rough fragments

in

clay,

which Mr. Ouibell recognizes as dogs.^

Fig.

145.

Part

of an Ivory Figure of a Dog.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

They
with

are

specially

interesting

European figures'' (Fig. examples of this species which have been found.
^

from the analogy they present These are almost all the 144).

Fig.
^

Petrie, Abydos, 68 of this book.


cJiasse et

ii.

pi.

ii.

13.

Ouibell, Hierakonpolis,
c7?iployes

i.

pi.

.xi.x.

6,

and

See Lenormant, Fr.,


a

Sw les animaicx

par

Ics

a la

la guerre, in

the Cumptes rcftdits dcs seances dc

anciens ligyptiens V Acadhfiie des

sciences dc Paris, October 31st, November 7th, I4t!i, and 28th, 1870. in h'otcs sur itn voyage en fi.gypte, Paris, Gauthier-Villars, 1870.
^

Reprinted

were carved separately and are now missing. It is the dog of was publislied by Quibell, Hierakonpolis, xii. 7. ]il. The same breed is found, especially at Beni Hasan, under the twclftli dynasty. .See Newberry, P. E., Be7ii Hasati, i. pi. xxx. See on the dogs of Egypt,
'Ihe feet

which

a portion only

i.

besides Lenormant's

article,

Antefaa
''

//.,

in
pi.

tlie

quoted in tiic preceding note, Bn<CH, TJic Tablet of Transaciioiis of the i>ociety of Biblical Archceology/w. 1S75,

and fig. Green, Hierakonpolis, ii. pi. Ixiii. 7, 10, and p. 50. * Reinach, S., La sculpture en Europe avant les influc7tccs greco-romaincs, Hoernes, Urgeschichte der bildenden Kunst ini Europa, pi. xv. fig. 366, p. 125. The figure, fiicrakoftpolis, Ixiii. 7, appears to me to represent -14, and p. 522.
pp. 172-195,

Ouibell

&

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


In

185

Hierakonpolis, as in that of Abydos, enormous numbers of figures of apes were found, in stone and ivory, and also in glazed pottery, white and brown, light green, and blue or purple.
the

temple

at

pieces are blocks of stone from Abydos, and of which the head only is clearly indibarely roughed out, cated (Fig. 146). By the side of these there was a natural flint,

The most

curious

with a projection bearing a vague


a

resemblance to the head of


likeness

monkey.

Petrie

remarks that

this

was the cause of

Fig.

146.

Natural

Flints roughly
in the

worked to resemble Baboons.

Found

temple of Abydos.

" The great natural flint seems to have being preserved. been kept," he says, "as being like a quadruped, and [another]
its

for its likeness to a


in

baboon.

No

other large

flints

were

found

the whole temple area, and these must have been brought a mile or more from the desert. As they were placed with the
rudest figures of baboons that

we know,

it

seems that we have

here the primitive fetish stones picked up because of their likeness to sacred animals, and perhaps venerated before any
a hull,
.Spain

and should be compared with those discovered at tlie station of Argar, in see Siret, H. & L., Lcs p7'eviicrs ages du metal da/is Ic sud-est dc l' Kspairjic, Anvers, 1887, pi. xvii. 1-3, and pp. 123, 124; also with those discovered at Cncuteni. See BuTZUREANO, Gr. C, Note sur Couconteni et plusieurs autrcs stations dc la Moldavie du nord, in tlie Conipte 7'cndu du Cong7rs intcniational d' antln'opologie
:

et d'areheologic prr/iistoriqiirs,

pp. 299-307

and

pi.

ii.

17,

18.

1S89, Informatinn idntrihuted by the Baron de Loc.

tenth

session,

at

Paris,

in

Paris,

1891,

86

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


^

Wc will not insist on this images were attempted." on the which touches purpose of these figures a subject point, with which we will deal later.
artificial

From

the

temple of Hierakonpolis

there

is

another very

rough stone figure.^ The species of monkey here represented is the c\'nocephalus, seated on the ground, the fore-paws resting
on
Figures of this class are extremely numerous, from the same type, sometimes summarily, somealways copied
the
knees.

times worked with

careful

observation

and a regard

for

detail

is quite remarkable.^ One group gives the figure of two All these statuettes small apes seated in front of a large one.^ which is in are in glazed pottery, except one, ivory'' (Fig. 147).

which

We

must

monkey which inspired the These were found degree.


represent a
arms,^ the

mention, as exceptions to these, another kind of primitive artist to a remarkable


at

monkey who
little

holds

Hierakonpolis and Abydos, and her young one tenderly in her

turning its head round and looking back with a gesture of alarm. Or, again, there is the ape seated, its fore- paws In this last example the the touching ground.

one

artist

has completely separated the paws, which rest in a perfectly natural manner on a small square base." There is also a figure
of
a

baboon

walking,

where

the

gait

has

been

seized

and

rendered with

much

spirit**

(Fig.
in

147)-

The
Museum,
finished

head of
Oxford,

an

ape

pottery,

now
formed

in

the

part appears specimen than the numerous examples just quoted

to

have

of

Ashmolean a more
in

glazed pottery.^
'

Petrif, Ahydos,

ii.

pi. ix.

190-196, p. 27.

Green, Hierakonpolis^ ii. pi. xxxii. i, and p. 43. ' ii. pi. vi. 50-61, 64, 65, and p. 25 Petrie, Abydos, 1, and p. ;j5 pi. liii. 7-9, ix. 197, 202, and p. 27 x. 217-219, and p. 27 xi. 233, 235, 238, 247, 24S, 253, and xxii. 11, 12. OuiBELL, Uiaakonpolis, p. 28. pi. xxi. 10, 11 < Petkie, Abydos, ii. pi. vi. 49, and p. 25. lb. ii. pi. xi. 12, and p. 24. " lb. ii. pi. iv. V. 41, and p. 25 (glazed pottery). OuiBELL, Hierakonpolis,
i.
1
;

OuiBELL

&

i.

'

i.

pi. xviii.
'

(stone).
ii.

Petrie, Abydos,
lb.
ii.

pi.

iii.

16,

and

p.

24 (ivory).
pi. Ixii.
i,

*
'

pi.

i.

vii.

86,

and

p.

25 (glazed pottery).
ii.

Qun-!ELL

& Green,

Hierakonpolis,

and

p. 49.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

187

Fig.

147.

I'lGUKiis

or Wonkkys.

i88

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

in

Representations of bulls, cows, and calves were already use in the prehistoric cemeteries, as was proved by the These animals are discoveries of Mr. Maclver at El Amrah.

sometimes grouped
are

in

rows of four on the same base.


of

Most

mud, and so frequently they extremely friable that it is difficult to preserve thcm.^ OccaAt sionally one or two are found which have been baked. where been have and other discovered, Abydos pieces Diospolis
simply formed

unbaked

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

189

pig^ (Fig. 148), the jackal,- the antelope,^ the bear,' the hare," and, finally, of the camel, which up to the present has been considered

an animal introduced into Egypt at a very recent period." Two camels' heads were discovered at Ab\-dos and
konpolis,
in

Hieraof

terracotta,

where

the
as

characteristic
to
its

movement
(Fig.

the

lower

lip

leaves

no doubt

identity

149).

Fig.

149.

Camel's

Head

in

Clay, found at Hierakonfolis.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

The camel must, therefore, have been introduced the commencement of the historical era, only
'

into
to

Egypt

at

disappear

MacIver & Mace, El Amrah and Abydos,


66,

pi. ix.
i.

(?).

Petrie, Abydos^

ii.
ii.

pi. vi.

and

p. 25.

Quibell, Hicrakonpolis,
i.

pi. xxi.

xxii. 8,

and

p.

and
''

p. 39.
pi. xx. 12,
;

and p. 8 (dog ?) ii. p. 39 (hyena ?). and p. 8 ii. p. 39. M. F. de Zeltner writes to me on Petrie, Abydos, ii. pi. ii. 15, and p. 24. " this subject L'ours ne semble avoir jamais existe (en Afrique) que dans les montagnes de I'Atlas, ou il n'est d'ailleurs pas 6teint, quoique tres rare." ' Petrie, Naqada, pi. vii. Ix. 17, and pp. 14, 35.
Quibell, Hicrakonpolis,
i.

Jb.,

pi. xxi.

13,

xxii. 13, 17,

"'

"

See, for the latter view,

Von

Bissing,
xxxviii.

Znr

Gcschicliic dcs Kaniels, in the

Zcitschrift fiir a<(yptisc/ic referred to by the author


series.

Sprachc,

1900,

pp. 68, 69.

To

the

books
first

must be added. Bulletin dc

I'lnstifiif i\<^y/<ficn,

No.

14,

1875-8, pp. 57, 61, 62.

190

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

According to the theory promptly, leaving practically no trace. of M. Zippelius, it appears that it was the same with the
horse.^

Small figures of birds make their appearance with the com-

mencement

of the primitive

period.

arc in quartz, glazed pottery, stone, bone, and lead.^ is the most frequently represented, without feet, as

The specimens discovered The hawk


though
it

were mummified,

in

the

position

so

often

found on

Egyptian

monuments, more especially on the stelae of Hierakonpolis.^ A fair number have been discovered at Hierakonpolis ^ and
Abydos."
body, as

The
in

feet

are

occasionally

folded

back

under

the

figure found at Koptos, now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford." These representations appear to have been little modified during the first dynasties, to judge

the limestone

by the models of birds found at Medum, in the temple of the pyramid of Sneferu, which Petrie attributed, even at the time
of their
discovery, to
a

very remote

age.'

Does

this

indicate

that they were copied from a fixed

t}'pe,

and that the

artist

did
to

not venture to depart from the model?


^

The proof appears

OuiBELL & Green, Hierakonpolis, \\. pi. Ixii. 2, and p. 49, where it is considered as the head of an ass. Petrie, Abydos, ii. pi. \. 224, and pp. 27, 49 Zippelius, Das Pfcrd i7n Pharaoiicnlande, (read Zippelius instead of Zippelin).
in

the
2

ZcitscJirift filr

Pferdekimde und Fferdezucht (Wiirzburg),


149-151-

xvii.

1900,

pp.

125-127,

133-135, 142-144,

Oxford,
^
*

Petrie, Naqada, pi. Ix. 14, 15, 18-20, and p. 46 (Ashmolean .Museum, with the exception of 20, which is at University College, London).
i.

Diospoiis, p. 26.

QuiBELL, Hierakonpolis^
lb.,
i.

pl. xlvi. 7,

11.

pl.

xxi.

14,

xxii.

14,

15.

Ouibell
;

&

Green, Hierakonpolis,
vii.

ii.

pl.

(beads of glazed pottery in form of birds). Petrik, Abydos, i. pl. liii. 6 (limestone) ii. pl. the base pl. ix. 198 (?), 199 (limestone) (quartz)
xxiii.
''

is

79-83 (glazed pottery), 84 hollowed to allow of the


;

See p. 27 xi. 242 figure being placed on a staff or at the top of a standard. See also Petrie, Diospolis, pl. vii. (no precise description (glazed pottery). There is a specimen of imcertain provenance in the MacGregor in the text).
Collection (No. 3,813), and three others of unusual dimensions in Berens Collection, deposited at the South Kensington Museum.
^
'

tlie

Randolph

Petrie, Koptos, pl. v. 6, and p. 7. " Petrie, Medum, London, 1892, pl. xxix. t-5, and p. 9, 35 Glazing of No. 3, a clear light purplish blue, with dark purple stripes, is also early, and cannot be of I think probably, therefore, the eighteenth dynasty, nor Iiardly of the twelftii. that these are contemporary with the decease of Sneferu, and tlie oldest small
:

figures

known"

(1892).

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


be

191

found

in

small
in

fi<^ure

from

Hierakonpolis,'

which shows

the admirable

the artists

which the hawk was represented when way were not forced to adhere closely to a model.
of a
pelican, or

Finally, the excavations at Hierakonpolis yielded a statuette,

which

is

unique,

perhaps a turkey,

in

glazed

pottery- (Fig. 150). In the great tomb at

series of fish in ivory, pierced at the

Naqada M. de Morgan discovert d a mouth for suspension. On

Fig.

150.

Figures of Birds and of Griffins.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and University College, London.

several

examples

lines are carefully

inscribed on

the surface

to

supply the

details.''

Hierakonpolis.' the model of a basket in steatite decorated with


'

Ancjther fish in glazed pottery comes from The same excavations have also contributed
fish,"

and from

OuiBELL, Hierakonpolis,
;

i.

pi.

xviii.

(schist),

p.

(Ashmolean Museum,

Oxford)

ii.

p.

38

"
:

Found

of a diorite bowl
-

of later date tlian the rest, v\ itli the name of

temple, hut not in main deposit, it is doubtless and has been put in this place by error, as a fragment
in tlie

Khufu
les

incised.

."

OuiBELL, Hierakonpolis^

i.

pi. xxi.

15, xxii.

16,
ii.

and

p. 8.

'

De Morgan,

Rccherches

stir

origines,

figs.

701-713,

and

p.

193.

Capakt, Aoies sur les origines de VRgypte d'apres les fouilles reccntes, in the Revue de VUniversitc de Bruxellcs, iv. 1898-g, p. 128, note 4 and fig. (separate A similar fragment was discovered at Abydos. Petrie, Royal reprint, p. 28). ToniOs, ii. pi. iii. , 10, and p. 21.
'
''

OuiBELL, Hierakonpolis, i. pi. lb. i. pi. xix. 2 = XX. 7, and p.

xxi. 16, xxii


8.

18.

192

PRhAlITIVE

ART

IN EGYPT.
in glazed

the excavations at
pottery.^

Abydos come

figures of crocodiles

Figures of scorpions in carnelian are frequently found at the close of the primitive period (sequence dates 70-80) ^ they were found in large numbers in the temple of Hierakonpolis, and are
;

made

in

various

materials
(Fig-

serpentine,

rock

crystal,

haematite,

and glazed pottery^


Figures
period/
of
frogs

iSOfound,

are

commencing

at

the

primitive

They

are of frequent occurrence at Hierakonpolis'' and

Abydos,'^ both in stone

and

in

In conclusion,

we must mention
College,

glazed pottery (Fig. 151). a curious figure of a feline


at

creature with a bird's head,

discovered

Naqada."
;

similar

specimen animal is

is

at

University

London
gold
^^.

the

body of the
This

ornamented with

two
tt

bands.
or
still

may

be
or

identified with the weird animal

K\ S, sga

sag,

which

in

the twelfth

dynasty was

represented
are

by the
for

Egyptians

in

fair

number

hunting scenes'* (Fig. 150). of these animal figures


the
that

pierced
that

suspension, admitting supposition have already seen in Chapter amulets.

they were
III.

used as
several

We

schist

form present the same characteristic. We will, therefore, now admit provisionally that several of these Amulets of figures had either a magical or a religious purpose.
palettes of animal

this description, representing crocodiles, frogs, fish, birds, scorpions,


1

in serpentine,
-

Petrie, Abydos, i. pi. vi. 74-76, and p. 25 sequence date 52. PEruiE, Diospolis, p. 27, and pi. iv.

Diospolis, p. 26, figures a crocodile

QuiBELL, Hierako7ipolis,

i.

pi.

xviii.

XX. 10 (haematite); xxi. 4 xxxii. (haematite).


*
''

(serpentine), 16 (crystal), 22

xxii.

4 (glazed pottery);

xix. 5
;

ii.

pi. xxiii.

(glazed beads)

Petrie, Naqada,

pi. Iviii.

Diospolis, p. 26 (sequence date 65).


pi. xviii.

QuiBELL, Hierakonpolis, Petrie, Abydos, ii. pi.

i.

10,

11,

14.

vi.

xi.

240, 245 (glazed pottery).

72 (glazed pottery); x. 214 (glazed pottery); Several stone specimens in the Petrie Collection,

College, London, and three Collection, deposited at South Kensington

University
^

examples

in

the

Randolph Berens

Museum.
Maspero,
fig.

Petrie, !\'aqada,

pi. Ix.

13.

CiiJ^BPiS,tiides sttr Paniiquiie histofique, Paris, 1873, pp. 399-400. Lectures historiques : Histoire ancienne, Paris, 1892, pp. 116, 117, and

67.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


jackals, lions, etc.,

19:

are found

among

the

antiquities of classical

Egypt.
are speaking of amulets, I will quote what Dr. Petrie has said with regard to a class of objects which are in the form

As we
bulls'

of

heads
. .

bull's

head.

The oldest form of amulet found is the The origin of this form was a puzzle until an
at

"

example was found

Abydos, on

which the

flat

front

and

Fig.

151.

Figures

of Frogs and of Scorpions,


Univcrsitj' College, London.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and

muzzle form of the lower end


copied from a and continues
bull.
It

left

no doubt that

it

must be

in

use

till

begins at sequence sequence date 6"],

date 46, or earlier,

when

it

is

vcr}-

form, ai)parcntly continued from this, is found in degraded. blue marble with beads of the twelfth dynasty, so it may c\en
iiavc lasted

on as

late.

J^ut

the connection with the bull's head

had disappeared early, while the idea of such an amulet seems to have continued, as we find well-made bull's head amulets
13

194
of carnelian at

PRIMITIVE ART IN P:GYPT.


about
the
close
in

of

the
fifth

prehistoric

[era],

and
this

such continued to be used


gradually dwindling
fact
in

the

and

sixth

dynasties,

size."

Dr.

Petrie

compares with
"

the painted skulls of bulls discovered in the " and continues Looking to the West, we find
:

pan graves,"
bronze bull's
Spain,

head
large

amulets

in

and
to
in

bronze

bulls'

heads

hang
1897,

up

on

buildings

Majorca
amulets

{Revue arcJieologique, Gold bull's head 138).


are

found

in

Cyprus
present

and Mykenae, and


cows' skulls are

at

hung on houses

in Malta, and fruit trees in Sicily and Algiers, to avert the evil eye.

The whole
is

subject of

bucrania
Fig.

152.

Bulls
Berlin

prehistoric bull's

opened by these head amulets."^


specimen
to
in

Head Amulet
Museum.

in

A
ivory

Ivory.

very

fine

belonging
(No.

the

Berlin

Museum
clearly that
it

14,964)
152).

shows

is

intended for a
;

bull's

head (Fig.
;

in
ii.

^ Petrie, Diospolis, p. 26 Naqada, pi. Iviii. Prelusioric Egypticai Carx'ings, Mail, 1902, No. 14, p. 17, pi. B, 8-16; Abydos, i. pi. li. 4, 5, and p. 23; '' ScHAEFER, Neue Altertimier der nezv race'^ aus pi. .xiv. 2cSi, and p. 30.

Ncgadah,

in the Zcitsc/ir/Jf fiir iigyptische SpracJic, xxxxv. 1896, fig. 6, p. 180. the subject of bucrania in Egypt see Wiedemann, Zii Petrie s nciicn Fmidcii, in the Orientalistische Litteraturzeitung, ii. 1899,001. 182-184; Compte rendu dc Hierakonpolis, i. ib. col. 331. Golenischeff, l.cttre a M. G. Maspero siir irois

On

pctitcs trouvailles egyptologigues, in tlie Recueil de traTaux relatifs a la philnlogie et a Varclieologie egyptien/irs et (issvrieiutes, xi. 1889, p. 98. Lefebure, Les Huttes

de Cham,

in the Museo/i, xvii. 1898, p. ^y^o et sc(/.\ Rites egyptiens : Constructio7i et protection des edifices {Pi/blicatiotts de PJicole des lettres d' Alger : Bulletin de coiTCSpondance africaine), Paris, i8go, p. 20 et seq. Naville, The Festival

Hall of Osorkon II. in the great temple of Bubastis, London, 1892, pi. ix. 9, and Daressy, Catalogue gateral des mitiquitcs cgyptiennes du Musce du Cai?c; p. 21. Ostraca, pi. v. No. 25,019 Crevers), and p. 5. Masi'ERO, La Pyramidc du roi Ounas,
in the

assyrienfies,
ib. V.

Recueil de travaux relatifs a la philologie et a Varclieologie egyptiennes et and the variants in La Pyramidc du roi Teti, iv. 1883, p. 48, line 423
;

1884, p. 29, line 242.


xliii.

Capart, La fete dcfrapper

les

Anou,

in the

Revue de

rhistoire des religions,

1901, pp. 252, 253 (separate reprint,

jip. 4, 5).

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


These
bull's

195
in

head amulets bear

sufficient

resemblance
it

their

general aspect to a
to note the

Mykenean

ornainent, to render

interesting^

analogy^ (Fig- I53)European prehistoric remains have furnished a large number of figures representing " animals back to back, with the bodies
united at the croup, so as to present the appearance of a single body terminated by two heads, forming a pendant.""

Most frequently these

are

small bronze

pendants, formed of

f\i..i3^

S.6

Fig.

VJ

153.

Bull's
;

Head Amulets.

two

there

as M. Salomon Reinach remarks, back an important museum which does not possess scarcely some of them. Similar figures arc also found in primitive Egypt, more especially on the cylinders. They will be found in our
bulls,
is

back

to

Fig.

114

(M

560),

and

also

upon a palette with


later.

figures in relief

which we

shall

deal

with

The

Hilton

Price

Collection,

London, includes three curious ivories representing these double Like some of the feet are not indicated. bulls, where the
'

Perrot

&

Chipiez,

Histoire
fig.

de Vart dans
546.

Vantiquiti'^

vi.,

La

Grccc

primitive, /'art myccniaiy


-

223, p.

pp. II 3-

Reinach, S., La sculplurc en Europe avant 1 5, and figs. 320-327.


1

Ics influences

grcco-romaincs,

196

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


figures,

European

they have a tenon

in

the

middle of the back

to permit of their being suspended^ (Fig. 154). In certain tombs of the earHest primitive period, between the

sequence dates 3^ and 44, there


or tusks.

is

found a pair of ivory horns


hollow.

One

is

always solid, the other

They

are

Fig.

154.

Double

Bull's

Head Amulets.

Hilton Price Collection.

sometimes quite undecorated, ending in a point," and pierced that end for suspension sometimes at the pointed end there
;

at
is

a groove and ring. In this case there are two eyes, and lines a beard indicating engraved on the surface of the horn in some
;

Hilton Price, Some Ivories from Abydos,

in

the

Proceedings of

tlic

The block of onr Society of Biblical Archcrology^ xxii. igoo, p. 160 and plate. Fig. 154 has been lent by the kindness of the Society of Biblical Archaeology.
'^

Petrie, Diospolis,

p.

21.

MacIver

&

Mace, El

Amrah and

Abydos,

pi. vii. 2,

and

p. 48.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


^

197

instances the eyes are represented by beads. Occasionally, also, and this is the most interesting form, the horns terminate in a

human
is

head, worked with care.

On

the top of the head there

a ring for suspension- (Fig. 155). The precise purpose of these objects

is

difficult to

determine.

Fig.

155.

Magical

I.nstruments

(?)

in Ivory.

University College, London, and Ashmolean Museum.

Dr. Petric supposes that they formed


sorcerer, or

i)art

of the equipment of a

medicine man.

of the negroes of the

The horns remind him of the belief Gold Coast, who imagine that white men
souls

can

by enchantment catch the


;

of

the

natives

in

horns.

