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Marius Velic

PARTNER
English for Public Administration

Foreword

Foreword
This challenging 12-module textbook is intended for use by intermediate adult and young learners of English who work / will work in companies, Trade and Commerce, Public Administration, local councils, town halls, or government offices. The textbook must be seen in the overall context of English for Specific Purposes (ESP), as it shares the elements of syllabus design, course design, and material selection and development which are common to all fields of work in ESP. However, English for Public Administration differs from other varieties of ESP in that it is a mixture of specific content (related to a particular work area or interest), and general content (relating to general ability to communicate more effectively, outside the business environment). In order to provide the learners with the adequate tools for this twofold perspective, PARTNER offers material to develop fundamental abilities to communicate in both the spoken and the written language, thus enabling the learners to extend the language skills they have already acquired to communicative activities of greater complexity in Business English. A major component is therefore the development of reading skills, with a strong emphasis on the vocabulary related to local and central administration, governmental policies, political tendencies. Also, the textbook facilitates explicit focus on the troublesome aspects of grammar in such a way that the interdependence of grammar and communication is achieved. The textbook contains twelve modules, uniformly sharing the following sections: Reading (pre-, while-reading, and follow-up activities) Vocabulary Grammar Talking (with functional language) Home assignment Each of the units provides instruction and practice in all skills and revises various areas of language study, such as morphology, syntax, lexicology, semantics, and stylistics. Most significantly, the textbook devotes much attention to the function of language as a vehicle for communication and expression in the business
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Module 1 Why English?

environment as it includes activities that develop business interaction, negotiation, participating in meetings, presenting information, secretarial work or social interaction. Less concerned with explicit language rules and more focused on creating independent learners, PARTNER encloses two Exam Practices that revise modules 1-6, and 7-12, respectively, whose marking system facilitates self-assessment; feedback is also offered through the complete Key, which corresponds to learners need for independent work. At the same time, the recycling of the main vocabulary and grammar areas is possible due to the sections Vocabulary Notes and Grammar Notes at the end of the textbook. The Language study sections in the units are intended to support the topic vocabulary in focus, and the language exercises display variety throughout the textbook rather than theoretical orientation to a particular linguistic pattern. Accordingly, exercises are contextual wherever possible, the stress being laid on revising and acquiring vocabulary items subsumed under public administration conversation topics. Moreover, the basic format of most of the exercises addresses pair and group work for the sake of proficient work, convenience, and flexibility. As much designed as a self-study edition as a r egular ESP class textbook, PARTNER hopes to count as effective material for those who want to improve their English for Public Administration. The author

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Contents

Contents
Foreword Module 1. Why English? Starting up Reading: The English Language Today Vocabulary: Words related to language study Word-formation Grammar: Countable and uncountable nouns Talking: Introductions and responses Home assignment: Text translation Module 2. EFL Starting up Reading: English as a 'foreign' language Vocabulary: Abbreviations and acronyms DO vs. MAKE Grammar: Determiners Talking: Expressions and language functions Home assignment: Welcoming guests Informal e-mail Module 3. Working together Starting up Reading: Female Start-ups Vocabulary: Adjectives describing character Word-formation Grammar: Present tenses Personal pronouns Talking: Expressing personal views Home assignment: Text translation Essay writing Module 4. The place of work Starting up Reading: Messages. Dialogue Vocabulary: Collocations; verb + preposition (I) Names of industries Grammar: Past tenses Talking: Describing location Describing similarities and differences Home assignment: Writing a report Filling in a letter
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Contents

Module 5. Power shifts Starting up Reading: European Institute of Public Administration Vocabulary: Word formation Terms related to local administration Grammar: Ways of expressing futurity Negative and limiting adverbials Talking: Commenting on something you know little about Home assignment: Text translation Separation of state powers Module 6. To vote or not to vote Starting up Reading: Think Global, Vote Local Vocabulary: Words related to elections Antonyms Grammar: Modal verbs Talking: Arguing for and arguing against To vote or not to vote Home assignment: The Romanian Middle-class Module 7. Local affairs Starting up Reading: Local Government Vocabulary: Words related to marketing Multi-word verbs (I) Grammar: Infinitives and gerunds Questions and answers Talking: Making a choice The European Union Major Bodies Home assignment: Translate from and into Romanian Exam Practice 1 Module 8. The Europeans Starting up Reading: The Future of the European Union Vocabulary: European countries and people Noun + preposition BE + adverb/preposition Grammar: Indirect speech Talking: Saying you are interested Saying you are not interested Home assignment: European Standards of Quality

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Contents

Module 9. Public policies Starting up Reading: Policy Change and Institutional Reform in the Public Sector Vocabulary: Word formation Grammar: Conditionals Talking: Opinions and reactions Home assignment: Office Papers Module 10. Citizenship Starting up Reading: Citizenship Vocabulary: Words related to citizenship Verb + preposition (II) Grammar: Passive forms Causative structures Talking: Expressing pessimism Expressing encouragement Handling difficult situations Home assignment: Translate into Romanian Comment on texts Module 11. Ethics Starting up Reading: Helping Employees Make Sound Ethical Decisions Vocabulary: Adjective + preposition Prepositions of time Multi-word verbs (II) Grammar: Adjectives and adverbs Talking: Speculating Telephone conversation Home assignment: Comparison advertisements Module 12. Click@net.com Starting up Reading: The Internet Vocabulary: Preposition + noun Prepositions of place Multi-word verbs (III) Grammar: Unreal present and past; wishes and regrets Talking: Asking for opinion. Giving opinion Home assignment: Describing a network Exam Practice 2 Key Vocabulary Notes Grammar Notes Reference Material
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Module 1 Why English?

Module 1.

Why English?

Starting up
1. In pairs, ask and answer the following questions. a) What are your reasons for learning English? b) Which language or languages will become the common world language(s) in the next twenty years? c) Where can you hear or see English in your country?

OPEN
10.00 18.00

room service available

design

No smoking

job
CLOSED
Sunday

PULL
SECOND- HAND

hair style fashion PUSH

DUTY FREE

2. In pairs, ask and answer what the following words mean. a) b) c) d) e) open duty free second-hand service closed f) g) h) i) j) Internet spot trend mouse printer

Are these words used in Romanian? Tell your partner how the words are used, and give the Romanian pronunciation, if different. Work with your partner and make a similar list of English words which you often see or use in your country. 3. In pairs, explain what the following words and phrases mean. a) b) c) d) e) reign fiftyfold estimates mother-tongue per annum f) g) h) i) j) intriguing foreigner fluency board tip

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Module 1 Why English?

Reading
Read the article and answer the questions. _____________________ In the glorious reign of Queen Elizabeth (the first, that is, from 1558 to 1603), the number of English speakers in the world is thought to have been between five and seven million. At the beginning of the reign of the second Queen Elizabeth, in 1952, the figure had increased almost fiftyfold: 250 million, it was said, spoke English as a mother tongue, and a further 100 million or so had learned it as a foreign language. Thirty-five years on, the figures continue to creep up. The most recent estimates tell us that mother-tongue speakers are now over 300 million. But this total is far exceeded by the numbers of people who use English as a foreign language - at least a further 400 million, according to the most conservative of estimates, and perhaps a further billion, according to radical ones. 'Creep', perhaps, is not quite the right word, when such statistics are introduced. What accounts for the scale of these increases? The size of the mother-tongue total is easy to explain. It's the Americans. The estimated population of the USA was just under 239 million in 1985, of whom about 215 million spoke English as a mother tongue. The British, Irish, Australians, New Zealanders, Canadians, and South Africans make up most of the others - but even combined they don't reach 100 million. There's no doubt where the majority influence is. However, these figures are growing relatively slowly at present - at an average rate of about half a percent per annum. This is not where the drama lies. A much more intriguing question is to ask what is happening to English in countries where people don't use it as a mother tongue. A highly complicated question, as it turns out. Finding out about the number of foreigners using English isn't easy, and that is why there is so much variation among the estimates. There are hardly any official figures. No one knows how many foreign people have learned English to a reasonable standard of fluency - or to any standard at all, for that matter. There are a few statistics available - from the examination boards, for example - but these are only the tip of a very large iceberg.
(Crystal, D. The English Language, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1988, pp. 1 -2)

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Module 1 Why English?

1. Which of the following would be the most suitable title for this article? a) Mother Tongues c) Foreign Languages Today b) Statistics Today d) The English Language Today

Choose the best option for completing each of the sentences below. 2. The text above is a) completely objective. b) completely subjective. c) informative. 3. In the glorious reign of Queen Elizabeth I, the number of English speakers in the world is thought to have been between a) five and seven million. b) nine and ten million. c) five and nine million. 4. In 1952, 250 million people were said to speak English as a mother tongue, and a further 100 million or so had learned it a) as a second language. b) as a foreign language. c) as a mother language. 5. At least a further 400 million people use English as a foreign language, according to the most conservative of estimates, and perhaps a further billion, according to a) conservative ones. b) modern ones. c) radical ones. 6. The estimated population of the USA was just under 239 million in 1985, of whom about a) 125 million spoke English as a mother tongue. b) 215 million spoke English as a mother tongue. c) 512 million spoke English as a mother tongue. 7. The British, Irish, Australians, New Zealanders, Canadians, and South Africans combine to reach a) 150 million. b) more than 100 million. c) less than 100 million.
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Module 1 Why English?

8. Finding out about the number of foreigners using English a) is relatively secure. b) is easy. c) isn't easy. 9. No one knows how many foreign people have learned English to a reasonable standard of a) fluency. b) accuracy. c) literacy. 10. The few statistics that are available come from a) the examination boards. b) the tip of the iceberg. c) the reasonable standard of fluency.

Vocabulary
1. Fill in the gaps with a single word from the box that has the same meaning. structures grammar overlooked emphasis able to recognize done

interdependence argue

With the recent a)__________ on communication, the teaching of b)__________has often been downplayed, or even c)__________ entirely. Although one would not want to d)__________ the goal of having students be e)__________ to communicate successfully, it is important to f)__________ that a major means g)__________ this end is to teach students to use grammatical h)__________. The teaching needs to be i)__________ in such a way that the j)__________ of grammar and communication is appreciated, though.

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Module 1 Why English?

2. Use the words in capitals at the end of each line to fo rm a word that fits in the space in the same line. Linguists interested in a)__________variation GRAMMAR make certain broad b)__________, for instance DISTINCT between standard and c)__________English and STANDARD between different d)__________ varieties. This is GEOGRAPHY made e)__________ by the lack of clear PROBLEM f)__________ between different varieties, BOUNDARY CRITERIUM

discussed by various g)__________ using several RESEARCH h)__________. The standard variety of English has developed in England, a variety that is taught in schools, used in the i)__________ and codified MEDIUM in dictionaries and grammars. It is j)__________ LARGE associated with middle class or educated speakers.

Grammar
1. Write the plural forms of the following nouns. a) wife b) tomato c) torch d) half e) day f) medium g) country h) brush i) bus j) chief k) potato l) book m) tobacco n) study o) safe p) roof q) cargo r) shelf s) criterion t) life u) phenomenon v) crisis w) analysis x) toy y) series z) lady

2. Write the plural forms of the following compound nouns. a) father-in-law b) frying pan c) painkiller d) godmother e) taxi-driver f) pen-pal g) passer-by h) pillowcase i) headache j) takeover
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Module 1 Why English?

3. Fill in the gaps with the correct noun form, singular or plural. Singular form _______ woman _______ tooth foot _______ _______ mouse _______ Plural form men _______ children _______ _______ geese oxen _______ lice

4. Turn the following uncountable nouns into countable by adding a partitive phrase from the box. a slice/loaf of a jar of a stroke of a(n) item/piece of a kilo/pound of a piece of a rasher of a pair of a tube of a speck of

a glass/bottle of

a) __________ paper/information/advice/cake/furniture b) __________ water/beer/milk/oil/lemon juice c) __________ dirt d) __________ jam e) __________ bacon f) __________ meat/sugar/flour/fish/rice g) __________ bread h) __________ toothpaste i) __________ news j) __________ trousers k) __________ luck 5. Fill in the gaps with the right form of BE. a) Peace _______ the key to prosperity. b) His work _______ very interesting. c) Billiards _______ a popular game. d) Spanish _______ difficult to learn. e) Where _______ Grandmas glasses? f) Measles _______ a common illness among children. 6 Marius Velica PARTNER

Module 1 Why English?

g) Economics _______ a complex subject. h) Our furniture _______ not very luxurious. i) Your socks _______ in the washing machine. j) You cant miss her, shes tall and her hair _______ long and curly. k) I helped her because the shopping _______ very heavy. l) Where _______ the scissors? m) The pyjamas youve been looking for so long _______ in the bathroom. n) This information _______ incorrect. o) Where _______ the lab scales? 6. Choose the correct verb form. In some cases both forms are correct. a) The advice he gave us was / were very helpful. b) Basketball is / are a popular sport. c) The class was / were given diplomas. d) The outskirts is / are dangerous. e) The couple is / are on holiday in the summer. f) Coffee is / are a nervous stimulant. g) His knowledge is / are impressive. h) The news is / are at 8 oclock. i) Three weeks is / are not long to wait. j) Money is / are no problem for her. k) She thinks her good looks is / are the key to her success. l) The luggage is / are on the floor. m) Five thousand euros is / are too much to spend on the car. n) Nine kilometres is / are a long way to run. o) The company headquarters is / are in Bucharest. p) The staff of the firm is / are very friendly. q) The team was / were the best in Europe. r) The police who is / are in the next room investigate the burglary. s) The council is / are gathered in the conference room. t) Her jewellery was / were in the box.

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Module 1 Why English?

Talking
In pairs, read through the table below and do the following tasks. Introductions Im and this is Im and this is my friend ... Good morning/afternoon/etc. Im Mr/Mrs/Miss and I would like to introduce you to my colleague Mr/Mrs/Miss May I introduce myself? Perhaps Id better introduce myself. My name is Responses How do you do? Hi / Hi there! Hello. Delighted to make your acquaintance. Nice / Good to see / meet you. Pleased to meet you. Glad to meet you!

1. You are talking to () . What would you rather say? 1. A young man a young woman 2. Peter accompanying a new girl-friend his old male groupmate 3. Sam, a bank clerk, has already struck a conversation another bank clerk unknown to him 4. The host of a conference his executive, a lady just stepping in among the other guests 5. Jim two new colleagues whom he has met separately A. B. C. D. E. 1d 1e 1b 1e 1d 2e 2d 2d 2d 2c 3c 3c 3e 3c 3e 4a 4a 4a 4b 4a 5b 5b 5c 5a 5b a. Ms. Stewart, may I introduce a friend of mine? This is Mr. Peterson. Mike, this is Ms. Stewart. b. Have you two met before? John, meet Brian. Brian, meet John. c. May I introduce myself? My names Robinson. d. My names Paul. Whats yours? e. Bob, do you know Sally?

2. Respond in a mildly formal manner to someone youve just been introduced to. A. See you later. B. Pleased to meet you. C. How do you do? D. Have we two met before? E. What foreign languages do you speak? 8 Marius Velica PARTNER

Module 1 Why English?

3. The following conversation takes place at an international public administration conference. Complete the conversation with appropriate phrases from the list. Diana: Frank! 1) __________! Frank: Hello, Diana. 2) __________? Diana: 3) __________, thanks. Frank: Diana, 4) __________ William Hunter from the United Administration? Diana: Hello! 5) __________! William: 6) __________! Frank: 7) __________ in the new Expert project. Diana: Thats right. Well be working together on that. William: Perhaps we could meet and talk about it later. Right now 8) __________. Diana: OK. 9) __________ this afternoon? William: Yes, 10) __________. a) Nice to meet you b) Nice to meet you too c) How nice to see you again d) How are you e) Im fine f) That would be good g) Im afraid I have to go to a meeting h) Maybe we could meet i) I think you both have an interest j) Can I introduce

Home assignment
1. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. Vestea a fost o surpriza pentru echipa care lucra la proiect de doua luni. 2. Pijamaua cea albastra este mica, nu cred ca o s-o cumpar. 3. Economia este un domeniu esential pentru dezvoltarea tarii.
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Module 1 Why English?

4. Criteriile acestei clasificari nu au fost aprobate de consiliu. 5. Fenomene precum acesta sunt foarte rare in acea zona. 6. Bagajele erau foarte grele si nu le-a putut transporta singura pana la taxi, asa ca l-a platit pe sofer ca sa o ajute. 7. Informatiile care au fost publicate in aceasta brosura nu sunt corecte; sunt necesare dovezi care sa ateste faptele. 8. Amigdalita e periculoasa daca nu e tratata la timp. 9. Banii pe care i-am mostenit sunt depusi la banca. 10.Doua ore sunt suficiente ca sa scrii raportul. 2. Translate the following sentences into Romanian. 1. How many loaves have you got? 2. He was in a big hurry, so he couldnt give me much information on the project. 3. Few people know the answer to the question of industrial waste recycling. 4. I had a little time to spare, so I browsed round the central bookshop for a while. 5. Very little research has been done to find out the cause of this contagious disease. 6. Watch out! There are some stray sheep on the motorway. 7. I had an interesting experience when travelling abroad. 8. We went shopping on Saturday because my aunt needed a new iron. 9. Shes played all afternoon playing marbles. 10. If you dont keep the money in your wallet, someone might steal it.

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Module 2 EFL

Module 2.

EFL

Starting up
1. In pairs, state what the title means by choosing from the following. a. English Language for Foreigners b. English as a Foreign Language c. Economics Finance Local d. English as a Figurative Language e. English for London 2. In pairs, ask and answer the following questions. a) Besides Romanian, which other languages are studied as mother tongues in Romania? b) Are there people who study second languages in Romania? c) What is English for you: a mother tongue, a second language, or a foreign language? d) Who studies English in Romania and why? e) What variety of English do you need in your line of work? What language areas should the English language trainer teach you? 3. In pairs, explain what the following words and phrases mean. a) foreign language b) 'self-help' materials c) hints d) guesswork e) data f) queuing g) a gross underestimate h) rehearse i) electronic retrieval systems j) widespread use
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Module 2 EFL

Reading
Fill in the gaps (1 5) with the missing sentences (A - F). There is one paragraph that does not belong to the text. English as a 'foreign' language The second part of the language-learning iceberg relates to people who live in countries where English has no official status, but where it is learned as a foreign language in schools, institutes of higher education, and through the use of a wide range of 'self-help' materials. There are only hints as to what the numbers involved might be. 1)___________ In a continent such as South America, the total is pure guesswork. The total most often cited in the mid-1980s was 100 million, based largely on the figures available from English-language examining boards, estimates of listeners to English-language radio programmes, sales of English-language newspapers, and the like. But this figure did not take into account what is currently happening in the country where data about anything has traditionally been notoriously difficult to come by: China. In China, there has been an explosion of interest in the English language in recent years. 2) __________ In 1983, it is thought, around 100 million people watched the BBC television series designed to teach the language, Follow Me. Considerable publicity was given in the Western media to the sight of groups of Chinese practising Englishlanguage exercises after work, or queuing to try out their English on a passing tourist. The presenter of Follow Me, Kathy Flower, became a national celebrity, recognized everywhere. And the interest continues, with new series of programmes being designed to meet the needs of scientific and business users. What level of fluency is being achieved by this massive influx of learners is unknown. But if only a fraction of China's population is successful, this alone will be enough to make the 100 million total for world foreign-language use a gross underestimate. And why shouldn't they be successful, in China, Japan, Brazil, Poland, Egypt, and elsewhere? 3) __________ Textbooks on English these days regularly rehearse the litany of its achievements. It is the main language of the world's books, newspapers, and advertising. It is the official international language of airports and air traffic control. It is the chief maritime language. It is the language of international business and academic conferences, of diplomacy, of sport. Over two-thirds of the

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Module 2 EFL

world's scientists write in English. Three-quarters of the world's mail is written in English. Eighty per cent of all the information stored in the electronic retrieval systems of the world is stored in English. And, at a local level, examples of the same theme can be found everywhere. 4) __________ A Colombian doctor reports that he spends almost as much time improving his English as practising medicine. A Copenhagen university student comments: 'Nearly everyone in Denmark speaks English; if we didn't, there wouldn't be anyone to talk to.' Statistics of this kind are truly impressive, and could continue for several paragraphs. They make the point that it is not the number of mother-tongue speakers which make a language important in the eyes of the world (that crown is carried by Chinese), but the extent to which a language is found useful outside its original setting. In the course of history, other languages have achieved widespread use throughout educated society. 5)__________ In the eighteenth century, much of this prestige past to French. Today it is the turn of English. It is a development which could be reversed only by a massive change in the economic fortunes of America, and in the overall bala nce of world power.
(Crystal, D. 1988, The English Language, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, pp. 6-7)

A. During the Middle Ages, Latin remained undisputed as the European language of learning. B. EU ambassadors in foreign capitals and at the United Nations collaborate closely, and EU member states develop common foreign policy statements. C. Even in the statistically aware countries of Western Europe, there are no reliable figures available for the number of people who are learning English as a foreign language - or any other language, for that matter.

D. There is enormous motivation, given the way that English has become the dominant language of world communication. E. A well-known Japanese company, wishing to negotiate with its Arabic customers, arranges all its meetings in English. F. One visitor returned to China in 1979, after an absence of twenty years, and wrote: 'in 1959, everyone was carrying a book of the thoughts of Chairman Mao; today, everyone is carrying a book of elementary English'.
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Module 2 EFL

Vocabulary
1. Match the names of the following international economic and political bodies in full with their correspondent abbreviations / acronyms. a) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(Geneva) b) International Labor Organization (Geneva) c) Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (Rome) d) UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Paris) e) World Health Organization (Geneva) f) International Monetary Fund (Washington) g) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (Washington) h) International Development Association (Washington) i) International Finance Corporation (Washington) j) International Civil Aviation Organization (Montreal) k) Universal Postal Union (Bern) l) International Telecommunication Union (Geneva) m) World Meteorological Organization (Geneva) n) International Maritime Organization (London) o)World Intellectual Property Organization (Geneva) p) International Fund for Agricultural Development (Rome) q) World Bank Group (Washington) 2. Fill in DO or MAKE in an appropriate form. a) To _______ a fortune people should _______ a lot of hard work. b) After the child _______ his homework, he found he _______ a mistake. c) If you dont _______ your job, youll be fired. 14 Marius Velica PARTNER 17) WIPO 11) IMO 12) IFAD 13) ILO 14) IMF 15) FAO 16) ICAO 9) ITU 10) IDA 8) IBRD 5) WBG 6) GATT 7) WHO 1) UNESCO 2) IFC 3) UPU 4) WMO

Module 2 EFL

d) Would you like to _______ an appointment? e) You _______ the right thing by telling the others the truth. f) Its easy to _______ money when you have a plan. g) _______ your duty and you _______ progress. h) All that smoking _______ her harm. i) He _______ some research into population growth rate at the moment. j) We _______ an arrangement to meet the manager at lunch. k) You could _______ an excuse if you want to leave. l) We dont want to _______ business with this company. m) What does he _______ for a living? n) He was going to _______ an offer when you came. o) She is surely going to _______ an impression. 3. Which of the following words best fills each of the gaps below? You will have to use one of the words twice. do make take put

a) It is a well-known fact that companies are in business to _______ profits. b) Thank you for the meetings. _______ sure the papers will be ready, please. c) I told him to be careful but he wouldnt listen. It was too big a risk to _______. d) Im afraid I didnt understand what you said. Can you _______ it another way? e) I think theres a mistake in these figures. We will have to _______ the calculation again. f) She _______ economics at Freiburg University. She graduated in 1995. g) How are you _______? h) _______ it from me that hell be a billionaire before hes 30. i) Hes completely changed. This new job _______ a great strain on him. j) This boss has got what it _______ to be successful.

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Module 2 EFL

Grammar
1. Complete this report with the articles A, AN or THE, or leave the gap blank. Coca Cola, a) ______ world giant, is testing b) ______ new policy: all business is local. c) ______ company is decentralizing d) ______ marketing and e) ______ decision-making. You cant manage 30,000 subsidiaries in a centralized way, says Chris Johnson, f) ______ Chief Executive. Year-end results show foreign sales and profit up by 20%. In g) ______ Europe, profit was up by 13%, while in h) ______ US it rose to 15%. 2. Complete the following sentences with SOME, ANY, or NO. a) _______ people say it is difficult to learn French but Ive had _______ problems. b) Are you having _______ trouble with your computer? I see you trying to fix it. c) Dont worry. If I find _______ of your papers, Ill send them to you. d) Would you like _______ more coffee? I dont want _______ more. e) Im sorry I cant help. Why dont you ask the bank to lend you _______ money? 3. Choose the correct variant in each sentence. a) Do you like fish / the fish? b) Fish / The fish I caught weighed eight pounds, but nobody believed it. c) Its so good to see you again! Lets have lunch / the lunch. d) Lunch / The lunch weve just had was delicious. e) Would you like ice / the ice / an ice in your gin? f) Ice / the ice / an ice is not good for your throat. g) The Guardian / Guardian is one of the best newspapers in the U.K. / U.K. h) Ive always thought that its difficult to analyse literature / the literature. 16 Marius Velica PARTNER

Module 2 EFL

i) If you like Chinese food / the Chinese food, you must like the duck / duck / a duck too. j) The Queen / Queen officially lives in the Buckingham Palace / Buckingham Palace. k) The Duke of Essex / Duke of Essex was beheaded by the Queen / Queen. l) The White House / White House denied any intervention in the conflict. m) Regents Park / The Regents Park is one of the most beautiful sights in London. n) He went to university / the university and graduated in 2003. o) The Netherlands / Netherlands won the Championship / Championship in 2000. 4. Fill in the gaps with THE where necessary. a) at ____ age of b) in ____ mood c) off ____ peg d) out of ____ luck e) on ____ second thoughts f) under ____ age g) on ____ air h) on ____ page i) in ____ nick of time j) in ____ doubt 5. Choose the co rrect item. As soon as I arrived at work I knew that a) something / anything was wrong. I soon discovered that b) someone / anyone had used my laptop. c) Every / Some paper had also been taken. I asked the secretary if she had seen d) anyone / no one or e) anything / nothing suspicious, but she hadnt. f) No one / Someone told me anything, but I knew that g) someone / anyone had searched for h) something / nothing. When I left the office that evening, I left i) nothing / anything on my desk so that j) no one / someone could mess up my things.
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k) by ____ way l) by ____ train m) on ____ bus n) for ____ sale o) at ____ sunset p) at ____ war q) by ____ land r) in ____ country s) in ____ debt t) in ____ vain

Module 2 EFL

6. Fill in with one word from the box below. much some none of many hardly anything any plenty of enough little no

Yesterday I decided to buy a new office chair. We had a) _______ chairs already, but b) ______ them were comfortable enough. I went to the Shopping Centre and looked at the selection but there was c) ______ to choose from. A shop assistant offered to give me d) ______ help. I told her I had e) ______ time because I needed the chair that day. She showed me a red chair but it wasnt comfortable f) ______. Another chair had too g) ______ plastic for my taste. Finally, she picked out a chair that had h)______ plastic at all. Satisfied, I wanted to buy the chair but I realized that I didnt have i) ______ money with me. How embarrassing! j) ______ people had already started to stare at me. 7. Complete the sentences with A FEW, (VERY) FEW, A LITTLE or (VERY) LITTLE. a) He has made _______ enemies already because he has _______ praise for any of his colleagues. b) She eats _______ fatty foods these days because shes trying to loose _______ weight. c) Unqualified work means _______ money. Thats why _______ people should choose these jobs. d) I feel _______ depressed because Ive had quite _______ problems lately. e) We met _______ friends in town so we went to a pub and had _______ cups of coffee and _______ chat. f) Kates had _______ experience in this matter so she cant help you.

g) Would you like _______ sugar in your tea? And, please, have _______ biscuits, too. h) I have _______ books here to study; I think Ill ask the librarian for some more. i) j) Hes got _______ patience with his children; he should take _______ courses in parenthood. Buy _______ apples; I want to make a cake.

