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NEWS LETTER OF

ARMARC
AUG -2009 Vol 1.86
Editorial -overlooked. To identify the true sources of stress, a
Today’s fast pace of life-style and getting the close look on habits, attitude, excuses etc. may help.
better in life brings a state of mental and emotional strain, Managing stress is totally dependent upon taking the
very well known as ‘stress’. Regular thinking on achieving charge of thoughts, emotions, schedule, environment and
something induce some kind of stress in everyone’s life the way of dealing with these problems. The ultimate
and the best way to ascertain this is face to face combat goal is a balanced life, i.e. Pragya-bodh with time for
making true to a great quote, “Face is mirror of a person’s work, relationship, relaxation, enjoying the challenges,
thinking or personality”. Number of cases related with fun etc. Seceral other steps like thinking positive,
suicidal attempts after such stress have been seen. It reframing, being assertive, time management, humour,
becomes worsen when the students are concerned with ventilation, drinking water, music therapy etc. can also
such things due to phobias of examination, result of ex- be made. A good look and caution of stress manage-
ment would certainly help everyone to make his/her life
amination etc. Stress is a psychophysiological response
happier and more successful. The regular morning and
which may vary from person to person depending upon
evening practice of transcendental meditation technique
the physiology and mental level of a person. Medical
especially with philosophy of Ayurveda and Yoga is the
science considers three physiological systems that are
most effective way to relieve anxiety and stress. It only
directly involved in stress response, i.e. the nervous sys- needs pragya-bodh, an important factor to realize the
tem, the endocrine system and the immune system. need of body workings according to nature (daily rou-
Ayurveda looks upon the imbalance or lack of coordi- tine with time), not against it.
nation of the three main mental functions of dhi (learn- WISH ALL THE READERS TO A VERY
ing), dhriti (retention), and smriti (long-term memory) HAPPY INDEPENDENCE DAY
for such response. This imbalance may be due the dis-
turbance in prana vata that supports mental functions
and ultimately the coordination of dhi, dhriti and smriti.
Any disorder in this coordination may result in mental
stress. When vyana vayu alongwith prana vayu also gets COME AND VOW TO WORK TOGETHR TO BRING INDIA
disturbed, the communication between the heart and AGAIN ON TOP TO PROVE THIS QUOTE
mind is affected and it results both in mental and emo- “We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count,
tional stress. Charak Samhita finds the Pragya-apradh without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could
as main factor behind stress. Pragya-apradh is a situa- have been made!” —Albert Einstein
In This Issue
tion when people lack the perceiving capacity about the
reality of life and make mistake. Medical science gives 1) ABHYANGA- AN OVERVIEW
an account of stress with imbalance (other than normal) 2) A CONCEPTUAL AND PRACTICAL
in secretion of serotonin, melatonin, acetylcholine etc. APPROACH ON KUPI PAKWA
Usual perception is conceived that nothing can KALPANA
be done for stress but with realization and certain steps, 3) ARKA KALPANA (DISTILLATION)
lot of control can be made. Stress management starts 4) Formulation Profile (Series-A/9)
with identifying the sources of stress. Usually true sources Swayamguptadi modaka
of stress are not always obvious and, they can be over- 5) Herbal Drug Profile (Series-A/10)
Swarnapatri (Senna)
Newsletter of ARMARC 2 AUG -2009
ABHYANGA- AN OVERVIEW Massage works directly with 3 circulatory system
Dr. Pravin Joshi, Lecturer Dept. of Dravyguna as-
Dr.Prashant Math, Final P G Scholar, • Blood vascular system
Bhaishajya kalpana Dept, A.L.N.R.M.A.M.Koppa. • Nervous system
Introduction: • Lymphatic system
Now a day’s even though Abhyanga and Blood vascular system-
Massage increases body temperature and excites
Massage are considered as synonymous, hairline
the circulation of the blood in the body.
differences are observed in these terms. Abhyanga refers
It helps in bringing the toxins from all over the
to methodical way of massage with medicated oils whereas
body to the veins and ultimately to lungs where fresh
massage is a systematic way of rubbing or kneading the
oxygen purifies the blood and recycles it in the body.
body with or without oil. Among the various Abhyanga,
This process of purification and excretion of
‘Marma Abhyanga’ is important woking mainly on toxins can also take place either by filtration of toxins
principle of drainage of lymphatic system. The from kidney or if massage is given so that one begins to
combination of aromatic and medicated oil drain the sweat.