Petrie, Naqada^ ])1. Ixi. 34, 35 |)]. Ixiv. <Si, and jij). 19, 21, 47. Hilton Price, Two objects fro?n prehistoric tombs, in the Zcitschrift fiir Notes upon some Predynastic (igypt/sc/ie Sprache, xx.\vii. 1899, p. 47 and fig.
-

and Early Dynastic

Anti(jii/tics

from Egypt
p. 2,

in

tlie
fig.

writer's collection,
1).

in

Archaologia, hi. 1899 (separate reprint,

and

198

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


to
their

and convc}' them thus


toil

own country

to

make them

for

them.^

In

the

Congo

certain

negroes believe that the

possession of human souls, enclose them in sell them to the white men, who make them and horns, ivory work in their country on the sea coast. They imagine that a
sorcerers

can gain

large

number of labourers

at the coast are

men who have been


manner.

procured

in

this

When

one

of the natives goes there for purposes of commerce, he frequently searches

anxiously for his dead relations.

The
over
in-

man whose
to

soul
will

is

thus

given
or

slavery

die

rapidly

stantaneously."

would gladly connect with this belief the custom observed by Alice Werner in British Central Africa. An
I

old

woman

carried round her neck a

hollow ivory ornament, about 3 inches in length and in the form of a round
peg, pointed at the top, with a slight

groove by which it could be suspended. This object, which exactly corresponds


to

the
this

Egyptian

ivories,
life,

was called
or her soul.

by
Fig.

woman

her

156. Magical Instrument MADE OF Horn, from Katanga. ,, ^ ^ University College, London.
.

Naturally, she WOUld not part with


a
colonist
1 .

tried

in

vam

to

.1buy

it;
it

of her.^

This interesting ethnological comparison appears to be confirmed by an object said to come from Katanga, which I have
recently

instrument

had the good fortune to acquire (F"ig. 156). is made of horn the patina which covers
;

The magic
it,

as well as

the deep grooving formed by long use in the suspension holes, indicate that it dates back a very considerable number of years.
It is

now

at University College,
'

London.
21.
i.

Petrie, Naqada, p. 47; DiospoUs, p. Frazer, The Golden Bough, 2nd ed.
lb.,

p. 279.

2nd. cd.

iii.

p.

407, note 4.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


Certain
of
the
prehistoric

199
cla}'

tombs of Naqada contain

models of boats, sometimes decorated with paintings (Fig. 157). We have already seen that one of these boats was painted in
an
unsophisticated
fashion
rowers.^

on

the

figures representing
at

The

edge with small human crew was also represented


(Fig.
158).

times

by

small

clay

figures-

According

to

Professor

intended

they were not paintings to represent boats built of wood, but those made of
Petrie,

these

show

that

Fig.

157.

Models

of Boats

in

Clay and Ivouy.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

reeds

or

papyri
the

tightly

bound

together,
historical

such
period

as
in

were

in

use

throughout

whole of the

Egypt.''

specimen shows this method of construction.'


Similar
'

in alabaster,

from the ro\al tombs of Abydos, distinctly

boats have

been discovered

in

the

excavations
:

at

p. 48.
-

Petrie, Naqada, pi. xxxvi. 80, ^\ a and h, and y\K ij, 41 pi. Ixvi. i, and De Morgan, Recherches siir Ics origincs, ii. p. 91, figs. 235-237, p. 90. " " ScHAEFER, Nc7tc Altcrtumer dcr nczu race aus NegadaJi, in tlie Zeitschrift
161, fig.
scq.

fur (igyptlschc Sprachc, xxxiv. 1896, pp. 159, ^ P2rman, Life in Ancient Egypt, p. 479 et
'

Petrie, Aliydos,

i.

pi. ix. 4.

200

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


They
also occur frequently in

EI Amrah^ and at Abydos.recalls the

the

great find of ivories at Hierakonpolis.

The shape

of one of these

Venetian gondola^ (Fig- I57)- The presence at these various sites of boats in clay and ivory is of We shall have occasion to refer to it very great importance.
specimens strangely
again,

more
clay
idea

in

detail.

A
us an

model of a house, discovered


of the
habitations

at

El Amrah, gives

of the

primitive Egyptians, and

Fig. 15S.

Pottery

Berlin

Boat with Figures of Men. Museum.

shows that they were made of beaten mud, probably covered with strips of palm wood imbedded in clay wattle and mud.

door

is

inserted

in
;

the wall

end arc two windows

at one end, and at the other the door already shows the principal

characteristics of the door-shaped stelae of the Ancient


(Fig.
'

Empire'

159)-

MacIver

&

Mace, El
ii.

Amrah and Abydos,


iii.

pi. ix. 8,
;

and

p. 41.

Petrie, Abydos,

pi.

20,

and

p.

24 (ivory)

vii.

89, 90,

and

p.

26 (glazed

pottery).

QuiBELL, Hierakonpolis, pi. v. and p. 6. MacIver, a Prehistoric Cemetery at El Amrah in Egypt: Preliminary Report of Excavations, in Man, 1901, No. 40, p. 51, and fig. i, p. 50. MacIver &
i.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


A
tomb discovered
fortified

201

model of a

DiospoHs contained fragments of a enclosure, with figures of two men looking


at

over the walP (Fig. i6o).

have now completed our examination of the principal in the round, and we should proceed to study the primitive drawing and painting. We must, however, not
pieces carved

We

Fig.

159.

Clay

Modki. of a Hol'sf. discovkkkd at

Ki.

Amkaii.

omit to mention the carvings in low chapter on ornamental art reliefs on

relief

described
slate

in

the

the

palettes,

on

handles of knives, on
pottery and stone.

We

fragments of furniture, and on vases in shall see in the following chapter that
pi.
.\-.

Mace, El Ainrah and Abydos,

1-3,

and

]>.

42.

.Soo, 011

the houses of

tlie

primitive age, Petrie, T/ie Sotirces and Growth of Architcctior, in the Journal of the Royal InsttUitc of British Architects, third series, viii. 1901, pp. 341-343,

and
'

figs. 1-4.

Petkie, Diospolisy

pi. vi.

83,

and

ji.

32 (Ashmolcan Musi'inn,

().\fnrd).

202
this art

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

developed greatly at the commencement of the historical and that it produced masterpieces of extraordinary power. period, The primitive drawings and paintings arc to a large extent

already

known

to

us.

We

have

met with them

in

personal

decoration,

on the

slate

upon the pottery. examine two classes of drawings, the graffiti engraved on the rocks and the paintings of a prehistoric tomb discovered by
Mr. Green not

palettes, on the vases, and principally In this chapter it only remains for us to

Upon

from Hierakonpolis. the rocks of the Arabian and


far

Libyan

mountains

Fig.

160.

Clay

Model of a Fortified Enclosure.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

and copied, although unfortunately in a very incomplete fashion, a scries of drawings of men, animals, and boats in a style identical with that of the pottery marks and
there has been observed

the paintings on decorated pottery.^


'

This has led to the legitimate

Wiedemann, Lcs

tnodes d'cnsevcUsscmciit dans la nccropolc de NcgadaJi et

la questio7i de I'origine die

peuple egyptien,
222,
i.

in
i,

De Morgan,

Recherches

sicr les

oiigines de I'J^gypie,

quoted

De Morgan,

ii.

p.

and note

loc. cit.

p. 162 ct

Utie cxcHi'sion d Bcraiicc, in the Rcciieil

where the following works are Golenischeff, seq. and figs. 487-492. dcs traiumx rchitifs a la philologic et
xiii.

n Varcheologie

cgyptieiities

et assyriennes,

i8go,

j)l.

iv.

17,

pi.

vii.

62.
:

Petrie, Teti Years' Digghigy 1881-91, London, 2nd ed. 1893, p. 75, fig. 57 "To judge by the weathering of the rock, it seems probable that they were begun here long before any of the monuments of Egypt tliat we know. The usual figures are of men, horses, and boats, but there are also camels, ostriches, and elephants to be seen."

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

203

These conclusion that they also belong to the primitive age. mixed with representations accompanied drawings are frequently by hieroglyphic inscriptions, and in some cases it is extremely
difficult

to

establish

clear

line

of demarcation

between the
In

primitive
cases,

graffiti

and
there

those
is

of

more recent
doubt.

date.^
I

some
quote

however,

no
this

possible

must

as

respect 'some graffiti copied by specially noteworthy M. Legrain at Gebel-Hetematt,^ which closely resemble those at
in

Silsileh noticed

by Dr.

Petrie.-''

The most important


with
the

graffiti,

which appear

to the primitive period, will

be found

in Fig. 161.

pottery marks in P'ig. 1 1 1 is of these animal figures are arranged in squares, as on the Certain curious representations red pottery with white paintings.

to belong Their analogy particularly remarkable.


to

me

Some

may perhaps indicate the use of the horse. This remark should be taken in conjunction with the theory of M. Zippelius, to which we have recently alluded.
One
seems
of

these

graffiti

merits

special
into

notice.

A man

is

apparently
to

thrusting

harpoon

an

animal's

be stretched on the ground, with

hide, which another harpoon

In this representation I see an analogy with already fixed in it. that of an ivory tablet discovered in the tomb of King Den
Setui, of the first dynasty.'

In Nile

Wady Hammamat,

the great the

road which

connects

the

has

Valley with the noted several graffiti

coast of

Red

which

also

Sea, M. Golenischeff seem to belong to the

and even primitive period, notably representations of the ostrich,


from those of the hi^oric period primitive graffiti can be distinguished See SchweinI'L-rth, G., Aegyptischc patina which covers them. " Diese Ticrbildcr ah Kicsclartefakte, in Die Umschau, vii. 1903, p. 806: Tierbilder versetzen uns im Geiste in jene Zeiten, da die Urbewohner von Acgypten und Nordvvestafrika iihnliche Zeichnungen in die Felsvvande
'

The

by

the

einkratzten, die in den Sandsteintalern Oberiigyptens hiiufig angetroffen warden und von deren hohem Alter die briiunHche Patina Zengnis ablegt, mit der die Linien bedeckt erscheincn, wilhrend datierte Inschriften aus der Zeit der 5. und
6.

Dynastic (bei
'

el

Qab), die

z.

T. iiber di^ alteren liinweg eingeritzt wurden,


162.

aussehen

'

von gestern, wie Prof. Sayce bezeugen kann." De Morgan, Recharhcs siir Ics ori;^iiies dc Vligyptc, i. fig. 487, p. Petrie, Ten Years' Digging in Egypt, p. 75. ^g- 57Petrie, Royal Tombs, ii. pi. vii. 11 Ahydos, i. pi. \\. 8.
als vvaren sie
;

204

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

^r-^

Fig.

i6i.

riKAriTii

irom thk Rocks of Ui'pkr Ecypt.


tlic

The

three figures at the bottom arc from the soutli of

province of Oran.

sculpturp: and painting.


of a

205

man

lassoing an ostrich.
it

We
is

must also mention a boat

not absolutely identical with here, although the primitive boats, and it should perhaps be attributed to the

which occurs

Ancient Empire.^
a
large

The
of

quarries

of Silsileh have also furnished

number

similar

graffiti,

etc.-

In

conclusion,

we must mention

personages, ships, animals, the graffiti of A Kab,


is

and more especially of a boat which


those of the
consider.^
It
is

an exact counterpart of
shall

tomb of Hierakonpolis, which we

presently

scarcely necessary to mention that similar graffiti have

been

found

among

peoples differing widely from each other the Australians,' the Bushmen,^ and even in the French

among

prehistoric graves."

most striking resemblance

exists

between

the Egyptian graffiti and those in the south of the province of The comparison, Oran here the identity is almost absolute.
;

when extended
is

to the designs

engraved on the vases (Fig.

iii),

find here a new proof of the close exceedingly striking, connection between the primitive Egyptians and the Libyans.^ M. Zaborowski has attempted to demonstrate that these graffiti

and we

constitute

we
^

of hieroglyphic writing.** What have already said on the subject of primitive hieroglyphs will
the embryonic forms
GoLENiscHEFF,
1-3, pi. xiii.

"

"

Inscripiio7is dii Oiiady

Havwianiaf,

in the

Mcmoires de
ii.

la

Section orientate de la Societe itnpcfiale russc d\irchcologie (in Russian),


pi. V.
-

1887,

Antiquities

in

Egypt:
7,

Prehistoric

Rock Drawings,

in

the

Graphic,

January
^

ist,

1898,

fig.

with four photos.


Kal), in the

Green, Prehistoric Draivings at El

Proceedings of the Society


pi.

of Biblical ArchfBology, xxv. 1903, pp. 371, 372, witli Crosse, Les Dclnds de I' Art, pp. 125 et scq.
*

and

fig.

'"

Crosse,

ib.

p.

138 et scq. and

pi.

iii.

Christoll, Fred.,
xi.

An

snd de

VAfrique, Paris, 1897, Co mptc rendu


^

in

V Anthropologie,

1900, p. 78 et scq.

H. Breuil, Les gravnres sur les parols See, among others, L. Capitan, L. des grottes prchistoz-iqites, la grotlc dc Combarcllcs, in the Rc7/uc de I'Ecole d'anthropologie de Paris, xii. 1902, pp. 33-46.
'

&

Bonnet,
"
:

Les gravtircs
viii.

snr roches

du
fig.

snd

d^cthtiographie,
P-

1889, pp. 149-158

and

Compare

Oranais, in tlie Revue fig. 6 with our Fig. in;

on de

Ouelqucs personnages ont les bras leves dans I'attitude de I'admiration Csell, Les nwnunicnts antiques de PAlgcrie, i. Paris, 1901, priere. i'lie ram bearing the disc on his head, fig. 13, p. 46, pp. 41-54, and figs. 10-14. may be compared to our Fig. 1 1, Am 19. Z.vborowski, Origines africaincs de la civilisation de Pancicnne ligyptc, in the Revue scientifique, fourth series, xi. 1899, pp. 293, 294.
155
la
1
**

2o6

PRIMITIVE ART
how

IN

EGYPT.
is

for

probably be sufficient to show such an explanation.

small a foundation there

The
back
to

graffiti,

moreover, the earliest of which

may

probably date

show points of resemblance with the wc have already seen, are more especially as pottery marks, which, vases on of the black topped, and of the red polished met with the
palaeolithic times,

It is, however, with the scenes on the decorated pottery pottery. that we should compare the paintings in the prehistoric tomb

at Hierakonpolis.' In the course of the second season of excavations in this locality, a workman

disco\'ered in 1899

by Mr. Green

neighbourhood reported that, at the extreme southof east the prehistoric cemetery, there were walls with traces of
living in the

painting.

The tomb had unhappily been

pillaged

two or three

years previously, but it nevertheless contained sufficient pottery, which had been judged valueless by the pillagers, to render it
possible to date

the

tomb, approximately at

least,

to sequence

date 63.-

The tomb was


with

entirely constructed of bricks, plastered


5

over

mud

mortar,

millimetres

thick.

The

walls were

finally

washed over with yellow ochre or whitewash. Some of these walls were decorated, and at the present time one of the sides,
condition.^

happily the longest, has retained its decoration in fairly good The lower part was painted blue-black to a height

of about 27 centimetres. This lower part was separated from the scenes by a line of red ochre, of a width of about 2 centimetres. The task of copying these invaluable representations was extremely

damaged by the action of time and by and we cannot be sufficiently grateful to Mr. Green pillagers, for the care which he brought to the execution of the work. His work in various places was rendered more difficult by
difficult,

the wall being

the

primitive

artist,
it,

sometimes effaced
ground,

who, having made his sketch in red, had and in doing so stained with red the yellow

on

which

he
all

once

attentive study of
'

the details, Mr.


ii.

more drew the figure. After an Green came to the very


p.

OuiBELL
//a
//'.
ii.

&
54
;

Green, Hierakonpolis,
note,

20

ci

sc(j. pi.

Ixxv.-lxxviii.

'

p.

by Professor Petrie.

]).

21, pi. Lwiii.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


important conclusion that the
to arrange his figures in
artist

207

any

definite order

apparently did not attempt the different scenes


;

are inserted where he found

room

to place them, after finishing

the larger objects, such as the ships. will now examine these representations

We

somewhat

closely

(Figs. 162, 163).

The

first

objects which

strike us arc the six large

boats which occupy the greater part of the space, and which remind us of the boats on the decorated pottery, and also of the
terracotta models which

we have already described.

The

difference

which distinguishes these boats from those painted on the vases is that w^e see no more of the parallel lines which start from
the lower edge and descend vertically. At the bows we notice the cable for tying up the boat on the deck some palm branches
;

cast a shade

over a small erection.


serve
is

In

the centre

two

sliszht

constructions

as

cabins.

On one

of

the

drawings the

hinder cabin

seen surmounted by a post, a kind of small mast, to which emblems are attached. This is also met with on the

drawings of boats on the decorated pottery.


of these

In the stern of one


in

boats a

man

is

seated,

working a long oar, ending

an oval blade, which acts as rudder. As we have hitherto studied all the objects relating to boats, we may refer to a very serious objection which has been raised on
this subject,

and which, I think, is refuted by successive discoveries. Basing his remarks on the drawings of boats on the decorated pottery published by M. de Morgan and Dr. Petrie, and also

on the specimens at the British Museum and at the Ashmolean Museum, M. Cecil Torr considered that " the long curved lines, which have been considered as representing ships, are in rcalit}'
indications

of a

rampart
in

that

the

straight
;

shorter

lines,

the

so-called oars, indicate

a species of glacis
this

that the gaj) which

can

be
;

observed

row indicates
the

the

approach

to

the

and, finall)', rampart objects considered as cabins arc in reality small towers placed on the two sides of the entrance to the rampart."
that
^

i\I.Lorct has
'

resumed M.Cecil Torr's arguments, but modif)-ing


(/itclqucs prcicmiiis

Cecil T(iRK, Sur


p. 35.

navircs cgypticns,

in

I'

Anthropologic,

ix.

1S98,

208

rRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


some
extent.
"
I

his conclusions to

believe," he says,

"

that these

so-called

vessels

represent,
in

with
the

less

dexterity

in

the

drawing
as

and greater awkwardness


the
sign
(

perspective, the

same thing
part

^^^

^
r;^

The curve
^

represents

of

the

circumference of the Kdiii

all

be able to view

at

one glance
in

that a spectator facing it would the lines are intended for a


;

palisade, interrupted

front of a gateway, which opens

between

two

fortified

buildings.

The presence

of the palms on the slope

^i^

^.

4k

^^<f \fhh^,

Fig.

162.

Paintings

on the Primitive Tomb of Hierakonpolis.

are accounted for quite naturally,

and also the standard bearing

the

emblem

or totem of the tribe inhabiting the

Kom."

arguments employed by these scholars are of it is very desirable to mention them here, in great importance,
of the

Some

order to refute them as far as possible.


It is the begin with, there is one fact important to note. discovery of a drawling on a vase of a sailing vessel (Fig. 91), the general form of which resembles closely one of the repre-

To

sentations of the Hierakonpolis tomb.^


'

K61H or Tell
LoRET,

mound,

hillock.

Lc

mot

fl

c^ ^;~^

u^^^

Paris,

1902,

p.

7.

Extract
ii.

from

the Revue Egyptologique, x. ' Compare the hieroglyph of the boat in Lepsius, Deitkmdler,

18,

where

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


are

209

Torr and Loret object that, although gazelles and ostriches found above and below these so-called vessels, fish and aquatic animals are nc\er represented.

On
84 and

this

point

it

is

only
boats

necessary to
are

refer

to

our

Figs.

93,

where the
fish.

surrounded

by hippopotami,
vertical or

crocodiles,

and

"Rowers

are never seen figured," they say,

"and the

they represent oars, should start from the upper oblique line of the hull, and not from the lower part."
lines, if

The oarsmen,
said,

in fact, are

not represented

but as we have just


is

on one of the boats

in the

Hierakonpolis tomb, there

,^S^
.*

Fig.

163.

Paintings

on the Primitive Tomb of Hierakonpolis.

sailor

managing the rudder.

Again,

it

may

be admitted, without

in any way disproving the identification of these drawings, that Even at that date M. de Morgan the vertical lines are not oars.

was inclined

to consider

them rather as

fishing tackle.'
is

An argument
Petrie,
tions,

of far greater

importance

supplied

by Dr.

who

has found these same lines


it

where

to represent a ship.

of Seti

I.,

impossible In fact, in one of the halls of the temple at Abydos, there is a very careful drawing of the
is

is

to

in Egyptian representadoubt that the}' are intended

bark of the god Sokaris, and the prow, which


the

very high,

is

prow rises well above the cabin. SeeSrEiNDORKr, Eiuc ncuc Art agyptischcr KuHst, in Aegyptiaca, Festschrift fiir Georg Ebcrs, p. 125. De Morgan, Rccherches sur les origines, ii. p. 91.

14

210
actually

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


decorated
with
a series of
lines

recalling

those

that

we

It is a curious fact that the find on the primitive boats.^ sacred bark has three oars with broad blades, acting as rudder,

seen on one of the prehistoric representations.The temple of Denderah also presents a bark of the god Sokaris, of later date, where the lines we speak of have almost disappeared.'^

such as

is

palm branches placed in the bows, thc\- shade the place where the pilot is seated.^ With regard to the emblems placed on a post above the cabin, wc must agree with Dr. Petric and M. dc Morgan in
to the

As

considering them to be signs indicating either the proprietor of the boat, the tribe, or the port of sailing.^ Petrie, in this recalls a told Strabo of the connection, story by sign of a ship

Fig.

164.

Standards
;

on the Primitivk Boats.

lost

when exposed in the market-place Alexandria it was recognized by a mariner of Gades (Fig. 164). In the space unoccupied by the boats various figures
in

the

Red Sea

at

are

hunting represented, principally The trapped are las.soed, or caught in a trap shaped like a wheel. animals are gazelles of various kinds (Fig. 165), and this drawing
recalls the decoration

relating to

wild

beasts,

which

of a cup discovered

by Mr. Maclver

at

* Petrie, Archao logical Notes, in Caulfield, The Teinple of the Kings at Abydos, London, 1902, pp. 15, 16, and pi. vi.

^
'

See

Fig. 91.

"

Mariette, Denderah, iv. pi. 64 (after Petrie). Budge, A History of Egypt, Petrie, Naqada, p. 48.
is

i.

p.

71 et seq.,

where

thoroughly discussed. De Morgan, Rcchcrches sur les The author believes rather tliat it is intended origines, ii. figs. 240-264, and p. 92. for the sign of the tribe to which the proprietor of the vessel belongs. * De Morgan, Recherches sur les origincs, ii. p. 93, and fig. 247-264.
the question of barks

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


El

21

University Museum, Oxford.^ On the upper part of the wall, to the left, a man brandishing a club Another personage is drawing a bow. Farther attacks a lion (?).

Amrah, now

in

the

on,

antelopes

of

various

kinds,

which

it

would

be

rash

to

attempt to identify precisely, are scattered here and there, and is It birds, one possibly a bustard. very tempting to on and in the to do so would the figures right recognize equid^e
also
;

be perfectly in accordance with the observations we have already made.

On

one of the boats, above the stern cabin, there are two

P'iG.

165.

Gazelles

caught

in

a Trap and Religious

(?)