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Module 2 EFL

Talking
1. Match the following questions and suggestions commonly used in meetings with the most appropriate response. 1. What do you think? a) Well, what I meant was

2. Would you prepare a b) I really cant agree, thats too report on that? late. 3. Could you explain your c) Yes, sure! idea more clearly? d) Thats right. We cant make a 4. I think you should wait decision until we know the facts. till next month. e) I think its an interesting idea, 5. We really need more but it will be difficult to make it information on this. work. 2. The expressions below are all commonly used in meetings. Match the expressions with their functions. 1. I think we should move on now. 2. To sum up then a) starting the meeting b) dealing with interruptions

3. Thats it then, weve covered c) speeding up the everything. meeting 4. That sounds reasonable. 5. Lets get down to business. 6. Im sorry I cant accept that. 7. How do you feel about that? 8. Could you let John finish, please? 9. If you order 5,000 or more, we can give you a discount. d) asking for reactions e) summarizing f) understanding clearly g) making an offer h) refusing an offer or suggestion i) accepting an offer or suggestion

10. When you say there are problems, what do you mean? j) closing the meeting

Home assignment
1. Below are some details of a trip you are planning to make to meet a colleague, Mike Strevens, in London. Write an informal email message to Mike letting him know about your travel arrangements. Mike has offered to meet you at the airport, so make sure he knows your flight arrival details.
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Module 2 EFL

ITINERARY Charter flight Date: 24 November Flight no: Sabena Airlines 205 Bucharest to Heathrow Airport (NB: Not London City Airport) Dep: 12.30 Arr: 15.15 Return flight Date: 30 November Flight no: Tarom 852 Heathrow Airport to Bucharest Dep: 11.20 Arr: 14.451. 2. Write a suitable phrase in each gap to complete this dialogue. Model: Ann: How are you? Michael: Im very well, thanks. Mrs. Leigh: Good afternoon, Mr. Rogers. Im Susan Leigh. Pleased to meet you. Sam Rogers: ____________________, Mrs. Leigh. Mrs. Leigh: Welcome to our company. ____________________ a good trip? Sam Rogers: Oh yes, it was fine thanks. Mrs. Leigh: ____________________ a cup of coffee before we start? Sam Rogers: Thanks very much, that would be nice. Mrs. Leigh: ____________________ milk and sugar? Sam Rogers: Just milk please. 3. Translate into Romanian the names of the international organizations and associations given in Vocabulary, Ex.1.

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Module 3 Working together

Module 3.

Working together

Starting up
1. In pairs, ask and answer the following questions. a) Are men better businesspersons than women? b) Who are more successful, businessmen or businesswomen? c) Is gender a criterion when it comes to doing business? 2. In pairs, explain what the following phrases mean. a. corporate life b. to climb the ladder c. to cope with something d. to set up business e. to misuse f. random sample g. entrepreneurship h. to be overlooked i. start-up j. up-start

3. In pairs, make a list of adjectives to describe the stereotypical businessperson. Which feature ranks first and why?

Reading
Read the article and answer the questions. ____________________ In 2001 Christine Williamson started her own business because she was fed up with corporate life. Christine had climbed the ladder at a major insurance company, becoming an area manager. In spite of successive promotions she felt her opinions were not taken seriously. She kept complaining, Its still a mans world out there. You have to battle twice as hard if you want to accomplish something, she says. Id go to meetings and be the only woman out of 30 men and I had to cope with whatever bad language and jokes happen to be around at the time.
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15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Ms Williamson, 45, is one of a growing number of women setting up businesses, as an escape from the frustrations of being a female employee. A survey carried out recently suggests that many companies are misusing and then losing female talent. A random sample of 450 business start-ups in Washington found that 62 per cent had been established by women. Of these, 73 per cent said negative experiences in previous jobs had driven them into entrepreneurship. Slightly more than a third of female respondents said they had been regularly overlooked for promotion and more than one in six said they had often been asked to work longer hours than male colleagues. Nearly two-thirds said that at some time in their career they had faced sexual harassment or suggestive remarks. Women are by and large much more flexible at work than men, says Diana Sloane, a professor at Central College Management School. They may well find themselves unhappy with hierarchies and impatient with bureaucracy. The most popular types of female start-ups found in the Washington survey are in financial services, business advice, media, public relations, journalism, marketing, hairdressing, beauty products and fashion, the survey found. Only 7 per cent of the women-led businesses failed in their first 12 months, compared with 18 per cent of those started by men. But James Connoly, managing director of the National Business Network, says the survey confirms that women tend to go into lowerrisk, lower-growth sectors such as public relations and business services. Riskier ideas and bigger vision plans for new products or technology tend to come from men, he says.
(Adapted from the Financial Times)

1. Which of the following would be the most suitable title for this article? a) Female start-ups c) Women starting out b) Female upstarts d) Women starting off

Choose the best option for completing each of the sentences below. 2. While working for a major insurance company, Christine Williamson a) reached a high position. b) was frustrated with her lack of career progress. c) did not find her job interesting. 22 Marius Velica PARTNER

Module 3 Working together

3. Christine found it difficult to be a woman manager in her company because: a) the work was too difficult. b) the male staff left all the work to her. c) other male managers did not value her opinions. 4. The survey described in the article found that a) companies dont have enough women managers. b) companies often fail to make the most of womens skills. c) companies often dismiss women if they dont perform well. 5. The most common cause of complaint from women in the survey was a) not being considered for promotion. b) having to work longer hours than men. c) sexual harassment. 6. Diana Sloane suggests that women a) often dislike rigid corporate structures. b) are less good at adapting to a changing environment than men. c) prefer to work within a tightly-controlled system. 7. Businesses established by women a) are more likely to fail than those started by men. b) are less likely to fail than those started by men. c) have the same rate of failure as those started by men. 8. Women tend to start businesses which a) are in relatively safe business sectors. b) have a high growth potential. c) are based on high-tech products or ideas. 9. fed up with (l.2) means: a) exhausted and burnt out. b) bored and wanting a change. c) angry and upset.

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Vocabulary
1. Replace each of the underlined words with a single word from the box that has the same meaning. extrovert talented reliable arrogant moody dynamic aggressive ambitious hard-working popular quiet

unpredictable laid-back

Mark is someone you can always depend on a) ________. He is not very talkative b) ________, but he is conscientious and works long hours c) ________. Bob, on the other hand, is rather relaxed about things d) ________. He is outgoing among people e) ________ and everybody likes him f)________. Petra is gifted with many skills g) ________ and keen to get on in her career h) ________. She is very lively, but her moods are rather changeable i) ________. 2. Complete these sentences with the correct form of the word given in brackets. Example: The PR ____manager___( manage) is in his office. a) Our ________ (compete) have brought out a new service and it looks very good. b) After a long negotiation, we finally reached an _________(agree). c) The Middle East suffered difficulties in the late 1980s. from _________ (economy)

d) The CR30 is our best-selling _________(produce). e) The World Bank is an international _________ (organise) that supports development projects around the world. f) Any good professional must be ________ (passion) about their work. g) The Chair objected that the examples given were ________ (relevant ) for the case. h) The new office mate managed to ________ (come) his excitement and asked to see the PR manager. i) Well have to ________ (straight ) the problem out, we cant go home now, the chief assistant said. j) The address of the ________ (send) has to be typed in bold case. 24 Marius Velica PARTNER

Module 3 Working together

3. Match the words in column A with the definitions in column B. A 1. agenda 2. boom 3. chair(person) 4.counter-signature 5. deputy 6. draft 7. estimate 8. headquarters 9. letterheads 10. minutes B a) rough calculation of quantity or costs; b) person who is second in command, e.g. deputy manager; c) list of things to be discussed at a meeting; d) written record of a meeting; e) paper with a printed name and address at the top; f) head of a board, company; the person in control of a meeting; g) rough notes which are later changed and improved; h) second signature on a document to give it more authority; i) main office of a company; j) sudden increase in trade;

Grammar
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct present forms. It is 6 p.m. Peter a) ________ (write) from London to his assistant, who b) ________ ( work) with the office designer for two weeks. Generally, Peter c) ________ (send) e-mails, but today he d)________ ( need) to send a fax because he e)________ (want) to send the designer the price list of the materials he f) ________ (buy). He g) ________ (search) for materials that h) ________ (be) not very expensive and i)________ ( find) two companies to supply him but he j)________ (need) a second opinion. Peter k)________ (pick up) the receiver and l) ________ (dial) the number. He suddenly m) ________ (feel) a deep pain in the chest, and the left arm n) ________ (go) numb. He o) ________ (work) all day and p) ________ ( drink) lots of coffee. He q) ________ (always / be) crazy about coffee. It r) ________ (smell) so good! It s) ________ ( taste ) so good! He t) ________ (still / think) about coffee while dialing 911.
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2. Fill in the gaps with Present Simple or Progressive. a) She _______ about his offer, but I _______ shes really interested. b) Fangs _______ very naughty. It _______ as if he wants to go for a walk. c) They _______ the paper boxes, so be careful. They _______ a lot. d) This actor _______ on TV tonight. He _______ to be working for a different television. e) If you _______ the coffee, youll see it _______ funny. f) I _______ James tomorrow night. I _______ what you mean. g) Silk generally _______ soft. I _______ this material, so I can say its not silk. h) She _______ three cats; I _______ fun around them but I _______ to keep my mouth shot. i) I _______ why Mother _______ the roast. It ________ delicious. j) I _______ with what youve said. Now I _______ why youve raised so many objections. 3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct present forms. Dear Sir / Madam, I a) _________ (write) on behalf of the County City Hall. Every year, your company and the local administration b)_________ (join) efforts to solve the environmental problems in the city area, which c)_________ ( be) extremely important for our citizens. We d) _________ (recently / receive ) your proposal about cleaning the river banks, so, for the last few weeks, we e) __________ (try ) to raise money to help solve this problem. The citizens that f) _________ (live) and g) __________ (work) in the ne ighbouring areas h) _________ (already / complain) about the pollution of the river banks. We i)_________ (already / start) an inspection of the area and j)_________ (persuade) local companies to control their residues because the technology they k) ________ (use) at the moment can damage the river life. Could you please specify how you could help us to add to the work that we l) _________ ( do) so far? Yours faithfully, A. Simion, (PR consultant) 26 Marius Velica PARTNER

Module 3 Working together

4. Complete the gaps in the text with an appropriate expression from the box. at last one day shortly later within the next few years in the short term by 2020 lately

All the leading motor manufacturers are expected to introduce cars powered by hydrogen fuel cells a) __________. Renault, among others, is b) __________ to put dozens of new test cars and buses on the roads. After huge investment and years of research, fuel cell vehicles are c) ___________ becoming more affordable. If oil prices continue to fluctuate wildly, as they have done d)___________, people may start to think it is time to make a change. It is predicted that, e) __________, 25 per cent of all vehicles will run on fuel cells. Perhaps, f) __________, we will all be breathing air that is clean and free of hydrocarbons. 5. Complete the text below using a pronoun to fill each gap. he she it we you they my I his her our your their its Last April, the German supermarket, Kreuss, acquired a 46 per cent stake in Retonline, the online grocery retailer, and put one of a) _____ own executives, Peter Trelder, in charge as CEO. Now Mark Larkinson, the founder of Retonline, and Peter Trelder maintain b) _____ have found a business model that works. A key strategy has been to reduce transport costs. New technology allows each delivery truck to carry 18 rather than 12 orders per trip. This has encouraged customers to order when a truck is planning to be in c)_____ neighbourhood. Retonline is also trying to integrate d) _____ systems so that members could choose to access online shopping lists compiled from what e) _____ normally buy in store. One of the things that has inhibited f)_____ growth is that g) _______ typically takes 40 to 80 minutes to put a shopping list together on site, Mr. Larkinson says.
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Talking
1. In pairs, look at the following images. Work with your partner and agree on the social role which is the most adequate for a woman. Remember that what your partner says is also important, so give them a fair chance to take part in the debate.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

h)

2. In pairs, read through the table below and express your personal views on the following topic: Family or Career A Womans Nightmare Expressing personal views Well, personally I think/believe/consider that To my mind I should say that I truly/really/honestly believe/think/consider that Dont you think that? Wouldnt you say that? It seems to me that What Im trying to say/point out here is One aspect we shouldnt forget is

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Home assignment
1. Translate the following text into English. Descentralizarea realizeze prin: - accelerarea procesului de descentralizare a serviciilor publice si preluarea atributiilor de administrare si finantare a unor activitati de catre autoritatile administratiei locale - consilii judetene si consilii locale; - transferarea catre autoritatile publice locale a activitatilor si resurselor corespunzatoare de la bugetul de stat pentru finantarea unor servicii publice destinate comunitatilor locale: invatamant, sanatate, cultura, politie comunitara, pompieri, aparare civila etc. - asezarea pe baze noi, echitabile a impozitelor si taxelor locale, care trebuie sa devina principala sursa de alimentare a bugetelor locale; -perfectionarea Legii finantelor publice locale in scopul asigurarii surselor de finantare pentru functionarea normala a serviciilor publice ale fiecarei comunitati locale; crearea premizelor necesare pentru structurarea si aprobarea unor bugete locale solid fundamentate, capabile sa asigure finantarea lucrarilor de interes comunitar.
(Sursa: http://www.gov.ro/engleza/obiective/afis-docdiverse-eng.php)

serviciilor

publice

si

consolidarea

autonomiei locale administrative si financiare trebuie sa se

2. Choose one of the following encyclopedic entries and a. translate the text into Romanian; b. write a short essay (~ 200 wds.) on the importance of local public administration.

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1. Public Policy The field of public policy involves the study of specific policy problems and governmental responses to them. Political scientists involved in the study of public policy attempt to devise solutions for problems of public concern. They study issues such as health care, pollution, and the economy. Public policy overlaps comparative politics in the study of comparative public policy; with international relations in the study of foreign policy and national security policy; and with political theory in considering ethics in policy making. 2. Public Affairs General matters, issues that affect people generally, or issues arising from the relationship of the public to an organization such as a government body or a company; it is different from public assistance, which involves government aid to the needy, namely, aid consisting of money, food, food stamps, or other benefits, given by government agencies to the poor, the homeless, dependent children, and others in financial distress. 3. Public Administration Political scientists interested in public administration study government organizations and their relation to other parts of government. Political scientists investigate how these organizations work, and try to devise methods of improving them. For example, David Osborne and Ted Gaeblers book Reinventing Government (1992) inspired many national, state, and local governments to adopt more competitive and less bureaucratic ways of delivering services to the public.
(Adapted from Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003)

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Module 4 Workplaces

Module 4.

Workplaces

Starting up
1. In pairs, explain what the following objects are good for. a) b) c) d) e) envelopes printer ribbons fax rolls package photocopier f) g) h) i) j) filling cabinet security camera fax machine computer desk

2. Read the messages and identify which messages ask the reader to: a) b) c) d) telephone someone? send something? buy something? come to a party? e) welcome someone? f) stop something? g) take immediate action?

MESSAGE From: Bank Manager

Time: 11: 30 Date: Tuesday

a.m.
For: Sylvia

To From

Invitation
Sylvia & Mike Jennifer

Please phone him. Cathy


There s a problem

Please come to a party at


my house On ___ Sat Oct 17th

At

8 p.m.

with t he lig hts in t he photocopier room. Please ca ll a n electrician a. s. a. p.

Im in Oslo this weekend. Please cancel the 9.30 meeting on Friday with Mr. Bloom and find another time.

Dont forget! The new sales assistant starts tomorrow morning at 8.45

Things to do on Monday: send the package to Lyon (DHL?) fax the report to headquarters Please buy: - fax rolls (10) - printer cartridges (4) - envelopes (200)

Lucy Important meeting between 9.00 & 10.00 a.m. Please stop all calls.

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Reading
Read the following dialogue and answer the questions. A: What do you think about moving to the new offices outside town? I, for one, dont like the idea very much. I enjoy working downtown and being able to do some shopping in the lunch break. And Ill really miss going to our favourite pub for pizza. You know, 5 well have to eat in the office canteen because therell be nowhere else to go. B: Well, you may be right. It wont be as nice working out there. But think how much more practical the new office will be. Well have more computers, more 10 room, more facilities. You know how small that old office building is now that the firms expanded. Actually, youre always complaining about lack of room in your office! A: Yes, thats true, I guess. But getting to work will be a 15 problem for me. Ill have to go by bus because the driving out there is terrible! And it will be dreadful in the winter! B: Yes, I suppose youre right about that. I dont even have a car! Maybe we should talk to the 20 management about that. They should offer some transportation facilities for all the staff. (Adapted from Market Leader) 1. Mark all the statements that are true. a) The first speaker (A) is happy about moving to a new office building. b) The second speaker (B) puts forward a different point of view. c) B was completely satisfied with the old office building. d) B thinks that they should talk to the management about their problem. 2. Which of the following advantages of the old office building are mentioned in the dialogue? a) It is an attractive office building. b) It is in a good location. c) It has lots of room for all the staff. d) It is easy to travel to work there. e) It has a good canteen. f) It is a modern building. 32 Marius Velica PARTNER

Module 4 Workplaces

3. Which of the following advantages of the new office building are mentioned in the dialogue? a) It is a modern building. b) It is easy to drive there. c) It has more facilities. d) It is downtown. e) It has lots of room for all the staff. f ) It is near good pubs and shops.

Vocabulary
1. Choose the best answer. A. We cant take you with us; theres not enough _____ in the car. a) space a) waste b) seat b) pass c) place c) lose c) telling c) feel c) tend d) room d) spend d) talking d) fallen d) act e) corner e) loose e) uttering e) felled e) activate B. People should not _____ their time. C. Im not sure shes _____ the truth. a) speaking b) saying a) felt a) match b) fell b) game D. I cant come to work today; I _____ and broke my elbow. E. I hate people who _____ like that. F. When you come to my office downstairs, _____ some printer paper. Theres none left. a) fetch b) carry c) take c) price c) trip c) offers c) present d) grab e) bring G. We think the _____ of living will go up. a) tendency b) value a) journey a) wins a) borrow b) travel b) earns b) let d) expense e) cost d) voyage e) tour H. How long did your _____ to work take? I. I know he has a very good job, he _____ over 3,000. d) receives e) gains d) lend e) take 33 J. I think I could _____ you some money until tomorrow.

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2. Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition. a) I applied _____ the job that I saw advertised _____ the yesterdays newspaper. b) We hope to have a short meeting, but it depends _____ the agenda. c) We think he is quite right. We absolutely agree _____ him. d) You must refrain _____ any inappropriate remarks. e) They are still arguing _____ whos going to win the auction. f) At no time should an employer shout _____ an employee. g) He did a lousy job and everybody laughed _____ him. h) The project consists _____ a theoretical part and a practical one. i) Congratulations _____ your promotion. j) Dont worry _____ the system breaking down. Well call the maintenance. 3. Match the descriptions of industries in A with the names of industries given in B. A 1. A company that operates a chain of supermarkets. 2. A company that provides power from nuclear power plants to other industries. 3. A company that develops and sells drugs for a range of medical applications. 4. A company that supplies cloth or woven material to clothing manufacturers. 5. A company that manufactures such items as TVs, video recorders and CD players. 6. A company that audits the finances of other companies and prepares their annual financial statements for them. 34 Marius Velica PARTNER B a) accountancy b) consumer electronics c) electricity generation d) food retailing e) pharmaceuticals f ) textiles

Module 4 Workplaces

Grammar
1. Complete this report by writing the correct form of the verbs given in brackets. Use either the past simple or the present perfect. Example: He opened (open) the e-mail and wrote a message. Report on meeting about advertising strategy In a meeting held last Tuesday, the Sales

Department proposed that the company should change its advertising strategy. The companys policy in the past a) _______ (be) to use TV as the main medium for 5 advertising our products. However, there b) _______( be) a number of changes recently. The cost of TV advertising c) _______ (rise) considerably since the beginning of July. For example, while a one-minute prime-time slot d) ________ (cost) 100,000 last year, it now costs 10 250,000. Moreover, the results of our TV advertising campaign last spring e)_______ (be) very disappointing. Between October and December last year we f)________ (conduct) a market research which g) _______ (show) a minor increase in sales following the campaign. On the 15 other hand, sales resulting from our radio advertising campaign h) ________ (increase) substantially since last October. This is probably because we i) ________ (target) a much younger audience through our radio campaign by linking advertising to rock music programmes. What is 20 more, the cost of radio advertising j) ________( not / increase) as much as TV advertising over the last year. Our conclusion is that TV advertising should be reduced in favour of greater emphasis on radio. (Adapted from the Market Leader)

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2. A salesman receives a telephone call from one of his customers. Write the correct form of the verbs in brackets to complete the story. Model: He knocked (knock) at the door and came in. Ian Smi th 1) __________(just leave) his office when he received a telephone call from Derrick Loman. Im very worried, Derrick said. We 2) __________ (not / receive) that delivery of computer spare parts that we ordered from you last week. As 3)__________ (promise), they should have arrived today. But its already 5 pm. What 4) __________ (happen)? Ian said he 5)__________ (not / know), but he would find out. He promised to call back as soon as he had some news. He phoned the transport company right away. An embarrassed clerk at the company office explained what 6) __________ (happen). The truck that 7) __________ (carry) the consignment of spare parts to Scotland 8) __________ (have) an accident, nobody got injured, though. Now the driver 9)__________ (wait) on the side of the road for the emergency services to arrive. It 10) __________ (take) several hours to put the truck back on the road again, the clerk warned. Ian sighed and prepared to call Derrick. 3. A burglar broke into Mr. Andersons office and stole some valuable items. You have to interview him to find out as much as you can about what happened. Use the notes below. a) what time Mr. Anderson left the What time did you leave office; the office, Mr. Anderson? b) if he locked the door; c) where he went after leaving the office; d) when he returned to the office; e) what he saw first of all; f) how he knew something was wrong; g) when he called the police; h) if he spoke to anyone else; i) why the burglars chose his office; j) what the burglars stole. 36 Marius Velica PARTNER _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

Module 4 Workplaces

Talking
1. In pairs, work through the tables given below. Look at the pictures following and find 10 differences and 10 similarities. Describing location There is / are near / next to At the (very) top / bottom of the picture A little to the right / left of On the left- / right-hand side X, unlike Y, . X, while Y Both X and Y Compared to / with X, Y In contrast to Y, X Similar/ (almost) identical to In the top / bottom right- / left-hand cornerIn the foreground / background Right next to / beside Right / directly opposite to Quite / Completely / Slightly different from (Not) as as Less / more than In a similar / different position / location from

Describing similarities and differences

2. In pairs, i) describe the picture below and ii) explain what the picture is about and how the components function.

Home assignment
1. Look at the text presented in Grammar/Ex.2 and write a similar report using this extract from a production department meeting (not all the sentences have to be reported in full, some parts can be summarized). Dept. Manager: OK then. Item 2 on the agenda is the computer display unit. Sam, could you tell us the background to this? Sam: Yes, well, as most people know, the computer display unit keeps breaking down. Weve tried to get it repaired, but its an old device. Basically what we need is a new one. Everybody: Yes! Definitely!
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Dept. Manager: OK. But should we get another device of the same type? Perhaps this type is unreliable. Would it be a good idea to see what other computer display units are available? Laura: Yes. As a matter of fact, Ive done a little research, and there are several possibilities. There are some new models on the market now. Perhaps we could consider one of those? Dept. Manager: Do you have any details about them? How much do they cost? Are they reliable? Laura: I have asked the manufacturers for information but I havent received any answer yet. Dept. Manager: Well, when you have the information, can you prepare a short report on it? Laura: Yes, of course, I can do that. Dept. Manager: Good, then we can take a decision at our next meeting. So, the next item on the agenda . 2. Read the following letter and write the correct word or phrase in each space. Choose from the alternatives given below the letter. Dear Sir / Madam, I am writing this letter to apply for a 1) _____ in your company, as advertised in the Monthly Economic Review. I am a graduate of 2) _____, where I obtained a BSc and 3) _____ MSc in Public Administration. After finishing my MSc course, I worked for two years in a multinational advertising company in Bucharest. 4) _____ I attended a 5) _____ course on environmental policies. I have now come to Timisoara 6) _____ and I would like 7) _____ here, as Im going to 8) _____ someone who 9) _____ in Timisoara. Above all, I am very keen on working 10) _____ a large international accounting company. I am enclosing the application form which I have completed. If I 11) _____ successful, I promise that I shall always try to 12)_____ my best in the job. It is possible 13) _____ for an interview at any time. I should be grateful if you could reply as soon as possible. 14) _____, Irene Sandu 1) work / job 2) Galati University / the Galati University 3) a / an 4) Recently / Lately 5) six-month / six months 6) for living / to live 7) working / to work 38 Marius Velica PARTNER 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) marry / marry with lives / is living at / for am / shall be make / do that I come / for me to come Yours / Yours faithfully

Module 5 Power shifts

Module 5.

Power shifts

Starting up
1. In pairs, explain what the following concepts refer to: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) establishment accession antennae staff raison dtre enlargement implementation partnership body multinational

2. Fill in the following text with words from the box: civic throughout Law parish boroughs onwards local

government

self-government

dates

Local a)__________ in Britain has evolved from medieval origins. Important towns and cities were given powers of b)__________ by Royal Charter, and became known as c)__________. The first Charter (granted to Malmesbury in Wiltshire) d)__________ back to 880. Many more were granted from the 12th century e)__________. From these Charters have grown the powerful f)__________ identity and pride apparent g)__________ Britain. In the countryside, very limited h)__________ government began to develop based on the ecclesiastical i)__________ after the introduction of the Poor j)__________ at the start of the 17 th century.