lymphatic system and tone the body for the purpose of Nervous system:
better health by loosening the cellulite. A fine network of nerve endings is found lying
Abhyanga: The word is derived from two words, Anga underneath the skin. Massage helps in the excitation of
and Abhi where Anga means movement while Abhi means such fine nerve endings and nurturing the body in some
over. Thus abhyanga means faction of oil over the body. of conditions like Vatvyadhis etc. This might be the reason
behind the mentioning of Abhyanga in classics as
AprÉÇaÉqÉÉcÉUåͳÉirÉÇ, xÉ eÉUÉ´ÉqÉuÉÉiÉWûÉ | poorvakarma of some of Panchakarma. But this is still
SØ̹mÉëxÉÉSmÉÑwšÉrÉÑÈxuÉmlÉxÉÑiuÉYiuÉSÉ ïM×üiÉç || practiced as Prime treatment in the diseases of Vata.
A.WØû xÉÔ.2/8 Lymphatic system:
Regular abhyanga will help in eradicating the old Lymphatic system is the supplementary to the
age, fatigue and Vata. Improves eye-sight, strengthens blood vascular system running parallel to it and draining
the body, helps in getting sound sleep and makes skin the excess fluid from blood stream.
charming and wrinkle free. The lymph nodes are excited by local massage
Even in the classics while commenting on this, it and heat produced by friction which in turn cleanses and
is stated that abhyanga should be Sukharupa and if done vitalizes the body without causing the build-up of toxins.
with warm taila the absorption will be enhanced. For this reason massage is ideal for older persons whose
Taking a modern view the same kind of benefits body is no longer readily replenish the vital fluids.
here it has been tried to explain methodically. Conclusion:
Various patterns of Abhyanga : Thus it can be said that massage is the multi
Even though Abhyanga is mentioned as a dimensional therapy working on 3 vital systems of body
generalized oleation therapy of body but still it is practiced simultaneously, providing faster and prolonged benefits
locally based on type of disorder or dengenration- to body. Depending upon the medicated oil used, the
Shiroabhyanga- Masssaing the scalp gently with oil. Abhyanga may be Vata pacifying, Pitta pacifying or
Helps in improving eyesight, reduce stress etc.. Kapha pacifying. Thus Abhyanga purifies the body,
Paadabhyanga:- cleanes the sense organs, gladdens the mind and aboveall
Masssaing of sole and fore leg with medicated makes body more energetic with better physiologhical
oil. Improves circulation, flexibility, sleep pattern, reduce functionings aiding with more appetite and better digestion
stiffness in joints. in balaced way.
Newsletter of ARMARC 3 AUG -2009
A CONCEPTUALAND PRACTICAL A rasayana product prepared from parad in a
APPROACH ON KUPI PAKWA KALPANA glass bottle by applying heat is known as Kupi pakwa
kalpana.
Dr. Abdul Karim M.D (Ay) Lecturer Dept of Rasashatra &
Kupi pakwa kalpanas are also known as
Bhaishajya klpana, A.L.N.R.M.A.M.C.Koppa.
Introduction sindhoora kalpanas.
Rasashastra: Rasashastra is a superspeciality xrÉlSÇ mÉëxÉëuÉhÉÇ kÉÉiÉÉãÈ ÍxÉlSUzÉoS qÉlrÉiuÉÉiÉ |
branch of Ayurveda in the area of manufacturing potent U£üuÉhÉï ÌuÉzÉåwÉåhÉ mÉërÉÉåaÉÉåuÉiÉïiÉå AxrÉ ÌWû ||
medicines by using herbo-metallo-minerals and animal The root word syanda prasravanam means releasing
products. The main aim of Rasashastra is to alleviate the properties, also indicates red colour of the compound.
disease and to make the body stable and stronger for Classification:
practicing dharma for the achievement of salvation. According to Ingredients:
Modalities of Parada kalpanas: 1.Kharaleeya 2.Parpati • Sagandha: Preparation with Gandhaka.