Representations.

Painted tomb of Hierakonpolis.

human figures roughly women arc standing, their arms


small
of dancing.

sketched

above the boat three

raised in the attitude characteristic

line
left

The most interesting scenes are depicted under the boats in a On the immediately above the painted base of the wall.

holding a cord, which is tied round tiic necks of three crouching captives, whom he is preparing to snn'te 01^ the head with his mace. This is an important representation,
see a
'

we

man

MacIver

&

Mace,

loc. cil. pi.

xv. 17.

212

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

which gives us the prototype of the monuments of the Ancient Empire, such as the bas-reliefs of Wady Magarah or of Sinai,
where the king of Egypt brandishes
his

mace over

a vanquished

enemy.
of
is

whom
in

In front of this group there are two personages, each holds in his hand the sceptre which in the historic age

the attribute of divinities and of the king, and which does not

appear

any other capacity, except in the hands of shepherds.^ Immediately afterwards one comes to a strange group consisting of a man standing, holding two lions (?) by the neck while they
feet.

stand on their hind


figured

We
It
is

have already spoken of a similar


in

engraved on the ivories discovered


difficult to

the

temple

of
in
it

Hierakonpolis (Fig. io8).


this

avoid recognizing

group a

religious

scene,

especially

when one compares

with analogous representations of the Aegeo-Cretan people.

Continuing the examination of the wall to the right, we see an antelope caught by a lasso (the hunter has disappeared)
then, a

man, who appears


is

another antelope which


in

be dismembering with his hands lying on the ground with the feet tied,
to

we know already on the two pieces discovered at May we not recognize in this scene the capture of the victim by means of the lasso, as Seti I. depicted it at Abydos," and then the dismemberment of the animal
the position

Hierakonpolis and Abydos.

probably before a religious symbol.


exactly what
I

It

is

difficult
is

to

identify

is

the object in front of the


to

man who
it

sacrificing.
111,

am much

inclined

recognize
I

in

the

pillar
in

which

would confirm an hypothesis which work ' (Fig. 164).


'

put forward

a former

V. ScuEiL, To7nbeaux thchains, h Tomheaii d'Apoin, in tlie Mi'moircs publics paries i/icmbrcs dc la Mission a?-cheologique franfaisc du Cairc, v. p. 610, and pi. ii. Mariette, Fouilles exeaitees en Rgypte, en Nubie et an Soudan, Paris, On comparing the te.\t of Unas, 423, and Teti, 242, with these 1867, ii. pi. 50. scenes, I am disposed to rt'cognize the hunting of Apis quoted on tlie Palermo stone. See Masfero, review of Pellegrini, Nota supra ufia Iscrizionc Egizia del Museo di Palermo, in the Revue ciitique^ 1899, P- 4Naville, La piefTe de Palermo, in the Reciieil de travaux, xxv. 1903, p. 71. Schaefer, Ein BruchstUch altdgyptischer Annalen, Berlin, 1902, pp. 21, 23. ^ Capart, La fate de frapper Ics Anou, in the Revue de I'liisloire des Spiegelberc, Dcr Stabkultus bei den Aegypten, 7-eligions, xliii. 1901, pp. 266, 267.
.in

the Recucil des travaux, xxv. 1903, p. 190, note

3.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


Following
this

213

scene of dismemberment \vc find two groups

of combatants, of which
(Fig. 26),

we have already given


(?)

a reproduction

and three women


also

crouching on the ground.


of painting

We
figures

would
of

point

out,

on another wall of the tomb, two


style

men

walking,

the

having already

progressed.
sceptre
1

Both carry a

staff

curved at

the top, and also the

forked at the base.^

The information given on the subject of the colours employed The ground, as we have already stated, is yellow ochre or white. " The blacks are a blue-black, and do not seem
is

as follows.

to be

pounded charcoal. All the boats, except one, have been painted white, over which a wash of bright green, granular in The structure, probably pounded malachite, had been put. exception is a boat with a high prow and comparatively low
stern,

which

is

was drawn

first

The outline of the figures painted blue-black. in red ochre the white of the dresses has in
;

many
v/ith

instances overlapped

this

outline.
;

The eyes were put

in

pasty lump by a blue-black spot on this."


If

a thick

of white
^

the pupil being represented

we attempt
of

to

recapitulate, in
graffiti,

few words, the scenes


that they

depicted on the paintings and


consist

we should say

hunting scenes, navigation, and possibly, as at We must remember that on Hierakonpolis, of religious scenes. the decorated pottery, independently of the skcuomorphic designs,
of

we have only found representations of

similar character.

P'gyptian inscribed such scenes on the rocks, on the sides of tombs, and on his earthen-

We may

ask

why

the

primitive

ware vases?

VV'as

The

question

he obeying an imperative artistic craving? has recently been solved, at least in part, in an

important article by Al. Salomon Rcinach on LWrt ct la magic a propos des pcintnrcs ct dcs gravurcs dc I'dgc du rcnnc? The
primitive

evidence
interest
if

Egyptian culture, we believe, on this subject, and perhaps

contributes
it

invaluable

will

not

be

without

we
'

linger over

it

for a

short

time.
ii.

OuiBELL
lb. p. 21.
111

&

Green, Hierakonpolis,

pi. l.xxix.

'

rAittliropologie, xiv. 1903, pp. 257-266.

214

PRIMITIVE ART L\ EGYPT.


M. Salomon Reinach thus expresses himself on the subject
"
:

of the art of the cave-men

To

begin with,

have estabHshed

what has long


the

since been observed, that designs

borrowed from
;

animal world

are

by

far

the

most numerous
for food

also

what
be

appears to

me

to be new, that

the animals represented

may

termed exclusively such as are used and fishermen these animals being

by

tribes of hunters

desirable, while others

which

were not thus used


desirable

may

be classed as undesirable.
tribe,

These un-

animals include the great feline

such as the lion

and
etc.
is

tiger,

From

the hyena, jackal, the wolf, and various kinds of snakes, the establishment of this fact an important deduction

arrived at

the
fix

knowledge that the troglodytes,


not
their

in

drawing,

in

painting,

and

in sculpture, did

leisure, or to

visual

memories

merely seek to occupy their in order to gain from

The severe companions admiration for their dexterity. choice which presided over their artistic activity implies for this
their

same

activity

some

object less trite than

those which have been

They knew what they were doing alleged up present. and why they did it. They were not idlers and dreamers, into the

scribing

or

painting

any

familiar

silhouette,

no matter what,

following the fancy of the moment."


the
as

Availing himself, therefore, of the contributions of ethnology, French scholar recalls the fundamental principles of magic,
established

by Frazer's grand work.


ideas serve
as
first

In

simple

and
all

logical

the
is

basis

magic, two very of all ceremonies,


like

manipulations. or that an effect resembles

and of

The
its

which have once been


In the

in

produces like, " cause"; and second, that things contact, but have ceased to be so,
if

that

"

continue to act on each other as


first

the contact

still

'

persisted."

case

we have

imitative

magic

in

the

second, sym-

Imitative magic consists in representing a being, pathetic magic. an object, or an action with the object of bringing into existence

the being or the object which is represented, or to provoke the action which is imitated, perhaps at times independently of

sympathetic magic sympathetic magic, on the contrary, combined with imitative magic.
;

is

always

'

Frazer, The Golden Bough,

i.

p. 9,

2nd

ed. 3 vols. 1900.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


In as

215
is

the

case

we

are considering the distinction

not easy,

regarded

When we
that
believe

of view of primitive mentality. an animal figure in order to bring of drawing speak animal into existence or to act upon it, we actually

from the point

that

we

are
is

dealing

with

imitative

magic,
if

while

for

primitive sentation
it

man

there

nothing of the sort.

In fact,
is

the repre-

has any influence on the being which

represented,

owing to the fact that this representation is has emanated from that being, absolutely as which something case be the with his reflection in a mirror or in water. would
is

entirely

"

of the consequences of this idea is to inspire people holding with a dread of being represented in effigy, a fear is which widespread and which certain forms of religion have
this belief

One

taken
the

into

account
^

in

forbidding the

painting or sculpture of

human

figure."

These general ideas of the fundamental principles of magic among primitive people need development but this branch of I can only refer to study would lead us far from our subject.
;

Frazer's work,- requesting the reader to forgive


to lay before

him more completely the proofs

my being unable of my assertion.

French primitive man, according to M. .Salomon Reinach, must have drawn and inscribed figures of the desirable animals

upon the walls


the
or

of

the caverns,

with the object of procuring


"

of multiplying the species. like, of a very crude but very intense religion,

the expression consisting of magic


It is
'

practices having for their sole object the supply of daily food."

An

interesting

confirmation

of this

method of viewing the

matter has been supplied by the researches of Messrs. Spencer and Gillen among the aboriginal tribes of Central Australia"
"

These

tribes," as

M.

Reinach

relates,

ceremony
clans,

called

inticliiunia,

differing

periodically celebrate a according to the various

"

but having the immediate object of multiplying the particular species, whether animal or vegetable, which is the totcin
'

p. 260.
-

Reinach, La sculpture en Europe avant Frazer, loc. cit. i. p. 295-297. Frazer, The Golden Bough, 2nd ed. 3 vols
Reinach,
loc. cit. p.

Ics

injluences

i^rcco-ronianus.

Macinillaii,

London,

1900.

265.

2i6
of the
tribe.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


Describing the ceremonies of the emu clan, they

(Spencer and Gillen) state that certain of the clan let their own blood drop on a .surface of three square metres until the soil is
well

impregnated with

it.

When

the blood has dried they take

pipe-clay, yellow ochre, and charcoal, and on the area reddened by the blood they paint the sacred image of the eiiin totem with yellow and black circles, which represent the bird's eggs
either before or after they are deposited.
It is

round

this figure

that

in chorus, while the chief, or master of the ceremonies, explains the details of the drawings. Having been told the object of these rites,

the

men

of the

clan

come

to crouch

and sing

we have an

incontestable

example of the magic use of a painted


^

image Sometimes these


in places

to induce the multiplication of the model."

figures

are

painted

on the sides of rocks

which are

strictly taboo for

these representations there arc imprints of the footsteps of Vv'omen of the mythological period

women and children. Among animals, human heads, and the

of Central Australia."

Certainly," says
for

M. Reinach,

"

it

would be rash

to postulate

the troglodytes of the reindeer age totem cults identical with those of the Aruntas of Australia at the present time but, short of wishing to renounce all attempt at explanation, it
;

is

more reasonable

to search for analogies

among hunting
of

tribes

of to-day than historic France.

among

the the

agricultural

people

Gaul

or

of

Now

representation in
for

the depths of our


I

caves, of animals suitable

food, to the exclusion, as

have

already remarked, of carnivora, will clearly show whether the religious condition of the troglodytes was similar to that of the

Aruntas, as studied by Messrs. Spencer and Gillen."-^ Do the primitive Egyptians, with the numerous artistic manifestations that we have studied in the preceding pages,

permit us to maintain or to upset this theory?


'

Can

wc,

on

Reinach,

Ioc. cit. p.

262.

figs.

Gillen, The Native Tribes of Central Australia, London, 1899, 124 and 132. See, on the subject of the ititic/iiuma ceremonies, the work

Spencer

&

by DURKHEIM, E., Siir le totanisjne, in the Annce socioh^iqite, v. 1902, pp. 82-121. Compte rendu by S. Reinach in I'Anthropologie, xii. 1902, pp. 664-9. ^ Reinach, Ioc. cit. p. 263.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


coming
of the
to the

217

close of this chapter, say that the representations

" will clearly prove whether their Egyptians religious condition was similar to that of the Aruntas"? The patina which covers the graffiti of the rocks of Upper

primitive

Egypt
buted.

testifies

remote age to which they must be attriAs we have already said, animals and boats are most
to the

frequently found represented. Their object was to ensure success to the primitive hunting, and also possibly to supply the tribe with a numerous flotilla for fishing, or even for warlike expeditions.

The

tribes

of

nomad
in

hunters
the

could

easily
if

transport

themselves to fresh
in

localities
flotilla.

Nile Valley,

they were
a

possession

of a

These boats possibly had also


in

religious object,
It

and were used

magical ceremonies.^

should be remembered, with reference to this subject, that

the

Egyptian divinities are frequently represented in barks, and that the sacred barks play an important part in Egyptian
'

See the curious


xiii.
\\\

I Anthropologic,

1902, p. 788.

Boat and

its

use,

by Salomon Reinach, Le navirc dii cholera, in G. A. Dorsey, The Dzvamish Indian Spirit the Free Afiiseion of Science and Art, Department of
article

ArchcBology, Utiiversity of Pennsylvania, Bulletin, iii. 1902, p. 227, with five plates. Comptc rendu by Dr. L. LLaloy], in V Anthropologie, xiv. 1903,] pp. 349-351. M. Salomon Reinach quotes an ivory boat of tlie prehistoric age, belonging to a
private collection at Munich, in which, instead of men seated, there are birds. He adds '' I have often questioned whether the boats on the vases published
:

by M. de Morgan, which Mr. Cecil Torr has attempted to identify as enclosures with ostriches, are not intended for funerary barks where the large birds represent the deceased persons. The part played by the ostrich egg in the ancient the personages on religions of the East would be in favour of my hypothesis the vases in question might be interpreted, moreover, as mourners, either male or female. I must also say that the birds are not depicted as iti the boats, but above them, a fact which is scarcely explained by any other interpretation vvliich has been adopted on this subject." Review of Weigher, Der Seelcnvogel in der
;

alte?t

Litteratnr ntid Kunst,


It

L,fi\\:)Sic^

1902, in the

Rev ice Archcologiquc,

1903,

ii.

must be remembered that the bark of the god Sokaris, already mentioned, is ornamented at the prow with bird figures. 1 think that wlicn ostriches and gazelles are placed above as well as below the boats, it is because
pp. 378-9. the artist has distributed his smaller figures in the vacant spaces after drawing the principal ones. On the subject of the part played by ostrich eggs, I will add
to

what

have stated

in

infers that they

were suspended

the chapter on personal adornment that Wilkinson in tlie temples of the Egyptians as they still

are in the churches of the Copts. Marshall, James, Some points of resemblance between ancient ?iations of the East and IVest, in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archccology, xiv. 1^9 1-2, p. 6.

2i8
religion.^
It
is

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


permissible to suppose that, under certain circumassembled in certain localities sacred to the

stances, the tribes


cult in the

same way that the Australians celebrate the inticJiiinna in certain localities, which are always the same.Greek authors relate how^ numerous barks laden with entire populations habitually

went to Bubastis

to celebrate the feast of the goddess.^

The
it

ideas of death entertained

easily comprehensible why with scenes analogous or identical with those found on the rocks, If the living multiplied the purport of which savours of magic. useful animals and made representaand of paintings sculptures

by all primitive people render the walls of tombs were inscribed

tions of boats with a utilitarian object, the deceased,

who

in his

tomb

lived a life scarcely different to that of the living,

would have

a similar desire to benefit from the result of these representations.

The tombs in Egypt were extremely small, and could scarcely contain the contracted corpse. Thus the walls could not suffice for the representation of scenes necessary for the dead. They
were, therefore,
his

drawn on the
it

sides of the jars


this

which contained
so

provisions, and

is

for

reason that

many
aloes,

vases

are
find,

painted

with

boats

and

animals.

The
Egypt

plants

that

we

and

that

we have already
pots,

mentioned, are
in

which
present

are cultivated in

and

still

retain
evil

to the

day the property of averting the


scenes

eye.

As

to the dancing

we believe we have recognized, they would be the explained by funerary and magical nature of primitive dances. will speak of them in a special chapter.
which

We

Certain figures of the Hierakonpolis painted tomb, moreover, the religious nature of these representations, and they reproduce, as we suppose, the ceremonies of the cult.^

confirm

When
^

Pharaonic Egypt makes

its

appearance

in

the paintings

edifices, p.
2

See, for example, Lefebure, Rites egyptiens: Construc/ioii et protection des 86 et seq.

Spencer

&

Gillen,
ii.

Herodotus,

60.

loc. cit. fig. 24, p. 171, and fig. 33, p. 195. See Wiedemann, Herodots zwcitcs Buck mit

saclilichen

Eriduternitgen, Leipzic, 1890,


''

p.

253 etscq.
I
Hj,

On

the subject of

tlie

cult of tlie pillar

am

struck with the frequent

appearance of the pole


loc. cit.

in

Australian ceremonies.

See Spencer

&

Gillen,

passim.

Index, "Pole."

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


and sculptures of the tombs of the Ancient Empire,
that
it

219

seems

things

also scenes

doubt

is

changed. occur repeatedly. Here, where no longer possible, we are certain of the reason of these
of

arc

but

h"ttle

Figures of animals and

navigation

still

representations.
for

They

the deceased
of

exist solely for the purpose of procuring the realization of the objects depicted on the

tomb. The religious formulae which accompany show the Egyptian of historic times employing magic methods in order to ensure to the deceased a peaceful and happy existence, methods which in reality arc only the dewalls

the

these

scenes

velopment of those employed by


doubt this
is

his primitive predecessors.

No

We

numerous primitive sculptures. have mentioned models of boats, and also of animals.
the explanation of

On this point a grave objection may be made to the theory of M. Salomon Reinach. In Egypt it is not only desirable animals
that are represented. As of the undesirable animals

we have

hippopotamus, crocodile, scorpion, frog, lion, jackal, monkey, and even the griffin with the body of a lion and the head of a bird.

the

seen, there are also

figures

The answer which meets this objection appears to us a simple one. The primitive Egyptians, when we first know them, are already advanced to such a degree of civilization that we may
be justified
object of
in supposing that, in addition to magic formulae, the which was to secure a supply of food, they also possessed

religious beliefs of higher development, such, for

example, as the

animal

cults.

The monuments

of ancient
at

;proof of the existence

of such cults

the

Egypt afford sufficient commencement of


hippopotamus,
;

Egyptian history
the

to enable us to recognize, in the


^
;

goddess Thueris

in

the crocodile, the god Sebek


;

in
;

the
in

scorpion, the goddess Selkit

in

the frog, the goddess Hekit

The figures of the hippopotamus are perhaps intended to enable the deceased to enjoy the pleasure of hippopotamus hunting. See Prisse D'AvENNES, Histoire dc Part egypticn, atlas ii. \A. x. At the British Museum there is a statue in breccia of the goddess Thueris in liippopotamus form, wliicii was
'

at first attributed to the Sai'tic period,

have been raised as to


.a proof.

its

authenticity,

then to the arcliaic age but as doubts I have not dared to make use of it as
;

See Budge,
fig. p.
5,

History of E}(ypf,

ii.,

i^gypt under the Great

Pyramid

Jitiilders,

Britisii

Museum, No.

35,700.

220
the
the
lion,

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


the goddess
;

Sekhmet

god Anubis god Mentu, etc.

the ape,The cults of these divinities apparently did not


in
;

in the jackal, god Atum the god Thot in the griffin, the

or the

exist at this age with

all

their later

developments

but

see in

the fact that these Egyptian divinities of the historic age were represented by these animals, the proof that from primitive times
If it were possible for me to they had been the object of a cult. enter here into details of theories relating to fetishism such as
is
it

practised

by the negroes
to

of the coast of Guinea, or of totemism,.

would be easy
existence

these animals, on

and

it clear how it could happen that was supposed that the well-being of the entire tribe depended, became actually

make
it

which

desirable.

Thus
of

the

theory proposed by M. Salomon

Reinach
of

finds a striking confirmation

Models

boats

among the primitive Egyptians. frequently occur in Egyptian tombs

Pharaonic times, and also models of houses have been found. The primitive tombs have yielded representations of servants,
of

the

women, and of dwarfs, whose presence may be explained in same way. The servants are given to the deceased to
in

accompany him
to

the

other

life,

and the numerous statues of

servants found in the mastabas of the Ancient


the persistence

of

this

husbands, and a statuette


of a
bed,'^

Empire bear witness Wives accompany their discovered at Naqada, with a model
custom.
representations
of

recalls

similar

Pharaonic times.

Dwarfs and deformed persons served to amuse the deceased^ as did the buffoons for the living and here, again, the representations on the tombs of the Ancient Empire confirm this view.
;

The

religious

texts

indicate

the

importance of dwarfs

in

the

next world.'

The figures of captives, which we have previou.sly mentioned

would be more
'

difficult

to

explain

if

the

foundation

rites

of

On the subject of lions and apes see also Lefebure, Kites cgyptlens : Construction ct protection des edifices, P- 5^ et seq.
^

The

figures of apes are perhaps intended to provide the deceased with pet

anirnaliJ.
'

See Lepsujs, Doikindlcr, ii. 13. Naqada, pi. xx.xvi. 83, and p. 4I. Maspero, 6ur line formule die Livre des Pyramides,
F^ETKiE,
ii.

iu

tlie

fUudcs de

tnytliologie et darcheologic cgyptienncs^

pp. 429-443.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

221

tombs, of temples, and of houses amongst the primitive people did not come to our aid and indicate the motive for their
presence.^

These are victims

sacrificed

as

guardians

of

the

monument, and Egyptian

civilization did not succeed in entirely

The representations on a Theban tomb banishing this custom. of the New Empire furnish us with a conclusive proof of this.It

may

be considered surprising that the primitive temples

of Hierakonpolis and Abydos contribute so many objects similar This coincides with the conception to those found in the tombs. of the Egyptians not to say of all primitive nations of the

house,
to

the temple, and the tomb, between which there seems be no essential difference. The tomb is the house of the
;

dead

the

temple

is

god or the

tomb of

the dead god.

probably cither the house of the living Unfortunately we can only

briefly indicate these points,

without entering into the developments which are not directly connected with our subject.

The
that

results of

our investigations
there

in

this

chapter tend to show

any between the sculptures and paintings of the primitive Egyptians and those
of radical
differences

are scarcely

of Pharaonic times.
following chapter, devoted to the earliest Pharaonic monuments, will show that if the style of art productions was

The

transformed, this

transformation
follow
it

was effected

in

manner
in

that

we can

step
art

introduced,
the

but the

primitive

by step. was only changed by them


a

New

so gradual a elements were

same manner

as that in which

nation itself alters

b}'

frequent admixture of foreign blood.


1

M[onseur],

E.,

Ics traditiotis et Ics superstitions

review of Sebillot, Les travaux publics ct Ics mines dans de torts les pays, Paris, 1894, in the Bulletin dc

iv. ii. fasc. iii. 1893, p. 177, where the bibliographical indications The same primitive beliefs may also relating to this point are to be found. " Le but de ces sacrifices est de procurer a la explain certain animal figures.

Folklore,

construction un genie protccteur."


les
Maspero, Le tombcau dc Mcntouhikhops/iouf, in the Manoires publics par mcmbrcs de la Mission arc/icologique fraufaise an Cairo, v. fasc. 3, pp. 435-468.

222

CHAPTER

V.

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.