Reading
Read the article below about the European Institute of Public Administration (source: http://www.eipa.nl/home/). 1. Match the sentences and parts of sentences on page 41 with the gaps in the following article.
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Module 5 Power shifts On the following pages the European Institute of Public Administration (EIPA) will be presented to you 1)____________. EIPA is a unique establishment, poised between the training needs of the European institutions, the Member States of the European Union and the countries that have applied for accession. It serves public management and public administrations in their adaptation to the European integration process. Established in Maastricht in 1981 and having three Antennae, 2) __________, EIPA is a European instrument for training public officials. It complements and enriches this primary activity through applied research conducted by its scientific staff, and through consultancy for national and regional administrations. The European dimension is the raison d'tre of the Institute in its main objective of providing training to civil services, and this is also strongly reflected in the way the Institute operates. Its Board of Governors is composed 3) __________ , as associated members, representatives of the third countries that have signed a cooperation agreement with the Institute. The successive enlargements of the European Union, particularly the one in 2004 with the accession of 10 new members, serve to highlight the importance of training for public administrations without whose full participation the implementation of European rules and policies would be practically impossible as well as the enormity of this need for training at national and regional level. It is therefore in an environment which has changed profoundly over a period of more than 20 years that EIPA now has to develop, even though the reasons which led to its creation still apply. However, 4) __________ much more strongly than in 1981, as many national schools and institutes have internationalised their activities and have become fully active at European level. It is imperative that cooperation with these bodies be reinforced, based on a clear link between their respective roles 5)_________ Indeed, the Institute is without equal in its capacity to fuel increasingly diversified and specialised training through its own research potential , to organise activities in a multinational environment in which participants from all European countries can 6)___________, and to take on the task of providing impetus and performing an early warning function at European level. By combining this partnership approach with all the characteristics that have made it unique from the beginning, the European Institute of Public Administration will best meet the demand for quality required in the services it supplies. Prof. Dr Grard Druesne Director-General of EIPA

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Module 5 Power shifts

A. and the incontestable D. of representatives from added value EIPA provides the European Commission and the EU Member States, and B. share their experience E. one in Luxembourg, one and compare their respective in Barcelona and one in Milan approaches C. the concepts of networks and European partnership are making themselves felt F. and its missions, activities and organisation will be set out

2. Which European centers are mentioned in the article? a) Bucharest b) Maastricht c) Krakw d) Luxembourg e) London f) Sofia g) Oslo h) Moscow i) Ankara j) Rome 3. Answer the following questions: a) What does EIPA stand for? b) What is the role of the Institute? c) Who are the target trainees? d) Which is the raison d'tre of the Institute? e) How many new members were admitted in the European Union in 2004? f) What levels of training are in focus? g) According to the Director-General of EIPA, which is the capacity that makes the Institute unique? h) How will EIPA best meet the demand for service quality?

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Module 5 Power shifts

Vocabulary
1. Correct the underlined verbs, which have wrong prefixes. a) Since the economy class seats were taken, I was overgraded to business class. b) We wanted the project to go ahead, but we were undervoted at the monthly meeting. c) The new economic journal was over-subscribed and had to be withdrawn from the market. d) Many customers have complained about waiters upcharging them. e) The increase in charges can be outset against the gain in interest revenue. 2. Complete these sentences with an appropriate word. a) He didnt hear what the speaker said, so he asked her to __________ what she had said. b) Several passengers __________ about the poor quality of food served on the flight last night. c) The market research team has carried out a __________ to test product awareness. d) Local authorities are __________ for running the local budget. e) When a number of companies agree to work together on a large project, such as a building, a bridge or a tunnel, we say that they form a __________ . f) Radio, TV and newspapers are examples of __________ . g) The local government system gives significant and extens ive __________ to local people. h) Local authorities __________ many crucial decisions that affect the well-being of their community. i) Local authorities lie at the heart of __________ life. j) Recent initiatives have been designed to help __________ to provide high-quality and cost-effective services for local citizens. k) The government promotes __________ democracy and community leadership. l) Local __________ are based on the value of domestic property. 42 Marius Velica PARTNER

Module 5 Power shifts

3. Match the words in column A with their definitions in column B. A B 1) advertisement a) A reduction in the price offered by the seller 2) customer 3) discount 4) employer 5) loan 6) manufacturer 7) personnel 8) research 9) profit 10) supplier b) A person or company that makes goods from raw materials c) What remains from a companys income from sales after its expenses have been deducted d) An arrangement with a bank to borrow money with a promise to pay it back at a future date e) A person or company who sells goods to you, usually on a regular basis f) A buyer, client or guest g) All the people who work for a company h) A public notice selling goods or services i) A person or company who provides work for others j) Exploring a new market or developing a new product

Grammar
1. Choose the best response to express the future. There may be more than one good answer. 1. When is your meeting with Mr. Hansen? a) Ill se him at 11 a.m. tomorrow. b) Im seeing him at 11 a.m. tomorrow. c) I see him at 11 a.m. tomorrow. 2. What time is your plane? a) It takes off at 5.30 p.m. b) Its going to take off at 5.30 p.m. c) It is taking off at 5.30 p.m. 3. Im going to order some chicken. Do you want some? a) Yes, Ill have some too. b) Yes, Im going to have some too. c) Yes, I have some too.
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Module 5 Power shifts

4. Goodbye. a) Goodbye. Im going to see you soon. b) Goodbye. I ll see you soon. c) Goodbye. I see you soon. 5. and what about the second day of our tour of Greece islands? a) On the second day, you travel by boat to Rhodes. b) On the second day, you are going to travel by boat to Rhodes. c) On the second day, youll be traveling by boat to Rhodes. 6. Look at the climber! I think hes in trouble! a) Yes, the rocks fall! b) Yes, the rocks are going to fall! c) Yes, the rocks will fall! 7. You must be looking forward to leaving. a) Yes, this time next week Ill be spending all day on the beach. b) Yes, this time next week Im spending all day on the beach. c) Yes, this time next week I spend all day on the beach. 8. John is standing for election next month, isnt he? a) Yes, but he doesnt win. b) Yes, but he wont win. c) Yes, but he wont be winning. 9. Sally is getting very nervous. Why is that? a) Shell perform in the concert on Saturday. b) Shes performing in the concert on Saturday. c) Shell be performing in the concert on Saturday. 10. You like J.R.R. Tolkien, dont you? a) Yes, next year Ill read all his novels again. b) Yes, next year Im going to read all his novels again. c) Yes, next year Im reading all his novels again. 11. Does Mike know about the change of date? a) No, but if I see him Ill tell him. b) No, but if I see him Im going to tell him. c) No, but if I see him Ill be telling him. 44 Marius Velica PARTNER

Module 5 Power shifts

12. Have you bought your new villa yet? a) Yes, we are moving in next month. b) Yes, well move in next month. c) Yes, we move in next month. 13. You look extremely pale. Are you all right? a) Ill be sick! b) Im going to be sick! c) Im being sick! 14. Your new computer doesnt work. a) I know. Im going to take it back. b) I know. Ill take it back. c) I know. Ill be taking it back. 15. so Im afraid we cant refund your money, madam. a) Im not satisfied. Ill take this matter further. b) Im not satisfied. Im going to take this matter further. c) Im not satisfied. Im taking this matter further. 2. Use the negative and limiting adverbials in the box and make sentences according to the model. Model: Seldom have we seen files so neatly arranged. not a manager thinking rarely seldom in no way only after careful

on no account

not until she had finished not before correcting

only if the auction is open the mistake

never only when they discovered

under no circumstances

3. Complete the sentences using the words in bold. a) It was only after wed left the office that we realised we hadnt mailed the letters. realised only can Only after wed left the office_________________ Not_______________________________________ In no way__________________________________
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b) The company is famous for its services and its products as well. c) There is no way you can leave the office today.

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Module 5 Power shifts

d) Do not enter the conference room on any account. should did will On no account______________________________ Not until it was______________________________ Only if_____________________________________ e) The policemen didnt see the burglar until it was too late. f) Thomas will take photos of the main hall only if it is open. g) The secretary couldnt have been more superficial under any circumstances. no nor ever is know before Under_____________________________________ The City Hall_______________________________ Nowhere___________________________________ Rarely_____________________________________ Little______________________________________ Never_____________________________________ h) The City Hall wasnt very impressive; it wasnt old either. i) We have never heard such enchanting chorus music anywhere. j) This computer isnt often used. k) Mike had no idea what to do first. l) It was the first time we had contracted this firm.

Talking
In pairs, work through the table given below and describe the illustration on page 47.

Commenting on something you know little about Its rather difficult to say I would imagine I have some suspicions that Personally, I have heard (very) little about Actually, I have no first hand knowledge about Havent got a clue!

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Module 5 Power shifts

(From Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003)

Home assignment
1. Translate the following texts into Romanian. A. Bicameral System It is a legislative system in which the power of making the law is vested in two chambers, or houses, both of which must approve a bill before it becomes law. In general the upper house is composed of members selected on a territorial basis, representing states or other political subdivisions rather than the people directly, and usually serving for longer terms than the members of the lower house. In principle the upper house provides the legislative experience necessary to control unwise legislation. The lower house is generally composed of members selected on the basis of population, each member representing an equal number of citizens. Because of more frequent election and closer identification with the districts they represent, members of the lower house reflect more strongly the contemporary mind of the electorate. Typical of the bicameral system is the U.S. Congress, which consists of a Senate, constituting an upper house, and a House of Representatives, constituting a lower. The bicameral system is in force in all states except, since 1937, Nebraska, which has a unicameral, or single-chamber, legislature. Throughout the world national parliaments are about equally divided between bicameral and unicameral systems.
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Module 5 Power shifts

B. Separation of Powers Many of the worlds legislatures follow the design of the British Parliament, the so-called Westminster model. In the Westminster system, legislative power resides in a popularly elected parliament, composed of one or two chambers. The majority party, or a coalition of parties, agree to form a government, known as the government of the day. Executive power is exercised by a cabinet headed by a chief ministerusually called prime minister, premier, or chancellorwho is typically drawn from the membership of the legislature. Such systems are found throughout western Europe and in countries such as India that were once part of the British Empire. In systems based on separation of powers (sometimes mistakenly called presidential systems), legislative and executive powers are divided between two branches whose principal officers are elected. The United States is the purest example of a separated system. However, countries such as Colombia and Mexico follow formal constitutions modeled on that of the United States. A new, hybrid type of political system has appeared in the second half of the 20th century. This system resembles a traditional parliamentary system, except that the prime minister and cabinet share executive power with an independently elected president. In 1958 France created such a system, which is known as Frances Fifth Republic. More recently, countries in central and eastern Europe, such as Poland and Lithuania, adopted this arrangement after the collapse of Communist regimes.
(Roger H. Davidson, Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003)

2. Prepare a speech of 5 minutes in which you present the Romanian system of power separation in the state. You are expected to use official sources, and you may support your presentation with handouts, posters, pictures, charts or any other materials.

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Module 6 To vote or not to vote

Module 6.

To vote or not to vote

Starting up
1. In pairs, match the words in column A with the definitions in column B. A B

a) marginal seat 1) A political area whose inhabitants are represented by one MP b) vote c) Mayor d) referendum 2) Someone who stands in an election 3) The programme of action of a particular party or government 4) The number of votes by which a person wins an elections

5) A direct vote by the population on some e) left-/right wing important public issue 6) A parliamentary seat held by a very small f) the Opposition majority of votes g) majority h) stand / run for Parliament i) ideology j) elect k) policy l) chamber m) candidate n) cabinet o)constituency 7) Members of Parliament who do not belong to the party in power 8) To be a candidate in an election 9) To choose in a formal way, e.g. by marking a ballot paper 10) To choose someone or something by voting 11) Hall used by a group of legislators 12) Head of a town or city council 13) A committee of the most ministers in the government important

14) A part of an organization, esp. a political party, members of any group who are more in favour of change, new ideas than others; those who support more traditional or conservative policies than others in the same group or party 15) A set of ideas or beliefs that form the basis of an economic or political theory or that are held by a particular group or person
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Module 6 To vote or not to vote

2. Translate the words and phrases in column A. 3. Use the words and phrases in sentences of your own.

Reading
Read the following article and answer the questions. Think Global, Vote Local On Monday 22 April 2004, the official campaign for the Romanian local elections was launched. The election is set for 6 June and could provide the pattern for the general elections due to be held in November. The local administration in Romania is based on local autonomy and the decentralisation of public services. Local councils and Mayors run villages and towns and are elected by the citizens of their particular village or town. Over the past four years, several elected mayors have been accused of dubious dealings, and a move away from this state of affairs is increasingly desired. Local administration is co-ordinated by regional administration, and county councils are elected by the population of the region. The Government nominates a prefect for each county and one for the City of Bucharest. Prefects are the official local representatives of the County. The Romanian Constitution stipulates that a local election shall be held every four years. Electoral regulations will be published by the Government and distributed to all prefects by 3 May. All nominations for County Counsellors and Mayors should also be received by this date. Any opposition to candidates is to be resolved by 15 May. Although only a brief description of the electoral procedure has thus far been handed down, the campaign appears to be highly organised and much more decent, compared with the previous runs, and has provided a legitimate footing for the electoral squabbling that has been enacted since the beginning of the year. The launch of the electoral campaign allows for 45 days of uncompromising local political battle.
(Adapted from Think Global, Vote Local , by Catherine Lovatt, source: http://www.ce-review.org/00/17/lovatt17.html)

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Module 6 To vote or not to vote

A. Mark each of the following statements as T (true), F (false), or C (cant tell). 1. On Monday 3 May 2004, the official campaign for the Romanian general elections was launched. 2. The local administration in Romania is based on local autonomy and the centralisation of public services. 3. Local councils and Mayors run villages and towns and are elected by the citizens of their particular village or town. 4. Over the past four years, several elected councillors have been accused of dubious dealings, and a move away from this state of affairs is increasingly desired. 5. Local administration is co-ordinated by county administration, and city councils are elected by the population of the region. 6. The Government nominates a prefect for each county and one for the City of Bucharest. 7. Prefects are the official local representatives of the Government. 8. The Romanian Constitution stipulates that a local election shall be held every five years 9. All nominations for County Counsellors and Mayors should also be received by a certain date. 10. The local electoral campaign is due to finish in 45 days. B. Which of the following sentences best summarizes the content of the article? a) A brief description of the electoral procedure. b) Electoral regulations. c) Some elected mayors have been accused of dubious dealings. d) The decentralisation of public services. e) The organisation of local elections. C. Give the calendar of the local elections and identify the stages in preparing the polling-day.

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Module 6 To vote or not to vote

Vocabulary
1. Fill in the blanks with words from the box. per authority voters for unit independent wards councillors county aim

In England, Scotland and Wales, a) ________ are elected to represent a geographical b) ________ , known as a ward or a division. Three c) ________ Commissions (for England, Scotland and Wales) are responsible d) ________ reviewing ward boundaries and the number of councilors each council has. They e) ________ to create wards that, across the area of the local f)________, have roughly equal numbers of residents g)________ councillor. In general terms, h)________ council divisions have about 10,000 i)________ per councillor, district council j) ________ about 2,300. 2. Choose the best word or phrase to fit each of these definitions. 1) A business activity in which two or more companies invest together. a) alliance b) acquisition c) merger d) joint venture 2) Something belonging to a business that has value or the power to earn money. a) facilities a) synergy b) assets b) integration c) utilities c) entity d) valuation d) cost centre 3) A business that is a single unit from a legal point of view. 4) Something that must be done according to a law or rule. a) compatible b) complementary c) comparable d) compulsory 5) When prices or the value of stocks and shares drop. a) failure a) implement b) pitfall b) install c) downturn c) integrate d) loss d) indict 6) To put a plan into action. 7) Different costs and the way they are related to each other. a) cost structure b) cost savings c) cost efficiency d) cost base 8) The mayor is directly chosen by voters. a) local elections b) general elections c) nomination d) licensing 9) An amount of money controlled by local authorities. a) income pool b) revenue 52 Marius Velica PARTNER c) budget d) dividends

Module 6 To vote or not to vote

3. Write a word which means the opposite of the word in italics in each of these sentences. a) It is necessary to gain 50 per cent or more of the total votes cast. b) Voting is always by secret ballot. c) People convicted of corrupt or illegal electoral practices should be debarred from standing the elections. d) Local elections are largely dominated by party politics. e) Even where the main political parties hold most of the seats, it is not impossible for Independent candidates to win elections.

Grammar
1. Fill each of the gaps in these sentences with an appropriate modal verb form. a) I suppose Tom ________ a point when he says wages are low. b) You ________ think its possible, but I dont think so. c) He ________ heard of her before as she used to work next door to the Standards Department. d) You look a bit overworked; you ________ asking someone to help you. e) That ________ the boss over there hasnt he gone to Bucharest for the conference? f) What youre saying is absurd. They really ________ deleted all the files! g) The project was finished in a week; you ________ worked really hard. h) Weve been looking everywhere for the fax rolls! You ________ us you didnt have time to buy any! 2. Fill in a modal or a synonymous expression and the appropriate form of the verbs in brackets. a) Employees ________ (treat) in a better way. b) You ________ (comply) with the regulations. c) Dont worry. You ________ (not/dress) formally for this job. d) If you wanted to use my computer, you ________ (ask) me. e) Im not sure where Sam is. He ________ (be) in the canteen. f) That ________ (not/be) Toms secretary. He doesnt have one.
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g) Danny ________ (write) an e-mail, but Im not sure. Why dont you go and see? h) Only authorized personnel ________ (enter) this area. i) We saw the letter on the managers desk. It ________ (send) to the supplier yet. j) Maria speaks Spanish really well now. She ________ (pass) her language tests easily. 3. Fill in the e-mail with: can neednt cant must have must have to couldnt didnt need to neednt have shall need to dont have to would ought to could dont need to should havent been able to

Dear George, Here I am in my new office. Sorry I 1) ________ write earlier, but, of course, I was busy moving in and meeting my new office mates. Now, I just 2) ________ buy some flower pots and stick a few posters to make the office really nice to work in. When I unpacked, I 3) ________ find my old note-book anywhere. I 4) ________ left it behind in the old office! Ill come to see you tomorrow in the lunch break; 5) ________ you find it for me and bring it along, please? I 6) ________ bought a new coffee maker, there is one in the canteen, so I guess I 7) ________ give it to you if you want it. I 8) ________ wait to tell you what my new mates are like! When I entered the office, I knew I 9) ________ worry about anything. 10) ________ I tell you why? All the others are men! 11) ________ you like me to help you? I 12) ________ do anything, I feel like a princess. Anyway, I 13) ________ go now. Theres someone looking for me. It 14) ________ be the head of the department, I havent met her yet. Take care and dont work so much. Nobody 15) ________ work as much as you do. Hugs and kisses, Carmen 54 Marius Velica PARTNER

Module 6 To vote or not to vote

Talking
In pairs, work through the table given below. Arguing For I cant see anything against I definitely support the idea of Im all in favour of It would make (perfect) sense to Id certainly agree with There is a lot to be said I couldnt agree more. Arguing Against I really cant say that Im dead / definitely against You cannot possibly say that It doesnt make any / much sense to say This is not true! Thats perfect, but

Read the text and comment on following topic: To Vote or Not to Vote Electoral barometer Public discontent with present local administration is hardly surprising and can help explain the greater interest in the outcome of the local elections. However, the proximity of the local and general elections could also be a contributing factor in heightening public interest. The media hype that goes hand in hand with a general election will also incorporate the local elections, raising publicity and encouraging awareness. And, of course, the outcome of the local elections could provide the pattern for the November elections generating further curiosity. The local elections could also provide an indication to the political players what policies are going to win votes. Nonetheless, local elections in the past have appeared to be more closely related to the individual and their personal charisma rather than political policies, as is the possible case with the previous election of Funar. On the larger political scale policies can hold much more influence. The launch of the official local election campaign has opened the floodgates for months of intriguing political battles. Romanians will be bombarded by political and personal programmes that will either grab their attention or encourage them to shut out politics altogether. However, the past four years have illustrated certain complications in local leadership which have partly clouded the administration of local government. Many Romanians desire change; the local elections and later, the general elections, are seen as a means to achieve this. Interest in the elections is increasing and could ultimately bring some unexpected results.
(Catherine Lovatt, 28 April 2000, source: http://www.ce-review.org/00/17/lovatt17.html) Marius Velica PARTNER

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Module 6 To vote or not to vote

Home assignment
1. Look at the information given below. a) Interpret the data given; b) Add or cut anything necessary, irrelevant, inappropriate, etc.; c) Are you middle-class? Bring arguments to support your answer. THE ROMANIAN MIDDLE-CLASS LOWER MIDDLE Monthly income Single: 100 - 200 Job Young teachers, physicians, clerks Car Dacia Characteristics Less busy, established, simple pleasures, low mobility MIDDLE MIDDLE Monthly income Single: 200 - 500 Job Liberal arts, attorneys, IT practitioners, middle managers Car Companys foreign car Characteristics Leisure activities, pub culture, mobility UPPER MIDDLE Monthly income Single: 500 - 1000 Job Financial actors (brokers, executives, upper managers) Car Own their own foreign car Characteristics Very busy, luxurious products consumption, little spare time, holidays abroad, high mobility 2. In pairs, argue for and against the following topic:

THE ROMANIAN MIDDLE-CLASS


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Module 7 Local affairs

Module 7.

Local affairs

Starting up
1. In pairs, read the following encyclopaedic entries and state what is the connection between 1 and 2. Second, compare the notions with the situation in Romania. local government U.K. term local authority 1. government of local area: the government of a town, city, county, or region at a local level by locally elected politicians 2. elected officials at local level: an organization of people, most of whom are elected, that governs an area smaller than a state, usually a county, district, or town. 2. Among the departments mentioned below there are some that are not run by local authorities as internal departments. Cut those departments that should not be on the list and motivate your choice. Personnel Legal Financial Architecture Purchasing IT Civil Defence Production Social Service Development Planning Tourism Investments Public Transport Environment Trading Standards Leisure Emergency Animal Care Police Force Sanitation

3. Fill in the gaps with words from the box. although statute by service cost-effectively for only

illegally

other

providing

Local administration is responsible for a) __________ an enormous range of services b) __________ everyone throughout the county. However, c) __________ they are independent bodies, local authorities can d) __________ do the things that the law, as passed by e) __________, specifically permits them to do. Should a local authority try to provide a f) __________, or do anything else, not permitted g) __________ the law, it would be acting h) __________, and could be ordered to stop by the courts. Like companies and i) __________ institutions, to operate efficiently and j) __________ local authorities run a variety of internal departments.
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Module 7 Local affairs

Reading
Match each paragraph in the following article (1-5) with the most appropriate heading (I -V) from the list. Local Government 1. Local Government, agency organized to provide and supervise administrative, fiscal, and other services to the people who reside within its territorial boundaries. It is the level of government most directly accountable to the public. 2. Organized county governments exist in every state. Counties have a local authority, most often called the county board of councillors or board of supervisors, which levies taxes; performs various administrative, legislative, and judicial functions; and has some power over county officials. In many cases, however, this structure can be modified to include either an appointed manager or an elected executive to administer the governing board's policy. 3. Municipal or city government (including that of villages, boroughs, and incorporated towns) serves people in those particular municipalities. Nearly all such governments are patterned after one of the following plans: the mayor-council plan and the county-council plan. 4. In order to meet various public needs more efficiently, internal departments have been created, each often concerned with a single service such as sewerage, parks and recreation, fire protection, soil and water conservation, hospitals, or libraries. Often their boundaries are not coterminous with other local jurisdictions, thereby creating questions of jurisdictional overlapping. Most departments are administered by a board with members called commissioners or supervisors; board members may be either appointed or elected. With the establishment of new and more extensive suburban areas near large cities, the number of special departments continues to increase. 5. A unit of local government in many nations. The importance of the county is increasing and many states have recently granted counties home rule, that is, independent control over local affairs. In the 20th century the traditional functions performed by counties, such as tax assessment and collection, election and judicial administration, record keeping, and maintenance of roads and highways, are being expanded to include social services, health care, and parks and recreation facilities. Counties have been obliged to provide varied services because of the massive shift in population from the central cities to the suburban communities surrounding them. (Adapted from Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003) 58 Marius Velica PARTNER

Module 7 Local affairs

Headings:

MUNICIPALITIES

II INTERNAL DEPARTMENTS III COUNTY IV INTRODUCTION V COUNTY GOVERNMENT

Vocabulary
1. Thomas is telling his colleagues about a marketing trip to the UK that he has just made. Complete the gaps with an appropriate word from the list. Do not use any word more than once. become get to build up get through network make exchange spend feel answer

When I visited Royal Trading Company, I stayed a whole day there. I decided it would be useful to a) __________ time with them as they could be the key to our success in the UK. I met Mr. Williams, their Purchasing Manager. The main purpose of this visit was to b) __________ information about our two companies. Mr. Williams was especially interested in our dairy products and I was able to c) __________ his questions about quality control, which was his main concern. We also talked a lot about rugby, and it took some time to d) __________ the point, which meant that we didnt manage to e) __________ the whole agenda. However, it was important for establishing trust between us. It is taking time for us to f) __________ established in this market. But we have to recognise that the main thing is to develop a g)__________ of contacts, and h) __________ good relations with them. We mustnt i) __________ frustrated. I think, over the next few weeks, we will j)__________ some progress. 2. Match a multi-word verb in A with a definition from B.
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Module 7 Local affairs

A a) to talk over a problem b) to try out an idea c) to go off a person d) to call off a meeting e) to give up drinking f) to look into a problem g) to get over a loss h) to turn down an offer i) to look after somebody j) to work out a sum

B 1. to recover from 2. to experiment with 3. to cancel 4. to stop 5. to discuss 6. to care for 7. to not accept 8. to not like anymore 9. to investigate 10. to solve

3. Put the pronoun it in the right place in the following sentences. a) If you have a problem with your finances, we must talk ___ over ___. b) Ive just installed a new version of programme for Internet search. Try ___ out ___. c) I used to like her, but since she lied to me Ive really gone ___ off ___. d) Im awfully tired and its too late for a meeting today. Well have to call ___ off ___. e) I hate you drinking all the time. Why dont you give ___ up ___? f) Ive heard about the problem youre having with the local Tax Office. I think you should look ___ into ___ as soon as possible. g) Its terrible that you are not the head of the department anymore. Dont worry, youll get ___ over ___ soon. h) Take my word for it. This opportunity is great. Dont turn ___ down ___. i) This is valuable documentation on the proceedings of the conference. You must look ___ after ___. j) There are too many figures; I cant work ___ out ___ in my head. I need a calculator.