3.Koopipakwa 4.Pottali. Parada+Gandhaka — Rasasindoor
Historical Background
Parada+Gandhaka+Dhatu – Tamra- Rajata Sindoora
It comes to know that use of kacha kupi in rasa
Parada+Gandhaka+Adhatu—Tala- Shila Sindoora
vada starts after 10th century AD. Before this no reference
Parada+Gandhaka+Adhatu+Dhatu-
regarding the kacha kupi was found. Use of glass was
there in civilization of Egypt and Mesopotomia. It has Poornachandrodaya- Talachandrodaya
come to India through Arab. Due to this, reference of •Nirgandha: Preparation without gandhaka
kacha kupi is found in the classics after Rasa Hridaya Rasa Karpoora and Rasa Pushpa
Tantra. Before the invention of glass preparation, such According to collection of product:
type of medicines were prepared by using kupi made-up • Kantastha /galastha: In this finished product gets
of iron silver etc. accumulated or sublimated at the neck portion of the kupi.
Acharya Yashodhara Bhat (13th century AD) in Ex : rasasindura, rasa karpoora, mallasindura
his text Rasaprakasha Sudhakara quoted first time Rasa • Talastha or Adhastha: In this end product is obtained at
Sindoora Kalpana by the name of Udaya Bhaskara Rasa
the bottom of the kupi. Ex: swarna vanga, mahaseturasa,
and at the same place he gave the method of
sameerapannagarsa.
Rasakarpoora preparation by the name of Ghanasara
• Ubhayastha: In this end product is obtained from both
Rasa. He used Kacha Ghati (Kupi), Sikata Yantra for
the preparation of Udaya Bhaskara Rasa. at neck region and bottom of the kupi. Ex:
In 15th century AD Acharya Ananthdev Suri in Poornachandrodayarasa.
his text Rasachintamani described it as Rasaparthiva Rasa. According to mode of preparation:
In Rasa Koumudi, Rasakalpayoga ( 16th cen AD) and • Antardhooma: In this method kupi has been corked
Ayurveda Prakasha (17th cen AD ) Kupi Pakwa from the beginning of the preparation. Ex: Talastha
Kalpanas are described by the name of Sindoora nama rasasindura.
Rasa. Rasataranginikara (20th cen AD) has mentioned • Bahirdhooma: According to this method fumes or
many other Sindoora Kalpas. vapors are allowed to go out completely and after getting
Etymology
the siddhi lakshanas, the kupi is corked.ex: rasasindoora,
MÑümÉÏ CÌiÉMücÉMÔümÉÏ mÉYuÉÍqÉÌiÉ AÎalÉlÉÉÇmÉYuÉÇ
shilasindoora.
UxÉxrÉ mÉÉUSxrÉ ArÉlÉqÉ |
Procedure:
AjÉÌiÉ MÔümrÉÉqÉ AÎalÉlÉÉÇ mÉYuÉÇ rÉSìxÉÉrÉlÉqÉ
• Poorvakarma
CÌiÉ MÔümÉÏmÉYuÉ UxÉÉrÉlÉqÉç ||
• Pradhanakarma
• Paschatkarma
Newsletter of ARMARC 4 AUG -2009
Poorvakarma: Pradhana karma:
1) Collection of equipments: Heating pattern or schedule:
• Khalva yantra Heating pattern denotes two main things
• Kachakupi • Heating in terms of duration
• Vastra(cloth) • Heating in terms of temperature
• Mrittika
The term duration indicates the time limit of
• Valuka
kramagni, i.e. the stages of agni for any kupi pakwa kalpa.
• Valuka yantra
The stages of agni are mridu agni, madhyama agni and
• Loha shalakas
teevra agni. The duration of heating pattern differs from
• Bhatti
• Copper coin individual kupi kalpa based on the lakshanas as the
• Pyrometer etc kramagni can be considered.
2) Selection and purification of ingredients: Mridu agni: 200-2500C.
All the ingredients should be identified according Madhyama agni: 250-4500C
to Rasa classics for their grahya/ agrahya lakshanas and Teevragni: 500-6500C
it is subjected for shodhana. Application of hot and cold shalakas:
3) Preparation of Kajjali: During the preparation of kupi pakwa kalpa,
The preparation of the ingredients should be taken sheeta shalaka and tapta shalaka are in use. Sheeta
out as per the reference and trituration should be done shalaka is used especially in noting the state of kajjali
without using any liquid till the mixture becomes lusterless. whether it is in powder form, melted form or in boiling
The term Kajjali can be used for pre material or for the state or in sublimating compound state. Tapta shalaka is
mixture which is used for making kupi pakwa rasayanas. used for burning the sulphur deposited at the neck region
Generally the Kajjali has appearance of black
of kupi which may block and ultimately break the kupi.
colour but still the colour of this pre material depends on
Observation of fumes and flame:
the ingredients used. If bhavana is mentioned, it should
• Fumes: All the characteristics of fumes like colour,
be given after completion of Kajjali and it is dried and
odour etc. must be noted. It differs according to the
powdered finely.