DURING on the
discovered
a

the winter of 1893-4, in the course of excavations


site of

the temple of Koptos, Petrie and Ouibell


^

number of stone monuments " quite apart from anything known in Egyptian work." They comprised three

human
bird,

statues considerably over life size, three lions, and a and are entirely hammer-worked, showing no trace of the

any metal tool. have previously had occasion to speak of the lions and the bird, and we have seen that, owing to recent discoveries, it
chisel or of

We

is

possible to

assign

them

their

position in the classified series

of

remains,

extending
statues
attitude

from the primitive


150).

period

to

the

first

Egyptian dynasties (Figs. 142 and

The
Min.

three

represent

personage standing
the
to

in

the

characteristic

assigned

The
slight

legs are parallel

by Egyptians and joined, and are marked


;

the

god
only

by a
the

groove

in

front

and behind

indicated.

The
;

arms,
position

roughly worked,
of the
right

the knees are scarcely project but little from


differs

body

the

arm

from
;

that

of

instead representations of the god Min in the classical period of being raised to hold a whip, it is hanging down the side. The fist is clenched, and a hole pierced through the hand shows

hold some kind of emblem, possibly the The only garment indicated is a girdle formed of whip a piece of material wound eight times round the body one end falls down the right side, broadening to the base (Eig. 166).
that the figure should
itself.
;

'

Petrie, Koptos,

p. 7.

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.


On
this

223

end

there

arc

various

designs,

indicated

by outHnes

more deeply hammered, and which probably

are an attempt at

rendering embroidery. In the first statue the designs are a stag's head

fixed

on

Fig.

166.

Statues

of the god Min discovered at Koptos.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

a stake,

below

this are

On
poles,

of which enters the mouth of the animal two ptcroceras shells. the second statue there are also two ptcroceras shells,

the

top

two saws of

the saw-fish

of

the

Red

Sea,

and,

finally,

two
with

on the top of which arc fixed emblems identical

224
the
sign

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


which
later

on was
El

used
the

for

writing the

name
a

of

the god
palette

Min, and
discovered

recalling
at

sign of

Amrah,

engraved upon which we have given

slate

reproduction (Fig. 6^).

On

the third statue the designs are

more complex.

The two

poles with

the

Min emblem

are

separated, as in the preceding

specimen, by the saws of saw-fish, the teeth of which are in this A case worked with a flint-knife instead of being hammered. of the Min emblems, and below knotted pole is joined to one
the other there are
is

a drawing

of an ostrich.

In addition, there
figure,

two

large

pteroceras

shells,

an

indefinite

then an
placed

elephant, a hyaena (?), and an ox, the feet of which are on small triangular objects^ (Fig. 167).

We
the

have already had occasion to notice similar figures on decorated pottery, Vihere we find men hunting animals

feet are placed on a succession of triangles, apparently intended to represent mountains (Fig. 88). On a fragment of sculptured ivory from Hierakonpolis elephants are likewise seen

whose

standing on these triangles (Fig. 109). We may, then, connect these archaic statues with the primitive remains, even though

they are manifestly intended for a representation of an Egyptian Without insisting here on the deductions which have <iivinity.

been drawn from the presence of these statues at Koptos, we

may
those

say, in

passing, that they provide a powerful


to

argument

to

bring the dynastic Egyptians from the land of Punt, situated on the east coast of Africa, on the borders of
the

who wish
Sea.-

Red With

the exception of Professor Petrie, the discoverer of these

statues, the only scholar

who has attempted to determine their age is Professor Steindorff, of Lcipzic. Judging from their style he attributed them to the prehistoric period.^ Petrie, on the

Petrie, Koptos, pi. iii. iv. and pp. 7, 8. The head of one of the statues has been found, but it is much mutilated. It shows that the god was bearded. The face has sufiered most. See Pktru:, ib. pi. v. 4 (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford).

Petrie, Koptos, pp. 8, 9. History of Egypt Sixteenth Dynasty, 4th ed. Loudon, 1899, p. 12.
'

from

the Earliest

Times

to the

yur

Steindorff, Eine neue Art dgyptlscher Georg Ebers, pp. 130, 140, notes i, 41.

Kiinst, in Aegyptiaca, Festschrift

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.

225

Fig

167.

Hammered

Designs on the Archaic Statues of the god Min.


(l

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford

and 2); Cairo Museum (3 and

4).

15

226

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

contrary, in a recent article, considers them as the earliest work of This divergence of opinion cannot be ignored. the dynastic race.^

archaic statue similar to those from which had been used as the threshold was discovered, Koptos

At

Hierakonpolis an

of a gateway in the wall of the ancient town. According to Mr. Green, this represents a man standing, the left leg slightly advanced. The knees are summarily indicated the left arm is
;

laid

horizontally

on the

breast,

and the right arm, dispropor-

tionately long, hangs

down

the side.
to

a large cloak,
figure
left

which reaches

The clothing consists of the knees, fitting close to the

and supported by a broad band, which, passing over the

shoulder, leaves the right side of the chest uncovered.

As

the statues of Min, the right hand is pierced horizontally to hold a sceptre or staff.- The original, now in the Ashmolean
in

Museum, Oxford,

gives rather the impression of the statue of a

woman

(Fig.

i68).

at Hierakonpolis led to the discovery of two very important monuments, which have been the means of dating a whole series of similar objects dispersed in various

The same excavations

museums, and about which there had been much divergence of These objects consist of fragments of slate palettes, opinion. on which figures of men and animals are sculptured in very
low
relief.

Museum,

insisted

M. Heuzey, the learned custodian of the Louvre on the resemblance of style between these

M. Maspero fragments and the monuments of Chaldean art. observed points which were completely Egyptian, and believed
that for one of the fragments he could assign a date during the rule of the Libyan kings of the twenty-second dynasty (Sheshonk

and
to

his

successors).

Dr. Budge, the

keeper of the Egyptian


his turn considered

department of the British


be
offered

Museum,

in

them
the

Mesopotamian works imported into by the Mesopotamian princes to


to

Egypt
the

as

presents

kings

of

eighteenth dynasty.

Finally, Professor Steindorff, in the

article

we have already mentioned, came


'

the

conclusion,
\.\\q

after

Petrie, The Rise


^

and

Devclop?netit of Egyptian Art^ in


2isf, 1901, p. 594.
ii.

Journal of the

Society of Arts London,


^

June

QuiBELL

&

Green, Hierako7ipolis,

pi. Ivii.

pp. 15, 16, 47.

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.


indeed Egyptian, but of the prehistoric age.^ It was at this time that Ouibell discovered
polis two pieces of the same furthermore, on one of them
class.

227

minute examination of the entire group, that these objects were


at

Hierakon-

They were complete, and


inscribed
in

was

hieroglyphic

characters

royal

name.

Unfortunately,

the

name does not

Fig.

68.

Archaic

Statue discovered at Hierakonpolis.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

correspond with any of those


of later date, and
at

known

to us from the royal lists

present time opinion is still divided as to the exact position that should be assigned to it.It is,
the
'

M. de Morgan arrived
les origincs,
ii.

at the
fig.

same
and

conclusion.
p.

sur
-

pi.

ii.

iii.

864,

263 ct

in our Figs. Petrie, History of Egypt from the Earliest Titnes^ etc., 5th ed. 1903, FoucART, Les deux rois iticonnus d^ Hierakonpolis, in the Cojnptcs pp. 7-9. rendus de V Acadc7nic dcs inscriptimis et belles lettres, 1 90 pp. 24 1 -249. Naville, Les plus ancietis 7fio?uimeitts egypliens, iii., in the Recucil de travaux, etc., xxv.
1
,

them with the knife-handles shown

See De Morgan, RecJierchcs where M. Jequier compares 33 and 35.


scq.,

1903, pp. 206-208, 218-220.

228

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


who
is

nevertheless, incontestable that this king,

called

Nar-Mer
Egyptian

by general agreement, belonged


history.
polis,

to the earliest period of

He

deposited several objects in the temple at Hierakona great slate palette and an
in

among them

enormous mace-

which supply us with an instance of common objects diverted from their ordinary use to become ex-votos.^ Their discovery dispelled all doubt as
relief,

head, both decorated with scenes

low

to the age of similar objects,

and henceforth they must be dated

from the close of the prehistoric times, or the commencement


of the dynastic era.

impossible to give here a detailed description of these interesting pieces, as it would be necessary to raise extremely difficult questions, the solution of which would occupy many
It is

pages-; nor can


of these objects.^

history of primitive

attempt to indicate the facts relating to the Egypt which have been drawn from the study

I must content myself with giving illustrations adding some remarks on the analogies which we notice between these pieces and those of primitive times or of

of them, and

the historic period.

our

style, we should place first on a fragment at Cairo (Fig. 169), published by Professor It represents a boat similar to those known to us Steindorff.'*

Basing our selection on the


list

Capart, La fete de frappcr les Anon, loc. cit. xliii. 1901, pp. 251, 252. Naville, Les plus ancients momiments egyptiens, iii. loc. cit. p. 223. * Legge, The Cafved Slates f7vm Hlerako7ipolis and elsewhere, in the Pro1

ceediiigs
loc. cit.

of the Society of Biblical Archa;ology,


Slate,
ib.

Another Carved

xxii. 1900, 125-39, with nine plates; Ca^'ved Slate^ pp. 270, 271, with one plate;

A New

Steindorff, Einc iieiie At't dgyptischer Kunst, in Aegyptiaca., Festschrift fiir Georg F.bers, pp. 122-141. J. L. ]VI[yres], review of Legge, Carved Slates from Hierakonpolis and clsewhei'e, in the Journal of the A7ithropological Institute, xxx. 1900; Anthropological Reviews
xxvi. 262, 263, with

one

plate.

Capart, La fete de frapper les Anoti, 1901, where an almost complete M. Bencdite, bibliography will be found of the great palette of Hierakonpolis. in a work on the new palette at the Louvre, gives a summary study of the whole Benedite, Une nojivelle palette eti schiste, in \.\\e Monutnents ct memoires group. and pjitblics par l' Academie des inscriptiojis ct belles lettres, x. 1903, pp. 105-122 See also Jolles, Die antithetischc Gruppe, in the Jahrbuch der Kaiserlich pi. XI.

und Miscellanea,
in

pp.

15, 16, pi.

B, C, D.

the

Revue de

riiistoirc dcs religions,

xxii.

deutschen Archeologischen Institut, xix. 1904, p. 37 et seq. 3 Newberry & Garstang, A Short History of Ancient Egypt, London, 1904,
pp. 14-19.
^

Steindorff,

loc. cit. fig. p.

124.

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.


from the prehistoric remains.
This
is

229

surmounted by two signs

one of which
already on
in

is

the bird

which we have met with '^^, rekhyt,


Hierakonpolis, Professor

a vase

with relief decorations from


inscription

what may be a pictographic

(Fig. T"^.

Steindorff, with

exist

perfect accuracy, noted the resemblances which between the boat here represented and those figured in

the earliest hieroglyphs.

fragment at the Louvre and two

others

at

the

British

Fig. 169.

Fragment

of a Slate Palette.

Cairo Museum.

Museum belong

together,

palette^ (Fig. 170).

In

the centre there

and united form almost a complete is a round cavity, in-

tended apparently to contain the green paint by means of which


the divine statue or the king officiating in the temple was painted. Surrounding the cavity are traced hunting scenes. To the right and left of the palette, two bands of huntsmen are chasing the

animals of the desert


resistance.
'

The type

at the top there is a lion offering a vigorous of lion gives us at least a clue to the date

Heuzey, Egyptc OH Chaldec, in the Comptcs rcndiis de I'Acadcviic dcs inscriptions et belles le tires, i8gg, pi. of p. 66, and pp. 62, 63.

230

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

of the palette. The working of the mane recalls very exactly the figures previously described of lions contemporary with the

kings of the

first

dynasty (Fig.

141).

The

eyes of the hunts-

men,
tail

as

Steindorff remarked,

as in the prehistoric figures.

hollowed to contain a bead, All the men represented wear the


are

ostrich feathers in their hair.

attached to the girdle, and most of them have one or two Their weapons are characteristic

of prehistoric times. ^
If
it

several years ago on the subject of the

were possible to verify the hypothesis which I put forward two figures inscribed on

the upper end of the palette, we should in this palette have one of the earliest instances of the use of hieroglyphic writing.^

Here, again, we see standards formed of a pole, on the top of which an emblem is fixed, recalling the ensigns of boats of

The figures of animals, similar primitive age (Fig. 164). those on the decorated pottery, resemble also other pieces which are more accurately dated, especially a palette discovered
the
to

at Hierakonpolis, the top of

which

is

decorated with two running

jackals, the silhouette of the two animals following exactly the outline of the palette.

In

this

other
the

palette,

also,

the

central
piece.

cavity

appears

to

constitute
is

essential

part

of the

Here our attention

by the weird figures of feline animals with enormously which we have already seen on the Hierakonpolis necks, long ivories (Fig. 108), and which we shall meet with again. The various
attracted

animals represented here are somewhat surprising. There is the same mixture of real and imaginary creatures, as in the hunting scenes depicted on the walls of tombs of the twelfth dynasty^

One of the British Museum fragments is figured, with reference to the shape of the bow, in Schurtz, Urgescliichte der Kjtltiir, Leipsic, 1900, p. 345, " witii the astounding description, Assyrischc Jagdssenc." 2 Capart, Melanges, 2, Remarqtte siir une des palettes archatqiies du Musee Budge, A Britattniqtte, in the Recueil de travaux, etc. xxii. igoo, pp. 108-110.
^

History of Egypt, ii. 1902, Max the preceding work.


*

p.

11, where the author is not acquainted with Muller, W., Nachtrag zu Louvre, C, in the
iii.

Orientalistische Litteraturzeitiing,

1900, col. 433.

oti

ii. Heuzey, l^gypte pi. xxviii. and p. 41. Chaldee, loc. cit. 1899, pi. of p. 66, and pp. 66, 67. A fragment of the lower part of a similar palette is in the MacGregor Collection at Tannvorth.

OuiBELL

& Green,

Hierakonpolis,

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.

231

X
\^l
-^
^. -^ fV:
,-f.

/ ^

^v^

1V

n^-'

Fig.

170. Slate Palette with Hunting Scenes.


Louvre and British Museum.

232
(Figs.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


171 and 172).

Mr. Ouibell, from information supplied by


gazelles,

antelopes, ibex, oryx, stags, vulture (more probably an ostrich), leopard, jackals, dogs, One of these a wild bull, a giraffe, and two fantastic creatures.

Captain

Flower, identifies
a

Fig.

171.

Slate

Pai.ette

with Representations of Animals (Recto).

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

is

griffin

with

out of the middle of

on

its

hind

feet,

hawk's head, and with birds' wings rising its back the other, a jackal (?), walking the body surrounded with a girdle, appears
;

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.


to be playing a flute
(?).

233

Dr. Petrie remarks

on the

interest

from

a zoological
of animals,

point

of view

presented

by

these

representations

some of them

of species which at the

present

day

are no longer to be found in Egypt.

Fig.

172.

Slate

Palette with Representations of Animals (Verso).

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

M.
'

Beneditc

has

published a palette

recently acquired
Art, in
\.hc

by

Petrie, The Rise

and Development of Egyptian

Journal \of t/w

Society

of Arts,

xlix. 1901, p. 595.

234

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


in

him
is

Egypt
figures

for the

Louvre Museum
small

(Figs.

173

and

174).

It

closely

allied

to

the

Hierakonpolis palette, especially

in

the

of animals

whose outlines form the contour of

Fig.

173.

Slate Palette (Recto).


Louvre Museum.

the object,
four jackals

but

with this difference, that

in

this case there are

the

first

two

Here appears for (?) instead of two on each face. time a curious design treated very awkwardly namely, We shall find this motive tree. giraffes facing a palm
;

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.


brilliantly

235

at the British
If

developed on a palette of which there are fragments Museum and at Oxford.^


to characterize the style of these last palettes,

we attempt

Fig.

174.

Slate

Paletie (Recto).

Louvre Museum.

which show so much similarity


say with M. Heuzey
^

in

the ornamentation,
st}'le,
it

wc

shall

"As

to the

is

in

cvcr>' respect

Benedite, Une notcvelle palette en

schistc, in

the Moiit07icnts et
x.

Memoircs
105-122,

publics
pi. xi.
-

par VAcadcJiiie des


See
p. 228,
loc. cit. p. 64.

inscriptions et belles lettrcs


2.

1903,

pp.

Legge.

note

Heuzey,

2^6

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


first,

such as we have defined from the


but
the
full

a reaHsm which

is

crude

of energy, which attempts to render movement, and at same time robust forms with salient muscles, not only in
figures,

human

but also

in

those of animals even of the lightest

agile species, such as the ibex and antelope. Nothing can be farther from the Egyptian style, as it exists early on monuments of the Pyramid tim.es, and if any one of these

and most

figures

had been shown

to us separately, without

any indication

'

1.'*'

./^^."^S

Fig.

175.

Fragment

of a Slate Palette (Recto).

Cairo Museum.

Chaldaa, or Assyria, or one of the countries bordering on these, that we should have assigned it." A small fragment at the British Museum should also be
of
its origin,
it

is

to

included in this same category here at the top of the circular is cavity there part of a recumbent animal, and below are two
;

ostriches identical with those of the

two preceding

pieces.

second

differing very little

fragment from those on the preceding example.

at

Cairo

is

carved with representations


Instead,

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.

237

however, of being scattered in haphazard fashion over the surface of the palette, the animals are regularly separated into three

rows:
rams.^

in

the

first

are bulls;

in

the second, asses; in the third,

This decoration recalls the figures of animals on the knife-handle in Fig. 35, in which Petrie recognized "the regular
^ With Egyptian style of the tombs of the Ancient Empire." these must also be compared the Hierakonpolis ivories reproduced in Fig. 109. Below the third register there are trees almost

Fig.

176.

Fragment

of a Slate Palette (Verso).

Cairo

Museum.

identical

with

those

which appear
that

in

the

hieroglyphs of the
should
be

beginning of the fourth dynasty.^

The

strongest

proof

the

Cairo

fragment

DiJRST

&

schafcs, in the Rcciicil


2

Gaillai^d, Studicn iibcr die Gcschichte dcs iigyptischcn llausde iravaux, xxiv. 1902, p. 46.
7.

Petrie, Naqada, p. 51. Lepsius, Defikfftiilcr, ii.

238
attributed
to

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


Pharaonic
is

Egypt,
in

notwithstanding
representations

its

analogies

with primitive pieces,


face,

the

on the second

where we see hieroglyphic writing, combined, it is true, with pictography. The animals a lion, a scorpion, and a hawk treated in an archaic manner, destroy, by means of a hoe, the

crenellated walls on which they are perched (Figs. 175 and 176). This system of pictography is seen again on a fragment at

the

Ashmolean Museum

here standards, from each of which issues

Fig.

177.

Fragment

of Slate Palette (Recto).

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

arm, seize the captives.^ The palette of which this the largest piece is forms part has not been recovered entire

human
the

at

British

Museum.

On

one of the faces


are
is

two

giraffes,

standing on either side of a palm-tree,

eating the

leaves.

The
>

beauty of execution

of this group

admirably

described

This same symbol of standards furnished with arms is frequently found on monuments of the classic period. I quote one example from among a thousand. Lepsius, Daiktndler,
iii.

74 c/.

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.


by
M.
Beneditc.

239
a

"The palm

branches,"

he

says,

"form

The cluster of fruit at the top decoration of great elegance. adds a motive which assumes singular importance in the midst
of the
simplicity

of
in

detail
this

affected
it

by the
is

remainder of the

Finally, fragment impossible not to be palette. struck with the interest presented by the position of the head of the gigantic animal. Seeking its food at the summit of the tree,
it

appears to inhale with extended nostrils the appetising scent

Fig.

178.

Fragment

of Slate Faleite (Verso).

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

of the fresh palm branches and of the pollen of the blossom." Above the body of one of the giraffes a large bird vaguely

suggests that on the painted tomb of Hierakonpolis (Fig. 162). The other face evidently depicts a field of battle strewn with lion has corpses, which arc being torn by birds of prey.

one of the corpses by the abdomen, and is attempting to tear out a piece. The inert body, which entirely abandons
seized
itself to

being seized,

is

most happily rendered.

The

lion bears

240

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

THE EARLIEST PHARAOXIC MONUMENTS.

241

16

142

primitivp:
to

art

in egypt.
described,

resemblance

the

figures

we have previously
this

principally in

the lines of the muzzle and the two spots on the


141).

forehead

(Fig.
in

Above

scene of carnage,

person

wrapped

large embroidered mantle, recalling that of the

Fig.

181.

Fragment of Slate Palette (Recto).


Louvre Museum.

small
a

ivory statuette of

prisoner,

whose
(?)

arms

Abydos (Fig. 122), pushes before him are bound behind his back, while a

heavy stone

The
on

is hung round his neck (Figs. 177 to 180). standards play a direct part in the scene engraved living Five ensigns a fragment of a palette from the Louvre.

surmounted by emblems of gods, among others of the god Min,

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.


end
an
in

243

human hand grasping

a strong cord.
as
is

This
the

is,

in reality,

which pictographic inscription, of the palette a bull vigorously constitutes the upper part trampling a man under his feet, and about to transfix him with
actual
also
;

scene

Fig.

182.

Fragment

of Slate

Palette (Verso).
Louvre Museum.

his horns.

This, as Schaefer
"

was the
"

first

to recognize,

is

already

an instance of a king
'

Strong Bull

overthrowing his enemies.^

Steindorkf, Elne neiie Art d^yptischcr Kunst, he. cit. p. 131, note i. Mr. Offord remarks that " in the epilogue to tlie Code of Hammurabi, the king, in the mighty steer who overthrows tlie boasting of his victories, calls himself
'

"

enemy.'

244

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

;r:.-j*-r

Fig.

183.

Slate

Palette of Nar-Mer (Recto).


Cairo Museum.

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.

245

Fig.

184. Slate Palette of Nar-Mer (Verso).


Cairo Museum.

246

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


of the vanquished

The type
hair

enemy should be

observed, also the

and the curled beard, as well as the


is

girdle from

which the

the reverse of this palette the principal suspended. scene is repeated, but this time the place of the animated standards the second Cairo fragment, by crenellated is occupied, as in

karnata

On

walls representing fortified

towns.

In the centre of these walls of cities (Figs.


181

hieroglyphic signs give the

names

and

182).

Fig.

185.

Fragment

of Slate Palette.

Louvre Museum.

occurs

of the king, "Powerful Bull," destroying his enemies, on the great palette discovered at Hierakonpolis, again where the bull has overthrown with his horns the crenellated

The symbol

walls of a town.
raises
refer
'

discussions
to special
will

This palette, with the name of King Nar-Mer, of extreme complexity, for which we must
this subject.^

works published on

We

observe,

They
cit.

loc.

See
in

appendix,

be found recapitulated in Capart, La fete de frappe?- les Atiou, also Naville, Les plus anciens inontime7its egypiiens, iii. the Recucil dc travaitx, xxv. 1903, pp. 223-225. Weill, K.,

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.


are also found on a Chald^ean

247

however, the great h'on-like animals with serpents' necks, which


cylinder at the Louvre.'
"

Such

an identity," says M. Heuzey, "between two motives, both of which arc of such precision and complexity, cannot be the effect

Fig.

186.

Great

Mace-head of King Nar-Mer.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

Hieraconpolis ct
pp. 119-121.
'

les

origines de VEgypte, in the

Kevne
ii.

archc'ologique, 1902,

ii.