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Module 7 Local affairs

Grammar
1. Fill in the correct form of the infinitives a. Your boss expects you ________ (come) to work by 7 oclock. b. The manager seems ________ (get) nervous with the interviewee, thats why hes raising his voice. c. Stop pretending ________ (work) Im tired of covering you. d. Id like ________ (see) everyone in the briefing room, please. e. Julie appears ________ (already/type) her resignation. Do you know anything about it? f. Mark happens ________ (pass) his qualification tests six months ago. g. The supervisor was worried as the employees seemed ________ (have) difficulty coping with the new tasks. h. The secretary claimed ________ (take) notes at the time of the robbery. i. Hes too young ________ (start) a firm on his own already. j. ________ (be) honest, its too much work for me to do. 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the ing form or the infinitive. a. She should stop _____ (call) her relatives on the office phone. b. She should stop _____ (call) the manager before she leaves. c. Well never forget _____ (go) to an interview for the first time. d. Are you sorry for _____ (tell) the truth? e. Im sorry _____ (hear) this. f. You completely forgot _____ (mail) the letter, didnt you? g. Id prefer _____ (come) back to the office earlier. h. Susan prefers _____ (solve) problems on the phone rather than _____ (meet) the suppliers. i. Do you prefer_____(drink) cappuccino to _____ (drink) coffee? j. We regret _____ (inform) you that the interview has been cancelled. k. We regret _____ (inform) you earlier today that you have been made redundant, its still your birthday! l. Your desk wanted _____ (clean). m. We wanted you _____ (have) a cleaner desk. n. I see youre trying hard_____(cope) with our new regulations. o. Try _____ (wake) up earlier, youre always late for work!
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p. Patrick meant _____ (find) a different job. q. Finding a new job meant _____ (move) into town. r. Dont stop! Youve heard the boss, go on _____ (work)! s. Youve heard the boss; now go on _____ (join) the party. 3. Put the verbs in brackets in the ing form or the infinitive. Susan has been trying 1)________(get) a job for months but it has been impossible 2)________(find) the best method 3)________(be) successful in an interview. Six months ago she started 4)________(go) to language classes, but she proved 5)________ (have) talent for neither English nor French. Then she took up karate classes. On the second day she sprained her wrist and cracked her head and she regrets 6)________(say) that it was really embarrassing because some children took her to hospital 7)________(make) her head stop 8) ________ (bleed). After this a friend advised her 9)________(try) 10)________(go) to social skill classes, 11)________(improve) her conversation and social behaviour, but Susan hates 12)________(teach) good manners. At this very moment, Susan is still between jobs and I think she has given up 13)________(try) 14)________(find) a job. Shell probably concentrate on 15)________(stay) alive. 4. Make questions to which the words in bold are answers. a) This is my coat b) We live in the centre of the town. c) We live in the centre of the town. d) Susan was travelling by car that day. e) Jim has been working here for ten months . f) I couldnt come because I felt tired. g) She was very beautiful that evening. h) We sometimes eat pizza in this restaurant. i) Hes gone to London. j) The textbook was written by that professor. 62 Marius Velica PARTNER

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5. Turn the following into indirect questions. a) Why is she going to tell us the whole story? Have you any idea why______________________________________________? b) Are there any vacancies left? Could you tell me if _________________________________________________? c) Where did you see the Director General? Please tell me where _________________________________________________? d) What make is your car? Can you tell me _________________________________________________? e) What does subsidiary mean? Do you know what _________________________________________________? f) Had he bought the house when he got married? Do you know if _______________________________________________? g) Am I going to be late? I wonder if _________________________________________________? h) Have you taken any days off yet? Could you tell me if _________________________________________________? i) How old are your daughters? Can you tell me _________________________________________________? j) Is he planning to move house? Do you know if _________________________________________________? 6. Fill in the blanks with the correct tag questions. a) Youre leaving this Saturday, __________? b) He has been at home all day, __________? c) We worked at this document last Monday, __________? d) They werent listening to you, __________? e) She couldnt ask any questions, __________? f) Everyone knows whos the boss, __________? g) Nobody knew anything, __________? h) There was someone at the door, __________? i) Im the first to leave, __________? j) He used to like talking to you, __________? k) This is Toms computer, __________? l) He has got very good memory, __________? m) Dont talk to me like that, __________? n) Lets have lunch, __________? o) There was hardly any paper left, __________?

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Talking
In pairs, use the table below to choose which European Union major body (1-6) plays the most significant role in Romanias accession to the Union. Making a choice This definitely / certainly would (not) be my choice because I certainly / definitely would (not) select / choose this one / the (second) Although this one seems, it would(not) Just taking a glance / glancing at them Id go for This ones certainly a possibility because This one seems to be a good choice. Not this one, it Definitely this one. Perhaps this one, it The European Union Major Bodies
1. European Commission The European Commission is the highest administrative body in the EU. The European Commission is the highest administrative body in the EU. Unlike the European Council, which oversees all three pillars of the EU, the commission concentrates almost solely on the EC pillar. It initiates, implements, and supervises policy. It is also responsible for the general financial management of the EU and for ensuring that member states adhere to EU decisions. The commission is meant to be the engine of integration, and it spearheaded the preparations for the single market and the moves toward establishing the euro.

2. Council of the European Union The Council of the European Union (formerly called the Council of Ministers) represents national governments. It is the primary decisionmaking authority of the EU and is the most important and powerful EU body. Although its name is similar to that of the European Council, the Council of the European Unions powers are essentially limited to the EC pillar, whereas the European Council oversees all three pillars of EU cooperation.

3. European Parliament (EP) The European Parliament is the representative body of the European Union (EU). The parliament is composed of 626 members that are popularly elected from among the EUs 15 member states. The headquarters of the European Parliament are in Strasbourg, France.

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4. European Court of Justice (ECJ) The European Court of Justice (ECJ) is the judicial arm of the EU. Each member country appoints one judge to the court. The ECJ is responsible for the law that the EU establishes for itself and its member states. It also ensures that other EU institutions and the member states conform with the provisions of EU treaties and legislation. The court has no direct links with national courts and no control over how they apply and interpret national law, but it has established that EU law supersedes national law.

5. Court of Auditors The Court of Auditors is made up of 15 members, one from each EU member state. The court oversees the finances of the EU and ensures that all financial transactions are carried out according to the EU budget and laws. The court issues a yearly report to the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament detailing its findings.

6. European Central Bank (ECB) The European Central Bank (ECB) began operations in 1998. It is overseen by a six- member executive board that is chosen by agreement of the EU member governments and includes the ECB president and vice president. The ECB has exclusive authority for EU monetary policy, including such things as setting interest rates and regulating the money supply. In addition, the ECB played and continues to play a major role in overseeing the inauguration and consolidation of the euro as the single EU currency. Its authority over monetary policy and its independence from other EU institutions make the ECB a very powerful body. (From Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003)

Home assignment
1. Translate the following text into Romanian.
Chapter IX. THE REFORM OF THE CENTRAL AND LOCAL PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATION. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

9.1. The Reform of the Central and Local Public Administration The Governmental Programme tackles the issue of speeding up the reform of the central and local public administration in a very direct manner, originating from the highly critical evaluation of the European Commission. The Programme is aimed at achieving the criteria for joining the European Union, proving that Romania is able to gradually strengthen its administrative capacity of dealing with its obligation as a future member state. Marius Velica PARTNER

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Module 7 Local affairs The Governing Programme concerning the central and local public administration is founded upon the following objectives: a profound restructuring of the central and local public administration; a change in the very foundations of the relation between the administration and the citizen; a process of decentralisation of the public services accompanied by a strengthening in administrative and financial autonomy; a gradual demilitarisation for a series of community services; depoliticising the structures of the public administration; eliminating political clientele; stopping bureaucracy; insuring the coherence of the administrative act; perfecting management in administration; implementing a series of rational policies for developing and modernising villages, towns and cities; strengthening the authority of the state and increasing its degree of responsibility; harmonising the legislative framework with European Union regulations in the field; insuring its coherency and stability. (Source: http://www.gov.ro/engleza/obiective/afis -docdiverse-eng.php?iddoc=11)

2. Translate the following text into English.


9.1.1. Restructurarea profunda a administratiei publice centrale si locale. [] Restructurarea administratiei publice centrale si locale se va realiza, in principal, prin: restructurarea Guvernului in vederea eficentizarii actului de guvernare; reorientarea activitatii unor ministere si reducerea unui numar important de agentii guvernamentale; trecerea unor agentii guvernamentale in subordinea sau coordonarea ministerelor in vederea asigurarii unei activitati coerente si eficiente, a unor relatii functionale normale; infiintarea unor ministere noi, pentru a raspunde mai eficient prioritatilor de relansare economica si de pregatire a aderarii Romaniei la Uniunea Europeana (Ministerul Integrarii Europene, Ministerul Dezvoltarii si Prognozei, Ministerul Intreprinderilor Mici si Mijlocii si al Cooperatiei); unificarea si transformarea unor agentii guvernamentale, dovedite ca ineficiente, in ministere (Ministerul Comunicatiilor si Tehnologia Informatiei, Ministerul Informatiilor Publice, Ministerul Turismului); infiintarea in structura organizatorica a ministerelor a unor oficii, conduse de secretari de stat, pentru: relatia cu parlamentul, sindicatele si patronatul; integrare europeana si relatii externe; investitori straini si autohtoni; stabilirea, in conformitate cu reglementarile legale, a unor structuri de organizare cadru - suple si eficiente - privind organizarea si functionarea ministerele si agentiilor guvernamentale, prefecturilor, consiliilor judetene si locale, primariilor; reducerea numarului departamentelor, directiilor generale, directiilor, oficiilor, serviciilor si birourilor din administratia publica centrala si locala; reducerea substantiala a numarului persoanelor cu functii de conducere din administratia publica centrala si locala (secretari generali adjuncti, directori generali, directori generali adjuncti, directori, directori adjuncti, sefi de oficii, sefi de servicii si de birouri); reducerea, pe ansamblu, in mod esalonat, cu circa 30% a personalului din ministere si agentii guvernamentale, precum si de la autoritatile publice locale. Pentru intarirea capacitatii administrative a structurilor guvernamentale se vor stabili, prin hotarari ale guvernului, obiectivele, atributiunile si responsabilitatile fiecarui minister si autoritate publica centrala; prefectura si serviciul public descentralizat; pentru functionarii publici se vor stabili criterii precise de performanta care vor sta la baza evaluarii anuale a activitatii acestora. (Sursa: http://www.gov.ro/romana/obiective/afis-docdiverse-rom.)

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Exam practice 1

Exam practice 1
Section A: 40 items. Each answer is worth 1p. Choose the best answer. 1. This is made problematic _______ the lack of clear thinking. a) by a) a strike a) is a) are a) were a) were a) make a) contact a) sum a) asks a) some b) on b) a will b) are b) be b) are b) is b) order b) make b) make b) makes b) any c) of c) a hit c) was c) is c) is c) are c) leave c) deal c) solve c) deals c) no d) in d) a thought d) will d) were e) from e) a stroke 2. What I need is just _______ of luck. 3. Where _______ the scissors? e) have e) being 4. His knowledge _______ impressive. 5. Money _______ no problem for her. d) have been e) be d) being d) put d) do d) do d) does d) much e) be e) receive e) arrange e) resolve e) takes e) lots of 6. Nine kilometres _______a long way to run. 7. Would you like to _______ an appointment? 8. We dont want to _______ business with this company. 9. We will have to _______ the calculation again. 10. This boss has got what it _______ to be successful. 11. Why dont you ask the bank to lend you _______ money? 12. We always have _______ cups of coffee and _______ chat. a) a few, a little d) few, little b) few, a little e) a little, a few c) a few, little

13. James Smith is _______ Chief Executive of _______ firm. a) a, ours b) an, ours c) the, our d) a, ourselves e) the, an
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Exam practice 1

14. Ross is always relaxed __________ things. a) with a) put a) a few a) much b) about b) come b) little b) many c) in c) say c) a little c) some b) painskiller e) medicine b) childrens b) bar of b) install c) childs d) childrens d) loaf of d) indict d) gifted e) children e) e) insert e) owed d) off d) make d) few d) no e) of e) tell e) many e) few c) painkillers 15. You could _______ an excuse if you want to leave. 16. Unqualified work means _______ money. 17. I dont have _______ money with me. 18. She takes so many _______. a) painskillers d) painkiller a) childs a) carton of a) implement a) offered

19. If you have many _______, you need extra money. 20. Give me a _______ bread, please. c) cake of c) integrate c) taken c) agrees 21. To put a plan into action means to __________ it. 22. Petra is __________with many skills. b) given 23. After a long negotiation, we finally reached an ___________. a) agreeing b) agrement a) product d) agreed e) agreement 24. The OfficeExpert is our best-selling ___________. b) production c) produce d) products e) produces 25. We _________ ( recently / receive ) your proposal about cleaning the river banks. a) received recently c) have recently received b) has recently received d) received soon e) receive

26. The technology we ________ (use) at the moment can damage the environment. a) use b) were using c) used d) are using e) using 27. For the last few weeks we __________ ( try ) to raise money to help solve this problem. a) have been trying d) tried b) have tried e) trying c) have trying

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28. If oil prices continue to fluctuate wildly, as they have done ___________, the grain market will modify prices too. a) soon b) lately c) quickly d) rather e) recently 29. Peter Trelder maintains he has found a business model that _______. a) has work b) working c) have worked d) is work e) works 30. This has encouraged customers to order when a truck plans to be in _______ neighbourhood. a) theyr a) waste a) tendency a) wins a) on a) with b) their b) pass b) value b) earns b) with b) in c) there c) lose c) price c) offers c) up c) for d) theire d) spend d) expense e) them e) loose e) cost 31. People should not _____ their time. 32. We think the _____ of living will go up. 33. I know he has a very good job, he _____ over 3,000. d) receives e) gains d) after d) about e) from e) on 34. You must refrain _____ any inappropriate remarks. 35. Congratulations _____ your promotion. 36. The companys policy in the past _______ (be) to use TV as the main medium for advertising our products. a) was b) has been c) were d) will be e) is going to c) promise 37. As __________ (promise), they should have arrived today. a) will promise d) promised a) has taken b) have promised e) has been promising b) will take c) may taken

38. OK, but it _______ (take) several hours to finish the list tonight. d) taking e) take 39. The new economic journal was _________ and had to be withdrawn from the market. a) under-subscribed d) over b) subscribed c) under e) over-subscribed

40. The increase in charges can be _________ against the gain in interest revenue. a) upset b) outset c) offset d) inset e) onset

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Section B: 30 items. Each answer is worth 2p. Choose the best answer. 41. He asked her to __________ what she had just said. a) repeat a) in b) complain b) at c) take c) on d) weep d) out e) call e) with e) taxes e) takes 42. Local authorities lie _________ the heart of community life. 43. Local __________ are based on the value of domestic property. a) councillors a) is taking off b) instalments b) takes off c) payments d) income c) take off d) take in 44. The plane _________ tomorrow at 10.30. 45. Im going to buy some pizza. Do you want any? a) Yes, Ill have some too. c) Yes, I have some too. e) Yes, I had some too. 46. This time next week _________ all day on the train. a) Im spending b) I spending c) Ill be spending e) I spend b) I know. Ill take it back. d) I know. I take it back. d) Im going to spend 47. Your new computer doesnt work. a) I know. Im going to take it back. c) I know. I going to take it back. e) I know. Ill be going to take it back. 48. You look extremely pale. Are you all right? a) Im going to be sick! d) Im going to go sick! b) Ill be sick! e) I become sick! c) Im going sick! b) Yes, Im going to have some too. d) Yes, Im having some too.

49. A business activity in which two or more companies have invested together is called a __________. a) alliance b) acquisition c) merger d) joint venture e) firm b) complementary e) complement c) comparable 50. A thing that must be done according to a law or rule is _____. a) compatible d) compulsory

51. Something belonging to a business that has value or the power to earn money is called __________. a) facilities b) assets c) utilities d) valuation e) goods

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52. That ________ (not/be) Toms secretary. He doesnt have one. a) cant be b) mustnt be c) may not be d) wont be e) werent 53. Only authorized personnel ________ (enter) this area. a) can enter d) must enters b) can enters e) must have enter c) can have enter

54. The project was finished in a week; you ________ worked really hard. a) should have d) must have a) should b) ought to have e) can have c) cant d) are to e) ought to c) must

55.You ________ think its possible, but I dont think so. b) may 56. The main purpose of this visit was to ________ information about our two companies. a) change a) plan b) switch b) record c) exchange d) drop e) speak 57. To call off a meeting means to ________ it. c) summon d) announce e) cancel 58. To work out a sum means ________ it. a) to resolve b) to put down c) to work d) to solve e) to pull 59. Mark happens _____ (pass) his qualification tests six months ago. a) to have passed b) to pass c) will pass d) to be pass e) pass 60. Stop pretending _____ ( work) Im tired of covering you. a) work b) to be working c) working d) have worked e) works 61. Your desk wanted _____ (clean). a) clean b) cleaning a) telling a) find b) tell b) finding c) to clean d) to be clean e) be clean d) told e) tells 62. Are you sorry for _____ (tell) the truth? c) have told c) to have found 63. Sam resigned because he meant _____ (find) a better-paid job. d) to find e) found 64. A __________ is a company that develops and sells drugs for a range of medical applications. a) accountancy b) consumer electronics c) electricity generation d) food retailing e) pharmaceuticals 65. An ______ is a person or company who provides work for others. a) employee b) employer c) employed d) employ e) imployer Marius Velica PARTNER 71

Exam practice 1

66. The Middle East suffered from ___________ difficulties in the late 1980s. a)economical b)econom c)economically d)economy e)economic 67. The Chair objected __________ for the case. a) relevant b) revelant that the examples given were

c) irrevelant d) irrelevant e) irelevant

68. Dont worry _____ the system breaking down. Well call the maintenance. a) on b) in c) about d) because e) when

69. _________ audits the finances of other companies and prepares their annual financial statements for them. a) Accountancy d) Food retailing b) Consumer electronics c) Pharmaceuticals e) Electricity generation

70. A _______ is an arrangement with a bank to borrow money with a promise to pay it back at a future date. a) fare b) fee c) tax d) money e) loan

Section A: 40 items 40 points Section B: 30 items 60 points Total amount of points = 100

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Module 8 The Europeans

Module 8.

The Europeans

Starting up
1. In pairs, ask and answer the following questions. a) How many countries are members of the European Union? b) How many new members were admitted in 2004? c) How can a country apply for European membership? 2. Fill in the gaps with words from the box. integration membership Treaty deal body slowdown until grown consistent policies

The EU has come a long way since 1951. Its a) _______ has b)_______ to 15 countries, and may increase to 21 or more by 2010. It has developed a common c) _______ of laws, common d)_______ and practices, and a great e) _______ of cooperation among its members. Its progress, however, has not been f)_______, with spurts of activity separated by more-dormant periods. After initial activity in the 1960s, it was not g) _______ the mid-1980s that the EU moved decisively to greater h)_______. In the 1990s a more gloomy economic climate and evidence of popular disenchantment about the EU led to a i)_______ in innovation. The 1997 Amsterdam j) _______ emphasized consolidation rather than addressing outstanding issues. 3. The following text is complementary to the paragraph in Ex. 2. In order to maximize text comprehension, use a dictionary and state what the following words mean in the text. a) b) c) d) e) uneven (l.1) input (l.6) supranationalism (l.10) intergovernmentalism (l.11) to cede (l.13) f) g) h) i) j) pillars (l.14) challenge (l.17) growth (l.23) reluctant (l.27) extent (l.38)
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Reading
This uneven progress is in part due to two unresolved debates that potential enlargement into Eastern Europe has brought closer together. The first is whether to give priority to deepening or widening, that is, whether to concentrate upon integrating the existing members further, or to welcome new members so that all can have an input into the kind of Europe they want. In addition to the six countries with whom the EU has agreed to negotiate, a further seven have also applied for membership. The second issue is supranationalism versus intergovernmentalism. Despite acceptance of the supranational principle, national governments have been reluctant to cede all control over policy areas to EU institutions. The result was the three EU pillars, since countries did not wish to give up control in politically sensitive areas such as foreign policy and judicial affairs. The most immediate challenge the EU faces is to make a success of the euro, but the future of the single currency rests in part upon how acceptable it proves to world financial institutions and markets. In the long term, enlarging the EU by including Eastern Europe should improve economic prospects by extending the single market and stimulating economic growth and trade. The EU hopes that enlargement will raise the EUs standing as the major European voice in world affairs and contribute to security and stability on the Continent. The EU has, however, been reluctant to address the dramatic effects enlargement could have upon EU structures and finances. Under existing criteria, the bulk of CAP and structural fund resourcesby far the largest elements of EU spendingwill have to be transferred to the new members. This has alarmed the poorer member states that now receive these funds, while the richer ones are reluctant to provide more funding for the EU. The budget issue and enlargement also present problems for the structure of the EU. They raise questions about the nature of the European Commission, how nations should be represented on the commission, and the extent of the commissions authority and responsibility. As the power of the EU has grown, the organization has often been criticized for not being truly democratic, since the European Parliament has no real powers or control over decisions. Furthermore, the decision-making bodies, especially the commission, are not subject to any democratic check.
(Cf.Derek W. Urwin, Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003)

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1. Consider the entire text and choose the most suitable title from the following: a) Relations with the Rest of the World b) The Future of the European Union c) The EU and Non-European Nations d) EU History e) EU Currency

Vocabulary
1. Fill in the gaps in the table below.
Country Albania Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Denmark Estonia Finland France People the Austrians the Belgians the Bosnians/ Bosniaks the Croats the Czechs the Danes the Estonians the the the the a Cypriot a Czech a Dane a Finn Inhabitant an Albanian an Austrian a Bosnian a Bulgarian Bulgarian Croatian Cypriot Czech Estonian Finnish French Macedonian Serbian Greek Dutch Hungarian Irish Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Norwegian Portuguese Romanian Spanish Swedish Swiss Turkish English Scottish Welsh Yugoslav Adjective Albanian Austrian Belgian

French Macedonians a Macedonian Serbs a Serb Germany Germans a German Greece a Greek Holland/the the Dutch Netherlands the Hungarians a Hungarian Ireland the Irish Italy the Italians an Italian Latvia a Latvian the Lithuanians a Lithuanian the Maltese a Maltese Norway the Norwegians Poland the Poles a Pole Portugal a Portuguese the Romanians a Romanian Spain the Spaniards Slovakia the Slovaks a Slovak Sweden a Swede the Swiss a Swiss Turkey a Turk the UK the British an Englishman/ the English Englishwoman a Scotsman/Scotswoman the Welsh a Welsh Yugoslavia a Yugoslav

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2. Put the correct preposition into each gap. a) I got a cheque _____ five hundred Euros in the post today. b) There has been a rise _____ the number of applications. c) Have you seen this photo _____ my team? Arent they nice? d) There are great differences _____ you and me, you know. e) I can think of no reason _____ such strange behaviour. f) It took a long time to find an answer _____ the query. g) Could you give me some information _____ train times? h) Im having trouble _____ my computer. It wont start. i) Shes doing research _____ the cases of child abuse. j) This is a machine _____ shredding documents. k) The demand _____ raw materials is greater this month. l) Make use _____ all the information Ive given you. m) There must be some solution _____ the problem of waste disposal in the city. n) You must keep a record _____ all bank transfers. o) Recently there has been an increase _____ the number of invoices issued by your department. 3. Complete the following sentences with one of the particles. off away back out of over up out in

a) Many people are _____ work in the southeast of Europe. b) Dont phone me at the office for the next few days. Ill be _____ on business. c) I should be _____ on the 1 s t of October. d) She was _____ all night with the project. It just wouldnt work. e) It had been hard work, but soon it was _____. f) Please call later! Danny is not _____. g) I phoned and phoned, but he must have been _____. h) This is _____ question; I will not sign this. i) Were _____ funds. What can we do? j) Shes _____ to Greece tomorrow, so youll have to take over.

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Grammar
1. Fill in: ASK, SAY or TELL in the correct form. First, the General Manager a) _______ good morning. Then he b)_______ everybody in the office that Human Resources c)_______ to present a report about the average work-hours per day in the company. The HR department d) _______ that more and more employees had been taking many days off, which hindered work efficiency. Several employees were e) _______ if they considered they had been working too long hours, but of course they f) _______ nothing. They didnt want to g) _______ the truth, so the GM h) _______ HR for information. He i)_______ they must j) _______ him the names of the employees involved and instructed the head of the HR department to write a report as soon as possible. 2. In the next office, Ann is jotting down the minutes of a meeting. Help Ann report what everybody said. Mike: A lot of suppliers have complained about the quality of our services. Peter: Well, the number of employees has been reduced, so we are understaffed. Mike: What can we do about this? Susan, can we arrange for a series of interviews next week? Susan: I think next week is too soon. We should take greater care in selecting the staff, because we organized interviews last month too, and the results are not satisfactory. Paul: We could subcontract. This way we can avoid employing unqualified staff. Mike: Then, Paul, could you make the necessary arrangements? I dislike being notified about the poor quality of our services. So, the next point on the agenda

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3. Turn the following text into a dialogue. James asked Nicole if she would like to join him in the regional conference that was held at the City Hall that afternoon. Nicole exclaimed that that was a lovely idea and suggested preparing a short presentation of their latest project. James hesitated and said that he was already prepared to speak about their next project. Nicole said that that was even better, but threatened to walk out if James started boasting about his contribution to the project like the last/previous time. James denied doing / having done such a thing and explained he had only tried to emphasise the strong points of the project. Nicole agreed to go but advised James to acknowledge her contribution too, otherwise that was going to be their last project together.

Talking
1. In pairs, work with your partner through the Function Cards below and say whether you are interested in official conferences and meetings or not.

Saying you are interested Saying you are not interested Im very keen on I think is fascinating. I find extraordinary. Im (really) interested in Theres nothing that interests me more than Im really addicted to I find (rather) boring. I couldnt care less about is not my favourite/my cup of tea. I havent got much interest in is definitely not my kind of thing. I cant/couldnt say that interests me.

2. The expressions below are commonly used in meetings and conferences. Match the sentences in column A with their functions in column B.

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1. Weve got to find out what our a) asking for facts competitors are doing. 2. Alternatively, we could speeding up production 3. The solution then discontinue the product is try b) making a suggestion. to c) balancing arguments

4. We should cut costs as far as d) expressing doubt possible. 5. If we do that, everyone will have e) identifying needs to work overtime. 6. Max, could you bring us up to f) changing your approach date, please? 7. Im worried about the motivation g) considering other options of the staff. 8. Lets look at the pros and cons. 9. So the next thing is to find a new product. 10. Lets look at this another way, shall we? h) discussing possible effects i) making a decision j) stating future action

Home assignment
1. You are going to read an e -mail message giving information about some changes to Sylvias previous arrangements. Read to answer the questions below. Then complete the memos and messages that follow with the correct information. Hello Brian, Im writing from Glasgow. I just want to tell you we have some problems at our office here, due to a computer breakdown. So I wont be able to take the plane tomorrow morning as arranged. Im now planning to leave on the afternoon flight tomorrow. My flight is AR 768 and it arrives at Heathrow airport, not London City. I will be there at 7.15 in the evening. If everything goes OK, I should be at your office by 8.30 on Friday. The meeting can start on Friday at 10 oclock, then. Its not a big delay and I hope it doesnt cause you too many problems. Im afraid well have to cancel the lunch. Perhaps we can have lunch on Friday instead? What do you think? Oh and I would like to add something to the agenda. Could
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we talk about the new publicity campaign? One of our customers is asking if we can bring a modified strategy for his company and Id like to see if you think thats a good idea. Perhaps we could discuss this idea as point number three, and change point three the discussion on improving our services to point four. Would that be OK? Anyway, write back if you can. And if I dont hear from you, Ill see you on Thursday. Bye! a) Where is Sylvia writing from? b) Why cant she travel tomorrow morning? c) When does she expect to arrive at Brians office? d) According to Sylvia, what should they discuss as point three on the agenda? Message to the company driver Sylvia Thomson is not arriving at London City airport tomorrow morning. Can you please pick her up at __________ airport at _______ tomorrow evening? Her flight number is: __________. Many thanks, Brian Message to department secretary Can you please cancel our lunch reservation at M ia Casa on Thursday and make a new reservation for__________ instead? Brian Memo To: All advertising department staff From: Brian Re: Meeting with Sylvia Thomson, 14th Thursday As Patricia is now travelling on Thursday evening, we will start the meeting on __________ at __________ instead of Thursday as scheduled. Please note that there is also a change to the agenda. 2. Using the tables given in the previous section, make up a dialogue of ten retorts on the following topic: European Standards of Quality Use indirect speech to report the dialogue. 80 Marius Velica PARTNER

Module 9 Public policies

Module 9.