Preparation of kupi: ingredients. Colour may be Yellowish, Orange, Bluish or
• Preparation of bottle with mud smeared cloth. White. Quantity may be mild, moderate or profuse and
• Application of seven layers in sequence after complete odour like sulphur/ arsenal odour may be observed in
drying of former one. The aim of mrittika vastra lepana some of the observations.
for the kupi is to make the kupi ready for heat • Flame: It is also an important factor while preparing
susceptibility and as pressure resistant. kupi pakwa rasayanas. Timing of appearance of flame,
Filling of kajjali into kupi: its colour and its duration are important features. These
The kupi should be filled up to the one third by features also depend on the ingredients used.
kajjali so that there should be enough space inside the Corking of kupi and self cooling:
kupi for melting and boiling of kajjali and also for the To decide the proper time for corking is very
sublimation of compound which is going to be condensed important and difficult task as well, because it indicates
and deposited in the neck region. the completion of kupi paka. So before corking few test
• Kupi should be fixed exactly at the center of valuka must have to be done and those are:
• Absence of flame
yantra and it is placed at four angula heights from the
• Absence of fumes
bottom of the valuka yantra. • Appearance of redness in the bottom of kupi (bottom
• Before filling the kupi it should be cleaned well and of the flask become red)
should be covered temporarily with cork while pouring • If a piece of copper plate or coin is kept over the mouth
the sand into valuka yantra. of flask, a white deposit is formed on it.
Newsletter of ARMARC 5 AUG -2009
• When a red hot iron rod is inserted into the flask and Pashchat karma:
removed it is covered with smoke. Removal of kupi: First sand should be removed from
• A cold iron rod should be inserted into the bottom of valuka yantra after that kupi is taken out with
the flask and removed. The material, sticking to the rod care(sometimes it may be possible that kupi is broken
when cool, should be red in colour. inside but remain intact due to the layers of cloth)
But there is no appearance of flame in case of Nirgandha By scraping: Layers of cloth smeared with mud is
kupi pakwa rasayana. removed and kupi should be cleaned with wet cloth, then
Before corking 2 to 3 inches of sand layer should the level of rasayana inside the neck/bottom is marked.
be moved aside from neck of the kupi then corking of Breaking of kupi: A kerosene dipped string is tied
mouth of kupi should be done with mud/gopichandana around the middle of kupi and set the string to fire and
smeared cloth. The temperature is reduced for some time after fire extinguishes, remove the burns of string with a
during the corking. After that temperature is raised for spatula, and wrap it with a wet piece of cloth, it then
specific time and left for self cooling. It is supposed that breaks into two pieces.
during this period, forming Sindhoora compound starts Collection of product: Kupi pakwa rasayana product
to condense in the neck portion of kupi and whatever the which may be kantastha or talastha type should be
temperature obtaining in this period is necessary for collected carefully from the particular portion. Then the
enhancement of quantity and quality of kupi pakwa product is analyzed to classical and modern techniques.
compound by its complete paka process.
****************ΦΦΦΦΦ****************
(Continued on July edition..........)
ARKA KALPANA (DISTILLATION)
Dr. Mahesh.M.Madalageri Fainal M.D. Guide: Prof.(Dr) D.K.Mishra M.D (Ay), H.O.D.,
Dept. of Bhaishajya Kalpana, Dr.Parshant kumar Jha, Dept. of Quality control Lab ,
A.L.N.Rao Memorial Ayurvedic Medical College,Koppa
Method of Arka Preparation: powder, glass powder etc. are taken in equal quantities
In preparation of Arka, we should consider some and mixed in equal quantity with urine of cow or horse or
points according to clasical reference which is decribed gout or buffalo or elephant. The clay is added. After that
in arka Prakash-1/52-54. Old manufacturing process, it is dried in sunlight, till the smell of urine gets completely
which is done by traditional Arka – Patan yantra and removed. In this way clay for manufacturing distillation
apparatus is prepared.
modern scientific method, which is done by the Soxlet or
• Method of manufacturing apparatus (Ar. P. 1/55-58)
other distillation apparatus.
- Round shaped vessel manufactured by pot maker from
1. Apparatus used in Arka preparation.
the above clay is taken.