(juiBELL

&

Green,

Hiera/co?tpolis,
in

Heuzey, Egypte ou

CJialdcc,

the

pp. 41-43. Cot/tptes reiidus

dcs

seances

de

V Academic des The leopard (?)


Egyptian
in
art.

inscriptions ct belles leilres, 1899, pp. 66-68 and pi. of p. 62. witli tlie neck and head of a serpent is not without parallel in
It is

the fantastic animal

named

'ft.
cJii

seilja,

which

is

ligured

Imntmg scenes

at

Beni Hasan.

also occurs on tlie magical ivories de frapper les Anoit, lac. cit. p. 264.

See Newberry, Jkni Hasan, ii. pi. iv. It of the twelfth dynasty. See Capart, La fete

248
of chance.
It

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


can only be explained by very close relations
earliest

between primitive Chaldaa and the

Egyptian civilization. and emphasis if one admits that a race originally Asiatic arrived on the banks of the Nile and founded the earliest dynasties, bringing to the black populations of Africa the elements of an art which had already

The explanation only

gains in

force

simple and rational in itself, not only conforming to the traditions of humanity, but also to the laws

taken form.

This fact

is

of history

and
the

to

that

followed
palette

by

human race"

which we know of the great currents On this (Figs. 183 and 184).

we

find a use of hieroglyphs similar to those of dynastic

Egypt, and, nevertheless, pictography has not entirely disappeared. On the recto, above the head of the barbarian smitten by the
head, a
singular group is sculptured, composed of a human bunch of papyrus stems, and a bird. Opinions are unanimous with regard to this it is intended to signify that
king,

the god

Horus, or the goddess Nekhbet, vanquished or seized six thousand foes, or perhaps that they overthrew the people
of the north. ^

There

is

also

a small

fragment

in

the

Louvre Collection,
There
is

extremely archaic, representing a group of people on the march,

which was bought at Beyrout " by Ary Renan. doubt that the fragment must be placed with the
class of objects (Fig.
185).
this

no

earliest of this

We
to

must not leave


details

what extent

are

series of objects without observing found which are allied to primitive

Egyptian art, by the side of others which are characteristic of Pharaonic monuments. The ivories of Hierakonpolis and Ab}'dos
stand alone in supplying a convincing and satisfactory succession, forming a link between prehistoric and historic work. We must

mind what we have already mentioned, that before anything was known of primitive Egypt, Professor Steindorff, with his perfect knowledge of Egyptian art and archaeology,
bear
in

arrived
'

at

the conclusion
ib.

that

these

palettes

belonged

to

the

C APART,

p.

256.

Lettre de

M. Ary Renan

M.

G. Parol,

in

the

Revue aixhcologique,

tliird scries, ix.

1887, pp. 37, 38, with

fig.

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.


prehistoric period.

249

Now
owing
palette

that
to

we
the

possess,

Hierakonpolis
a

discoveries,

bearing the

Egyptian

name of an king, we are


with

forced to recognize that

we

are

confronted

actual

Pharaonic monu-

ments.

The

hesitation

one

feels in

pronouncing
slate

judgment on these
palettes
to

appears
the
best

to

me

be

that

there

was

proof not at

any
of

given moment in Egypt a sudden change


direction
in artistic

conceptions.

We

have

already had occasion to remark this, and we will


return
to
it

when

we
our

have

to

formulate

conclusions.

King Nar-Mer, who dedicated the great


palette of Hierakonpolis,
also
in the deposited a head of the temple

mace
low
the

of

colossal

size,

inscribed with scenes


relief.

in

Several

of
this

personages

on
still

palette

the recognized
another on the

may

be

servant

carrying the sandals,


identity

250
of

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


whom
writers

are
reliefs

not

agreed/
this

and

the

men

carrying

the

mace-head show a roughness of workmanship which denotes a less practised hand (Figs. i86 and 187) than that which carved the great palette."
standards.

The

on

Without entering into a detailed study of the scenes on this mace,^ we must notice the three bearded men dancing before the king, who is seated under a dais placed on a platform, to
which a ladder affords
dancers three
these objects
access.

Both before and behind these


objects
are

crescent-shaped

represented.

When
they

make

their

appearance

in the classical period,

have acquired a regular form. It is difficult to say what they We must be content to observe that in the texts represent.
these
"

crescents

"

occur

in the

composition of the

titles

of certain

officials.^

The remains of a second mace of more perfect type bear name of a king who has hitherto not been identified with any certainty." Among other scenes we here see the king preCan this be the siding over public works (Figs. 188 and 189).
the

opening of a dyke

"

On

one of the canals

there

may

be

seen the prow of a vessel which recalls those of the primitive In the lower angle at the right the remains are period.
'

Naville, Les plus ancicns vionunioits cgyptiens,

iii.

loc.

cit,

xxv.

1903,

pp. 223-225.

OuiBELL, Hicrakoiipolis, i. pi. xxvi. b. G., La plus vieillc Egyptc, ii., Les niottiwicjits com7ncmoratifs dti Scd a Hieraco7ipolis, in the Sphinx, v. igoi, pp. 102-106. Moret, A., L)n Caractere religieux de la royaute pha7-ao7iiqiie, Paris, 1902, p. 242, and fig. 71, Weill, R., Hicraco/ipolis et les 07'igi7ies de rgyple, in the Revue p. 240.
^

P'oucART,

arckeologique, 1902,

ii.

pp. 121, 122.

ii. Newberry, Bent Hasa7i, i. pi. xxxv. p. 41. 129. ScHiAPARELLi, Musco a7-cheologico di Fire7ize, A7itichita egizie, i. pp. 266, 267, See Griffith, Hic7-oglyphs, pi. iii. 36, and p. 64. 369, 468. FoucART, G., Les deux 7ois i7ico7i7ius d''IIieraco7ipolis, in the CotTtptes rcndus des seances de V Acadetnie des inscripiio7is et belles leiires, 1900, pp. 230-241.

Lepsius,

DeTt/cTniiler,

xxvi. c, pp. 9, 10. M. Maspero here recogwith sufficient probability, the ceremony of Khebs to, "digging out the See Maspero, ground," which took place at tiie foundation of temples.
nizes,

Naville, Inc. cit. xxv. 1903, \>. 218. ^ Quibell, Hie7-akunpalis, i. pi.

Ma/iual of Egyptian
chapter, p. 353, note.

Archceology,

5th

ed.

London,
:

1902,
20.

supplementary

des

edifices, p. 32.
p.

Lefebure, Rites Mariette, Denderah,

cgyptie/is
p. 133,

Const7'uctio7i et protectio7i
i.

and

pi.

Brugsch, Die

Aegyptologie,

425.

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.


distinguishable

251
that

of a

small

vaulted

construction

similar

to

found on the top of the slate palette reproduced on Fig. 170. In the middle register, to the left, some persons are being carried in palanquins, as on the mace of Nar-Mer, and men wearing a
long tress of hair hanging down their backs are executing a dance. Dancers with this same tress may be seen on the fragment of
a third mace, which
is

too

much

mutilated to allow of an accurate


differ in

idea of the whole design.'

These maces, which again

Fig.

88.

Great

Mace-head of an Unidentified King.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.


style from the

theless, to scenes
It
is

Egyptian classical monuments, introduce which reappear at subsequent periods.

us,

never-

the
in

same with
the

fiiirly

numerous

series

of
are

objects

discovered

royal tombs of Abydos.

These

small

plaques, of ivory or wood, engraved with shallow lines sometimes filled in with a blackish paste, showing a great variety of scenes

and inscriptions (Fig.

190).

The

largest of these plaques

was discovered

in

the

tomb

of

the king

whom

Menes, the

scholars are apparently agreed to identify with first king of the first dynasty, according to the
QuiBELL, ilierakonpolis,
i.

'

pi.

xxvi.

a, aiui p. 8.

"52

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

Fig.

189.

Detail

of the Principal Scene on the Great Mace-head OF an Unidentified King.


See Archceolosiciil Report, 1897-8,
p.
7,

I'.lock lent

by the Egypt Exploration Fund.

plate.

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.


historians of the classical period.^

253

are divided

into four

scenes and descriptions In the first at the superposed registers.

The

iiil
mi
V^Ca-jHTiS!*. !-'

r >vj*-' "-

^j^:.
\'^ j:'!i

-oy:^

'l^

Fig.

190.

Specimens

or Small Ivory and Woouex Plaques discovered THE Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty at Auydos.

ix

254

PRIMITIVE x\RT IN EGYPT.


two boats.
before
In

which there are


the

the

next

register

is

another

sanctuary with a sacred bird, similar to one of the figures on

temple is a bull hastening with two pegs, thus recalling ground The two lower registers are a scene of the Vaphio goblets. of boats and by by occupied figures inscriptions.^ On another tablet, that of the king Den-Setui, (or Semti or
;

mace of Nar-Mer

the

into a net, fastened

to the

Hesepui), we find a similar scene to that on the mace of Nar-Mer. is seated under a slight canopy, on a platform, to which access is afforded by a ladder. Before this small pavilion

The king

the king himself again appears, framed


"

crescents," performing a dance."

in two groups of three This scene, as well as that of the

Hierakonpolis mace, has been recognized as a representation of


the feast of Heb-Sed, which was celebrated throughout the whole
history of Egypt.^ fragment of a plaque of the same king shows the king walking, holding the staff and mace, and preceded by the standard of the jackal

duration

of

the

with the

name

Anubis or
closely to

Apuat.'*

Here we
on

feel that

we

are approaching very

the classical
the
first

representations

of the Pharaoh, such as

we

find

in

place
in

the rocks at

Wady

Maghara,

in

Sinai.

name

ivory plaque MacGregor King Den, is especially instructive on this point.^ Special stress must be laid on the important discovery of M.

An

the

Collection, with the

of

Weill,

who

bas-reliefs at Sinai with

has succeeded in identifying the king of one of the King Mersekha of the first dynasty."
ii.

'

Petrie, Royal Tombs,

pi.

iii.a,
loc. cit.

x.

and pp.

21,

51.

Naville, Les plus

aiiciens
-

monuments
ib.
i.

cgyptieiis,

ii.,

xxiv. 1902, p. 120.


22, 40, 41.

Petrie,

pi. xi.

14

xv. 16,

and pp.

'

MoRET,

A.,

Du

Dr.

Budge, who

Caraclere rcligicux dc la royautc pharaoiiqjie, fig. 86, p. 262. regards the seated figure as Osiris, draws from it curious

conclusions.

See Budge, The Book of the Dead {Books on Egypt and Chaldea), London, 1901, i. pp. xxxiv.-xxxvii. A History of Egypt, i. p. 194-198. * Petrie, Royal Tombs, i. pi. x. 84 = xiv. 9, and p. 21. Spiegelberg, Ein neues Denkmal aus dcr Fruhzcit der dgyptischen Kunst, in the Zeitschrift fur dgyptische Sprache und Alterthumskunde, xxxv. 1897, pp. 7- II, and fig.
;
'>

Weill, Un nam royal egyptien de la periode thinite an Sinai, in tlie Comptes rendus de V Academie des inscriptions ct belles lettres, 1903, pp. 160-162 I/isCriptions I'gyplicnncs du Sinai, ii., Lcs bas-reliefs thinites du Ouadv MagharaJi, in the Revue archcologi(/ue, 1903, ii. pp. 230-234. M. Naville questions the reading
'' ;

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.


Finally

255

on

Fig.

190

there

are

various

other
the

fragments

vanquished, possibly representing captives, servants, bringing tribute and rendering homage to their conqueror.^ The resemblance between these captives and those on the slate

and

Fig.

191.

Small

Plaque

in

Glazed Pottery discovered at Abydos.

palette of
note, as
of the

Oxford and of the


the

British

Museum

is

important to
in

also

representation

of the

personage

the

long
;

name of this king and also the position that he occupies in the dynasties he reads Khesket, and considers he is not earlier than the second dynasty. See Naville, Lesplus anciens monuments egypiicns, iii., loc. cit. x.w. 1903, pp. 219, 220. 12, and pp. 21, 22. Petrie, Royal Tombs, ii. p. iii. i, 2, and iv. 4-6, 11, A fragment which tits on to that published by Petrie, pi. iv. 11, was discovered earlier by Amelineau. See Amelineau, Lcs noiivclles fouillcs d' Abydos, 1895-6, Co?7ipte rendu in cxtenso, Paris, 1899, pi. xlii. and p. 307, where the fragment is described as being on plate xli. It is now in the l^russels Museum.

rt:,

256

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

mantle on the same piece. The strange method of arranging the hair which we notice on Fragment 5 of our figure is seen also on two of the Hierakonpolis maces. Petrie, in his classification
of the archaic races of Egypt,
is

inclined to see in these figures

Fig.

192.

Private
hill

Stel^ from the Royal Necropolis of the First Dynasty at Abydos.

men

of the

tribes of the eastern desert (Gebel

Dorkhan and

Gebel Ataka).^
very curious as regards style was discovered in the course of Petrie's excavations at Abydos during
object

An

which

is

the winter
pottery,
'

1902-3.

It

bearing in

a small plaque or tile of green glazed low relief a figure of a man walking, his
is in

Petrie, The Races of Early Egypt,

the Journal of the Anthropological


15.

Institute, x.xxi. 1901, p. 253,

and

pi.

.xi.x.

13,

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.


staff in

257

his hand.

An

inscription, also in relief, occupies part of

Petrie the space left unoccupied in front of the figure (Fig. 191). "It has no groove or dovetail on writes thus on the subject
:

the back, but

is

quite plain
insert in

it

does not seem, therefore, to have


if

been intended to

a wall, but rather as

made

for a

votive offering. The figure is of a low type, the negroid variety of the prehistoric people, and neither of the pure Libyan or

P^rom the inscription we must attribute him dynastic races. He to the Anu, who are known as an aboriginal people in Egypt. of the to be a called devoted to chief God,' Tera-Neter, appears
'

fortress

of the

Anu

in

the

town of Hemen."

The reading

of

the hieroglyphic inscription is very uncertain, at least as regards several of the signs of which it is composed.^' The extreme

rudeness of the modelling recalls the carving in low relief on the private stelae discovered round the royal tombs at Abydos, of which we give some specimens^ (Fig. 192). If it were desirable to characterize in a few words this series of

might be said that they betray indecision. The artist appears to hesitate as to the manner in which he should dispose
objects,
it

of his figures

the hieroglyphs

are

carved

without order, very

different from the fine regularity of the inscriptions of the Ancient

Empire.

These objects betray the awkwardness of the mason,


signs

who

copies

without understanding their meaning.


sign are considerable, and
first

The

variants of the

same

the publication

of hieroglyphs of the
will strongly

dynasty, announced by

Mrs. Petrie,

striking when emphasize one examines the hieroglyphs on the royal stelas of the first dynasty, which have not at any age been surpassed for dignity
this fact.

The

contrast

is

and beauty.^ It was evidently at

this period that the fusion

occurred between

the primitive art and that which the Pharaonic Egyptians may have possessed at the commencement of their occupation of the Nile Valley. It was at this time also that the Egyptian style
'

'
'

Petrie, Abydos, ii. pi. i. v. 33, and p. 25. Athcna-um, October 24th, 1903, p. 544. ii. Petrie, Royal To?nbs, pi. xxx.-xxxvi.
i.
;

pi.

xxvii.-xxx.

r?.

lb.

i.

frontispiece;
1895-6, p.
xlii.

ii.

pi.

xxxi.

Amelineau, Lcs

notivellcs foiiilles

d' Abydos,

17

258
first

PRBIITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


declared
itself in

the royal workshops, before it was possible to impress it on the whole of the recently acquired and unified kingdom. Long afterwards, on the private stelae, one can detect

same opposition to official Pharaonic art.^ As a t}'pical I will a in stela the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford^ quote example A priest of the double, mentioned on of a person named Hekenen.
the

the stela, bears the

name

of Persci/,
fifth

name which

occurs

on

inscriptions of the fourth

and

The same

rivalry

which we have observed

dynasties^ (Fig. 193). in the case of


official

carving in relief as existing between the

Pharaonic art

Fig.

193.

biELA

of Hekknen.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

and

that

of

private
least

individuals,

may

also

be

found

in

the

statuary, at

vations

at

during the three first dynasties. The excaHierakonpolis have furnished us with proofs of this.

found representing a man, one knee on the ground, and of a somewhat strange type. Of these one only proved po-ssible to preserve, and it is now at the Cairo Museum.
statues were
'

Two

See ScHWEiNFURTH,
Stellitiig

J)ic

ncucstcn

die

dcr
in

noch

lebenden

IViistcn-Sliiiiime

Grahcrfundeii hi Obcr-Ac;j;yptcii i/iid zii der all(igyj>iischcn


'

Bcvolkcrung,
^

1898, pp. 184, 185,

the Vcrhattdlungcn der berliner anthropologischcii Gescllschaft, where the author speaks of "Bauernkunst" and ''Herrenkunst.

De RouGt", Rcchcrches sur Ics 7)wimmcnts qu'on pent attribiccr aiix six premieres dynasties dc Mancthon, p. 53. Lefsius, Dcnkmiiler, ii. 83. Makiette, Les mastabas de V Ancien Empire, pp. 299-301, Paris, 1899.

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.

259

The man wears his hair cut short above the shoulders. This mode of cutting the hair and the short beard resembles, as
Petrie remarks,^ the type of one of the standard bearers on the

The clothing consists of a girdle to great palette of Nar-Mer. which narrow strips are attached, which hang down between the

Fig.

194. Limicsto.ne Statue of a Libyan.


Cairo IMuscum.

legs,

a costume which

is

on the bas-reliefs of the Ancient

found on the palette of Nar-Mer and Professor Schweinfurth Empire.-''

draws special attention to the shortness of the neck, which appears to agree exactly with the length of the head, and the considerable
'

In OU113ELL, Hicfakonpolis,

i.

p. 6.

Capart, La fete de frapper


1901, p. 255.

Ics

Anoii^ in the

Rev it c de

lliistoirc

des rclig/ons,

xliii.

26o

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


lips.^

development of the

P^rom the ethnographic point of v'iew, Dr. Petrie considers that the type presents elements other than

Libyan and Negro


This
the
"
is

(Fig.

194).'-

head

not the case with another crouching statue, of which only could be preserved (Fig. 195), where the same
recognizes

scholar

definitely

The come from

short half curly hair

Negro-Libyan type. and the thick projecting lips clearly


the
^

the

mixed

the

Negro

while

long

face

and well-formed

nose are due to Libyan blood."

The eyes

are inlaid, and no

Fig.

195.

Head

of a Libyan in Limestone.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

trace of colour can

be distinguished.

Dr.

Petrie

records

that

while travelling he met an individual who was absolutely idenHe learnt from him that he was from America, tical in type.

obviously
origin.

from

the

Southern

States,

and of Negro-European
the
first

A
^

comparison should be made between


ScHWEiNFURTH,
1

of

these

^
'
*

/oc. ctt. p. 84, and fig. pp. 182, 183. i. and ii. QuiBELL, Hierakonpolis, j)!. p. 35. pi. ii. p. 6 In OuiBELL, Hierakonpolis, i. p. 6, and pi. v. vi. ii. p. 36. Petrie, The Rise and Develop77ient of Egyptian Art, in
i.
;

tlie

Journal

oj

the Society of A7-ts, xlix. 1901, p. 594.

THE EARLIEST PHARAOXIC MONUMENTS.


statues

261

Museum (No. i) which M. Maspero He has made some remarks dynasty. on this subject which I consider necessary to give here. "The workmanship," he says, "is archaic, but still more coarse than
and one
to
at the Cairo

attributes

the

third

Fig.

196.

Black

Granite Statue.

Cairo Museum.

differences in technique and in style be presented by works belonging to the same reign, according to whether they were executed in the immediate vicinity of the

archaic.

One knows what

may

.sovereign, in a large civilized

town, or

in

a locality remote from

262

PRIMITIVK ART I\ EGYPT.

Fig.

197.

Statui;

of a Princess

in

the Tuiun Museum.

THE KARLIIvST PHARAOXIC MOXUMKXTS.

263

Fig.

19S.

Statue

in

the Brussels Museum,

264
the
court.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


...
is

In

any object it from whence

order to appreciate the relative antiquity of necessary to take into consideration the locaUty

it comes, and the importance of that locaHty at the time when the object was made. Memphis, or the town which preceded it, was very obscure before the fourth dynasty, and

One must not, therefore, be royalty did not yet reside there. astonished if its monuments are ruder than those discovered in
cities

frequented by the Pharoah

Ahmar, for example and it would be a mistake, in comparing them with the carefully executed bas-reliefs of Khasakhmui,
or with the palettes
inferiority that

Thinis-Abydos
to

or at

Kom

el-

dedicated

by Besh,

conclude from their

they are far older than the latter objects.

Our

a provincial work, and perhaps its importance lies in the fact that it does not so much indicate a remote antiquity
statue
is

as

that

it

is

proof of the want of


in the

skill
"
^

of the artists

who

were then living


It
is

Memphite nome

(Fig. 196).

impossible better to express the dualism that existed the official art, the art of the masters, between these rival arts
;

and the art of the subject, the peasant art, to adopt Schweinfurth's The peasant art is the logical sequence of the art expression.
of the primitive

population, and

at

the

commencement

of the

in

Egyptian occupation, it the immediate neighbourhood of the residence of the

was not radically transformed except


ruler.

A
rise

similar

of

phenomenon Theban art, when

might be proved
the
political

in

the history of the

power

was

moved

to

Thebes, from Memphis. Quite recently. Professor Spiegelberg of Strasbourg has published an excellent history of Egyptian art,

where he explains its successive developments by the constant struggle between popular art (Volkskunst) and the art of the and between profane art (Profankunst) court (Hofl^unst),
religions art (Religosckunst)."
J

pi.

xiii.

Maspero, text of Le miisee egypticn, i. p. 13. The statue is figured on See also De Morgan, Rechcrches sur Ics orfgincs, ii. pi. iv. and

pp. 253, 254.

Spiegelberg, Gescliiclitc dcr ngyptisclicn Kiinst im Alniss dargcstcllt, " " I include under the name of profane art artistic works created Leipzic, 1903. beliefs of the the primitive times, in opposition to by popular religion, following the official religion of tlie Pharaonic invaders.
-

Fig.

199.

Statuh:

ok Nesa,

in tiii;

Lulvki:

266

PRIMITIVK ART IX EGYPT.


With
the
statue

of the

Cairo

Museum,

there

must be con-

nected a whole series of sculptures, to which I have alluded at the commencement of this
book.
in

They

are the archaic statues preserved

various

European
Turin,
Paris.

museums Bologna,
Le}'den,
Brussels,

London,

Berlin,

Naples, and

These lead us on by
realistic
fifth

gradual gradations to the pieces of the fourth and

master-

dynasties.^

We
Figs.

give

various
199.

specimens

of

them

in

19; to
is

There
or

mentioned,
sill

another object which should be a stone door

socket

found

at

decorated Hierakonpolis, with a human head. Here


the
artist

evidenth'
represent
b}-

in-

tended
captive

to

a
the

crushed

weight of the door.-

We
now
Fig.

have
t

seen

he

2CO.