Public policies

Starting up
1. In pairs, look at the title of the module and anticipate what it is about. 2. Which of the following is related to governance? housing public law political science penal law public relations civil law sociology economy organisation science marketing

3. Fill in the gaps with words from the box. particular implementation structure system themselves

preparatory

administrations

welcome Group interest

Public Administration in an Integrated Europe National a) _____ in the European Union (EU) are part of a European multi-level b) _____ of governance. Member state administrations participate at the c) _____ stage of EU policymaking (the Commission phase), in a legislative body (the Council), and in the d) _____ process (comitology committees and implementation at the national level). The Research e) _____ will address how national administrations impact on EU institutions and policies, and how these administrations are f)_____ affected by the European level. The Research Group will also g) _____ papers on the EU administration itself, in h) _____ on the Commission and the Council Secretariat. Themes of i)_____: recruitment practices, organisation j) _____, decisionmaking and reform efforts.
(Source: http://www.iiasiisa.be/egpa/agresearch/agresgroup.htm ) Marius Velica PARTNER

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Reading
Read the following article in order to solve Ex. 1 / 83. POLICY CHANGE AND INSTITUTIONAL REFORM IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR Much research in political science and public administration has been undertaken on the stability of Western democracies since the Second World War. In recent years, however, more attention was paid to the notion of change of, and within, state institutions. Maybe this is because change is basic to political phenomena (Lane and Ersson, 1987). Two general questions underlie the research in this field: 1) what causes policy change and institutional reform; and 2) how are change programmes shaped by different actors? Incremental institutional adaptation is normally the result of gradual social, economic and political developments (North, 1990). Over time, these incremental changes may have a significant impact on institutional configurations that structure policy making and coalition building (Cortell and Peterson, 1999). During a crisis, which is often considered an important factor in triggering more radical and episodic change, the institutional structure itself becomes highly criticised, which softens institutional resistance to change and opens up a window of opportunity for the introduction of institutional reform (Keeler, 1993, Kingdon, 1995). This commonplace notion, however, does not offer a comprehensive and satisfying explanation of institutional reform. Although crises constitute critical junctures in the history of a policy sector, it is often not possible to predict the outcome of a crisis. Furthermore, not every crisis leads to change. Although several authors have tried to explain the occurrence of policy change and institutional reform, they have not succeeded in fully explaining the change process. Both policy officials and institutional structures are supposed to play a crucial role in this regard (Scharpf, 1997). Sectoral authorities are not merely spectators as the need for institutional change occurs, but they actively take part in this process as agents of change (Cortell and Peterson, 1999). In other words, change is contingent upon the strategies of political and administrative leaders dealing with external developments (Terry, 1995, Hart, 2000). Even if a crisis unfreezes institutional rigidities, key officials cannot take decisions without considering the past of the sector. Though cracks in the wall of institutional stability offer opportunities to agents of change, these opportunities are still limited and structured by the institutional structure under discussion (Boin and Hart, 2000).
(Source:http://www.iiasiisa.be/egpa/agresearch/agresgroup.htm )

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1. Match each statement in column A with the author(s) in column B (two paragraphs do not belong to the text). A 1) In recent years, more attention was paid to the notion of change of and within state institutions because change is basic to political phenomena. 2) Incremental institutional adaptation is normally the result of gradual social, economic and political developments. 3) Incremental changes may have a significant impact on institutional configurations that structure policy making and coalition building. 4) The institutional structure itself becomes highly criticised, which softens institutional resistance to change and opens up a window of opportunity for the introduction of institutional reform. 5) Both policy officials and institutional structures are supposed to play a crucial role in this regard. 6) Sectoral authorities are not merely spectators as the need for institutional change occurs, but they actively take part in this process as agents of change. 7) Change is contingent upon the strategies of political and administrative leaders dealing with external developments. 8) Though cracks in the wall of institutional stability offer opportunities to agents of change, these opportunities are still limited and structured by the institutional structure under discussion. 9) Member state administrations will participate at the preparatory stage of EU policy-making, in a legislative body, and in the implementation process at the national level. 10) National administrations in the European Union are part of a European multilevel system of governance, in which recruitment practices, organisation structure, decision-making and reform efforts play a significant role.
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B a) Keeler, 1993, Kingdon, 1995 b) Cortell and Peterson, 1999 c) North, 1990 d) Lehrer, 1996 e) Terry, 1995, Hart, 2000 f) Cortell and Peterson, 1999 g) Boin and Hart, 2000 h) Bjork, 1998 i) Lane and Ersson, 1987 j) Scharpf, 1997

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Vocabulary
1. Make word associations between the verbs on the left and the nouns on the right. 1) write 2) lower 3) solve 4) meet 5) set up a) a letter b) colleagues c) a company d) the price e) a problem

2. Use the word given in capitals at the end of a line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. A Close Call Paris, Friday. It was a long and EXHAUST

a)_______ day for the Sales Department who had planned to take part in the Ritz auction. Some members of the team were formatting the price lists as a result of the b) _______ which they have received about the poor quality of the documents. The manager had been c)_______ that the companys offer had been revealed to the competition, and the system engineer thought that the computer had been accessed without d) _______. There had also been a lot of e) _______ of the threatening f) _______ of the competitors; also, the team were told to be careful about the expensive g) _______, as most keyboards were h) _______. You should have behaved in a more i) _______ way, the system engineer said. However, we should be j)_______ that they havent accessed vital files, he added.

COMPLAIN

SUSPECT

PERMIT CRITIC BEHAVE EQUIP DEFECT REASON

THANK

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Module 9 Public policies

3. Read the text carefully. Some of the lines are correct while some have a word which should not be there. If a line is correct, put a tick (3) in the space provided. If a line has a word which should not be there, write in the space provided. Workload 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Working as a councillor is time1 ___________

consuming time. Surveys have found up that many councilors spend 20 hours or greater more per week on council-related leader and work. of For senior councilors, such as well the council chairs committees, council work absorbs even if more time. Councilors are responsible about for ensuring that the work of the council is done such as well and as cost-effectively as possible. This is involves in monitoring the way policy is implemented and how much well services are delivered.

2 ___________ 3 ___________ 4 ___________ 5 6 ___________ 7 ___________ 8 9 10 ___________ ___________

11 ___________ 12 ___________ 13 14 15

Grammar
1. Write the correct form of each of the verbs in brackets. a) If you __________ ( call) me tomorrow, I __________ (have) the answer to your query. b) Dont call the Chief Secretary, or you __________ (have) a new report to make. c) If we __________ (expand) our service range, we __________ (be) able to attract more companies. d) If you __________ (be) free on Tuesday, perhaps you __________ (like ) to take part in the general meeting? e) If we________ (do) more market research, we ________ (find out ) that no one needs this kind of social service any more.
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f) We __________ (invite) the companys management in the conference room if they __________ (finish) having lunch g) __________ (stop) wasting money if you __________ (want) to save up. 2. Match the following functions with the type of conditional given in exercise 1. a) type 1 b) type 1 c) type 2 d) type 1 e) type 3 speculation promise reflecting on the past warning invitation

3. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb in brackets. a) We heard that some of the shareholders are threatening to sale their stocks unless we _____________ (pay) them $2 million in dividends . b) If we pay the shareholders, there _____________ (be) much money left for future investments. c) But if we turned them down, that _____________ (be) very bad for business relations. d) Even if we _____________ (pay) the dividends, we wouldnt be able to guarantee the profit at the end of this year. e) If the shareholders _____________ (make) their request earlier this semester, we _____________ (try) to find a satisfactory solution for everyone. 4. Complete these sentences with the words in the box (one answer will be used twice). if not if provided that unless

a) ______ you pay within a week, we will cancel all deliveries. b) ______ you can give us a 25% discount, we will consider increasing our order. c) Can you deliver by Saturday? ______, we will have to cancel the order. d) We cannot agree to the contract ______ you offer us a full years warranty. e) We agree to pay $25 per unit ______ you guarantee not to increase the price for at least half a year. 86 Marius Velica PARTNER

Module 9 Public policies

Talking
1. In pairs, work through the following table to speak on the following topic: Any mistake must be punished Opinions I think / believe Why dont we analyse? Well, personally Its time What I mean is We should Lets say It seems to me that How about? Reactions On the other hand, You are right, but Right. Absolutely / Exactly. Well, I (partially) agree, but Yes, but dont forget Thats true, but No way!

2. Tick (3) all the responses that are acceptable when meeting people you dont know well. 1. Do you mind if I use your computer? a) Yes I do. b) No, thats OK. c) Please go ahead. 2. Im so sorry Ive spilt coffee over your letters. a) That was rather clumsy of you. b) Dont worry about it they werent important. c) Im afraid theyre ruined. 3. Would you like to go out for a snack after the briefing? a) I cant. I have another engagement. b) That would be nice, but Im rather tired after taking notes. c) Not really. Im too exhausted. 4. Ive just heard that my company is reorganising and Im to lose my job. a) Im terribly sorry to hear that. b) Thats terrific. c) How awful for you.
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5. Thank you for showing me round. I found it really interesting. a) Its nothing. Im just doing my job. b) Im glad you enjoyed the visit. c) Youre welcome. 6. Do yo u mind if I ask you to stop smoking? a) Yes I do. b) Sorry, Ill put it out. c) Please go ahead. 7. Thanks for all your help. a) Dont mention it. b) Thats OK. c) No kidding. 8. Were going to lunch. Do you want to come? a) Please go away! b) Sorry, I cant. c) That sounds great! 9. Your report was really good. a) Yeah. b) Are you serious? c) Thank you. It took me some time to write it. 10. Im so sorry Ive made a mistake. a) That was awful of you. b) Dont worry about it well see what we can do. c) Im afraid youre fired.

Home assignment
Use all types of conditionals to write a paragraph (~ 200 wds.) on the following topic: Office Papers

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Module 10 Citizenship

Module 10.

Citizenship

Starting up
1. In pairs, consider the following excerpt from The Bill of Rights promulgated by the American Congress in 1791, on 3 November. a) Read it and state your opinion on the fragment. b) List the civic rights that are mentioned there. c) List the individual rights that are mentioned there. d) Does the Romanian Constitution refer to these rights, too? Discuss.

ART.I Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

2. In pairs write a list of individual rights that you would change. Discuss your reaso ns. 3. Work with your partner and act according to the following instructions. Student A: Choose to speak on one of the following themes: 1. There is no need for political pluralism. 2. Everybody should be a member of a political party. 3. The political power should belong to the young. Student B: You should try to interrupt your partner as often as you can and state your opinion. When you have finished discussing one of the topics, swap roles.
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Module 10 Citizenship

Reading
Read the text and do the following exercises. Citizenship In its most general sense, citizen denotes an individual member of a given political society or state; by extension, one who owes allegiance to and may lawfully demand protection from the government of that state. The more specific sense of the term citizen is closely in accord with the original meaning of the word. In the free republics of classical antiquity, the term citizen signified not merely a resident of a town but a free, governing m ember of the state, just as the Latin term civitas , from which the English word city is derived, signified not merely a local municipality but the state as a whole. In the Greek idea of citizenship, as expressed by Aristotle, citizens had the right to participate in both the legislative and judicial functions of their political community. This right was carefully guarded and was rarely conferred on anyone of foreign birth. In ancient Rome two classes of citizens were recognized. The first possessed the rights of citizenship, including the privilege of voting in the public assembly; the other possessed these rights and the additional right of holding offices of state. As in the United States and other modern states, citizenship in Rome, although usually acquired by birth, could also be attained by naturalization, or by special grant of the state. A person may also hold dual citizenship, which means that person is officially recognized as a citizen by two different nations. This occurs most commonly when a child is born in one country and the parents hold citizenship in another. It also sometimes is concurrent with naturalization, if the country a person is leaving does not recognize the change of allegiance. The citizen owes allegiance to the state. In modern practice, citizenship does not necessarily involve the right of voting or of other participation in political activity, as in the Greek concept of the term; minors may be citizens, but they may also be excluded from all direct political activity. The word citizen is often loosely used as synonymous with resident or inhabitant. State laws conferring the franchise on aliens who have filed declarations of intention to become citizens are often regarded as conferring citizenship. Where a law uses the word citizen in this loose sense, the courts are often called on to interpret the word.
(Adapted from Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003)

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Module 10 Citizenship

A. Mark each of the following statements as T (true) or F (false). a) The term citizen denotes an individual member of a given political society or state. b) The citizen owes allegiance to and may lawfully demand protection from the Parliament of that state. c) The English word city is derived from the Latin term civitas. d) In the free republics of classical antiquity, the term citizen signified merely a resident of a town. e) In ancient Rome three classes of citizens were recognized. f) Citizenship in Rome, was usually acquired by birth, but could also be attained by naturalization, or by special grant of the state.

g) The citizen owes allegiance to the state. h) Dual citizenship presupposes the official recognition as a citizen by two or more nations. i) In modern practice, citizenship necessarily involves the right of voting or of other participation in political activity. The word citizen is often loosely used as synonymous with resident or inhabitant.

j)

B. Choose the best answer to complete each sentence. 1. The more specific sense of the term citizen is closely in accord with a) the modern meaning of the word. b) the original meaning of the word. c) the medieval meaning of the word. 2. In the Greek idea of citizenship, as expressed by Aristotle, citizens had the right to participate in both the legislative and a) judicial functions of their political community. b) political functions of their political community. c) political functions of their judicial community. 3. In ancient Rome the first class of citizens possessed the rights of citizenship, including a) the privilege of attending the public assembly. b) the privilege of voting in the public assembly. c) the privilege of coming to the public assembly.
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4. The other class of citizens possessed the additional right of a) holding offices of government. b) holding offices of Parliament. c) holding offices of state. 5. occurs most commonly when a child is born in one country and the parents hold citizenship in another. a) Dual citizenship b) Double citizenship c) Two citizenship 6. State laws conferring the franchise on aliens who have filed declarations of intention to become citizens are often regarded as a) establishing citizenship. b) giving citizenship. c) conferring citizenship. 7. Where a law uses the word citizen in this loose sense, the courts are often called on to a) translate the word. b) interpret the word. c) delete the word. 8. The statement the citizenship of a married woman is no longer determined by that of her husband is a) not mentioned in the text. b) inferred from the text. c) quoted in the text. 9. The statement a naturalized citizen is one who was originally a subject of a foreign state but has become a citizen of the U.S. under the various acts of Congress bearing on that subject is a) inferred from the text. b) quoted in the text. c) not mentioned in the text. 10.The statement a person who is naturalized is admitted to all the privileges and duties of citizenship is a) inferred from the text. b) not mentioned in the text. c) quoted in the text. 92 Marius Velica PARTNER

Module 10 Citizenship

Vocabulary
1. Fill in the text below with one word from the box. states is resides the without broadest of in however citizenship

In the U.S. the word citizen is used in its a) _______ sense. The same person may be, and usually b) _______, a citizen of the U.S. and of the state in which the person c) _______. Not all U.S. citizens are citizens of a state, d) _______; an inhabitant of the District e) _______ Columbia or of Puerto Rico, Guam, or f)_______ Virgin Islands is a citizen of the U.S. g) _______ being a citizen of one of the h) _______. In regard to i) _______ in the federal government and j) _______ the state of residence, the citizen owes first and highest allegiance to the state. 2. Choose the best item to fill in the gaps. A citizen of the U.S. may be 1._______ native-born or naturalized. By a congressional 2._______ of 1922 the citizenship of a married woman is no longer determined 3._______ that of her husband. A naturalized citizen is one who was 4._______ a subject of a foreign 5._______ but has become a citizen of 6._______ U.S. under the various acts of Congress 7._______ on that subject. A person who is naturalized is admitted 8._______ all the privileges and duties of citizenship, 9._______ naturalization automatically confers citizenship on the 10._______ minor children resident at the time in the U.S. 1. a) none 2. a) paper 3. a) on 4. a) originally 5. a) state 6. a) some 7. a) dealing 8. a) on 9. a) so 10. a) persons b) neither b) papers b) from b) naturally b) country b) a b) stating b) off b) and b) persons c) either c) acts c) in c) initially c) county c) the c) bearing c) against c) also c) person's d) some d) act d) about d) finally d) region d) an d) voting d) to d) but e) a e) file e) by e) only e) area e) e) ruling e) at e) or

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Module 10 Citizenship

3. Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition. a) I know youre busy but could you speak _______ him right now? b) If you dress like that everybody will laugh _______ you. c) Stop dreaming _______ the Bahamas; youll never get there. d) Who does this pen belong _______? e) If you save, you might succeed _______ buying some decent clothes. f) She believed _______ his lies and ran away with him. g) We believe it wont be long before you recover _______ hepatitis. h) Compared _______ what youve already told me, his story was clearly untrue. i) Id like to make a complain _______ the chef _______ the second course.

Grammar
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the corresponding passive forms. a) In Africa many animals are in danger of becoming extinct if they continue _______ (kill) for the skin. b) The Prime Minister _______ (not/see) since last Monday. c) In 1995 she _______ (tell) she was going to have twins. d) The computer _______ (can/not/repair). You need to replace it. e) Why _______ (I/ask) so many questions? Is this an interview? f) Wait a moment, sir. Your car _______ (just/ service). g) This story _______ (publish) in the newspaper tomorrow. h) I think the letter _______ (may/write) by Carol too. i) This chair _______ (must/use) by Henry its all dirty. j) She saw that the book _______ (return) two days before. 2. Rewrite the following passage in the passive. The Government made an important decision last week. The city councils everywhere will ban all heavy trucks from the centre of town as pollution is seriously affecting everybodys health. The city councilors will allow only bicycles and green buses to enter the town centre. They are making plans for a new traffic route in the town. The city dwellers have approved of the decision as they feel the authorities must do something before its too late. Begin like this: An important decision 94 Marius Velica PARTNER

Module 10 Citizenship

3. Rewrite the following sentences using causative structures. Model: Sally will have someone bring her the letter. Sally will have the letter brought to her. a) When will her car be serviced? b) The Director had asked Thomas to write some e-mails for him. c) We hired someone to fix the pipe in the bathroom. d) The Carsons used to pay a chef who cooked their meals. e) Samantha is going to tell someone to redecorate her office. f) The mechanic repaired our engine last month. g) Did you employ anyone to clean your basement? h) People hate others correcting their spelling mistakes. i) She could have asked someone to redo her hair. j) The machine was printing a document while the secretary was writing the minutes of the meeting. 4. Use HAVE / MAKE, or GET as given in the model and rephrase the following sentences. Model: She asked made had got him to write an e-mail. write (She insisted that he should write the e-mail.) write (She asked him to write the e-mail.) to write (She persuaded him to write the e-mail.)

a) She persuaded Jerry to let Thomas go. b) My balcony was cleaned last month. c) The professor asked Sammy to rewrite the essay. d) He finally managed to convince Diana to book rooms. e) The boss insisted that a new curtain should be fitted. f) Nobody insisted that he should pay for the briefcase. g) Ann persuaded the manager to pay her more. h) He finally found an artist to take his photo. i) They insisted we should have lunch together. j) Jones asked his wife to bake a big cake.

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Talking
1. In pairs read through the table below. Choose one of the following roles and follow the instructions. Then swap roles. Student A: You are an ex-senator. You complain about losing the elections and you try to find relevant explanations for the result of the ballot. Student B: You are the senators assistant. You try to encourage him/her and bring forth valid solutions to the issues he/she is coming up with. Expressing pessimism I knew I shouldnt have The awful thing is I could kick myself for I might just as well (go/have gone) I dont stand much chance of Trust me to (ironic) Just my luck to (ironic) Lets face it, (+negative remark) Ill never again! What have/had I done (wrong)? Expressing encouragement Have you ever thought of/about (+v-ing) ? Try (+ v-ing) Why dont you ? You could always You never know (+positive remark) Not necessarily (+positive remark) Its not that bad. Its not the end of the world. Cheer up. If the worst comes to the worst, Dont take it so hard! Hang on!

2. Choose the most polite expression from the list to suit each of the following difficult situations. 1)Someone invites you for a drink, but you dont want to go. 2)You want to end a conversation at a business reception. 3)Someone tells you that they are being made redundant. 4)You were supposed to meet someone at the airport, but you arrived late and couldnt find them. 5)You have a visitor in your office when you receive a highly confidential call. 96 Marius Velica PARTNER a) Im very sorry to hear that. b) Im afraid youll have to wait outside. This is private. c) That would be nice but Im afraid Im busy this evening. d) No thanks. e) When youve got to go, youve got to go! f) Im so sorry I missed you. Did you find a taxi? g) Just bad luck, Im afraid. h) Well, its been nice doing business with you. i) Im afraid I have to go now. Do excuse me. j) Would you excuse me for a few minutes? I have to take an important call.

Module 10 Citizenship

Home assignment
1. Prepare a 5-minute speech on one of the following topics. a) Emigration is the only solution to our economic problems. b) Behaving socially means wearing a mask. c) Youth rights does not equal human rights 2. Translate the following texts into Romanian. a) European citizenship European citizenship is interrelated with the Maastricht Treaty or Treaty on European Union, treaty that created the European Union (EU). The treaty was approved at Maastricht in The Netherlands by the heads of government of the 12 members of the European Community (EC) in December 1991 and was signed on February 7, 1992. The 12 nations were Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. The treaty reflected the intention of the EC nations to broaden the scale of monetary and eco nomic union and begin serious consideration of joint policies in regard to defense, citizenship, and the protection of the environment. Under the Maastricht Treaty, European citizenship was granted to citizens of each member state. Customs and immigration agreements were enhanced to allow European citizens greater freedom to live, work, or study in any of the member states, and border controls were relaxed. The treaty created joint foreign and monetary policies. It called for the eventual creation of a single currency, the European Currency Unit (ECU), and a central bank, which would coordinate the monetary policies of the central banks of the respective nations.
(Adapted from Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003)

b) Nationality vs. citizenship The concept of nationality in law refers to the condition or status of belonging to, or having legal identity with, a nation or state. In various political systems a distinction is made between nationality and citizenship; the latter represents a higher political status, usually involving rights to full participation in governmental affairs. Nationals were classed as citizens and noncitizens in ancient Greece and Rome, with citizens often forming a minority of the population; this distinction still prevails in some countries. Although the term national is not used in the U.S. Constitution, the law recognizes as nationals of the U.S. all citizens and certain groups of noncitizens who owe permanent allegiance to the U.S. The latter group includes persons born in an outlying U.S. possession, such as American Samoa.
(Adapted from Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003) Marius Velica PARTNER

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c) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen It is a revolutionary manifesto adopted on August 26, 1789, by the National Assembly of France and attached as the preamble to the new constitution of 1791. It was written principally by Abb (later Count) Emmanuel Sieys. The declaration enumerated a number of rights with which all men were held to be endowed and that were described as inalienable. In effect, this revolutionary pronouncement nullified the divine right of kings to rule, which was the age-old basis of French government. These inalienable rights included participation, through chosen representatives, in the making of laws; equality of all persons before the law; equitable taxation; protection against loss of property through arbitrary action by the state; freedom of religion, speech, and the press; and protection against arbitrary arrest and punishment. Historians are divided in their opinions on the political origins of the declaration. Some see in its revolutionary pronouncements the influence of the U.S. Declaration of Independence and the bills of rights of a number of state constitutions in the United States. Others trace the ideas embodied in the declaration to English principles of democratic rights. Still others interpret its strong emphasis on individual rights as an expression of the Calvinistic doctrine of freedom of conscience. A large body of opinion holds that the declaration was a product of the current of ideas known as the Age of Enlightenment and expounded by the French philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau in his Social Contract. Marxists regard it as a statement of the basic principles of the revolutions that brought feudalism to an end and established the capitalist system of society. The declaration had great influence on political thought and institutions. It was a model for most of the declarations of political and civil rights adopted by European states in the 19th century and for the bill of rights of the constitution of the Weimar Republic of Germany (1919-33).
(Adapted from Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003)

3. Choose one of the encyclopedic entries above and explain why you have chosen it and what the fragment refers to.

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Module 11 Ethics

Module 11.

Ethics

Starting up
1. In pairs, ask and answer the following questions. a) What does ethics mean to you? b) Can you give examples of unethical attitudes? c) Have you even behaved unethically d) What should be done in order to make the staff w ho work with the public behave more ethically? e) What would you do if you had the power to change anything? 2. Explain what the following words and phrases mean. a) launch b) straightforward c) recourse d) peers e) penalties f) sales associate g) hand out h) outside employment i) self-employment j) facilities 3. In pairs, enumerate the ingredients of good behaviour in the following occasions: a) in front of a counter where 13 people have been waiting for fifteen minutes; b) in front of the manager; c) among your fellow colleagues; d) with a possible contractor; e) at a business lunch.

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Module 11 Ethics

Reading
1. Fill the gaps in the text below (15) with the missing sentences (AF). One sentence does not belong to the text. Helping Employees Make Sound Ethical Decisions Many of our cities and counties have ethics laws that sit on their shelves. What are some ways to raise the ethical awareness of local government employees? 1) __________ In addition to giving all county employees a brochure of ethics facts, the county has also developed a series of brainteasers that it posts on its Web site. Written in a straightforward style, these documents provide descriptions of typical situations that employees face in their day-to-day work and offers advice on how to handle them in a professional and ethical way. Here are some excerpts from the countys brochure: Gifts. If a contractor or potential contractor attempts to give you gifts or money so that you will give them business, just say no. 2) __________. However, if a member of your professional society wants to give you an achievement award for excellence in your field, you can accept it graciously without fear of recourse. Hiring relatives. Your brother calls and asks you to use your contacts to get him a county job. 3) __________.You must not appoint, hire, or suggest the advancement of a relative for any position, especially if you will be supervising that relative. The next time you are faced with an ethical crisis, ask yourself the following questions: How will it affect my career, my future, my status in the community? Would I like my actions on the front page of a national newspaper? What would my peers think? What are the penalties if I break the rules? In March 2004 300 staff and executive leaders were invited to take part in an educational forum. 4) __________. After the leadership forum, the commission posted the interactive employee training (Brainteasers) on its Web site, along with the appropriate responses. Heres an example: The ethics commission has approved outside employment for Carol to work as a sales associate for a cosmetics company. She regularly hands out catalogues to fellow employees and often stops by to take orders or answer questions during her county work hours. She also spends considerable time sorting and distributing

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products to her fellow employees. Sometimes, she uses her lunchtime for this work, but she often conducts this business during regular work time. Does Celias conduct pose an ethics violation? Answer: Yes, youre right. 5) __________. Although her outside employment is approved, she is prohibited from conducting it during her county work time. The section of the ethics law that relates to the scenario quoted here also is included with the chapter Outside Employment (Code Reference: Sections 19A-12, 19A14). Hence, holding employment outside of your county job could pose a conflict of interest as well. For this reason, the ethics commission must approve all outside employment, including self-employment. Even for approved outside employment, the employee may not use county equipment, facilities, or time for that work.
(Adapted from http://www.icma.org/pm/8608/public/ethics.cfm)

A. In addition to the D. Celia is actively conducting her Brainteasers activity outside work during county and speakers, the work hours. forum provided time E. Prior to the event, the for a workshop-style commission staff e-mailed each activity. participant a series of ethics B. Sorry, youll have to questions based on particular tell him to go through scenarios. the regular channels F. The local authorities of a US because, by law, you county recently launched an cant help him. initiative to help employees C. Its against the law. understand the countys ethics law. 2. Choose the best fragment to complete each sentence. 1) There are some ways to raise 2)If a contractor or potential contractor attempts to give you gifts or money so that you will give them business, 3)You must not appoint, hire, or suggest the advancement 4)Unethical behaviour 5)If I break the rules, a) of a relative for any position. b) the penalties are serious. c) just say no. d) the ethical awareness of local government employees. e) will affect my career, my future, my status in the community.
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Vocabulary
1. Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition. a) I am not sure if she is acquainted _______ this new programme. b) Although he was not very bad _______ tennis, he was very bad _______ me w hen I missed the shot. c) Ive heard your story but I still cant believe she was capable _______ such thing! d) If Mary is worthy _______ the highest praise, give her a diploma. e) I felt uneasy _______ taking the money. f) We have received your documentation and we are thankful _______ you contracting so soon. g) I didnt know he quit after only two months. I thought he was used _______ working long hours. h) We are interested _______ arranging an interview at any time convenient for you. i) They divorced because she was always jealous _______ her husband. j) The rumour goes that he was always faithful _______ her, though. 2. Match the phrases given below with the right preposition: ON, IN, or AT. a) ____ that day b) ____ two hours from now c) ____ the weekend d) ____ the moment e) ____ the 21s t century g) ____ August 4 th h) ____ 1504 i) ____ that time j) ____ spring k) ____ Saturday night l) ____ Christmas Day m) ____ Easter Sunday n) ____ July o) ____ noon/dinner/breakfast q) ____ 3:15 r) ____ the morning/evening/ afternoon s) ____ Monday

f) ____ an autumn afternoon p) ____ Christmas / Easter

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3. Complete the gaps with the correct form of the following phrasal verbs. Two of the verbs must be put into the passive. come down turn down take over cheer up live off fall back on run out of put in for save up turn up MusicProd 1)_______ by AmSound International two months ago. Two thirds of the work force was made redundant, including Laras cousin, Sam. He 2)_______ several jobs since then but he 3)_______ every time. He thought of retraining, but he 4)_______ money to pay for courses. He has already spent all the money he 5)_______ to go on holiday and hes got no other money to 6)_______. Now he hopes that something 7)_______ soon otherwise he doesnt know what hell do. Its extremely difficult to 8)_______ social security. Lara offered to 9)_______ for a few days to 10)_______, but Sam has already told her he doesnt want to tell the family about his problems.