2. Process of Arka preparation (Methodology)
- The mouth of the pot should not be less than 3 angula
3. Role of Agni in Arka preparation.
(3 cm.) and it should be like that of surya mandala.
1. Apparatus:
- For covering again, lid of same size should be prepared
In this classical review is described as:
and there should be lips of 3 angula by which it is jointed
• Mudpot used for preparing of Arka–Patan Yantra;
with the vessel. Powder of old bones should be used to
before invention of modern technique the apparatus for seal the lips to make it airtight.
distillation was prepared as given example of - One small hole should be made in the lid.
manufacturing process being quoted in historical part of - In this the tube of bamboo is holed (One is small and
the subject. another one is double the size of first one) and and clay is
• Preparation of clay for the pot - For the preparation of applied on the joints. This should now allow the fumes
clay, iron powder, geru, alum, black clay, red clay, bone to escape out.
Newsletter of ARMARC 6 AUG-2009
- The small tube is inserted measuring 4-5 Angula inside (2) Hard drug - Ajamoda, Trikatu, Kirata etc. drugs are
the pot. considered as hard drug. While preparing the Arka from
- Arka-patra is kept below the large tube. The fume that these drugs, water is added twice in and kept for 12 hrs.
comes out from the pot is collected in that vessel and this After that Arka is to be prepared by using Arka-Patan
vessel should be kept in cold water. Yantra.
- In this way, the fumes gets condensed & again collected (3) Fresh Drug: These drugs are divided into two
in the form of Arka. groups
- This is the example of classical apparatus when no glass 1) Juicy drugs: Leaves & Fruits
or stainless steel were being used for the said purpose. 2) Juiceless drugs: Fleshy drugs & Fibrous drugs
Fresh drugs which contain milk are again divided into
two:
1) Milky: Mild & Strong
2) Hidden milky
- In Juicy drugs – 1/20th part of water is added in the
Kalka of these drugs.
- Preparation of Arka from Leaves - 1/100th part of
water is being added. Kept for 24hrs
- Preparation of Arka from Fruits - Without adding
water
- Preparation of Arka from Green & Juiceless drugs -
1/20th part of water is added. Kept for 3 hrs.
2. Method of Arka Preparation: - Preparation of Arka from Flowers - 1/16th part of
(i) General Method: water is added. Kept for 3 hrs.
In 2nd chapter of Arka-Prakash, it is mentioned that for - Preparation of Arka from Mridu - 4 times of water is
preparing Arka first of all, the drugs are to be coarsely added. milky drugs (eg. Arka).
powdered and water is added to it in ten times of the According to Modern Science:
quantity of drugs and then it is soaked for 24 hrs. Then 1. Apparatus –
Arka is extracted by using Arka – Yantra. Distillation is the process by which liquid is vapourised
(ii) Special Method: and recollected by cooling and condensing the vapour.
Apart from general method some special methods are The apparatus required for simple distillation consists
also mentioned by Ar. P. as per the 5 types of Dravyas, especially 4 parts.
which are used in the preparation of Arka as: - Boiler
(1) Very hard drug - Vessel
(2) Hard drug - Condenser
- Receiver
(3) Fresh drug
(i) Heating Mantle, which provides heat and maintain
(4) Twig
the heat.
(5) Liquid drug.
(ii) Vessel (Still), in which vapours are produced by
Though the method of Arka preparation is same as
heating the liquid up to its boiling point.
mentioned in general method, here water is added
(iii) Condenser, which functions as a cooling device of
according to the hardness of the drug.
vapour either by circulation of water or air at
1) Very hard drug - The drugs which are of one year old
atmospheric temperature.
and very hard like Sandal wood etc. are considered as
(iv) Receiver, It is used for the collection of the
very hard drug. General method is applied for preparing condensed liquid.
Arka of such drugs. (Continued next edition..........)
Newsletter of ARMARC 7 AUG -2009
Formulation Profile (Series-A/9) Herbal Drug Profile (Series-A/10)
Swayamguptadi modaka Swarnapatri (Senna)
Dr. Roopesh Eklarkar, Guid: Prof. D.K.Mishra M.D (Ay) 1. Prof. M.Vidyasagar 2. Prof. K.S.Sanjay
Dr.Mahesh.M.Madaalageri Bhavya D.C. 3. Dr. Hari Venkatesh 4. Dr. Prashant Kumar Jha

Ingredients: Dugda– 1.6 liters, Pippali churna, Priyala Botanical Source: The drug consists of dried leaves
churna, Kapikachchu mula churna, Kokilaksha churna, of Cassia angustifolia Vahl from the family
Caesalpiniaceae.