St.\tue

of

sculpture of the
first

Khasakhmli.
Aslimolean Museum, Oxford.
official

d)'nasties

with the excep-

tion
art.

of
to

the

works of

Up

the present the royal statues us by are onl}' know to

two
the

specimens.

They

are

sufficient,

however, to show
difference

wide

that

Fig. 201.

Statue
notice
in

of Khasakhmui.
O.xford.

existed
'

between
I\ccjicil

them
de

and

Ashiiiolcaii

Museum,

Capart, Steindorff,
Anzciger,
-

i/ionm/iciils

cgypticiis,

of plates
tlie

ii.

and

iii.

Uebe7'

ai'chtiische

dgyptlsche

Statitcn,

Archiiologischer
I/istit/it, \iii.

in the Jahrlnirli

dcs kaiscrlich deutsclicn arckaologisclicn


i.

1893, pp. 64-66.

OuiBELL, Hierakonpolis,

]>!.

iii.

and

p.

ii.

p. 36.

THE EARLIEST PHARAOxNIC MOxXUMENTS.


the
private sculptures

267

difference analogous to that which

we

have already established in the carving in relief. These two statues were discovered at Hierakonpolis, and bear the name of a king who appears to have reigned towards the end of
the

second dynasty or the beginning

of the third' (Figs. 200, 201, 202).

M. Weill has given a very


description

precise
".
.
.

of

these

statues.

Two

small seated statues, of strange workmanship, so delicate as to be

almost

fragile,

somewhat
early

exceedingly unlike the massive statuary of the


of

part
first

the

Ancient Empire.
of
limestone,
is

The
body
ably

statue,

broken, and
is

the
;

upper part

of

the

the head, part of missing which has been recovered, is remarkexpressive,

young,

melancholy,

and
the
in

serious.

Tlic attitude and

costume arc the


the other

same

as

of slate

statue, which is and almost intact. The

Fig. 202.

Head

of the Statue of

Khas.\kiimui.

body is draped in a flowing garment widely open on the


chest, with sleeves

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.


left

which cover
. .
.

the arms to the wrist.

The
on
the

arm

is

folded over the bod)', and

the

right

hand

rests
is

the knee and holds the end of a sceptre.

On

the head

great white crown.

The

bases of both statues are surrounded

with

unconventional
the

represent

thrown
'

in

designs engraved with the point, which routing of multitudes and figures of men overThe singularly unexpected and varied positions.

Maspero, Guide to the Cairo Museimi, English ed. 1904, p. 244. Navillic, Les plus anciens juoiiumeiits egypt/ens, iii. loc. cit. x.xv. 1903, pp. 237-239, "of tlie third dynasty." 5th ed. 1903, pp. 27, 27*, 28, 28* I^etkie, History of Egypt, and ninth of tht- scrontl dynasty. 29, who distingnislies two kint^s, tlie eighth QuuiELL, Hierakonpolis, p. 5 "After tlie first dynasty, and probably not before
i.
i.
:

the middle of the second

"

268

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


slain

numbers of the in tablets, and


that the eye
is

enemies are also recorded on these small


of the
feet

front

of
^

the
It

statue

there

is

the

cartouche of the

Horus Khasakhmui."
lines

has been remarked

painted with

of colour continuing to the ear, a fashion which, according


to

theory

published

some
until

years not
the

ago by
its

Borchardt, did

make
sixth

appearance

dynasty.-

These

painted lines, the photograph taken at the time of the discovery,


in

which are obvious

have
traces
stone,

now
a

left

only

few

on the surface of the


fact

which may be
and 202, taken at the AshIt
is

ascertained

by examining the

Figs, 200, 20 1

.^,^a

.'^^^

^^^^^^^1 -v^^^^Bp^T^H

from the original molean Museum.


^i^Iq
^i-^^^

prob-

study of the royal statues of Hierakonpolis


light

^y^

attentive

would
the

throw

fresh

on the question
of
royal
fourth

of the

age
the
Fig. 203.

statues
at

of
the

dynasty

-Pottery
A Lion.

Figure of

Museum, and that this study would to some extent


Cairo

Asbmolean Museum, Oxford.

modifv the conclusions arrived

at by several scholars.^ have already observed the frequent occurrence of figures of animals in the primitive period, and with what perfection

We

'

Weill, HieraconpoUs
ii.

et les origincs

dc Vfigypt,

in

the

Revue archeologique,
;

OuuiELL, Hicrakonpolis^ i. pi. xxxix.-xli. and p. 11 ii. p. 44. BoRCUARDT, Uebcr das Alter dcs Sphinx bci Gisc/i, in tlie Silzungsbcrichte der koniglich preussischen Akadc7)iic dcr Wissenschaften zu Berlin, xxxv. 1897,
1902,
p. 123.

pp. 752-755-

Borchardt, Uebcr das Alter der Chefrenstatnen, in the Zcitschrift fiir dgyptische Sprache t(nd Altcrthumskunde, xxxvi. 1898, pp. 1-18.

'

IS

270

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


Beside
the
fine

the artist seized the character of each kind of animal he represented.

ivory

dog,

an illustration of which

is

given on Fig.

145, the excavations at


in
it

which

magnificent figure of a lion it was found enable


hesitation
to

Hierakonpolis yielded a The circumstances in red pottery.

to be assigned without

any serious
dynasty.^

the

period which

precedes

the fourth

Fragments of
at

figures of the

same material and technique have,

according to Dr. Petrie and Mr. Quibell, been found at Koptos,

Medinet Habu, and at Abydos." The comparison made by Mr. Quibell between the Hierakonpolis lion and the lion figures which decorate a table of offerings
the

Ramasseum,

at

at

the Cairo

Museum, adds a powerful argument


attribute
this

in

support of
period.'^

those
Better

who

lion

statue

to

the

archaic

than any description, Fig. 203 will enable the reader to appreciate the vigour with which this fine piece of work has

been executed.
have thus rapidly passed in review the principal monuments which can be attributed to the period which separates
the
primitive

We

Egyptians

from

those

contemporary

with

the

Before attempting to draw conclusions from dynasty. the collected results of our researches, we should briefly examine
fourth

the evidence
the arts of
poetry.

which enables us to gain at


in

movement

primitive

some idea of Egypt dancing, music, and


least

But before closing this chapter I cannot resist the pleasure of reproducing here three views of the head of a small ivory at Abydos, and figure, discovered during the winter 1 902-3
which gives us a portrait of King Cheops, the builder of the Great Pyramid at Gizch (Fig. 204). As M. Maspero wrote, in an article published in 1901 "Barely six years ago Egyptian than the age when the Great no further could history penetrate
^
: '

Quibell

''

Green, Hierakonpolis, ii. pi. xlvii. and p. 45. See Quibell, Hierakonpolis, pp. 11, 12. pi. v. and p. 5. BoRCHARDT, loc. cit. xxxvi. p. 5, fig. 3. Wiedem.\nn, Compte rendu of
Petrie, Koptos,
i.

&

Quibell, Hierakonpolis,
col.

i.,

in the OrientaUstische

Littcratiirzeitung,

iii.

1900,

333; Zjir Nagada Pcriodc, ih. col. 85. * The Ten Tejnples of Abydos, m. Petrie, Ahydos, pi. xiii. xiv. and p. 30. Hatpcr's Monthly Magazine, No. 642, November 1903, fig. 6, and pp. S39, 840.

THE EARLIEST PHARAOXIC MONUMENTS.


Pyramids were
their
built.

271

The Colossi of Gizch appeared to interthe plane of the world in which we between pose live and the remote distance of bygone ages. The pick of
bulk
.

the excavator has suddenly hid the primitive

made

a breach in the obstacle which


^

dynasties

from our view."

That which only


the
result

a short time ago appeared

to be the starting point of a world,

may now

be

regarded

with

certainty

as

of

the

evolution of an entire civilization.


'

rccentes, in

Maspero, Lcs premiers tetnps de Fliistoire d'Egyptc d'apres The Lotus, Alexandria, No. 4, July 1901, p. 185.

les dccoiivertes

2/2

CHAPTER

YI.

DANCING, MUSIC, AND POETRY.

IN sculpture we
generally magical.

the origin of the arts of repose decoration, painting, and have found a utiHtarian purpose which was

must not leads us to the same result. music, and poetry to a the afford ourselves long delay necessary complete and
detailed demonstration of this
typical instances.
" Madagascar informs us that, While the men are at the wars, and until their return, the women and girls cease not day and night to dance, and neither lie down nor
;

stud)' of the arts of

movement dancing,

We

it

will

be sufficient to quote some

An

old historian of

take food in their

own

houses.

they impart strength, courage, and good fortune This custom they observe very religiously."
^

The}- believe that by dancing to their husbands.

"

Similarly,

among

the

Thompson

River

Indians

of British

Columbia, while the men were on the war-path the women performed dances at frequent intervals. Those dances were believed
to secure the success of the expedition.
their

The

dancers flourished

knives,

sticks

with

threw long sharp-pointed sticks forward, or drew hooked ends repeatedly backward and forward.
sticks forward

Throwing the
off the

was symbolic of piercing or fighting

supposed enemy, and drawing them back was symbolic of The stick with this hooked drawing their men from danger.

end was the one supposed to be the best adapted


purpose. enemies' country."
'

for the latter

The women always pointed


-

their

weapons toward the

Frazer, The Golden Bough, addenda p. 465. n>.


i.

i.

p. 31.

DANCING, MUSIC, AND POETRY.


Lucien observes:
in

273

"You

cannot find a
.

sini^Ie

ancient mystery

'

This much all men know, not dancing. that most people say of the revealers of the mysteries that they " Clemens of Alexandria uses dance them out {e^op')(ela6aL).

which there

is

'

the

same terms when speaking of

his

own

"

appalling revelations."

So

closely connected are mysteries with dancing

among

savages,

that,

when Mr. Orpen asked Qing, the Bushman hunter, about some doctrines in which Qing was not initiated, he said, " Only

the initiated

men

of that dance

know

these things."

We must also keep in mind the animal dances of Australia, and the dances performed at funerals among most savage nations.These dances are almost invariably accompanied by very
primitive

musical
to the

instruments.

Some

of these are

intended

to

give rhythm of instruments of percussion, of sonorous wood struck in cadence, tambourines, etc., which simply serve to supplement the clapping of hands.^

movements, and most frequently they consist

Others have a somewhat different origin. Speaking broadly, one might say that they are intended to produce by vibration a buzzing or a hissing, in which the primitive mind

would see something sacred or mysterious. As an instance of this we must quote the bow, the gora of the Kaffirs and " " " or bull-roarer Schwirrholz," Bushmen,' and, above all, the
the geographical distribution of which is so wide."' Occasionally the instruments are intended to drive away evil spirits during the celebration of ceremonies
;

the sistrum
is

is

one of these.

Another characteristic
the
chief
is

fact

accompanied on

that in certain parts of Africa his expeditions by a band of

'

Lang, Myth, Ritual, attd Religion, new


1899, p. 272. See, for example,

edition,

London,

New

York, and

Bombay,
-

Kingsley,

Mary

H., Travels in

West Africa, London,


ed.

1900, p. 331*

See, on
1

tliis

subject, the
et

book by Bucher, Arbeit iind Rythmus, 2nd


dc la
tcrre,
figs.

Leipzic,
'

899.
les peiiples

Deniker, Les races


tig.

70,

71,

pp.

250 251,

and
*

135,

p. 495.

Frazer, The Golden Bough, iii. p. 424, note. Lang, loc. cit. p. 272. Cook, A. B., Les Galets pcints dii Mas d'Azil, in r Anthropologic, .\iv. 1903, Schurtz, Urgeschichtc der Kiiltur, Leipsic, 1900, p. 50 et scq. pp. (357-659. and p. 512.
IS

274
musicians.
rings,
"

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


Each performer, regardless of the discordance, blows

bangs, or rattles on his own account, interpreting a very short air which forms the dominant note in this direful din." ^
Fetish

men
is

are often very skilled musicians.

no doubt that both music and dancing very rapidly acquired a pleasurable use in addition to their utilitarian and magical purposes. The various examples which have just been
quoted show that there
is

There

no doubt as to the magical character

of these arts in their origin, although in the special instances we meet with it may not be possible to determine precisely

what
to

is

the object of the musicians or dancers.


to refer

Under various aspects we have already had occasion


dancing scenes.
5,
I

may

mention

first

the

Tukh

statuette repro-

duced on Fig.
her head.
in

where the dancer has both arms raised above


vases have

The decorated

shown us

figures of

women

the

same

position (Figs. 91, 94).

They

arc sometimes accom-

panied by
pieces of

men who appear

wood

together a species
the

to beat time to the

dance by clapping

of castanettes (Pig. 92).

Two

female figures from the painted tomb of Hierakonpolis, also, by the position of their arms, suggest these dancers (Fig. 162).

At

funerals

dancing men and

women were employed


;

to execute

dances, accompanied by lamentations Professor Erman, we examine the representations

and
this

if,

with

in the tombs

of the Ancient Empire,

we

shall at

once recognize that

custom

persisted long after the rise of


figures discovered
in

Pharaonic Egypt.-

The

terracotta

the Greek tombs show the same funerary dancers and mourners, and the appearance of this type in Egypt in the earliest times must certainly be of a nature to modify

to

an

important extent the conclusions

in

recent

work by

M. Collignon.^
Notes a7ialyti(]ues stir Ics collcctiofis ethnographiqucs du Musee du Congo {Annalcs du Musec du Congo, Ethnographie et anthropologie, Serie iii.), vol. i.
'

fasc.
-

i.

pp.

17, 18.

Erm.\n, Life in Ancient Egypt, always present at the Feast of Eternity deceased." P. 246.

that

p.

245 et seq.
is,

"Dancers were almost

the feast held in Iiononr of the


in

CoLLiGNON,

De

Vorigine du type dcs plcureuses dans


xvi. 1903, pp.

I'art grcc,

tiie

Revue dcs etudes grecques,

299-322.

DANCING, MUSIC, AND POETRY.


On
the
earliest

275

monuments

of

Pharaonic

Egypt wc have

observed several instances of these religious dancers. They are to be seen on the Hierakonpolis maces (Figs. 186 to 188) and

on the plaque of King Den (Fig. 1 90), to which the monuments of the Pharaonic age afford numerous parallels.

Without waiting
in

the

bas-reliefs

two

of

these

of funerary dancing Egypt, it appears to me that representations should for a moment hold our of Pharaonic

to describe the scenes

attention.

In the

tomb

of Anta, at Deshasheh,^ there


in

is

a series of

men

dancing, holding

their

hands short curved

sticks,

which end

Fig. 205.

Dancers

from the To.mb of Anta, at Deshasheh.

has compared with these accessories of dancing certain fragments of decorated ivory found at Hierakonpolis, two specimens of which are shown in
in

gazelles'

heads (Fig. 205}.

Dr.

Petrie-

P"ig.

109

of personal property and furniture. fact which lends very special interest to this scene is that the

among remains

Pyramid texts mention the people of the Tuat,

C^We

The determination

of this

name

is

composed

of an

arm holding
gazelle.

an instrument which terminates

in

the head of a

may, therefore, question whether the dancers of Deshasheh were not also people of the Tuat, and whether in the Egyptian period
'

Petrie, Deshashehy

pi. xii.

and
i.

p. 8.

In OuiBELL, Hiera/cotipolis,

p. 7.

Maspero, La Pyramidc
1.

dtt

roi

Pcpl

I.,

in the Rcciicil

de Iravutx,

vii.

1SS6,

pp. 148,

245.

276
the
task

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


of

performing

funerary dances

was not reserved

for

them.

The people

of the Tuat are the inhabitants of the Tuat,


;

and in that one of the underworlds of Egyptian mythology ^ case we should be witnessing the dance of inhabitants of that
In the Tuat we are inclined to recognize the mysterious region. modern name of the oasis of Tuat, which is situated, it is true,
at

the north-west extremity of the African

continent.

This

is

not a unique example of tribes now extremely remote, who in ancient times were in close contact with Egypt. According
to

M. Lefebure,less

several

tribes

appear

to

have

left

traces

of

migrations no

considerable (Macae and Maxyes, Berbers and


etc.).

Barabras, Numidians and Nobadae,

The

conclusion

to

be drawn

that the region of the dead

the Tuat may originally have


fit

from these remarks would be


been
perfectly with

a real and actual country, and this result would

M. Maspero's researches as to the Great Oasis, the field of reeds, and those of M. de Chassinat on the Isle of the Double and
the

Land

of the

Manes.^

We

must remember that


still

as late as
at

the eighteenth dynasty Deir el Bahari.^


'

Libyan dances were

portrayed

find in a recent

work

which had not hitherto been given some importance. Writing of his
says
:

a strange piece of information, related by a traveller, to the world, and which therefore may be of

"Tous

visit to the royal tombs at Thebes, the author ces corridors sont remplis de peintures, de reliefs, qui representent

Thades {s/c), dans le Touat, ou, si vous le voulez, La premiere fois que j'ai oui parler de Touat, plus simplement dans I'enfer. cetait a Tunis je voyais un Touareg dont la presence causait un veritable evenement, meme parmi les indigenes. Sa figure, completement voilee par une
ce qu'il y a dans les livres de
;

son manteau d'un brun ionce causaient un vrai C'est un Touareg, c'est un diable Ouelqu'un du pays me dit vomi par I'enfer dont il porte le nom Touareg vient de Touat, qui veut dire enfer.' Je conte cette anecdote qui m'a paru curieuse, sans me faire I'editeur responsable de cette 6tymologie, et je reviens aux Egyptiens." Baron du Gabe,
etoffe noire tres epaisse, sa mise,

rassemblement.

'

iLclicUes
'*

du Levant, Impressions

d'n>i

Franrais, Paris, 1902,

p. 84.

Grande Oasis et les idees qui s'y de niythologie et d'archeologie egyptie7ines, ii. [BiblioI^es Hypogces royauxde T/iches, ih. p. 12 tlieqiie cgyptologique, ii.), pp. 421-427. Chassinat, Ca et Id, iii. in tiie Recueil de travaux relatifs a la philologie ctseq.
'

Maspero,

Private letter of January 25th, 1903. G., Le notn antique de la

ratiaclicnt, in the iLtndes

et

a rarchcologic cgypdicnnes et assyrienjics, xvii. 1895, p. 53. Naville, Tlie Tejuple of Deir el Bahari, iv. pi. xc. and
is

p. 2

"
:

It is

curious
if

that in other festivals the dancing

done

also

by these Africans, the Tamahu, as

DANCING, MUSIC, AND POETRY.

277

Among the numerous representations of dances observed and described by Professor Erman, there is one which shows women whose clothinc^ is merely a loin-cloth, a garment reserved for the
men, and whose hair
of
is

dressed in imitation of the white crown

" Upper Egypt.' The dance executed by them is called under the feet," and is simply a somewhat burlesque copy of the scene

mace to strike the head of a vanquished such as we observed on the great palette of Nar-Mer. barbarian, The name of this dance, says Professor Erman, is taken from the
of the king raising his

saying of the king, which is ordinarily given on inscriptions accompanying this scene, that
"

all

nations bound together are struck


feet."

down

beneath his

This curious dance should apparently be compared with the similar scene on the
painted

tomb

of

Hierakonpolis

(P'ig.

162),

and we thus acquire one more example of traditions uninterrupted from prehistoric times

down
sisted

to the twelfth dynasty."

Fig. 206.

Steatite

Professor

Erman remarks

that music con-

Figure from Hierakonpolis.

almost exclusively of accompaniments to dances. We have just mentioned the scene


players

Ashmolean Museum,
Oxford.

of castanette

on a prehistoric vase.

Under

the

Ancient

Empire we

likewise

observe

flutes

and

musical instruments presenting a funerary or religious In the excavations at Hierakonpolis^ there was found character.

harps as
a small

seated figure in steatite (Fig. 206).

Below the mouth

they had some national propensity to that art, like the Hungarian gipsies in modern times." See, in addition, Lekj^bure, La politique religieuse des Grecs en IJhye (extract from the BuUctin de la Socictc de geographic d' Alger et de

VAfrique du Nord, 3rd and 4th trimestres, 1902), Algiers, 1902, de la religion libycnne, cote orgiaqiir, \)\). 30-34. As Professor Wiedemann remarks to me, these dances are
'

vi.,

Le

caracterc

in reality

panto-

mimes, the first germ of theatrical representations. Also later. See Benedite, Un gucrricr libyen, Jigiirine egyptiennr en bronze incruste d'argenf^ co/isert>ce an Alitsee du Louvre, in iha Afonumcnts ct

Mcmoires puhlies par


Piot),
*

V Acadcmie

des hiscriptious el Belles Lcttres (Fondation


ii.

ix.

1903, p. 123 et scq.

QuiBELL

&

Green, Hierakonpolis,

pi. xlviii.

/',

left-hand column.

278
a hole
is

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


pierced
;

the two arms,


it

now broken

off near the

body,

were outstretched, and


a
flutist.

This

may

be

probable that the iigure was that of compared to the stone figures of the
is

Greek islands belonging to the Aegean period, which represent a flutist and a harpist.^
funerary purpose of these musical instruments v/ere " might be quoted in questioned, a painted scene at Beni Hasan which is in the form of the the side On stela, proof (Fig. 207).
If

the

of a door representing the entrance intended for the use of the soul, The two lower registers various people are bringing offerings.
are occupied

by women engaged

in

a musical performance.

Two

as an

play on the harp, while three others clap their hands in cadence accompaniment to the singing behind, a woman is shaking This is a sistrum, while another is using a strange instrument.
;

certainly intended
in

for

songs and music of a religious character,

The presence of the performed of the cult in order an ceremonies instrument used at sistrum,
honour of the deceased.
to drive away evil spirits, may suggest a similar use for the other instrument which accompanies it. It consists of a kind of small board attached to a stem, which revolves in a handle held by the
It must have produced a kind of deep buzzing sound. performer. In many countries an instrument is in use which is of the

same character

as our
"

ethnologists term a

Egyptian apparatus. This is what English " Schwirrholz," bull-roarer," and Germans a

terms which have no exact French equivalent.

The

"

Schwirrholz,"

says Professor Schurtz,^ consists of a long, thinnish piece of wood,


1 Perrot & Chipiez, Histoirede Vart dans Vantiqidte, vi., La Grece primitive, Vart mycenien, pp. 760-762, and fig. 357, 358. Koehler, Prcehistorisches von den griechisclicn Jnscln, in the Mittheilnngen der kaise?iich deiiischen archeologischen See a stone Instiiitts, AtJioiische Abteihitig, ix. 1884, pp. 156-162, and pi. vi. sarcophagus with painted scenes, discovered by Paribeni, near Phsestus, in

Kako, Altkreiische Kiiltslatte7t,


p.

130, note

I.

''

Hinter

communicated by M. J. the Attic lecythi, where harpists and ceremonies. See Pottier, Ktude siir
Paris, 1883, specially pp. 73, 74.
^
''

in the Archiv fiir Reiigionwissenschaften, vii. 1904, Opfertisch steht ein Flotenbliiser." (Information de Mot.) Here is already the origin of the paintings of

dem

flutists

are represented in their funerary

les lecythes blattcs attiques

a repi'esentations
fasc. xxx.),

fimcraires {Bib/iothrque des ecoles fraii^aises d'Athencs ct de Rome,


Betii Hasatt,
iv. ])1. xvi. and p. 5. pi. xii. ScHURTZ, Urgeschichte der Ktclltir, Leipzic,
i.
;

1900, p. 50.