Grammar
1. Look at the bar chart and mark all the sentences which are both grammatically correct and describe the chart accurately.

80 60 40 20 0 A B C D

a) A had the highest sales. b) Sales of C were lower as B. c) Sales of D were the same like C. d) B had higher sales than C or D. e) Sales of A were twice as high as C.
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2. Study the table comparing three models of laptops. Then complete the sentences. Write ONE word in each gap.

Model A Number of features Price Weight 8 140 180 g

Model B 12 180 140 g

Model C 16 220 98 g

a) Model A is much _______ than model C. (weight) b) Model C has twice _______ _______ features as model A. c) Model A is _______ _______ _______ model B. (price) d) Model A is _______ _______ expensive. e) Model C is _______ _______. (weight) f) Model B is not _______ _______ _______ model C. (price) g) Model A has _______ features _______ model B. h) Model C is _______ _______ expensive. i) Model A is _______ _______ _______ model B. (price) j) Model C is _______ _______ _______ model A. (price) 3. Make compound adjectives to describe the following. a) a journey lasting two hours ___________________________ b) a hotel with three stars _______________________________ c) a bus journey that takes six hours _____________________ d) a contract that lasts five years _________________________ e) a manager who works hard ___________________________ f) a deal that is worth seven million dollars __________________________________________________ g) a document consisting of 300 pages __________________________________________________ h) a newspaper with 20 articles __________________________________________________ i) a letter which is written well ___________________________ j) a decision which has been disputed for a long time __________________________________________________

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4. Complete the sentences from the job advertisement below with the most appropriate intensifying adverb. Johnson International Inc. is a 1.__________-recognised brand and a leader in the world of cosmetics. They have a range of fantastic opportunities for sales and marketing executives who are 2.________ committed to achieving success. They are looking for bright, energetic, 3.__________ motivated individuals who want to work hard and earn the rewards they deserve. Candidates must be 4.__________ flexible and be prepared to travel at weekends as well as during the week. You must be a strong team player, 5.__________ imaginative and with excellent verbal communication skills. 1. a) very 2. a) quite 3. a) surely 4. a) superbly 5. a) absolutely b) fully b) totally b) fairly b) incredibly c) totally c) deeply d) globally e) entirely d) rather e) highly e) utterly

c) globally d) severely e) merely c) very d) increasingly

b) extremely c) thoroughly d) slightly e) lately

5. Fill in the gaps with adjectives in the suitable form. Last week Jennifer went into town to buy a birthday present for her a) __________ (old) brother. He is one of b) __________ (handsome) and c)__________ (funny ) men I know. He is also d) __________ (kind-hearted) person Ive ever met. e) __________ (bad) thing is that he has a f) __________ (quick) temper _________ me. Father says he could also be a bit g)__________ (tidy) he is. Anyway, the present Jennifer wanted to buy him had to be h) __________ (good) Jennifer could afford. Eventually, She came across i) __________ (beautiful) tie she had ever seen. It was j)__________ (wide) the ones he already had and much k)__________ ( simple). She decided to buy it at once.
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6. Fill in the gaps with adverbs in their comparative or superlative forms. When we arrived home that evening, three hours

a)____________ (late) usual, we found the children playin g much b) ____________ (quiet) normally. We were used to the children behaving much c) ____________ (noisy ) this. Jean, the youngest and the one who usually acted d) ____________ (naughty), was behaving e) ____________ (good) we had ever seen her do before. Mathew, the eldest, who usually stayed up f)____________ (late) the clan, had gone to bed g) ____________ (early) usual and the rest of the children were peacefully playing cards. It is true that our children are moody, but this was h) ____________ (odd) we had ever seen them acting. It was when we saw the neighbours bulldog, Fangs, watchfully posed in front of the TV that we realized why. Since then, weve had i) ____________ (quiet) and ____________ (wonderful) children in the whole world!

Talking
1. Use the functional language given below and make a speech to speculate on the image: the purpose of the object, size, location, material, author, etc. Speculating can / may / might / must be / could (well)be One can argue that One cannot rule out the idea of / possibility of look(s) as if / as though Who knows? You could say Judging by..., one could look(s)like Maybe / Perhaps

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2. It is extremely important not to offend your interlocutor in a telephone conversation. Look at the following variants and choose the phrases that are most appropriate in a telephone conversation? Mark all the acceptable ones in each set. 1. a) Matt Dobsons office. Good afternoon. b) Matt Dobsons office. Can I help you? c) Matt Dobsons office. What do you want? d) Matt Dobsons office. e) Matts office. 2. a) Could I speak to Matt Dobson, please? b) I must speak to Matt Dobson. c) Give me Matt Dobson. d) Can I speak with Matt Dobson, please? 3. a) Hes not here. b) Who are you? c) Sorry, you cant. d) Im afraid hes not in the office at the moment. e) Nope. 4. a) Hes in a meeting. b) Hes at a business lunch. c) Hes resting. d) Im afraid hes left the office already. 5. a) Oh, could I leave a message then please? b) Give him a message, will you? c) Would it be possible to give him a message? d) Well, could you ask him to call me back? 6. a) Certainly. b) Yes, thats no problem. c) Whats your message? d) Whats your name? e) Yes. Whos calling please?

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Home assignment
Look at the following advertisements and make comparisons using adjectives and adverbs from the list: heavy, few, big, effective, many, noisy, easy, adaptable,

light ,

cheap,

good,

modern,

small

Arial Super 203


50 best market price web connection silencer small enough to carry three-accessory set tough plastic casing weighs 150 g wide coverage different coats

Stylus Com 1192

Calisto Tel 449

78 unbeatable price 30 cant miss it web connection distinctive sound can fit into most pockets five-accessory set light plastic casing weighs 200 g wide coverage black and white games noise-reduction button can be kept in your bag two-accessory set fiberglass plastic casing weighs 300 g local coverage shades of grey

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Module 12 Click@net.com

Module 12.

Click@net.com

Starting up
1. In pairs, ask and answer the following questions. a) What does the title stand for? b) Where can you use the address? c) What are the advantages of using this type of message exchange? d) Are there any disadvantages? Discuss. e) What could be the next step in this technology? 2. Fill in the text below with words from the box. messages recipient inexpensive it application enables hard e-mail transfers login

Electronic mail, or a) _________, is a widely used Internet application that b) ________ individuals or groups of individuals to quickly exchange c) ________, even if the users are geographically separated by large distances. A user creates an email message and specifies a d) ________ using an e-mail address, which is a string consisting of the recipients e)________ name followed by an @ (at) sign and then a domain name. E-mail software f) ________ the message across the Internet to the recipients computer, where g) ________ is placed in the specified mailbox, a file on the h) ________ drive. The recipient uses an e-mail i) ________ to view and reply to the message, as well as to save or delete it. Because e-mail is a convenient and j)________ form of communication, it has dramatically improved personal and business communications. 3. Explain what the following words and phrases mean. a) computational b) database c) broadcasting d) overhead cost e) automated tax processing f) businesses g) remote sites h) to span a continent i) intranet j) inception
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Reading
Read the article and match each paragraph (A F) with the most appropriate heading from the list (1 7). One heading does not belong to the text. A. ______________________ The Internet is the computer-based global information system. The Internet is composed of many interconnected computer networks. Each network may link tens, hundreds, or even thousands of computers, enabling them to share information with one another and to share computational resources such as powerful supercomputers and databases of information. The Internet has made it possible for people all over the world to effectively and inexpensively communicate with one another. Unlike traditional broadcasting media, such as radio and television, the Internet does not have a centralized distribution system. Instead, an individual who has Internet access can communicate directly with anyone else on the Internet, make information available to others, find information provided by others, or sell products with a minimum overhead cost. B. ______________________ The Internet has brought new opportunities to government, business, and education. Governments use the Internet for internal communication, distribution of information, and automated tax processing. In addition to offering goods and services online to customers, businesses use the Internet to interact with other businesses. Many individuals use the Internet for shopping, paying bills, and online banking. Educational institutions use the Internet for research and to deliver courses to students at remote sites. C. ______________________ The Internets success arises from its flexibility. Instead of restricting component networks to a particular manufacturer or particular type, Internet technology allows interconnection of any kind of computer network. No network is too large or too small, too fast or too slow to be interconnected. Thus, the Internet includes inexpensive networks that can only connect a few computers within a single room as well as expensive networks that can span a continent and connect thousands of computers. D. ______________________ Internet service providers (ISPs) provide Internet access to customers for a monthly fee. A customer who subscribes to an ISPs service uses the ISPs network to access the Internet. Because ISPs offer their services to the general

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public, the networks they operate are known as public 45 access networks. In the United States, as in many countries, ISPs are private companies; in countries where telephone service is a government-regulated monopoly, the government often controls ISPs. E. ______________________ 50 An organization that has many computers usually owns and operates a private network, called an intranet, which connects all the computers within the organization. To provide Internet service, the organization connects its intranet to the Internet. Unlike public access networks, 55 intranets are restricted to provide security. Only authorized computers at the organization can connect to the intranet, and the organization restricts communication between the intranet and the global Internet. The restrictions allow computers inside the organization to exchange information 60 but keep the information confidential and protected from outsiders. F. ______________________ The Internet has grown tremendously since its inception, doubling in size every 9 to 14 months. In 1981 only 213 65 computers were connected to the Internet. By 2000 the number had grown to more than 100 million. The current number of people who use the Internet can only be estimated. One survey found that there were 61 million Internet users worldwide at the end of 1996, 148 million at 70 the end of 1998, and 407 million by the end of 2000. Some analysts estimate that the number of users will double again by the end of 2002.
(Adapted from Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003)

Headlines: 1. Intranets 2. ISPs 3. Internet costs 4. Introduction 5. Advantages, no disadvantages 6. Estima tes 7. Internet uses

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Vocabulary
1. Fill in the gaps with the correct preposition. a) Im sorry I cant make it tonight. Im _________ the schedule. b) He started _________ scratch, hell help you make a plan. c) Sheila broke the vase _________ mistake. d) If you are _________ need of money, go _________ strike. e) Your father is _________ good health, he can work _________ dawn _________ dusk. f) We started _________ dawn __________ foot and walked for three miles. g) _________ her breath she told me Deanna didnt come _________ invitation. h) Good morning, Mr. Adams. Are you here _________ appointment? i) I am writing _________ behalf of Ms. Leigh. j) He was thrilled _________ the prospect of moving to a bigger office. 2. Underline the correct preposition. a) The two teams had decided to meet on the hill over / above the town. b) When I saw her, the kitten was moving quietly on top of / along the fence. c) Dont put the ladder against / over the wall. d) We parked the car near the Central Park and walked past / in front of the City Hall. e) Trying to buy some time, they had to go through / across the cemetery. f) We were sitting on top of / along the cliffs when the storm started. g) She got out of / onto the bus and ran at / to me. h) She stood at / in the gate for a while, then walked away from/ towards it. i) The dog jumped onto / on the bed, and lay there. j) Put the money in / into the front pocket, otherwise somebody will steal it.

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3. Fill in each gap with the correct form of the verb combinations in the box. keep away from run away with cut back on put up with look out for go up go through with stand up against make it up to be through with look out on to a) Do you think shell _____________ the noise? b) Dont call me again. I _____________ you! c) Its Jack who _____________ the inspector. d) They stole the money and _____________ it. e) Youll have to _____________ her one of these days. f) My room _____________ the garden. g) _______________ mistakes, the project is very important. h) We know its difficult, but try to _____________ the translation. i) _____________ those wires! j) Well have to ____________ coffee, the prices____________.

Grammar
1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. a) She is not a millionaire, but she spends money as if she _______ (be). Its time she _______ (spend) money more rationally. b) He didnt win a prize, but he looks as if he _______ ( win) one. c) I wish I _______ (buy) more paper for my printer. d) It started to rain, and we wished we _______ (not / go) for such a long walk. e) I wish you _______ (drive ) more carefully. f) Danny wishes he _______ ( oversleep) yesterday. g) Id rather _______ (work) home than _______ (sit) at this office desk. h) She would prefer _______ ( type) the letter rather than _______ (handwrite) it. i) Id better _______ (keep) my mouth shut this time, but Id rather you _______ (not / tell) me anything. j) If only you _______ (stop) talking for a second! You talk as though I _______ (not / be) in the room for the last half hour.
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2. Read what Trevor says, then write what he wishes as in the model. I drink all the time. I started when I lost my job. I couldnt work so many extra hours so they fired me. I should have worked more hours but I chose to play computer games instead and I regret it. Now I am living with my mother. I could have rented an apartment. Im going to end here with nobody to love me. I have no friends. I feel so lonely. I think its time I already left the place and headed on. Model: I wish I would stop drinking all the time. a) __________________________________________________ b) __________________________________________________ c) __________________________________________________ d) __________________________________________________ e) __________________________________________________ f) __________________________________________________ g) __________________________________________________ h) __________________________________________________ i) __________________________________________________ j) __________________________________________________ 3. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate auxiliary verb. a. Mike hasnt got a scanner but he wishes he _____. b. We dont have a big house but we wish we _____. c. Larry cant afford to buy a large car but he wishes he _____. d. Sally cant pay for a villa in the countryside but she wishes she _____. e. They didnt buy the vacuum cleaner but they wished they _____ bought it. f. Im not going to Paris but I wish I _____. g. Helen is not very tall but she wishes she _____. h. They have ten neighbours but they wish they _____ fewer. i. He probably wont live in that house for ever but I wish he _____. j. We didnt visit the estate but we wish we _____ done so. 114 Marius Velica PARTNER

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Talking
In pairs, read through the tables given below and dialogue for about five minutes on the following topics. a) The Internet Blessing or Curse? b) To Surf or Not to Surf the Internet. c) An Antivirus a Day Keeps the WinDoctor away. d) Foxes, Autocads, and Windows. Asking for opinion What do you think? Whats your opinion? Would you agree with? Would you comment on? What are your views on? What/How about you? Any opinions/comments? What do you say? Giving your opinion In my opinion/view To my mind If you ask me, To be (quite) honest Id like to say that What Id like to add is Personally, I should say As far as Im concerned Generally speaking,

Home assignment
1. Write a text of 150 words to explain what the image below shows, and how the components of the system are combined. You may use the caption below the image, but you cannot copy the exact wording or sentence arrangement in the fragment.

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Module 12 Click@net.com Internet Topology Connecting individual computers to each other creates networks. The Internet is a series of interconnected networks. Personal computers and workstations are connected to a Local Area Network (LAN) by either a dial-up connection through a modem and standard phone line or by being directly wired into the LAN. Other modes of data transmission that allow for connection to a network include T-1 connections and dedicated lines. Bridges and hubs link multiple networks to each other. Routers transmit data through networks and determine the best path of transmission. (From Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003)

2. Translate the following article into Romanian. From its inception in the 1970s until the late 1980s the Internet was a U.S. government-funded communication and research tool restricted almost exclusively to academic and military uses. As government restrictions were lifted in the early 1990s, the Internet became commercial. In 1995 the World Wide Web (WWW) replaced file transfer as the application used for most Internet traffic. The difference between the Internet and the Web is similar to the distinction between a highway system and a package delivery service that uses the highways to move cargo from one city to another: The Internet is the highway system over which Web traffic and traffic from other applications move. The Web consists of programs running on many computers that allow a user to find and display multimedia documents (documents that contain a combination of text, photographs, graphics, audio, and video). Many analysts attribute the explosion in use and popularity of the Internet to the visual nature of Web documents. By the end of 2000, Web traffic dominated the Internetmore than 80 percent of all traffic on the Internet came from the Web. Companies, individuals, and institutions use the Internet in many ways. Companies use the Internet for electronic commerce, also called e -commerce, including advertising, selling, buying, distributing products, and providing customer service. In addition, companies use the Internet for business-to-business transactions, such as exchanging financial information and accessing complex databases. Businesses and institutions use the Internet for voice and video conferencing and other forms of communication that enable people to telecommute (work away from the office using a computer). The use of electronic mail (e-mail) speeds communication between companies, among coworkers, and among other individuals. Media and entertainment companies use the Internet for online news and weather services and to broadcast audio and video, including live radio and television programs. Online chat allows people to carry on discussions using written text. Scientists and scholars use the Internet to communicate with colleagues, perform research, distribute lecture notes and course materials to students, and publish papers and articles. Individuals use the Internet for communication, entertainment, finding information, and buying and selling goods and services.
(From Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003)

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Exam practice 2

Exam practice 2
Section A: 40 items. Each answer is worth 1p. Choose the best answer. 1. _____ envelopes are manufactured in Finland. a) Finnish a) Dutch a) Pole a) Sweden b) Finish c) Finland d) Finns e) Finn e) Dutch e) Poland e) Swedish e) The Swisses e) with e) to 2. _____ live in the Netherlands. b) Dutches c) The Dutch b) Poles b) Swedes c) Polonia c) Swed c) Swiss c) in c) of d) Holland d) Polen d) Swede d) Swis d) out d) about 3. A Pole is a citizen of _____. 4. _____ is where the Swedes live. 5. _____ live in Switzerland. a) The Swiss b) Swisses a) of a) on b) on b) in 6. There has been a rise _____ the number of applications. 7. It took a long time to find a solution _____ the problem. 8. We can subcontract. This way we could avoid employing unqualified staff, Mike said. a) Mike told he could subcontract, and added that way they could avoid employing unqualified staff. b) Mike said they could subcontract, and added that that way they could avoid employing unqualified staff. c) Mike said they can subcontract, and added that that way they can avoid employing unqualified staff. d) Mike said they could subcontract, and added that way they could avoid to employ unqualified staff. e) Mike said they could have subcontracted, and added that way they could avoid employing unqualified staff. 9. You must keep a record _____ all bank transfers. a) in b) with c) on d) of e) off

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10. She _____ everybody in the office that Human Resources _____ to present a report as soon as possible. a) tell, had been asked c) told, had been asked e) will tell, had been asked 11. The number of employees has been reduced, so we are understaffed, the Director-General said. a) The Director-General told that the number of employees has been reduced, so they were understaffed. b) The Director-General said that the number of employees has been reduced, so they are understaffed. c) The Director-General said that the number of employees is reduced, so they were understaffed. d) The Director-General said that the number of employees have been reduced, so they had been understaffed. e) The Director-General said that the number of employees had been reduced, so they were understaffed. 12. We organized interviews last month too, and the results are not satisfactory, Diana said. a) Diana said that the company organized interviews the previous month too, and the results are not satisfactory. b) Diana said that the company had organized interviews the previous month too, and the results were not satisfactory. c) Diana told that the company had organized interviews the previous month too, and the results were not satisfactory. d) Diana said that the company has organized interviews the previous month too, and the results had not been satisfactory. e) Diana said that the company had organized interviews the next month too, and the results are not satisfactory. 13. If you __________ (be) free on Tuesday, perhaps you __________ (like ) to take part in the general meeting? a) are, would like d) are, like b) were, like c) would be, like e) would be, would like b) told, have been asked d) told, are asked

14. If we did more market research, we __________ (find out ) that no one needs this kind of social service any more. a) find out d) will find out b) would found out e) have found out c) would find out

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15. If we do more market research, we __________ (find out ) that no one needs this kind of social service any more. a) had found out b) will find out c) would have found out d) have found out e) found out 16. If you __________ (call) me tomorrow, I __________ (have) the answer to your query. a) called, will have d) call, have b) call, will have c) call, would have e) had called, would have

17. Some of the shareholders are threatening to sale their stocks unless we __________ (pay) them $2 million in dividends. a) payed b) paid c) would pay d) dont pay e) pay 18. If we paid the shareholders, there __________ (be) much money left for future investments. a) wouldnt be a) As b) If b) are c) will be d) was e) can be e) When 19. ______ you pay within a week, we will cancel all deliveries. c) Unless d) Because 20. A citizen of the U.S. may be ________ native-born or naturalized. a) or a) bear a) on a) off a) from Monday. a) hadnt been seen c) wasnt seen b) hasnt been seen d) saw e) wont be seen b) neither b) carry b) of b) from b) to c) any c) deal c) over c) in c) on d) a d) write d) at d) of d) over e) either e) read e) with e) to e) up 21. Various acts of Congress _______ on this subject. 22. If she dresses like that, everybody will laugh _______ her. 23. Who does this pen belong _______? 24. It wont be long before he recovers _______ mumps. 25. It is said that the Queen _________ (not/see) since last

26. We are sure that this story _______ (publish) in the newspaper tomorrow. a) was published d) will be published b) publish e) is publish
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c) can publish

Exam practice 2

27. She saw that the book _______ (return) two days before. a) had been returned d) was returned a) couldnt be returned c) cannot be repaired e) can be not repaired 29. We _____ one of the pipes in the bathroom _____ two days ago. a) have, fixed d) had, fix a) had, clean d) do, clean a) make, rewrite d) makes, rewrote a) of a) of a) in a) to a) at b) in b) to b) to b) for b) in b) had, fixed e) had, fixing b) had, cleaned e) make, clean b) made, rewrote e) made, rewrite c) to c) over c) for c) with c) on d) for d) about d) on d) about d) to e) at e) on e) of e) on e) off c) makes, rewrite c) have, cleaned c) have, fix b) had returned e) has been returned b) can be repaired d) can not be repaired c) returned

28. The CD player _______ (can/not/repair) today.

30. Did you _____ your attic _____?

31. The professor _____ Paula _____ the essay last Monday.

32. We still cant believe he was capable _______ such thing! 33. She felt uneasy _______ taking the euros. 34. I thought he was used _______ working long hours. 35. She was always faithful _______ her principles. 36. What are you doing ____ the weekend? 37. The scorching temperatures made everyone take days off ____ July. a) around a) in a) as b) when b) over b) at c) while c) on c) in d) in d) at d) on e) on e) to e) when 38. Send the mail ______ 16 February. 39. Lets meet ____ noon.

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Exam practice 2

40. What else can you do ____ an autumn afternoon? a) in b) of c) unless d) because e) on

Section B: 30 items. Each answer is worth 2p. 41. He _______ several jobs since August. a) has putted in d) had put in a) have run out of d) have ran out of a) leave off b) leave of b) has put in e) has put on b) had run out of e) have run of out c) live of d) live off b) higher, than e) the highest b) bad like e) worse than b) larger as e) larger c) not as d) not so e) lest c) large like c) worst than e) leave in c) run out c) put in

42. We _______ money to pay for gas.

43. Its extremely difficult to _______ social security. 44. Their firm had _____ sales _____ ours. a) higher, then d) higher, as a) bad than d) worst then a) as large as d) not large like a) as b) the more c) high, as

45. Our services were ______ theirs.

46. My apartment is ______ hers.

47. Her car is ______ expensive. 48. A contract that lasts five years is a _______________. a) five years contract d) fiveyears contract a) wellwritten letter b) fiveyear contract c) five-year contract e) five-years contract b) well-written letter c) well written letter

49. A letter which is written well is a _____________________. d) good-written letter e) badly-written letter 50. A decision which has been disputed for a long time is a ___. a) longdisputed decision c) longly disputed decision e) long disputed-decision
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b) long-disputed decision d) longer disputed decision

Exam practice 2

51. We had gone to bed ____________ (early) usual. a) earlyer than d) more early than a) tidier than d) tidier then a) further than d) further then a) the worse a) beyond b) earlier then e) early then b) tidyer than e) tidder than b) farther then e) father than b) the better b) by c) the best d) best e) beter e) behind c) farther than c) tydi than c) early than

52. He could also be a bit __________ (tidy) he is.

53. It was __________ (far) the places he already visited.

54. Tommy behaved ____________ (good). 55. Im _________ the schedule. c) between d) below 56. Good morning, Mr. Simms. Are you here _________ appointment? a) as a) as a) put up with d) be put up with a) Keep from away d) Look away from a) will spend b) with b) in c) in c) on b) put with up e) put up in b) Keep from e) Do away from c) has spend d) spend e) spent c) Kept away from d) by d) with e) on e) at 57. I am writing _________ behalf of Ms. Leigh. 58. Do you think shell _____________ the noise? c) puts up with

59. _____________ those wires!