Masha churna, Godhuma sattwa, Madhu – 384gms,
Geographical Source: This plant is native to India and
Ghirta –768 gms, Khanda Sarkara – 2,400 gms.
is cultivated in Tinnevelly, Madurai, Trichinopoly,
Procedure:
Jodhpur, Mehsana etc.
Above mentioned drugs were weighed accurately
and made into fine powder separately in appropriate ratio
and collected into vessel. Ghrita was melted and all the
powders were added to ghrita and mixed together and
the mixture was stirred continuously in order to avoid
carbonization of the material and frying, the vessel was
taken out from the fire and kept ready. In another vessel
Milk is taken, to which sita was added and paka was
prepared, after obtaining the Paka lakshanas already
prepared ghrita bharjita drugs are added and mixed
uniformly, paka was continued. When the consistency of
rolling pills was attained, the process was stopped and
pills of desired size were moulded. Habit: This is a small undershrub up to 1 meter in height
with subterete or obtusely angled erect or ascending
branches. Leaves are usually in pairs of 5-8 jugate;
Use: Vajikarana
leaflets oval, lanceolate, glabrous. Inflorescence is axillary
Dose: 500mg
raceme with many waxy flowers, usually considerably
Anupana: Milk
exceeding the subtending leaf. Bracts are membranous,
obovate or ovate, caducous. Sepals are obtuse,
Physical characters: cuncate, compressed. The pods are 1.4 - 2.8 inch long
Colour Dark brown colour and about 0.8 inch wide, greenish-brown to dark-brown
Odour Odour characterstic in colour and contained 5-7 obovate dark brown and
Taste Sweet nearly smooth seeds.
Consistency Semi solid mass Macroscopy: Leaflets are 2.5 - 6 x 7 -15 cm in size;
pale yellowish-green in colour; elongated lanceolate in
Chemical Analysis: shape, slightly assymetric at base; margins entire, flat
with acute apex; both surfaces smooth with sparse
Loss on drying % w/w 6.48
trichomes; odour faint but distinctive with mucilagenous
Total ash % w/w 1.80
disagreeable taste (not bitter).
Acid insoluble ash % w/w 0.19
Microscopy: The transverse section of the leaflet
Water soluble extractive % w/w 45.58 through midrib reveals its isobilateral nature. Epidermal
Alcohol soluble extractive % w/w 52.48 cells are found outermost, being straight walled with
Newsletter of ARMARC 8 AUG-2009
are abundant on both surfaces. In lamina portion, pali-

PRINTED MATTER/BOOK POST


sade layers follow both the epidermis; the palisade cells
of upper portion are somewhat longer than that of found

RNI Regd No. KARENG/2002/7924


on lower portion. Prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate
are found on larger veins and cluster of calcium oxalate
are present throughout the mesophyll region. Midrib por-
tion is biconvex with vascular bundles suroounded by
pericyclic fibres.
Chemical Constituents: Sennosides A, B, C and D
(anthraquinone), palmidin, rhein anthrones, aloe-emo-
din etc. are glycosides; others being mucilage, volatile
oils, sugars, resin etc.
Uses: Purgative, anthelmintic, antipyretic, vermifuge,
diuretic etc.
Substitutes and Adulterants: Cassia tora, C.
obtusifolia, C. absus, C. italica, C. occidentalis, COME! JOIN THE ARMARC NETWORK

Pluchea lanceolata INDIA


Note: Senna is an Arabian name. The drug was brought Student(Rs. 50), Individual(Rs. 100), Institution(Rs.
150)
into use by Arabian physicians for removing capillary Patron (Rs. 1000)
congestion (pods were preferred to leaves).
OVERSEAS
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Spectrophotometer, Flame Photomeneter, Photo- Note: All the original scientific papers are invited
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Your Suggestions and Queries are invited.


Patron
Honourable A. Ramesh Rao
Editor: Prof (Dr.) M.Vidyasagar & Co-Editor: Dr.Prashant kumar Jha
Research Co-ordinator Dr. Mahesh.M.Madalageri
Printed and Published by ARMARC on behalf of Honourable A. Ramesh Rao, Koppa, Chikmagalur Dt., Karnataka - 577126, India
(No. KARENG/2002/7924, RNI, New Delhi)
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