DANCING, MUSIC, AND POETRY.


which
is

279

shaped like a fish, or decorated ,with engraved A string is fastened to the end, by or painted ornaments. means of which it is whirled round in the air, producing a
either

buzzing noise.

We

must

add

that

the

object

thus

described

is

never

Fig. 207.

Musical

Instruments, from a Painting at

Bkm

PIasan.

employed as an amusement, or
ments.

to respond to

any musical requireis

The
feasts

tribes

who
the

use
it

it

consider there
it

something superprincipally
to

natural in the
in

booming
for

produces, and
in

is

used
wliich

the

dead, or

other ceremonies

only the initiated have access.

28o
I

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


am
^

very

much
a

inclined to

see in the instrument


to

depicted

at

13eni

Hasan
must

musical instrument analogous

this "bull-

roarer."

We

also briefly notice the

use of music, in general, for

accompanying and regulating work done in combination. At the present day we still preserve this use for stimulating and The Greeks made use of it regulating the march of soldiers.
to give a
to
this

rhythmic swing to collective work. Also in reference point we can cite a group in terracotta from Boeotia,

published by M. Pottier, who refers to the careful studies of " Biicher on work and rhythm." ^ As an accompaniment to dancing and music the human voice
is

forced

to

submit to the obligations of rhythm.


or

Thus

the

incantations
characterized

funerary songs

of

primitive

people,

habitually

by repetitions and assonances, are actual poems. The meaning of these is generally extremely obscure, and the various songs of savages which have been noted are not of a
nature to give
us
a

primitive people. Empire there are

On

very high idea of the poetic instinct of the inscribed monuments of the Ancient
songs which vary only slightly from
to

several

these rudimentary poetic efforts.


It

would be hazardous to attempt


Egyptian songs.

assign

prehistoric

origin to these

translated

Nevertheless, M. Maspero has from the Pyramid texts several incantations against

serpents, to which he does not hesitate to assign a very remote


antiquity.

He

thus writes on

the

subject

"The number

of

prayers and of formulae addressed to venomous animals show with what terror the serpent and the scorpion inspired the

Egyptian. Many of them are written in a language and with combinations of signs which do not appear to ha\"c been completely

understood, even

by the
I

scribes

under Unas and

the

two Pepi.

Eor

my

part,

believe that they belong to the

most

aux

C APART, J., Sur deux livres rccents rclattfs aiix anclcns hieroglypJies et ancienties representations figurees de rgypte, in tlie Bulletin de la Societe d' anthropologic de Bruxellcs, xx. igoi-2, Brussels, 1903, p. xiii.
in the Biclletin de

Pottier, Les Sujets de genre dans les figurines archaicjues de terre correspondance hellenique^ xxiv. 1900, pp. 519, 520, and BiJCHER, Arbeit uiid Rythmus, 2nd ed. Leipzic, 1899.

cuite,
pi. ix.

DANCING, MUSIC, AND POETRY.


ancient
ritual,

281

and that they date back

to

time before the

reign of Mena.

Some

of

them

are evidently cadenced,


;

and were

all of them probably originally the songs of snake-charmers of in the class what with us is may be included, more or less,

called gibberish.

twines round the

from the

womb

'The serpent entwines; it is the serpent that Oh, thou that art on thyself, who issuest thou hast devoured that which of the earth
calf.
;

Cometh

forth

from

thee

serpent
is

that
"
!

descendest,

lie

down

castrated!

Fall, slave!'

Here

one of the most comprehensible,


^

from which the others

may

be judged

We
to

have now studied


arrived at

in succession

all

the classes of objects

which ethnologists have attributed an


for us briefly

artistic character.

We

have, therefore,

only remains

the conclusion of our study, and it to sum up the general results which
it.

appear to us to flow from


'

en

Maspero, Premier rapport a Vlnstitut egypticn sur Ics fouillcs execiitees et d' arch co logic JtLgypte dc iS8i a iSSj, in the Etudes de mythologie

La religion egyptietmes, i. {Bibliotheque cgyptologiquc, i.), pp. 153, 154. egyptienne d'apres les pyra?)iidcs de la V^ et de la VP dynastic, in the Revue de lliistoire des religions, xii. 1885, pp. 125, 126, where the same passage is
reproduced word for word.

282

CHAPTER

VII.

CONCLUSIONS.
attempting to draw general conclusions from the foregoing

IN study,
of ideas
place,

it

appears to

me

that there are two different orders In

which we must take into consideration.

the

first

this it is which general ethnology; in the has more special interest for us the origin of Egyptian art as

second and

of the fourth dynasty. From the ethnological point of view the results of the discoveries of the last few years appear to show that the artistic
find
it

we

at the

commencement

of primitive Egypt are closely allied with those of other nations which have been observed at an equal stage In applying to the primitive inhabitants of the of civilization.
manifestations
Nile Valley the theories and methods of M. Grosse, in Les Debuts

de I'Art, there

is

nothing which forces us to modify these theories

in their main outlines. In my opinion of the evidence these Egyptian discoveries enables us to establish the utilitarian origin of those manifestations, which we group

and methods, at any rate

together
is

under the term "aesthetic."

This

utilitarian

purpose
rather

in

almost every case confused with a religious,

or

with a magical, purpose. In this respect Egypt affords us most valuable evidence, as we can follow the development of beliefs, from their most rudimentary form, until in historical times

they constitute an actual body of doctrine. But at this point we enter on the domain of special conclusions, and these require
to be exhibited methodically.

At the beginning of this book we showed that at the commencement of the fourth dynasty Egypt heid already developed
constituted.

her language, writing, administration, cults, ceremonies, were all Another fact which struck us forcibly was the

CONXLUSIOXS.
extreme realism of the
us
into
face
artistic productions, a realism

283

to

face with

this

alternative

either art

which brought was imported

Egypt with all the other manifestations of civilized life "Minerva issuing armed from the brain of Jupiter" or else it was the result of a slow and progressive evolution, the work of several previous centuries. Here it is that the discoveries of the last few years come to our aid. Is the evidence which
they have brought to light sufficient to allow this question ? The task of replying shall be
petent pens
;

us to
left

decide

on

to

more com-

but

give categorical

inclined to think that, before attempting to answers to this question, we should await the
I

am

result of excavations
will

which arc now being carried on, and which


the solution

certainly occupy several years longer.

appears to

mc

that

In the meantime,

it

if

it

is

ever arrived at

will

not be absolutely on one side or the other. We shall probably in the formation of as of the entire civilization art, distinguish
of the Egyptians,

many

contributions from different sources.

Nevertheless, without feeling obliged to give numerous biblio-

graphical references, I should like to the commencement of art in Egypt, as

sketch
it

the

problem of
itself to

presents

my

mind

at

the

present time.

hypothetical character of this

do not attempt to conceal the outline, which can only be definitely


I

shown when the

known
If

and,

origins of

Egyptian
to

civilization are completely

unfortunately, that

we ask anthropologists
inhabitants of the

day is yet far distant. what race we should assign the


Nile,

earliest

valley of the

we

shall

at the

very conunencement meet with a divergence of opinions and a multitude of contradictions.

From

the pala;olithic period,

Egypt -or,

rather, the cleft in the

north-east plateau of Africa, which later was to be partially filled by the alluvial deposits of the Nile was inhabited by tribes of

nomadic huntsmen.
It
is

The
that

flints

which formed

their

tools

have

been found cither simply


also

utilized

by them or chipped

into shape.

possible

the

rocks,

which
with
well

afford,

some of those rude graffiti found on as we have already said, such striking
of South Oran, there

analogies

the

graffiti

may

be their work.
a

We may

suppose

that

was originally

population

284

PRIMITIVE ART I\ EGYPT.


of

composed
towards
antiquity

black

races,

the

south

by

the

which were insensibly driven back white races, which " from earliest
the

were settled on

Mediterranean

borders

of

the

continent, and who perhaps themselves came from Southern Europe. They would creep into the valley from the ^ west or south-west."

Libyan

Libyan people that we should attribute the which the prehistoric cemeteries whose productions we have been and to have made known us,
It
is

to

these

brilliant

neolithic

civilization

studying

in

detail

At

different

times
it

throughout the course of this book. we have had occasion to insist on the

has been thought might be established between this earliest Egyptian civilization and that of the Libyans of
analogies which
the historic period.
of Egypt,

Many

of these must have been driven out

and greater numbers, again, must by degrees have become "Egyptianized" by the Pharaonic invaders entering from
another country.

Under the

earliest dynasties

we

frequently find

the Libyans on the threshold of Egypt, and the earliest kings An account of a journey undertaken at the time at war with them. of the sixth dynasty tells us that the Libyans were established in the oases
as
far

as

the neighbourhood of the

first

cataract of

the Nile.

The string of oases extending along the valley of the Nile to the plateau of Barca remained entirely in the possession of the Libyans until the time of the twelfth dynasty.
This primitive Libyan civilization of the Nile Valley was frequently in communication with the Mediterranean civilization,
perhaps actually by means of
this

Greek

traditions,

referring

to

the

route along the oases. relations of Greece and


;

The
the

at later times, when Cyrenaica, need only a passing reference the maritime nations attacked Egypt, it was through the Libyan

frontier that they penetrated into the country.

This

fact

is

of itself sufficient to explain the

intercourse so

frequently established between the tion and the Aegean civilization.


countries diminish after the
'

The

Egyptian primitive civilizarelations between these


Nile

conquest of the valley of the

Maspeko,

Ilistoire aticienne des peitplcs

dc I'Ofient, 6th ed. Paris, 1904,

p.

19.

CONXLUSIONS.
by
the

285

Pharaohs

until

the

twelfth

Mr. Evans has occur frequently. facts which confirm this theory.^

dynasty, when they again noticed in Crete numerous

These

relations

also explain

the presence in
"

black incised pottery and

the

"

alphabetiform

Egypt of the marks which we

have studied
If

in

an

we

follow

as

earlier chapter.

we have

as

originated

by Dr.

sequence dates Petrie, we are forced to agree with that

hitherto done

the

brilliant archaeologist, in

civilization

recognizing a decadence in the primitive towards the end of the prehistoric period. There does

not seem

to
it

mc

to

be any difficulty

in

accounting for

this.

We

see

which

the result of the period of trouble and insecurity accompanies the arrival of bands of invading foreigners.
in

Were
tion

these invasions sudden, or the result of a gradual infiltra-

which

continued
arrive

many

years, not

to say centuries?

Did

these

invaders

by one single road, or did they come,

some by the Isthmus of Suez, others by the Upper Nile, or, again, by the desert which separates the Red Sea from the valley of the Nile? Did the invaders all belong to one and the same group of nations, or did they form part of groups which
sprang perhaps from one
for centuries
?

but which had been separated These are questions which cannot be answered
race,

without further evidence than


I

we
to

possess.

am, however,
different
I

disposed
routes.

believe

in

frequent

invasions

of successive groups, relatively few in

number, penetrating into


already
said
in

Egypt by
the
texts

have

another
are in

publication that

believe, with

E. dc Rouge,

that there

traces of a

great
in

have occupied Egypt


later.
It
is

probably to

called the Ann, which must same manner as the Hyksos did them that we should attribute those
tribe

the

religious

conceptions

that

had

for

their

centre

the

town of
Plin}',"'

Heliopolis, which, according to was founded by the Arabs.


'

tradition

related

by

Petrie, Methods and Amis in Archaology, London, 1904, p. 163 ct seq. l^rofessnr Maspero, Histoire ancicnnc dcs peuples de r Orient, p. 16. Wiedemann writes: "Nach einer spiiten Notiz war Heliopolis eine Griindung dor
^

Araber, worunter an der betreffenden


ist,

.Stelle ein
ciii

semitischer

Stamm

zii

verstehen

dieser

Angabe konnte

selir wolil

riclitiger

Kern zu Grande

liegen,

und

286

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

invasion of the Auii that the It is probably also to this decadence in the primitive industries towards the close of the
prehistoric
not,

period

should be

attributed.

These industries did

however, entirely disappear, and


their footsteps
in
is

we

have

several

times
that,

followed

historical P^gypt.

Further than

we have seen
tain the belief

nothing which permits us to enterthat there was a hiatus, a sudden cleavage, between
that there

On the contrary, Egypt and Pharaonic Egypt. that are so numerous them between they have conanalogies vinced certain writers that the Pharaonic civilization is only a
primitive

development of that of primitive Egypt.


I

think, rather, that

this

phenomenon should be
the
invasions
of
the

attributed

to

the

actual

character

of

Pharaonic

movements of nations who destroy They Egyptians. before them a whole civilization, but rather from and sweep away
are not the

a slow infiltration of groups of people of a higher civilization into a population which had already attained a certain degree
point to be noted with regard to this is the strange power which the soil of the Nile Valley possesses of absorbing the invader, a power which has been recognized at

of development.

all

periods of

its

history.
;

Egyptian population it is transformed its invaders, and has adapted them to


It
is

Foreigners have never changed the the country which has always rapidly
its

environments.
the

clearly

as

result

of

this

principle
to

that

Pharaonic

Egyptians were
of

irresistibly influenced
in

continue the traditions


to
art

primitive people, both religious and funerary beliefs.

the

regard

and

in

their

At

a given moment, however, there


in

is

new element which

which requires explanation. appears On several occasions we have insisted on the contrast between
this
it

Egypt, and

is

the private and the royal

monuments, between the

style of the

court and that of the people, between religious and profane art. have also shown that the primitive Egyptians were not

We

acquainted with hieroglyphic writing, and that


Ileliopolis

it

suddenly made

und

seiii

Soniienkult

eiiier

das Delta ihren Ursprung verdanken."


1904, col. 146, 147.

Orlaiialistischc

vorhistorischen Semiteneiinvanderung in
Littcfaturzeitiing, April,

CONCLUSIONS.
its

287
ofificial

appearance thoroughly formed.


religion,

This

style

attached

to an official

were brought into


stituted
:

the

this

we may
final

complicated system of writing, country from without, completely conassert without hesitation. But from what
?
I

and

this

country were they brought


In
these

pages

cannot

enter

into

complicated

almost alone can

anthropology comparative philology I can merely say that apparently the Pharaonic invaders came from Asia, perhaps from Yemen,
controversy,
intervene.

where

and

and that they had common origin >vith the ancient Chaldeans. This theory would explain the analogies which are established between the earliest Pharaonic remains and those of Chaldea^

more

especially, the
in

they were pass direct from Asia to the Nile Valley "Africanized" before penetrating into Egypt, properly so-called.
;

quickly did not

use of cylinders, which disappeared fairly the Nile Valley. One fact is very clear the Semites
:

The
tion

clearest proof of this has

been obtained by the examinarepresented


is

of

the

fauna and
character
of

flora

in

the

the African

which

striking.

hieroglyphs, glance at the


a time have

map

of Africa

shows where the Semites must

for

taken up their abode before penetrating into the valley of the Nile. The two coasts of the Red Sea, towards the southern
end, resemble each other very considerably both in climate and
in their productions.

Any

tribes leaving

Yemen would
little

naturally

at

possible from country differing A study of the population, the regions they had abandoned. the languages, and the customs of Ethiopia shows the close
first

occupy

as

as

affinity

which exists between that country and the south of Arabia. One part of these regions, situated on the coast, appears to
classical period

have been designated by the Egyptians of the

by the name of
this

Pniit.

The Egyptians,
follow
it
it

in

writing the
of the

name

of

country, did

not

with the determinative sign of


the
"

foreign
1

land

they called
L., les

Land
a

Gods," and

See

Heuzey,

Constntcllon
decouvertcs dc

antcrieiirc

Our-\i/ui,
viii.,

mentaircs d'apres

M.

dc Sarsec,

notes complcComparaisoits avcc


v.
2,

ViLgyptc primitive, in the Revue d'assyrioIo<^ie ct d'archcologic orientate^ Note contributed by Mr. Offord. 1899, pp. 53-56.

288
derived

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


from
it

the origin of a

certain

number
all

of their

most

ancient divinities.
pacific

Also, the Egyptians at

times maintained
its

relations

with

this

country,

and

when

inhabitants
as

are
race
:

represented on

the

monuments, they appear


is

mixed
same

the superior race

similar to the Egyptians in physical

type, beard, and costume, while the other portion shows the

type crossed with negro blood.


tions between

The
is

Egypt and Punt


in

proof of the relafurnished by a representation


earliest

of an

inhabitant of Punt

the

tomb

of a

son

of Cheops of

the fourth dynasty.^ list of gifts to the temples, drawn up towards the end of the fifth dynasty, mentions enormous quantities of objects brought

from Punt.

The journey from Punt

to to

Egypt was very


traverse

far

from easy.

necessary regions of formidable even at the present day. Upper Nubia, journey By water it was necessary, first of all, to reach the Nile by
it

By

road

was
a

the

desert

means of one
to the river.

of the valleys which extend

from the Red Sea

In historic times the route most frequently chosen was the Wady Hammamat, which unites Kosseir and Koptos.

Koptos is precisely the site where Professor Flinders Petrie discovered what he considers to be the earliest remains that can
be attributed to the dynastic route is long and dangerous.
to

Now

race
It

the

statues of Min.

This

could not have been accessible

hordes of

human

into the midst of tribes already civilized.

beings attempting a tumultuous invasion It is this consideration

represent the arrival in Egypt of the dynastic Egyptians as a slow and progressive infiltration. To return for a moment to our former subject, the Egyptian
to

which induces

me

long stay on African soil before discovering and following the route to the valley of the Nile. There,
a
in

Semites had

made

the country occupied by the Gallas, the Abyssinians, and the

Somalis,
reveal

we may one day hope


history

to discover remains

which

will

the

of the development of Pharaonic civilization

in the earliest periods of its evolution.

The

invaders brought
'

with them hieroglyphic writing


ii.

illus-

Lepsius, Dcnkmciler,

23.

CONCLUSIONS.
trating the language spoken

289

by them. They also brought religious which were already extremely developed, and which conceptions
constituted
classical

the

basis

of

the

official

religion

of

Egypt

at

the

epoch.

the autochthones, so

Their funerary beliefs differed from those of far, at least, as the destiny of the deceased
;

and perhaps wc may here find the explanation of the absence in the royal tombs of representations similar to those that cover the walls of mastabas, and of which
kings

was concerned

we have

Repreon the palette of Nar-Mer and on the plaques of the royal tombs of Abydos, show how far this ritual Connected with these already resembled that of later times.
sentations, such as those
religious

seen the prototype in a prehistoric tomb. Egyptian ritual is constituted in the same manner.

and funerary beliefs and with this ritual we find a of art which is already considerably advanced, and even system

to
art,

some extent already


which contrasts
in

hieratic

and

fixed.

This

is

the

official

such a striking manner with the naturalistic


contact of these two forms of

art of the primitive people.

What was
art,

the result of the

arrived at such different stages of development and inspired


? it

with such contradictory tendencies

The answer
is

to this question

we have
greatly on
that

already

indicated,

and

needless for

us to

insist

this point.

The meeting
of which

of these

two systems produced

duality

of art
in

Professor

Spiegelberg has again


its

reminded us

so clear a

We
how
free
it

shall find that

manner by his recent publication.' the more widely the central power exerted

influence the

more is came about mencement of the


and
to

the official art in favour.

We

can understand
at the
is

that under the Ancient


fourth

Empire

comso

naturalistic,

dynasty the private and in some measure we

art

still

shall

even be

prepared
in in

justify the

the earlier
its

remark made by Nestor I'Hote, quoted pages of this book: "We know Egyptian art only

decadence."

Spiegelberg, Geschichte dcr dgyptischcn Kunst im Abriss dargestellt, See Wiedemann, Winckebnann s Vrtheil iiher die agyptische 1903. Kintst und die Profankiinst der alien Argypier, in tlie JaJirhiidicr dcs Vcreiiis Ton Altcrtliiimsfrciindcn im Rlicinlandc, Ix.xvii. 1884 (separate reprint, p. y
Leipsic,
et s (/.).

'

19

290

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.


Our conclusions arc as follows us at the commencement of
:

Egyptian
the

art, as

it

is

revealed

to

fourth dynasty, appears to

be composed of various elements. Primitive art, which had its birth in the north of Africa and developed during the course of centuries, was only to a small extent affected by foreign
influences

of which was

This art, the principal object (Aegean and Anu ?). utilitarian and magical, should by virtue of this
represent
it

very
their

object

nature with

all

possible

fidelity.

The
in

funerary ideas which


full

was intended
in

to serve

may

be found

development Empire, entirely dominated by the great formula of " Like acts on like." magic,

the funerary beliefs of the Egyptian


imitati\'e

The second element

is

the art

of which the earliest stages of evolution

of the Pharaonic Egyptians, still completely elude us.

When
express
survive

it

reaches
religious

Egypt

it

is

conceptions of advanced

thoroughly fixed, and serves to development, which

in

PLgypt, with only very slight modifications, until the

close of the Pharaonic period.

struggle between these two forms of art, and the reciprocal influence that they exerted upon each other, are similar to those

The

we

establish between the popular religion


official

between
struggles

in

and the official religion, The story of the idioms. and language vulgar these various domains reaches back to the earliest
to conceal

period of the Ancient Empire.


I

do not attempt
in

the fact

that these last pages

bear a decisive character very far removed from the uncertainties

which

reality are present in crowds, and I have hesitated I before hope greatly allowing them to assume such a character. I may not incur severe blame, after having brought some modest

materials

to
in

the foot of the scaffolding,


a

if

have indulged

for

moment

arise,

dream of a splendid palace which may one day and of which perhaps they may form a part when utilized
architect of genius.

by an

INDEX
PAGE
PAGE

Aahmes
Abadiych
. .

Abydos

6,

19,

38,

27 5, 121, 127, 128 42, 49, 57, 58, 68


.

Amon-Ra
A??iorgos
.
.

32
156

Amulets

49, 53, 73, 85, 192, 193


.

100, loi,

no,

112, 117, 133, 134, 135

Ancient Empire

2, 39,

42, 52, 53, 55

169 173, 176, 180, 182, 183, 85, 186, 188 190, 192, 193, 199, 200, 209, 212, 221
136, 144, 146, 149, 153, 159, 160,
J

169,200,205,219 220, 237, 257, 259, 267, 277, 280, 289 Andaman Islands I4> 52
56, 58, 115, 144, 160,
.
.

242, 248, 251, 256, 257, 270, 289

Animals
no,

5,

21, 41,

52, 69, 71,

99,

102

Abyssitiiaiis

162,
.

288
275 282
165

112,

n7,

Accessories of dancing Administration


.

142, 152,

126, 129, 136, 138, 140 176 et seq., 202, 203, 210

i,

215, 216, 218, 219, 224, 229, 230, 234

Aegean

civilization

and
.

art

156,

284, 290
Islajtds
.

period

....
.
. . . .

.164
278 212

Animals, aquatic domestic


,,

edible
fantastic

Ae<{eo-Cretaii

146,

,,

(See Greek.) 4, 40, 162, 248, 273, 287 Aftica. British Central 198
.

indeterminate
pet sacred

,,

,,

.... .... .... ....