60. Its time she _______ (spend) money more rationally. b) spended 61. It started to rain, and we wished we _______ (not / go) for such a long walk. a) hadnt gone d) had gone not b) had gone e) didnt went c) havent gone

62. Id rather you _______ (tell) me the truth when we met the other week. a) told b) tell c) had told d) should tell e) may tell

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Exam practice 2

63. If only you _______ (take) greater care of the car! a) will take d) should take b) would take e) can take c) shall take

64. You were talking as though I _______ (not / be) in the room for the last half hour. a) havent been d) wasnt being a) can a) were a) might b) did b) did b) could b) wasnt e) hadnt been c) does c) had c) have d) had d) will d) will e) has e) may e) had c) werent

65. Robert hasnt got a computer but he wishes he _____. 66. Im not going to Paris but I wish I _____. 67. We didnt visit the estate but we wish we _____ done so. 68. I spoke to her so rudely. a) I wish I hadnt spoken to her like that. b) I wish I didnt spoken to her like that. c) I wish I hadnt speak to her like that. d) I wish I had spoken to her like that. e) I wish I hadnt spoke to her like that. 69. Id rather _______ (work) home than _______ ( sit) at this office desk. a) to work, sit d) to work, to sit b) work, sit e) working, sitting c) work, to sit

70. She would prefer _______ (type) the letter rather than _______ (handwrite) it. a) to type, to handwrite c) type, to handwrite e) typing, handwriting Section A: 40 items 40 points Section B: 30 items 60 points Total amount of points = 100 b) type, handwrite d) to type, handwrite

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Key

Key
Module 1 Reading 1. d); 2. c); 3. a); 4. b); 5. c); 6. b); 7. c); 8. c); 9. a); 10. a). Vocabulary 1. a) emphasis; b) grammar; c) overlooked; d) argue; e) able; f) recognize; g) to; h) structures; i) done; j) interdependence. 2. a) grammatical; b) distinctions; c) nonstandard; d) geographical; e) problematic; f) boundaries; g) researchers; h) criteria; i) media; j) largely. Grammar 1. a) wives; b) tomatoes; c) torches; d) halves; e) days; f) media; g) countries; h) brushes; i) buses; j) chiefs; k) potatoes; l) books; m) tobaccos ; n) studies; o) safes; p) roofs; q) cargoes; r) shelves; s) criteria; t) lives; u) phenomena; v) crises; w) analyses; x) toys; y) series; z) ladies. 2. a) fathers-in-law; b) frying pans; c) painkillers; d) godmothers; e) taxi-drivers; f) pen-pals; g) passers-by; h) pillowcases; i) headaches; j) takeovers. 3. Singular form Plural form man men woman women child children tooth teeth foot feet goose geese ox oxen mouse mice louse lice 4. a) a piece of; b) a glass/bottle of; c) a speck of; d) a jar of; e) a rasher of; f) a kilo/pound of; g) a slice/loaf of; h) a tube of; i) a(n) item/piece of; j) a pair of; k) a stroke of. 5. a) is; b) is; c) is; d) is; e) are; f) is; g) is; h) is; i) are; j) is; k) was; l) are; m) are; n) is; o) are. 6. a) was; b) is; c) were; d) are; e) is/are; f) is; g) is; h) is; i) is; j) is; k) are; l) is; m) is; n) is; o) is/are; p) is/are; q) was; r) are; s) are; t) was. Talking 1. A 124 Marius Velica PARTNER

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2. B 3. 1 c; 2 d; 3 e; 4 j; 5 a; 6 b; 7 i; 8 g; 9 h; 10 f. Module 2 Reading 1. 1) C; 2) F; 3) D; 4) E; 5) A; fragment B does not belong to the text. Vocabulary 1. a) 6); b) 13); c) 15); d) 1); e) 7); f) 14); g) 8); h) 10); i) 2); j) 16); k) 3); l) 9); m) 4); n) 11); o) 17); p) 12); q) 5). 2. a) make, do; b) did/had done, had made; c) do; d) make; e) do/have done; f) make; g) Do, will make; h) did/does/is doing/will do; i) is doing; j) have made; k) make; l) do; m) do; n) make; o) make. 3. a) make; b) Make; c) take; d) put; e) do; f) did; g) doing; h) Take; i) puts; j) takes. Grammar 1. a) the; b) a; c) The; d) -; e) -; f) the; g) -; h) the. 2. a) Some, no; b) some; c) any; d) some, any; e) some. 3. a) fish; b) The fish; c) lunch; d) The lunch; e) ice; f) Ice; g) The Guardian / the UK; h) literature; i) Chinese food, duck; j) The Queen, Buckingham Palace; k) The Duke of Essex, the Queen; l) The White House; m) Regents Park; n) university; o) The Netherlands, the Championship. 4. a) the; b) the; c) the; d) -; e) -; f) -; g) the; h) -; i) the; j) -; k) the; l) -; m) the; n) -; o) -; p) -; q) -; r) the; s) -; t) -. 5. a) something; b) someone; c) Some; d) anyone; e) anything; f) No one; g) someone; h) something; i) nothing; j) no one. 6. a) plenty of; b) none of; c) hardly anything; d) some; e) little; f) enough; g) much; h) no; i) any; j) Many. 7. a) a few, little; b) few, a little; c) little, few; d) a little, a few; e) a few, a few, a little; f) little; g) a little, a few; h) few; i) little, a few; j) a few. Talking 1. 1.e); 2.c); 3.a); 4.b); 5.d). 2. 1.c); 2.e); 3.j); 4.i); 5.a); 6.h); 7.d); 8.b); 9.g); 10.f). Module 3 Reading 1. a; 2. a; 3 c; 4 b; 5 c; 6 a; 7 b; 8 a; 9 b. Vocabulary 1. a) reliable; b) quiet; c) hard-working; d) laid-back; e) extrovert; f) popular; g) talented; h) ambitious; i) unpredictable. 2. a) competitors; b) agreement; c) economic; d) product; e) organization; f) passionate; g) irrelevant; h) overcome;
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i) straighten; j) sendee / sender. 3. 1.c); 2.j); 3.f); 4.h); 5.b); 6.g); 7.a); 8.i); 9.e); 10.d) Grammar 1. a) is writing; b) has been working; c) sends; d) needs; e) wants; f) has bought; g) has been searching; h) are; i) has found; j) needs; k) is picking up; l) is dialing; m) feels; n) is going; o) has been working; p) has drunk; q) has always been; r) smells; s) tastes; t) is still thinking. 2. a) is thinking, think; b) is being, looks; c) are weighing, weigh; d) is appearing, appears; e) are smelling, smells; f) am seeing, dont see / see; g) feels, am feeling; h) has, am not having, have; i) dont understand, is tasting, tastes; j) agree, realize. 3. a) am writing; b) join; c) are; d) have recently received; e) have been trying; f) live; g) work; h) have already complained; i) have already started; j) (have) persuaded; k) are using; l) have been doing. 4. a) within the next few years; b) shortly; c) at last; d) lately; e) by 2020; f) one day. 5. a) their/its; b) they; c) their; d) its; e) they; f) our; g) it. Home assignment 1. Decentralising public services and consolidating local administrative and financial autonomy will be achieved through: - accelerating the process of decentralising public services; the management and financing of certain activities will be taken over by local administration authorities - district and local councils; - transferring certain activities concerning public services destined to local communities (education, public health, community police, fire-fighters, civil guard), together with the respective funds from the state budget in the responsibility of the local public authorities; - resettling on more equitable bases local taxes, which must become the main source of revenue for local budgets; - amending the Law of Local Public Finance so that finance sources be provided for the normal functioning of public services at the level of each local community; creating the necessary premises so that sound local budget be structured and adopted, capable of insuring the financing of activities of community interest. Module 4 Starting up 2. a) 1, 3; b) 6; c) 4; d) 8; e) 7; f) 2, 5; g) 3. Reading 1. b, d; 2 b, d; 3 a, c and e. Vocabulary 1. A. d); B. a); C. c); D. b); E. d); F. e); G. e); H. a); I. b); J. d). 126 Marius Velica PARTNER

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2. a) for, in; b) on; c) with; d) from; e) about; f) at; g) at; h) of; i) on; j) about. 3. 1.d); 2.c); 3.e); 4.f); 5.b); 6.a). Grammar 1. a) was; b) have been; c) has risen; d) cost; e) were; f) conducted; g) showed; h) have increased; i) have targeted; j) has not increased. 2. 1) was just leaving; 2) havent received; 3) promised; 4) (has) happened; 5) didnt know; 6) had happened; 7) was carrying; 8) had had; 9) was waiting; 10) will take / may take. 3. b) Did you lock?; c) Where did you go ?; d) When did you return ?; e) What did you see ?; f) How did you know ?; g) When did you call ?; h) Did you speak ?; i) Why did the burglars choose ?; j) What did they steal? Talking 2. Computer Networking Networks are connections between groups of computers and associated devices that allow users to transfer information electronically. The local area network shown on the left is representative of the setup used in many offices and companies. Individual computers, called work stations (W.S.), communicate to each other via cable or telephone line linking to servers. Servers are computers exactly like the W.S., except that they have an administrative function and are devoted entirely to monitoring and controlling W.S. access to part or all of the network and to any shared resources (such as printers). The red line represents the larger network connection between servers, called the backbone; the blue line shows local connections. A modem (modulator/demodulator) allows computers to transfer information across standard telephone lines. Modems convert digital signals into analog signals and back again, making it possible for computers to communicate, or network, across thousands of miles. (Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003) Home assignment 2. 1) job; 2) Galati University; 3) an; 4) Recently; 5) six-month; 6) to live; 7) to work; 8) marry; 9) lives; 10) for; 11) am; 12) do; 13) for me to come; 14) Yours faithfully. Module 5 Starting up 2. a) government; b) self-government; c) boroughs; d) dates; e) onwards; f) civic; g) throughout; h) local; i) parish; j) Law. Reading 1. 1) F; 2) E; 3) D; 4) C; 5) A; 6) B 2. b, d.
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3. a) European Institute for Public Administration; b) It serves public management and public administrations in their adaptation to the European integration process; c) It trains European public officials; d) The European dimension is the raison d'tre of the Institute in its main objective of providing training to civil services; e) The European Union admitted 10 new members in 2004; f) Both the national and the regional level; g) The Institute is without equal in its capacity to fuel increasingly diversified and specialised training through its own research potential , to organise activities in a multinational environment, said the Director-General; h) The European Institute of Public Administration will best meet the demand for quality required in the services it supplies by combining this partnership approach with all the characteristics that have made it unique from the beginning. Vocabulary 1. a) upgraded; b) outvoted; c) under-subscribed; d) overcharging; e) offset. 2. a) repeat; b) complained; c) survey; d) responsible; e) consortium; f) (mass)media; g) power; h) take; i) community; j) councils; k) local; l) taxes. 3. 1) h; 2) f; 3) a; 4) i; 5) d; 6) b; 7) g; 8) j; 9) c; 10) e. Grammar 1. 1. b, c; 2. a; 3. a; 4. b; 5. a, c; 6. b; 7. a; 8. b; 9. b, c; 10. b; 11. a; 12. a, c; 13. b; 14. a; 15. b, c. 3. a) did we realise we hadnt mailed the letters; b) only for its services is the company famous, it is famous for its products as well; c) can you leave the office today; d) should you enter the conference room; e) too late did the policemen see the burglar; f) the main hall is open will Thomas take photos of it; g) no circumstances could the secretary have been more superficial; h) was neither impressive nor old; i) have we ever heard such enchanting chorus music; j) is this computer used; k) did Mike know what to do first; l) before had we contracted this firm. Talking Structure of the European Union: this illustration shows the major governing bodies of the European Union (EU) and how they are related to each other; the EU is built around three areas of cooperation among member states; these areas are often called pillars; two of the pillars, Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) and Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), are based primarily on voluntary cooperation among member governments; the third pillar is the European Community (EC), which includes the major governing bodies of the EU; the decisions of these bodies are binding over the member states.
(Adapted from Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2003)

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Module 6 Starting up 1. a) 6; b) 9; c) 12; d) 5; e) 14; f) 7; g) 4; h) 8; i) 15; j) 10; k) 3; l) 11; m) 2; n) 13; o) 1. 2. a) prag electoral; b) a vota; c) primar; d) referendum; e) grupare / aripa de stnga / dreapta ; f) opozitie; g) majoritate; h) a candida pentru Parlament; i) ideologie; j) a alege; k) politica / program politic; l) camera; m) candidat; n) Cabinet; o) circumscriptie electorala. Reading A. 1. F; 2. F; 3. T; 4. F; 5. C; 6. T; 7. C; 8. F; 9. T; 10. T. B. e). Vocabulary 1. a) councillors; b) unit; c) independent; d) for; e) aim; f) authority; g) per; h) county; i) voters; j) wards. 2. 1) d ; 2) b ; 3) c ; 4) d ; 5) c ; 6) a ; 7) a; 8) a; 9) c. 3. a) unnecessary; b) never; c) legal; d) national / general; e) lose. Grammar 1. a) could have; b) may / might; c) might have; d) should be / ought to be / should have been / ought to have been); e) cant be / couldnt be; f) cant have / couldnt have; g) must have; h) might have / could have / should have / ought to have told. 2. a) should / ought to be treated; b) must / have to / are to comply; c) neednt / dont have to / dont need to dress; d) could / should / ought to have asked; e) may / might / could be; f) cant / couldnt be; g) may / might be writing; h) is allowed to / is permitted to / may / can enter; i) cant have been sent; j) should be able to pass. 3. 1) havent been able to / couldnt; 2) need to / have to; 3) couldnt; 4) must have; 5) can / could; 6) neednt have; 7) can / could; 8) cant; 9) didnt need to; 10) Shall; 11) Would; 12) dont have to / dont need to / neednt; 13) must; 14) must; 15) should / ought to. Module 7 Starting up 3. a) providing; b) for; c) although; d) only; e) statute; f) service; g) by; h) illegally; i) other; j) cost-effectively. Reading 1. IV; 2. V; 3. I; 4. II; 5. III. Vocabulary 1. a) spend; b) exchange; c) answer; d) get to; e) get through; f) become; g) network; h) build up; i) feel; j) make.
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2. a) 5; b) 2; c) 8; d) 3; e) 4; f) 9; g) 1; h) 7; i) 6; j) 10. 3. a) talk it over; b) try it out; c) gone off it; d) call it off; e) give it up; f) look into it; g) get over it; h) turn it down; i) look after it; j) work it out. Grammar 1. a) to come; b) to be getting; c) to be working; d) to see; e) to have typed; f) to have passed; g) to have; h) to have been taking; i) to have started; j) To be honest. 2. a) calling; b) to call; c) going; d) telling; e) to hear; f) to mail; g) to come; h) to solve/meet; i) drinking/drinking; j) to inform; k) informing; l) cleaning; m) to have; n) to cope; o) to wake; p) to find; q) moving; r) working; s) to join. 3. 1) to get; 2) to find; 3) to be; 4) going; 5) to have; 6) to say; 7) to make; 8) bleeding; 9) to try; 10) going; 11) to improve; 12) being taught; 13) trying; 14) to find; 15) staying. 4. a) Whose coat is this?; b) Who lives in the centre of the town?; c) Where do we live?; d) How was Susan travelling that day?; e) How long has he been working here?; f) Why couldnt I/you come?; g) What did she look like / was she like that evening?; h) How often do we eat pizza in this restaurant?; i) Where has he gone?; j) Who was the textbook written by? 5. a) she is going to tell us the whole story; b) there are any vacancies left; c) you saw the Director General; d) what make your car is; e) subsidiary means; f) he had bought the house when he got married; g) I am going to be late; h) you have taken any days off; i) how old your daughters are; j) he is planning to move house. 6. a) arent you; b) hasnt he; c) didnt we; d) were they; e) could she; f) dont they; g) did they; h) wasnt there; i) arent I; j) didnt he; k) isnt it; l) hasnt he; m) will you; n) shall we; o) was there. Home assignment

1.

CAPITOLUL IX. REFORMA ADMINISTRATIEI PUBLICE CENTRALE SI LOCALE. DEZVOLTAREA REGIONALA. 9.1. Reforma administratiei publice centrale si locale Programul guvernamental abordeaza frontal accelerarea reformei administratiei publice centrale si locale, pornind de la evaluarea critica a Comisiei Europene a situatiei actuale din acest domeniu. In acest cadru, Programul urmareste realizarea criteriilor de aderare la Uniunea Europeana, demonstrand ca Romania isi poate intari treptat capacitatea administrativa de a face fata obligatiilor care ii revin in calitate de viitor stat membru. Programul de guvernare privind administratia publica centrala si locala are la baza urmatoarele obiective fundamentale: restructurarea profunda a administratiei publice centrale si 130 Marius Velica PARTNER

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locale; schimbarea de fond a raportului dintre administratie si cetatean; descentralizarea serviciilor publice si consolidarea autonomiei administrative si financiare; demilitarizarea treptata a unor servicii comunitare; depolitizarea structurilor administratiei publice; eliminarea clientelismului politic; stoparea birocratiei; coerenta actului administrativ; perfectionarea manage-mentului in administratie; aplicarea unor politici rationale de dezvoltare si modernizare a localitatilor rurale si urbane; intarirea autoritatii statului si a raspunderii acestuia; armonizarea cadrului legislativ cu reglementarile din Uniunea Europeana; asigurarea coerentei si stabilitatii acestuia. 2. 9.1.1. A profound restructuring in central and local public administration. [] The restructuring of the central and local public administration will be achieved mainly through: restructuring of the Government, aimed at rendering the governing more efficient; reorienting the activity of certain ministries and by abolishing a significant number of governmental agencies; subordinating a series of governmental agencies directly to ministries, in order to insure a coherent and efficient activity and normal functional relations; establishing a series of new ministries, in order to meet the priorities of economic recovery and of preparing Romania to join the European Union (The Ministry for European Integration, The Ministry of Development and Prognosis, The Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises and of Cooperation); unifying and transforming a series of governmental agencies, which have proven utterly inefficient, in ministries (The Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, The Ministry of Public Information, The Ministry of Tourism); establishing, within the structure of ministries of a series of offices, headed by secretaries of state, dealing with the relations with the Parliament, labour unions and employers' association; with European integration and foreign relations; with domestic and foreign investors; establishing, in conformity with legal provision of a series of flexible and efficient organisation structures concerning the functioning of ministries and governmental agencies, of prefectures, of local and district councils and of mayoralties; diminishing the number of departments, general boards, boards, offices, services and bureaus in central and local public administration; drastically reducing the number of individuals on leadership position within central and local public administration (deputy secretaries general, managers, deputy managers, executives, deputy executives, heads of offices, services and bureaus); gradually reducing by around 30% the overall personnel in ministries and governmental agencies, and in local public authorities.
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In order to consolidate the administrative capacity of governmental structures, the objectives, prerogatives and responsibilities of which ministry and public central authority, for prefectures and decentralised public service will be clearly set through Cabinet decisions; clear performance criteria will be set for public servants and their activity will be evaluated on daily basis.
(Source: http://www.gov.ro/engleza/obiective/afis-docdiverse-eng.)

Exam Practice 1 Section A: 40 items 40 points 1.a); 2. e); 3. b); 4. c); 5. c); 6. b); 7. a); 8. d); 9. d); 10. e); 11. a); 12. a); 13. c); 14. b); 15. d); 16. b); 17. a); 18. c); 19. e); 20. d); 21. a); 22. d); 23. e); 24. a); 25. c); 26. d); 27. a); 28. b); 29. e); 30. b); 31. a); 32. e); 33. b); 34. e); 35. e); 36. a); 37. d); 38. b); 39. a); 40. c). Section B: 30 items 60 points 41. a); 42. b); 43. e); 44. b); 45. a); 46. c); 47. a); 48. a); 49. d); 50. d); 51. b); 52. a); 53. a); 54. d); 55. b); 56. c); 57. e); 58. d); 59. a); 60. b); 61. b); 62. a); 63. d); 64. e); 65. b); 66. e); 67. d); 68. c); 69. a); 70. e). Module 8 Starting up 2. a) membership; b) grown; c) body; d) policies; e) deal; f) consistent; g) until; h) integration; i) slowdown; j) Treaty. Reading 1. b). Vocabulary 1.
Country Albania Austria Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Finland France FYRO Macedonia Germany Greece People the Albanians the Austrians the Belgians the Bosnians/ Bosniaks the Bulgarians the Croats the Cypriots the Czechs the Danes the Estonians the Finns the French the Macedonians the Serbs the Germans the Greeks Inhabitant an Albanian an Austrian a Belgian a Bosnian a Bulgarian a Croat a Cypriot a Czech a Dane an Estonian a Finn a Frenchman/Frenchwoman a Macedonian a Serb a German a Greek Adjective Albanian Austrian Belgian Bosnian Bulgarian Croatian Cypriot Czech Danish Estonian Finnish French Macedonian Serbian German Greek

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Key Holland/the Netherlands Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Malta Norway Poland Portugal Romania Spain Slovakia Sweden Switzerland Turkey the UK the Dutch the the the the the the the the the the the the the the the the the the the the Hungarians Irish Italians Latvians Lithuanians Maltese Norwegians Poles Portuguese Romanians Spaniards Slovaks Swedes Swiss Turks British English Scots Welsh Yugoslavs a Dutchman/ Dutchwoman a Hungarian an Irishman/Irishwoman an Italian a Latvian a Lithuanian a Maltese a Norwegian a Pole a Portuguese a Romanian a Spaniard a Slovak a Swede a Swiss a Turk an Englishman/ Englishwoman a Scotsman/Scotswoman a Welshman/Welshwoman a Yugoslav Dutch Hungarian Irish Italian Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Norwegian Polish Portuguese Romanian Spanish Slovak Swedish Swiss Turkish British English Scottish Welsh Yugoslav

Yugoslavia

2. a) for; b) in; c) of; d) between; e) for; f) to; g) about; h) with; i) into; j) for; k) for; l) of; m) to; n) of; o) in. 3. a) out of; b) away; c) back; d) up; e) over; f) in; g) out; h) out of; i) out of; j) off. Grammar 1. a) said; b) told; c) had been asked; d) had said/said; e) asked; f) said; g) tell; h) asked; i) said; j) tell. 2. Mike said that a lot of suppliers had complained about the quality of the companys services. Peter explained that the number of employees had been reduced the result being that the company is understaffed. Mike wondered what they could do about that / what could be done about that. Then, he asked Susan if they could arrange for a series of interviews the following week. Susan answered that it was too soon / she thought the following week was too soon. She added that the company should take greater care in selecting the staff, because they had organized interviews the month before, too, and the results are / were not satisfactory. Paul suggested subcontracting / that the company could subcontract which could avoid employing unqualified staff. Mike concluded by asking Paul to make the necessary arrangements and commented that he disliked being notified about the poor quality of the companys services. Further, the next point on the agenda
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3. 'Nicole, would you like to join me in the regional conference that is held at the City Hall this afternoon? James asked. What a lovely idea! Why dont we prepare a short presentation of our latest project? Nicole said. Well mm possibly, Im already prepared to speak about our next project, James said. Even better. But Ill walk out if you start boasting about your contribution to the project like the last time! Nicole threatened. I havent done such thing! I only tried to emphasise the strong points of the project, James explained. All right then, Ill go, but you should acknowledge my contribution too, or this is going to be our last project together, Nicole said. Talking 2. 1) e; 2) g; 3) i; 4) b; 5) h; 6) a; 7) d; 8) c; 9) j; 10) f. Module 9 Starting up 2. public law, political science, sociology, economy, organisation science. 3. a) administrations; b) system; c) preparatory; d) implementation; e) Group; f) themselves; g) welcome; h) particular; i) interest; j) structure. Reading 1. 1) i) - Lane and Ersson, 1987; 2) c) - North, 1990; 3) f) - Cortell and Peterson, 1999; 4) a) - Keeler, 1993, Kingdon, 1995; 5) j) Scharpf, 1997; 6) b) - Cortell & Peterson, 1999; 7) e) Terry, 1995, Hart, 2000; 8) g) - Boin and Hart, 2000; 9) h) - Bjork, 1998; 10) d) Lehrer, 1996. Paragraphs 9) and 10) do not belong to the text. Vocabulary 1. 1) a); 2) d); 3) e); 4) b); 5) c). 2. a) exhausting; b) complaints; c) suspicious; d) permission; e) criticism; f) behaviour; g) equipment; h) defective; i) reasonable; j) thankful. 3. 1.3; 2. time; 3. up; 4. greater; 5. 3; 6. well; 7. 3; 8. if ; 9. about; 10. 3; 11 such; 12. is; 13. in; 14. much; 15. 3. Grammar 1. a) call, will have; b) will have; c) expanded, would be able; d) are, would like; e) had done, would have found out; f) shall invite, have finished; g) Stop, want. 2. a) promise; b) warning; c) speculation; d) invitation; e) reflecting on the past. 3. a) pay; b) wont be; c) would be; d) paid; e) had made, would have tried. 4. a) unless; b) if; c) If not; d) unless; e) if/provided that. 134 Marius Velica PARTNER

Key

Talking 2. 1. b) and c); 2. b); 3. b); 4. a) and c); 5. b) and c); 6. b); 7. a) and b); 8. b) and c); 9. c); 10. b). Module 10 Reading A. a) T; b) F; c) T; d) F; e) F; f) T; g) T; h) F; i) F; j) T. B. 1.b); 2. a); 3. b); 4. c); 5. a); 6. c); 7. b); 8. a); 9. c); 10. b). Vocabulary 1. a) broadest; b) is; c) resides; d) however; e) of; f) the; g) without; h) states; i) citizenship; j) in. 2. 1.c); 2. d); 3. e); 4. a); 5. a); 6. c); 7. c); 8. d); 9. b); 10. c). 3. a) to; b) at; c) about; d) to; e) in; f) in; g) from; h) to/with; i) to, about. Grammar 1. a) to be killed; b) hasnt been seen; c) was told; d) cannot be repaired; e) am I asked/am I being asked; f) is just being serviced; g) will be published; h) may be written/may have been written; i) must have been used; j) had been returned. 2. An important decision was made by the Government last week. Everywhere all heavy trucks will be banned from the centre of town as everybodys health is being seriously affected by pollution. Only bicycles and green buses will be allowed to enter the town centre. Plans for a new traffic route in the town are being made. The decision have been approved of by the city dwellers as they feel something must be done before its too late. 3. a) When will she have her car serviced? b) The Director had some e -mails written by Thomas. c) We had the pipe in the bathroom fixed. d) The Carsons used to have their meals cooked. e) Samantha is going to have her office redecorated. f) We had our engine repaired last month. g) Did you have your basement cleaned? h) People hate having their spelling mistakes corrected. i) She could have had her hair redone. j) A document was being printed while the minutes of the meeting were being written. Talking 2. 1. c); 2. i); 3. a); 4. f); 5. j). Module 11 Reading 1. 1) F; 2) C; 3) B; 4) D; 5) E; sentence A does not belong to this text. 2. 1) d); 2) c); 3) a); 4) e); 5) b).