.

236, 237, 268

209 216
232

.182

69, 136, 230,


82,

no, 140 220


185

Agathodemon

.134

Aha-Menes
Alabaster
.

(see

Menes).

93, 96, 100, 174, 1S2, 199

with long necks (See Feline animals.) Anklets


,,
.
.

132, 136,

23c

49, 50, 51

Alawanyeh
Aleutians

155
14

Ansairiych

.129
275
1

Anta
Antelope 21, 48, 69, 117, n9, 140, 153, Antelope (Addax)
,,

Alexandria
Algeria
Alligator

210
194

71, 72, 78, 79,

10

30.
.

189, 212, 232,

236
153

Aloes

,,

116, 119,

60 218
149 146
147

(Bubalis)
or

Alphabet, Libyan
linear,

Anu
Anubis
Apes Arab
. .

257, 285, 290

Creto-Aegean
.

Apuat

Phcenician origin
primitive
.

220, 254 185 et seq., 220

145

12,46, 285
.

"

Alphabetiform" characters I45etseq.


.

Archangel
Architecture

154

64
185

AMf:LINEAU

6, 105,
I

134, 180,

255
32 32

Amenophis
America
Atnericati,

Argar Arms of
.

chairs

136

IV
Soiitli,

Art
,,

9.65

154
oC

decorative
otlicia!
.

59 et seq., 138
258, 264, 2S7, 289
.

Negro260
291

,,

European parentage

,,

of

movement

16,

272

et

i;e(].

292
Art of repose of the Court masters ,,
.

INDE}^.
PAGE
16
264, 286

Page

Beard

43

et seq., 155, 157, 196,


in sign of
.

246

,,

peasants
subjects
.

,,

264 264 264


59 et seq. 16
17

,,

covered

mourning
.

259 45 220

,,

covering for

44, 157
134,

Beds
Beer,

ornamental
plastic
,,
.

made

with bread

animated
free
.

Benedite Beni Hasan.


Berbers
.

....
. .
.

.174
233, 239

184,247,278,280

17
264, 286

.106,

276
147

popular
profane

Berens, Randolph

177, 182, 190, 192

264, 286, 289


264,

Berger
Berlin
5,

religious

286
264 216

33,

71, 77,

94, 99, 168,

122,

151

Theban
Arufitas

153,

157,

160,

161,

174,

266

Besh
Betis

Ashmolean Museum (see Oxfoj'd). Asia .4. 142, 143' 248, 287
.
.

......
loi,

264

Beyrout
Birds 41, 73, 76, 80, 81, 90,

39 248
iii

Minor

148
115
190,
.

Asparagus retroflexus Ass

Assuan
Assyria

237 106

112, 119, 121, 122, 129, 140, 153, 190 et seq., 211, 222, 229, 239, 248

Birds of prey
,,

236
32

Aten
Aikefts

representing deceased persons .217


.

177. 181
.

,,

sacred

.... ....
. .
. .

239

Alias

189

Black

254 213
251

Atum
Australia

14, 215,
,

Australians

12, 21,

Central

220 216 205, 218 216


.

(See Blue-black.) Blackish })aste

']'],
.

Balias

25, 99, 163, 178, 179


.

Bfiraby-as

Barbarian, v anquished

276 277

Blocks of stone, roughed out 185 Blue-black 206, 213 Boat or bark 69, 99, 120, 122, 132, 135 140, 154, 174, 199 et seq., 202, 205 207 et seq., 217, 218, 220, 228, 250

....

254

(See Capt ives, Enemy, Prisoners.) Barca 284


. .

(See Ship, Vessel.)

BOECKH
Boeotia

17

Bari

121

280
162

Bark, funerary
,,

217
217

Bolof

,,

magical sacred
.

Bologna

5.

35.

266
190
50

210, 217

Bone

49, 76, 167,


.

Basalt

Basket maker

93 62, 64

B07lgOCS

I5oomerangs

work
Baskets
,,

45, 64, 98, 104, 105 et seq.


109, 134, 138, 139

BORCHARDT
Bosnia
Botocudos
.

140 142, 268


1

19,

149
14-

64, 105, 191

54
163

for milk

115

BOULE.

for paint

28
160
174

Bow

100, 211, 230,


.

273
1

Bayet. Beads
.

47, 49,

51,

83,

99,

167,

Boxes, decorated pottery Bracelets

131, 134

38, 49. 50. 5


.

Bear

....

190, 193,
.

230
189

Brasscmpny
Breccia

162

93. 114

219

INDEX.
Bricks
British

293
PAGE

......
Museum
56. 93, 122,

PAGE

206
153

Castanettes
Cattle

.119,

274, 277

131,

(See Wood, sonorous.)


188
.

168, 207, 229, 230, 235,

255
35
17

Brocatel

Caves

22, 164, 205, 214, 215,


. .
.

216
282

Bronze

194, 195
.

Cephalic index

.161
212,

Brugsch
flriissels
5,

Ceremonies,
,,

i,

71, 217, 218, 250,

176,

S3,
.

Bubasiis

263 218

religious

218

BiJCHER
Bucrania
(Sec Bulls heads.)

280

(See Cult.) Ceylon


.

14
I

^33. 195

Chabas
Chalcedony Chaldea
,,
.

182

Budge
Buffoons
Bull
95,
134,

17, 226,

254 220

236, 248, 287


.

art

69, 136,

226
247
36
105
17

188,

193,

232, 237, 243

,,

cylinder
.

246, 254

Chalk
Chairs

Bull-roarer
Bulls'

273, 278 et seq.


153, 194, 195

heads 73, 75, 76, 95, (See Bucrania. Bulls" heads, double
) .

ClIAMPOLLION-FlGEAC
Charcoal

132, 133. 213.


.
.

216
276
18

-195
17

Chassinat
Chellcan

BUNSEN
Bt/slimeu
14, 48, 161, 205,
.

273
21
1

Cheops
(See Khufu.)

270, 288

Bustard

Butmir
Butterfly

164 128

Chequer pattern
Child
.

116 169
41

37, 168,

Cabins Cable
Cairo

....
.

China
207, 210

CJiiriqui

60
169
133

207

Chronology
Chrysocolla Cinders
Cingalese
Civilization

17 et seq.
.

3, 5, 28, 32, 33, 39, 68, 69, 71 128, 138, 228, 236, 237, 246, 258, 261

266, 270

14
12

Calcite

Calf

176 188
177
189, 202

Clapping of hands

Cambridge

Claws
Clay

.....
in

cadence 273, 278 48, 49


169,
176, 199,

Camel Cameleon
.

21,

155,

161,

164,

184

117

200

Canal

250
15

pipe
. .
. . .

216
273
56 et seq., 168, 226
et seq., 159

Canoe

Clemens of Alexandria
Cloak
(See Mantle.) 47, 52 Clothing (See Cloak, Mantle.)
.

Canopy
Cappadocia Captives 95,
.

254 45
127, 136, 172 et secj., 211

220, 238, 255, 266

(See Barbarian, Enemy, Prisoners.) 48 Carapaces of tortoises


.

Club

211

Carnclian

Carnivora
Carpet. Carving in relief

Casque
(See Crown.)

294
Colour.

INDEX.

Columbia

... .....
British.
. . .
. . .

PAGE

26, 27,

213 60 272 213

Combatants.

35,

(See Warriors.)

Combs

37, 39, 40, 41,

72 et seq., 155
.

magic
.

41, 66,
1

74
igS

Congo Copper
Cop/s

12,

45 217

Cords

40, 52,

63 64, 95, 173, 243

Corpse

contracted

239 218
188

Cow
Crescent
Cfrie
. .

122, 250, 146, 149, 164,

254
285

164,
I.

INDEX.
PAGE

295
I'AGE

Neith, Nekhbet, Osiris, Ptah, Sebek, Selkit,

Mut,

Sokaris,

Taurt,

Thot,

Ensigns of vessels Equidjc (See Ass, Horse.

88, 210,
.

230
211

Thueris). Dogs 95, 102, 153, i83etseq., 232, 270 Door 200, 266, 278

Erman
Esquhnaicx
Ethiopia
.

52,

176, 274,

277

....
or socket
.

21,23
. . .

287

sill

266

European

figures
145, 146,

184, 196 156, 285


.

Double hammer

bull
.
.

94, 95

Evans

195 et seq.
.

Duck Dwarf Dyke

28

Evolution of Clothing Ex-votos

52

228

Dyeing the hair


. .

...
. .

172 et seq., 176, 220


35,

Eyes, inlaid 99, 167, 168, 173, 174, 182


197,
,,

36
painted
. .
.

260

.250
57,

.213

Dynasty
88, 96,

I.

5,

17, 19, 30, 42, 49,

85
173

108,

146,

149, 168,

169,

Fan

182, 203, 230, 251, 254,

Dynasty

II.

5,

257 255, 267

III.

4, 5,
I,

96, 151, 261,


25,
28,

267

IV.
96, 139, 237,

5,

18,

42, 93

258, 264, 266, 270, 282


288,

290

Dynasty V.
VI.

42, 58, 105, 139, 194

203, 258, 266, 288

32,97, 139, 194, 203,268

284
XII.
34, 97, 146, 149, 150, 152

184, 190, 192, 193, 230, 247, 277,

285
149 150

Dynasty XIII
XVIII.
M
96, 97,

146,

149,

162, 164, 176, 188, 190, 226,

276
55

XIX
XXII

226
142

Eagle

Ear (see Deformities). El Ahartvah El Amrali 7, 18, 68,

....
88,

6
119

94,

105,

132, 157, 188, 200, 211,

El Bcrshch El Kab or El
Elephant

.....
(Jab
. . .

224 26
205 224

78, 82, 102, 140, 143, 202,

Emblems

88, 207,

208, 210,

223,

230
2 J.2

Embroidery. Enemy, vanquished


.

57, 159, 223,


.

242

212, 246, 267

(See Barbarian, Captives, Prisoners.) Engraving with the point 267 Ensigns 121, 242

....
.

(See Standards.)

296

INDEX.

INDEX.
Hebert

297

298

INDEX.

INDEX.
Mantle
Marble
,,

299
PAGE

52, 55,

PAGE 56 et seq., 168, 243

Mortar.

206 224
275
32 217

(See Cloak.)
.

114
193 106
17

Mountains Mourners

5,

n6,

126, 131. 2 17, 274,

blue.

Mummy
Munich
Music
.

of priestess
17, 273, 274,
.

Margone Mariette
Marks,

,,

2, 4,

"

"

277 et seq.

alphabetilbrm

146
31

Musicians

n9, 274

family

Mut
Muzzle

143

geometric
pottery 33,
133,

146

Mutilation

34

144 et seq.,
203, 206

181, 242
136, 150, 194, 195

Mycenae

property
,,

.15, 65, 139,

210 210

tatoo- (see Tatooing).


tribal
.
. .

15, 31, 65,


.

Marseilles

-54
280
210 220 276

(See Ornaments, Painting the body, Tatooing.) Myres 40 Mysteries 273

Masd'Azil Maspero 4,
Mast Mastabas Mats
.
.

.....

17,

163 28, 29, 31, 42, 56, 128

163, 226, 250, 261, 270, 276,


121, 207,
.

Naga-ed-Der

55, 104, 105, 135


.

Maxyes Media
.

no
270
284
190

Medinct-Habti
Mediterranca7i
,,

40, 114, 148

civilization
.
.

Medum
Mc7nphis

2, 3, 4,

264

Men

26, 35 et seq., 45, 109,

no,

n7

121, 123, 126, 132, 136, 138, 139, 140 154 et seq., 201, 202, 203, 205, et seq., 224, 243, 250, 256, 258, 267

2n

274

Menes
Mentu

or

Mena

18, 19, 88, 179,

182 281

220
30. 31

Meri-Neith

Mersekha
Mesopotamia

180,

254 226
29

Mestem
Metal
.

47. 54

Mexican statue

160

Min

5,

39, 88,

n6,

144,

222 et seq. 226, 242


14

Mincopies
Mississipi
. . . .

-154
.

Moba

Models of

55 ostrich eggs 39 (See Fortified enclosure, Houses.)


.

^oo

INDEX.
PAGE
dt

Ornamentation
utensils
.

\vea[)ons

and
17

Pantomime
Papttan.

277
15

Ornaments
,,

15.63
. .

body

forehead

46 et seq. 45

Papyrus Paribeni Paris


.

142, 199
.

278
5i

33

Ornamentation, geometrical
,,

in relief

99
194

(See Louvre.) Patina


.

198, 203, 217


-

,,

,,

Mycenaean symmetrica

Pavilion

65

Peacock, Taus
Pebbles, polished Pelican

254 1 29
25
191

Orpen.
Oryx
,,
,,
.

273
.

beisa

117
117- 143

Pendant
Pepi

47

et se([., 51,

76 et seq. 155
195

leucoryx

Osiris
Ostrich 117, 121, 122,

eggs enclosures
.

254 132, 202, 205, 209 217, 224, 232, 236 39, 40, 217 217
.

280

Persen
Pcsth

......
5,

258 32
95
127

Petrie
97,
98,

8,

18, 19, 24, 32,

36, 39, 41
71,

43- 48, 49i 501 99,

55.

58, 69,

88,

feathers

39' 40,

230
143
22J.

loi,

108,

114,

121,

Owl

129, i33i 134. 139. 140. 144.

146, 147

Ox
Oxford
I-},,

148, 149, 152, 155, 158, 159, 161, 163 169, 176, 178, 180, 181, 182, 185, 190

25, 39, 41, 43, 63, 72, 84,

94

122, 125, 133, 140, 161, 165, 168, 172


174, 176, 178, 184, 186, 190, igi, 207

193, 194, 197, 199, 203, 207, 209,

210

222, 224, 233, 255, 259, 260, 270, 275


285, 288

211, 224, 226, 232, 238, 255, 258, 268

Petrie,
Petticoat

Mrs

Padan

45
107

Phacstus
Phcvnicians

Pakhome
PalaiKjuiu

..... .....
.
.

257
52

147,
.

278 148
146

Pictographs, Cretan

Palermo
Palettes, as amulet

Pictography
85
81 et seq.
144, 192

32, 100, 136, 229, 243,

248

PlETTE
Pillar

incised
slate

162, 163 212, 218

25, 39, 54, 78,

Pilot

210
189
.
.
.

195, 202, 224, 230, 251, 255


,,

votive
.

226

et seq.

Pig Pins

39, 41, 73, 75, 121


. .

Painting
,,

26, 199,

202 et seq., 214


26etse(], the
.

PlTT-RlVERS
Plaiting

.69
116

the

body
,,

21,

1 J'

Pitt-Kivers Collection (see Oxford).

,,

among
in

Greeks
,, ,,

34

(See Hair.)
Plants 116, 117, 126, 138, 139, 140, 142

pre-Mycenaean Greece

218
27 26
,,

,,

,,

Roman generals
.

of the south

,,

the bones of the dead

Plaques
268 208 239 4
,,

.....
. . .
.
. .

.144
275

with red
,,

glazed pottery
ivory
shell

32, 135

the eyes
. .

23, 27 et seq.,
.

Palisade

.133,

...
.

135, 251 et seq.

11

Palms
Panels,

140, 207, 208, 210, 238,

wood

....

wood
.

135, 251 et seq.


.

Platform

250, 254

INDEX.
PAGE

301
PAGE

Pleyte Pliny
.

50

Quartz

190
6,
8,

285
164 12, 62
93.

OUIBELL

71, 90, 99. 101, 134, 163

Poetry

17,

272, 280 et seq.


.

178, 222, 227, 232,

270

Poland
Polynesia7ts

Races

256, 283

Porphyry
Pottery
120, 133,

96 134, 155. 202, 270

Rahotep Ram
Rampart

....

3
95, 205,

(See Terracotta.) Pottery, black incised 108, 149, 151, 176

Ramcsseiwi

237 270 207 28

black topped
cross-lined
.

285 123 et seq. 140 206


.

Ranefer
Red
,,

....
.

26, 27, 2o()


.

Roman
Sea

generals painted

27

108, 140

decorated 113
glazed

et seq., 138,

202

203, 210, 223, 285, 287, 288


128, 165, 199

206, 207, 224, 230, 274

169 188 173.176, 183, 18S, 186,


32. 47. 58- i35. 155-

Reeds Reinach, Reisner

S.

214

et seq.

Rekhyt
Religion
60,

190, 191, 192,


. .

256

229 66, 289


.- 1

,,

I.

108, 114, 116 kabyle of 64, 104 origin making, 126 rough-faced
.

Religious scene

;)

Renan, Ary

POTTIER
Prayer
.

280
205
176
195

Rhythm
Rib of animal
Rickets

61 et seq.,

248 273, 280 4B


.

172

Prehistoric remains (European)


Priest of the double or

Rings

,,

38, 49.
.

50 34

ear
finger
lip

Prism

Prisoners

..... ....
.

Ka

258 70 99, 242


. .

47. 51
.

35

(See Anklets.)
Ritual
.

(See Barbarian, Captives.) 12 et seq. Production


.
. .
.

28,
.

Rivets

289 69

Prophetess of Hathor Neith


Protecting genius Provisions the dead

3^
31

Rock

crystal

3.

'79. 192

Rosettes

69, 71
o,

22
.

Ptah
,,

in

.... ....
embryo
.
.

218
33
172

Rowers Royal workshops Rudder


Russia
.

209 258 207, 209


199,
.

Pteroceras

Public works

Punt, Poini, or

Tupil of the eye

.... .... ....


.

154

223, 224

250

/'oiinf 39, 50, 161, 162

224, 288 213

Sacramental win Sacred rites


.

129
129
212, 221
.

Sacrifice

Pyginics

H
162

Saghel-el-Baglieh
.Sailing vessel Sails of boats

68
208

39, Pyramid texts Pyrennean paloeolitliic


.

275, 280 et seq.

120, 121

figures

Sanctuary Sandals

254 249
12

QiNG Ouadrupeds
.

273 74
205

Sandwich hhvidc rs
Sanlorin
Sarang, Indo-Mal ly

109
52

Ouarries

302

INDEX.

INDEX.
Statuettes 21 et seq., 30, 33, 38, 56, 57
119, 155, 158, 160 et seq., 270,

303
PAGE

Tliebcs
Tliinis

53, 173,

Steatite

70, loi, 191,


.

274 277

264 264
27

Steatopygy

127, 160 et seq.


8,

(See Abydos.) Thiti


.

Steindorff
Stela
.

224, 226, 228, 248


et seq., 155, 176

Thongs

of leather
.

200, 258 et seq., 278

Thot

47 220
32

Stones 49,

76, 91,

96

Thothmes
Thueris
Thrace
.

III

185, 186, 192,

266

219
163
53

hard.
,,

49, 95, 108, 115, 139

soft

sandstone

...
.

Stone-working
Stool

Stoppers lor leather bottles 47 Strabo

Straw Studs
,,

for the ears

or toggles for cloaks

Sues

.... .... .... ....


.

50,

94 96
105

Thread round the waist


Tifinagh

147

Tiger
Tiles

214
135
-.3,

et seq.

45,

210

TbniJiu

j^,

277
55

106, 115

(See IJhyaiis.)

34,35 57.58
285
21

Togo

Tombs

206

et seq., 218,

22 1

(See Graves.)

Sulphide of antimony

TORR

207, 217

Sun worship,
Syenite

origin

286
91

Torres Straits
Tortoise
,,
.

65
79, 94,
1

12

Symbol of
,, ,,

divinity

31

shell

65
208, 215

of the king
religious
.
.

15,

246 212
114

Totem Totemism
Touaregs

220
45, 147,

Symmetry
Syria

....
.

62, 73
.

Toupis
Towers
Trap
Trees
in
.

276 28
207 210

Table of offerings
Tablet, ivory

270
203 216

shape of a wheel
117, 118, 234,
16, 122,

Taboo

Tails of animals

54, 55,

Tambourine
Tatooing
3,

230 273
34

Triangles Tribal marks

131, 133,

238 224
15

Tribute
Tripoli

255

30

et seq.

40
.

among
at

the Greeks

Troglodites

214, 216

Malta

decorative

164 33 et seq.
.

Tuat

Tukh
Tunis
Ttirin

275, 276 22 et seq., 274

in pre-Mycenoean Greece medical


,,

5.

23, 32, 35-

40 266
191

religious

Taurt
Tchoiiktdiis
.

30 et seq. 70
14

Turkey Tusks

or pelican
.

48. 198

Teeth

Tehuti-hetep
Tcl-cl-Aynarna

48 26
32
.

Uazu Unas
Unger

29 280
17

Unguents
Univei-sity Colleg e (see London).

49
36
143
.

Temples Tendons
Terracotta
.

221, 253, 254

176, 189,

48 207, 274
.
.

Urine Urccus

(See Pottery.)
Tettiges
78

Utensils for grinding paint

:5

Uzait

29

304

INDEX.
PAGE

PAGE

Vaphio goblets
Vases, ivory

-254

War
Water
,.

217

loi

Warriors
.

54, 55-

99
120
II
I

pottery, black incised

108, 149

151

ripples
.

black-topped I22etseq. 140, 206


with
design in relief

,,

Weapons
,,

of state
.

230 66
198
55

122

et seq.

Weill. Werner, Alice Wcsic?-n Sudan

148, 254, 267


.

cross-lined

108, 140

Whip
White
,,

140,
.

222
21

,,

decorated

113 et seq.
202, 206,
in imita-

clay

274

paint Whitevvasli

206
285

tion

of

hard
108,
1

Wiedemann
115 126

17, 32, 11 2, 177, 277,

stones

14,

of fantastic forms

et seq.
,,

Wigs Wilkin Wilkinson


.

37.42 7,8
217 200

17,
.

rongh faced

.126

Window
Wolf
.

,,

white painted (red polished) 108 et seq 140, 206

214
34
160

W'olters

Women
et

21, 23, 37, 38, 39, 40, 45, 51


56, 57,

stone

96etseq., 201
97 cylindrical fantastic forms 101 et seq.
.

seq.,

119,

121,

127,

et seq., 162, 175,

211, 213, 220, 226


274, 277, 278

Vaulting

251
14,

Wood
,,

Veddahs
Vegetable paste
Veil
.

52

sonorous

....
.

.4-54.

135. 139

273
144
142

164
"

(.See Castanettes.)

45, 46, 165

Vessel
sailing

250

Worshippers of Horus Writing


Egyptian

"
.

15. 66,
.

i,

282

(See Bark, Flotilla.) Vibration

hieroglyph
primitive

4,

85,

88,

142 et

273
.

seq.,
,,
. .

288
15'

Vladinm'
Volossovo

54

154
74, 108,
112,

Von BissiNG

128,

129

Inscriptions, Hieroglyphs, (See Marks, Pictography, Signature.)

142, 144

Votive objects 66, 90 et seq. (See Maces, Palettes.) Vulture 42, 129, 142, 232
.
. .

Yellow
Yc??ich

27,
.

206
287
205

Zaborowski
Wady-el-Shcikh Haminaffiat
.

144,

51
203, 288
212, 254

Zer
Zigzag
.

.42, 49, 180, 182


22, 40, 109, III, 120
.

Magarah

ZiPFELIUS

190.

203

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