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Key

Vocabulary 1. a) with; b) at, to; c) of; d) of; e) about; f) for; g) to; h) in; i) of; j) to. 2. a) on; b) in; c) at; d) at; e) in; f) on; g) on; h) in; i) at; j) in; k) on; l) on; m) on; n) in; o) at; p) at; q) at; r) in; s) on. 3. 1) was taken over; 2) has put in for; 3) has been turned down; 4) has run out of; 5) had saved up; 6) fall back on; 7) turns up/will turn up; 8) live off; 9) come down; 10) cheer him up. Grammar 1. a), d) and e). 2. a) heavier; b) as many; c) less expensive than; d) the least; e) the lightest; f) as expensive as; g) fewer than; h) the most; i) less expensive than; j) more expensive than. 3. a) a two-hour journey; b) a three-star hotel; c) a six-hour bus journey; d) a five-year contract; e) a hard-working manager; f) a seven-million dollar deal; g) a 300-page document; h) a 20article newspaper; i) a well-written letter; j) a long-disputed decision. 4. 1. d); 2. b); 3. e); 4. c); 5. b). 5. a) eldest; b) most handsome; c) funniest; d) the most kindhearted; e) The worst; f) quicker than; g) tidier than; h) better; i) the most beautiful; j) wider than; k) simpler/more simple. 6. a) later than; b) more quietly than; c) more noisily; d) the most naughtily; e) better than; f) later than; g) earlier; h) the most oddly/the oddest; i) the quietest; j) the most wonderful. Talking 2. 1. a), b) and d); 2. a) and d); 3. d); 4. a), b) and d); 5. a), c) and d); 6. a), b) and e). Module 12 Starting up 2. a) e-mail; b) enables; c) messages; d) recipient; e) login; f) transfers; g) it; h) hard; i) application; j) inexpensive. Reading A.4; B. 7; C. 5; D. 2; E. 1; F. 6; heading no.3 does not belong to the text. Vocabulary 1. a) behind; b) from; c) by; d) in, on; e) in, from, to; f) at, on; g) Under, by; h) by; i) on; j) at. 2. a) above; b) along; c) against; d) past; e) through; f) on top of; g) out of, to ; h) at, away from; i) onto; j) into. 3. a) put up with; b) am through with; c) stood up against; d) ran away with; e) make it up to; f) looks out on to; g) Look out for; h) go through with; i) Keep away from; j) cut back on, have gone up. 136 Marius Velica PARTNER

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Grammar 1. a) were, spent; b) had won; c) had brought; d) hadnt gone; e) would drive; f) hadnt overslept; g) work, sit; h) to type, handwrite; i) keep, hadnt told; j) stopped, hadnt been. 2. a) I wish I hadnt lost my job; b) I wish I could have worked extra hours; c) I wish they hadnt fired me; d) I wish I hadnt played computer games instead of working more hours; e) I wish I werent living with my mother now; f) I wish I had rented an apartment; g) I wish I werent going to end here with nobody to love me; h) I wish I had friends; i) I wish I didnt feel so lonely; j) I wish I had already left the place and headed on. 3. a) had; b) did; c) could; d) could; e) had; f) were; g) were; h) had; i) would; j) had. Exam Practice 2 Section A: 40 items 40 points 1. a); 2. c); 3. e); 4. a); 5. a); 6. c); 7. e); 8. b); 9. d); 10. c); 11. e); 12. b); 13. a); 14. c); 15. b); 16. b); 17. e); 18. a); 19. c); 20. e); 21. a); 22. d); 23. e); 24. a); 25. b); 26. d); 27. a); 28. c); 29. b); 30. c); 31. e); 32. a); 33. d); 34. b); 35. a); 36. a); 37. d); 38. c); 39. b); 40. e). Section B: 30 items 60 points 41. b); 42. a); 43. d); 44. b); 45. e); 46. a); 47. d); 48. c); 49. b); 50. b); 51. d); 52. a); 53. c); 54. c); 55. e); 56. d); 57. c); 58. a); 59. a); 60. e); 61. a); 62. c); 63. b); 64. e); 65. d); 66. a); 67. e); 68. a); 69. b); 70. d).

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Vocabulary notes

Vocabulary Notes
Word Formation
There are certain prefixes (syllables put at the beginning of words) and suffixes (syllables put at the end of words) which are used to form new words whose meaning is different. However, there are hardly any certain rules to follow to form one word from another.

Prefixes
antibicodeex= against = two = with = acting against = before, former e.g. antithesis e.g. bilingual e.g. cooperation e.g. decomposition e.g. ex-manager e.g. interstate e.g. intracompany e.g. monolingual e.g. non-stop e.g. overdo e.g. postgraduate e.g. prearranged e.g. pro-war e.g. reassemble e.g. semicircle e.g. sublevel e.g. supernatural e.g. transcontinental e.g. tricycle e.g. underestimate e.g. unicorn

inter- = between intra- = between mono- = one non= not over- = too much post- = after pre-= before pro-= in favour of re-= again semi-= half sub-= under super-= above trans -= across tri-= three under-= not enough uni-= one

Certain prefixes mean not or show an opposite state or process. These are: unir- (before r) ineg. unbelievable eg. irresistible eg. incompetent

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Vocabulary notes

il- (before l) dismal-

eg. illegal eg. disagree eg. malfunction

Suffixes
-ee (with passive meaning) -er (with active meaning) -ful -ish -less -proof a) = with b) = quantity b) = rather without safe against e.g. addressee e.g. addresser e.g. mindful e.g. handful e.g. brownish e.g. penniless e.g. fireproof

a) = with the quality of e.g. childish

People in general and professionals are described by adding -ar, -er, -or to the end of the verbs, or -ist, -ian to the end of nouns or verbs. There are some necessary spelling changes that must be made: lie - liar, rob - robber, create - creator, type - typist, music musician, etc.

Nouns formed from verbs


-age -al -ance -ence -ion -ment -sis -tion -y -ation -sion e.g. wreck - wreckage e.g. propose - proposal e.g. annoy - annoyance e.g. prefer - preference e.g. confuse - confusion e.g. amuse - amusement e.g. analyse - analysis e.g. direct - direction e.g. perjure perjury e.g. organise - organisation e.g. suspend - suspension

Nouns formed from adjectives


-ance -cy -ence e.g. tolerant - tolerance e.g. fluent fluency e.g. obedient - obedience
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Vocabulary notes

-ion -iness -ity -ment -ty -y

e.g. desperate - desperation e.g. happy - happiness e.g. popular - popularity e.g. content-contentment e.g. royal ~ royalty e.g. honest - honesty

Adjectives formed from verbs


-able -ive -en long length strong strength wide width e.g. bear - bearable e.g. decide - decisive e.g. dark-darken fright frighten

Verbs formed from adjectives/nouns Mind the following forms

We recommend dictionary study in order to verify the form and usage of any derivative.

Phrasal Verbs
Due to the enormous amount of information on the matter, we recommend the following resource material: 1. Hornby, A.S. 1997. Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary of Current English, fifth edition, Crowther, J. (ed.), Oxford: OUP 2. Iarovici, E., Mihaila-Cova, R. 1997. Dictionar Englez Romn. Lexicul de baza al limbii engleze , Bucuresti: Niculescu 3. Seidl, J. 1997. Exercises on Phrasal Verbs , Oxford: OUP 4. Watcyn-Jones, P., Allsop, J. 1990. Test Your Prepositions , London: Penguin Books 5. ***The Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster Inc ., 1989 6. *** Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, London: Longman Group Ltd. (LDCE), 1999 7. *** Longman Language Activator, London: Longman, 1997 6. ***Oxford English Dictionary2 on CD-ROM, version 1.10, Oxford: OUP, 1994

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Grammar notes

Grammar Notes
Countable and Uncountable Nouns (Modules 1 and 2)
Nouns in English are divided into two groups: countable (or count nouns) and uncountable (or mass nouns). The distinction is very important, because the words that we can or cannot put in front of a noun depend on whether it is countable or uncountable. 1. Countable nouns There is a singular form and a plural form e.g. book books. The following are correct: I need a book. Where is the book? This book is here. That book is too big. Books cost a lot. The books are here. These books are expensive. Those books are cheaper. There aren't many books on the shelf. There are a lot of books on the shelf. Here are some books. There aren't any books. We have a few books . We have few books - we'd better buy some more.

Quantifiers such as many and (a) few are used with plural countable nouns. 2. Uncountable nouns Usually, the noun is followed by a verb in the singular form. There is no plural form of the noun. The following are correct: She needs advice on this He didn't give me any advice. matter. He didn't give me much advice. This advice is useful. He gave me a lot of advice. You should take that advice. He gave me a little advice. He gave me a great deal of He gave me little advice - it advice but I didn't take it. didnt help me much. He gave me some advice. Quantifiers such as much, a great deal of, and (a) little are used with uncountable nouns. A lot of is used with both countables and uncountables in positive statements, negative statements and questions.
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Grammar notes

The most common uncountable nouns are: Mass nouns fluids (wood, coffee, milk, oil, tea, water, etc.), solids (bread, butter, china, coal, fish - meaning food, food, fruit, glass, ice, iron, meat, soap), gases (air, oxygen, pollution, smoke, smog, steam, etc.), particles (corn, dust, flour, hair, pepper, rice, salt, sand, sugar, wheat, etc). Diseases cancer, flu, measles, mumps, tonsillitis, etc. Games baseball, billiards, chess, football, golf, poker, rugby, soccer, tennis, etc. Languages Chinese, English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Spanish, Turkish, etc. Natural phenomena darkness, fog, gravity, hail, heat, humidity, light, lightning, rain (but: the rains season of continuous rain in tropical countries), snow, sunshine, thunder, weather, wind, etc. Subjects of study - chemistry, economics, history, literature, mathematics, physics, psychology, etc. Some abstract nouns accommodation, advice, anger, applause, assistance, behaviour, business, chaos, countryside, courage, damage, dirt, education, evidence, housework, homework, information, intelligence, knowledge, luck, music, news, peace, progress, seaside, shopping, traffic, trouble, truth, wealth, work, etc. Collective nouns baggage, crockery, cutlery, furniture, jewellery, luggage, machinery, money, rubbish, stationery, etc. Many uncountable nouns can be made countable by adding a partitive expression: - a piece of paper / cake / information / advice / furniture; a packet of tea; a bar of chocolate / soap; a bit / piece of chalk; an ice cube; a pot of yoghurt; a pot / cup of tea; a glass / bottle of water; a jar of jam; a rasher of bacon; a box / sheet of paper; a tube of toothpaste; a lump of sugar; a bag of flour; a slice / loaf of bread; a kilo /pound of meat; a pair of trousers; a game of football; a(n) item / piece of news; a drop / can of oil; a can of Coke; a carton of milk; a block of wood; a flash / bolt of lightning; a clap / peal of thunder, a stoke of (good) luck, etc. Some nouns take only a plural verb. These are objects which consist of two parts: garments (pyjamas, trousers, jeans, pants, etc.), tools (scissors etc), instruments (binoculars, compasses, spectacles, etc.) or nouns such as: arms, ashes, barracks , clothes, congratulations , earnings , (good) looks , outskirts, people, police, premises, riches , stairs , surroundings , wages, etc. Group nouns refer to a group of people. These nouns can take either a singular or a plural verb depending on whether the group is perceived as a whole or as individuals. Such group nouns are: army, audience, class , club, committee, company , council, crew, crowd, headquarters , family, jury , government , press, public, staff , team , etc. e.g. The ship crew was the best in the army. (meaning the team as a group) The ship crew were all given medals. (meaning each member taken separately as individuals) 142 Marius Velica PARTNER

Grammar notes

With expressions of duration, distance or money meaning a whole amount we use a singular verb. e.g. Four months is long to wait. Five miles is a long way to ride. Fifteen thousand pounds is too much to spend on this house. 3. Countable or uncountable? Some nouns can be both countable and uncountable with a meaningful distinction. The meaning of a noun changes according to whether it is used as a countable or an uncountable noun in the context. Compare the following uses of uncountable nouns:
Singular Take a piece of paper, please! The needle of a compass always points North. It is a custom to give presents at Christmas. She has a lot of experience in teaching. Would you like a glass of milk? She has got long, blonde hair. Look at the scale of sales! We used wood to make fire. There are many people waiting for you outside. Plural The police asked to see my papers. (documents) You can draw a perfect circle with compasses. All travellers were searched at customs. We had lots of exciting experiences on our trip. He can't see very well without his glasses. He had three hairs on his head. She weighed meat on the scales. Its nice to walk in the woods. All peoples of the world should be peaceful. (meaning nations)

4. The plural of nouns Nouns are made plural by adding: -s to the noun: book books ; -es to nouns ending in s, -ss, -x, -ch, -sh, -z: bus busses, lass lasses, box boxes, march marches, brush brushes, buzz buzzes; -ies to nouns ending in consonant + y: study studies ( but s to nouns ending in vowel + y: toy toys); -s to nouns ending in vowel + o/oo: photo photos, zoo zoos. Some nouns ending in o can take either s or es: buffalo buffaloes / buffaloes, cargo cargoes / cargoes, zero zeroes / zeroes, volcano volcanoes / volcanoes; -ves to some nouns ending in f/-fe: calf calves, knife knives, thief thieves (but: handkerchief handkerchiefs, cliff cliffs, roof roofs); -some nouns of Greek or Latin origin take the Greek or Latin suffixes: analysis analyses; basis bases, crisis crises, criterion criteria, phenomenon phenomena, datum data, medium media;

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Grammar notes

-compound nouns form their plural by adding s/-es to the second noun i f the compound consists of two nouns: pen-friend pen-friends ; -compound nouns form their plural by adding s/-es to noun constituent if the compound consists of adjective / preposition noun + -/preposition: frying pan frying pans, looker-on lookers-on, sister-in-law sisters -in-law; -compound nouns form their plural by adding s/-es to the second noun if the compound does not include any noun: takeover takeovers, handout handouts.

Determiners and Quantifiers (Module 2)


Determiners are special words that are placed in front of nouns or noun phrases and they affect their meaning. Such words are: indefinite article (a/an), definite article (the), demonstratives (this / that / these / those), possessive adjectives (my / your / his, etc.), quantifiers (some / any / every / no / both / each / either / neither / enough / several / all / most, etc.) and numbers (one/two etc). Adjectives people Positive some any someone/somebody/ anyone/anybody anyone/anybody no one/not anyone nobody/not anybody everybody (all people) everyone Adverbs of places somewhere anywhere anywhere nowhere not anywhere everywhere (in all places) Pronouns things something anything anything nothing not anything everything (all things)

Interrogativ any e Negative no / not any Positive/ every Negative/ Interrogativ e Positive Interrogative Negative

Positive/Negative/ Interrogative Some is used before countable or uncountable nouns. e.g. Let's buy some dictionaries. We've got some tea. Some and its compounds (somebody , something, etc.) are normally used in positive sentences and in questions when we want to make an offer, a request or we expect a positive answer. 144 Marius Velica PARTNER

Grammar notes

e.g. There is someone on the phone, he wants you. ( positive) Would you like some more coffee? (offer) Could I have some juice, please? (request) Is there someone who can help me? (I expect there will be.) Is there anyone who can help me? (I'm asking in general.) Any is used before countable or uncountable nouns. e.g. Is there any wine left? Any and its compounds (anyone , anything, etc.) are normally used in: -questions e.g. Is there anything wrong? -positive sentences, meaning It doesn't matter how / what / which / when / who / where. e.g. You can visit anything you want. -after if in a positive sentence. e.g. If anyone asks for me, tell them I've left. -with negative words (hardly, never, without , seldom , rarely, etc). e.g. I hardly buy anything these days. (not: I hardly buy nothing these days.) No/not any are used before countable or uncountable nouns. No/not any and their compounds (no one/not anyone, nothing/not anything, etc.) are used in negations. e.g. There is nothing I can do. There isn't anything I can do. Every is used before singular countable nouns. Every and its compounds take a verb in the singular. e.g. Every citizen has to pay taxes. (all citizens) We are doing everything to help you. (all things) All refers to more than two people or things. It has a positive meaning and takes a verb in the plural. It is the opposite of none . e.g. All the students went home. All of them felt sick. They were all sick. All three/four (etc.) of them passed the exam. Both refers to two people or things. It has a positive meaning and takes a verb in the plural. It is the opposite of neither/not either. e.g. Ann and Mary are students. They are both students. Both Ann and Mary are typists. Both of them are students. Both girls are students. Either (anyone of two) / Neither (not one and not the other) are used before singular countables to refer to two people or things. e.g. Neither man is rich. Neither of / Either of take a verb either in the singular or plural. e.g. Neither of us is/are rich. Bill or Sam have promised to help me. Either of them have/has promised to help me. None refers to more than two people or things. It has a negative meaning and is not followed by a noun. None of is also used before nouns or object pronouns followed by a verb either in the singular or plural. It is the opposite of all.
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Grammar notes

e.g. Jim, Tom and Garrett haven't been to Venice. None of the boys/them has/have been to Venice. No is followed by a noun. e.g. There's no place like my home. Every is used with singular countables. It refers to a group of people or things and means all, everyone , everything, etc. e.g. Tenants have to pay the rent every month. He ate every apple. Each is used with singular countables. It means one by one , considered individually. e.g. Each employee has to sign a contract. (meaning all employees considered individually) Every one and each one have of-constructions. e.g. Each one of/Every one of the students had done their homework. Compare: There were two applicants for the job and I gave a form to each one. (not: every one ) e.g. There were ten applicants for the job and I gave a form to each one/every one. One / Ones are used to avoid repetition of a countable noun. e.g. I want the red dress, not the green one. We like the flats, not small ones. A lot (of)/Lots of are used with countable or uncountable nouns and are normally used in positive sentences. e.g. A lot of people bought tickets. He has got a lot of money. A lot of can be used in questions or negative sentences in informal English. e.g. Was there a lot of debate? (informal) Many is used with countables and much with uncountables in questions or negative sentences. e.g. Has he got many books? We haven't got much time. Many or much are often used in positive sentences after too, so, how or in formal English. e.g. She wasted too much money. He's got so many dogs. Much experience is needed to finish the experiment. (formal) A few is used with countables and a little with uncountables. They both have a positive meaning. A few means some, a small number. A little means some, a small amount of . e.g. Molly needed a little peace so she took a few days off. Few/Little both have a negative meaning. Few means not many , almost none . Little means not much, almost none . Few and little are rather formal English. Very few/very little are more usual in everyday speech. It is also common to use: only a little, only a few. e.g. We need a few samples tomorrow. 146 Marius Velica PARTNER

Grammar notes

I'm angry because we've had very few handouts. He speaks only a little French. Sarah has a little flour so she can make a cake. Joan has little flour so she can't make a cake. We use most / all / some / any / many / a few / several / both / two / one / much / (a) little + of when a noun follows, preceded by possessives or the words: this, that, these, those, the or a. e.g. Most of the students are Romanian. (but: Most people prefer to go shopping at the weekend.)

Articles
Indefinite article (A/An) A/An is used only with singular countable nouns to talk about indefinite things. Some is used instead of a/an with plural countable and uncountable nouns. e.g. I can't find the book. (any taxi; indefinite) There are some books on the shelf. Give me some paper please. A/An is often used -after the verbs be and have; e.g. She's a teacher -to mean per; e.g. He works five days a week. -before Mr/Mrs/Miss + surname when we refer to an unfamiliar person; e.g. There's a Mr Collins waiting for you. - money (a / one dollar), fractions (a / one third), weight / measures (an / one foot), whole numbers (a / one hundred), price / weight (30 ROL a litre), frequency / time (twice a year), distance / fuel (50 miles a gallon), distance / speed (150km an hour) and illnesses (a headache, a fever, have a cold, catch a cold, (a) toothache, (a) backache, a temperature). -before singular countable nouns to refer to a group of people, animals or things; e.g. A/The elephant is a large mammal. (We mean all elephants.) - before a noun in the plural a/an or the are omitted if the noun denotes a group; e.g. Snakes are reptiles. Definite article (The) The is used with singular and plural nouns, countable and uncountable ones, to talk about something specific or when the noun is mentioned for a second time. e.g. Can you give me the book over there? (the book over there, specific) The student wrote a term paper. He gave the term paper to the teacher. (the word cup is mentioned for a second time) The can also be used with the words beach, cinema, coast, country(side), earth, ground, jungle, radio, sea, seaside, sky ,
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Grammar notes

theatre, weather, world, etc. e.g. What's the weather like today? I like watching TV. (but: Turn off the television.) The is optional with seasons. e.g. Where are you going in (the) summer?

The is used before


-nouns which are unique. the earth, the Kremlin; -names of cinemas (The Odeon), hotels (The Ritz), theatres (The Scala), museums (The Louvre), newspapers / magazines (The Guardian), ships (The Queen Mary), institutions (The UN), galleries (The National Gallery ); -names of rivers (the Danube), seas (the Black Sea), groups of islands/states (the Virgin Islands, the UK), mountain ranges (the Alps), deserts (the Sahara desert), oceans (the Atlantic), canals (the Suez Canal) and names or nouns with of . (the Tomb of the Kings, the Garden of Eden) Note: the equator, the North / South Pole, the north of England, the South / West / North / East; -musical instruments, dances. the piano, the waltz; -names of families (the Watts), nationalities ending in -sh, -ch or -ese (the Welsh, the Dutch, the Japanese etc). Other plural nationalities are used with or without the ; -titles (the Pope, the Duke of Essex, the Queen) but the is omitted before titles with proper names (Queen Alexandra); -adjectives used as plural nouns (the unemployed, the sick, the privileged, the deaf, etc,) and the superlative degree of adjectives / adverbs (the best). Most used as a determiner followed by a noun does not take the : Most children like animals. (but: Of all European cities Rome has the most careful drivers .); -the words: station, shop, cinema, pub, library, city, village etc. She went to the library to return some books. -morning, afternoon, evening, night: I'll be at work in the morning. (but: at night , at noon, at midnight , by day/night , at 4 o'clock, etc.) -historical references / events: the French Revolution, the Middle Ages, the Thirty Years' War (but: World War II ) -only, last, first (used as adjectives): He was the only one to agree.

The is omitted before


-proper nouns. Doris is my sister. -names of sports, games, activities, days, months, holidays, colours, drinks, meals and languages (not followed by the word language). She plays volleyball well. She likes black. We speak English. (but: The English language is used everywhere now.); -names of countries (but: the Argentine, the Netherlands, (the) Sudan), cities (but: the Hague, the Vatican City), streets (Regent Street, but: the High Street, the Strand, the Mall, the Bristol 148 Marius Velica PARTNER

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road, the A4, the M1 motorway), squares (Revolution Square), bridges (London Bridge but: the Bridge of Sighs, the Forth Bridge, the Severn Bridge, the Golden Gate Bridge), parks (Regent's Park), stations (Waterloo Station), individual mountains (Everest), islands (Malta), lakes (Lake Victoria), continents (Europe); -two-word names whose first word is the name of a person or place. Charles de Gaulle Airport, Buckingham Palace but: the White House, (because the first word White is not the name of a person or place); -pubs, restaurants, shops, banks and hotels which have the name of their founder and end in -s or -'s: Barclays Bank, Harry's Pub (but: the Black Swan (pub), because Black Swan is not a name of a person or place); -bed, church, college, court, hospital, prison, school, university, when we refer to the purpose for which they exist: Chris went to university. (he is a student.); but: His mother went to the university to see her last week. (she went to the university as a visitor). Work (meaning place of work) never takes the : She is at work. -home, Father / Mother (our own home / parents: Mother is at home.); -means of transport: by bus / by car / by train /by plane, etc.; but: in the car, on the bus / train, etc. He travelled by train: He left on the 8 o'clock train yesterday. -it is optional with some names of diseases: flu / the flu, measles / the measles, mumps / the mumps , but: He's got diabetes.

Tenses (Modules 3 and 4)


Present simple Form Affirmative: base form + (e)s e.g. He works here. Negative: doesn't /don't + base form Interrogative: Do/Does + subject + base form ? Use The present simple refers to situations which are long-term or permanent and to general truths such as scientific facts. e.g. We speak Spanish. He loves rock music. The Earth travels round the sun. It can also refer to regular or repeated actions. e.g. He writes e-mails every day. I always spend Easter with my family. It is used with certain verbs to express thoughts, feelings, impressions and immediate reactions. e.g. This juice tastes strange. Do you want to see her?
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Note: With the following verbs there is a difference in meaning between present simple and present progressive, the simple aspect and the progressive one, in general: appear expect feel have hold look measure see smell think taste weigh Present Simple - look/seem - feel confident that - have an opinion - possess - have a certain capacity - have an appearance - have a certain length - use your eyes - have a certain smell - have an opinion - have a certain taste - have a certain weight Present Progressive - take part in (a trial/play/film) - waiting for sth/to be pregnant - physical sensation - organising/actions (e.g. a bath) - physical contact with hands - action of seeing - action of taking a measurement - meeting - action of smelling something - mental process - action of tasting something - action of weighing something

e.g. I think you're wonderful. (opinion). I'm thinking about what you said earlier. (momentary mental process) 1.4 The present simple also has certain special uses in reviews, sports commentaries, dramatic narrative and when reporting what you have heard or been told ( with say/tell/hear). e.g. Sean Penn, who plays the hero, enters from the left. Smiths passes the ball to Corelio but he misses, and The present simple can be used to talk about future plans with reference to timetables and itineraries (see below), and is also used in time clauses introduced by when, as soon as, after, if, etc. (The present perfect can also be used in time clauses denoting completed actions.) e.g. The plane takes off at 4.00 p.m. I'll give her some money if she needs. Present progressive Form Affirmative: is/are + v-ing e.g. He's writing an e-mail. Negative: am/is/are not + v-ing Interrogative: Is/Are + subject + v-ing? Note: Certain verbs do not usually occur in continuous tenses (see above). Use The present continuous is used to talk about actions which are happening at the moment of speaking or which are changing or developing at the present time. e.g. Don't disturb your father, he's resting. My Chineses improving. It can also refer to actions or situations which are temporary. e.g. I'm working in this office until they find a new secretary. 150 Marius Velica PARTNER

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The present continuous can be used with always or forever to describe a habit which the speaker finds annoying. e.g. Why are you forever asking for money? The present continuous is also quite often used to express prearranged future actions (see below). e.g. Susan's going to the theatre tonight. Present perfect simple and progressive Form: Present perfect simple Affirmative: has/have + past participle e.g. He's sold his house. Negative: has/have not + past participle Interrogative: Has/Have + subject + past participle? Present perfect progressive Affirmative: has/have been + present participle e.g. I've been playing tennis. Negative: has/have been + v-ing Interrogative: has/have + subject + been v-ing? Note: Certain verbs are not usually used in progressive tenses (see above). General use Both the present perfect simple and the present perfect progressive are used to refer to actions or states which began in the past and have continued up till now. The following time expressions are often used: lately , recently, so far, up till now, since (used to express the starting point), and for (used to express its duration). e.g. I've had guests for two days. He hasn't been practising on the guitar so much lately. How long have you lived in this town now? I'v e participated in the conference every summer since I came here. The present perfect simple is used to refer to an action or state which was completed in the past but where the time is unknown or unimportant. The present result is generally more important than when or how the action or event occurred. The following expressions are often used: just already, before, ever, never, yet, still. e.g. Your sister's just called. (He's here.) I've seen that film already. (I don't want to see it again.) The computer's been repaired. (It is now working.) Have you ever been to Paris? (Can you tell me about it?) The present perfect can be used in time clauses introduced by when, as soon as, after to describe an action which will be completed before the action in the main clause.
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e.g. We'll make the announcements once everyone has arrived. You can buy a car after you've passed the driving test. Simple vs. progressive In some cases there is little difference between the two forms. e.g. He's lived here all his life. He's been living here all his life. The present perfect continuous tends to emphasise how long an action has continued. e.g. It's been raining all day. We've been waiting for hours. The present perfect continuous may suggest that an action is temporary rather than long-term or permanent. e.g. I've been staying with Ann till I rent a room of my own. Past simple Form Affirmative: base form + -(e)d (regular verbs)/2nd form e.g. They wanted ice cream. He ate the cake. Negative: didn't + base form Interrogative: Did + subject + base form? Use The past simple is used to refer to completed actions or events which took place at a particular time or over a period of time in the past. e.g. We saw them last Sunday. I stayed with Ann until I found a room of my own. The past simple can also refer to repeated actions in the past. e.g. We went for a walk every day before lunch. Note: It is also possible to use used to or would + base form with this meaning (not for past states). e.g. We used to go for a walk ... We would go for a walk ... When two actions happen quickly, one after the other, we usually use the past simple in each case. e.g. When he came out, I locked the door. Past progressive Form Affirmative: was/were + -ing e.g. It was raining. Negative: wasn't/weren't + -ing Interrogative: Was/Were + subject + base form? Note: Some verbs do not usually occur in continuous tenses (see the table above). Use The past continuous refers to actions or situations which were unfinished at a particular time in the past. It also emphasises how long an action continued. 152 Marius Velica PARTNER

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e.g. You were watching a movie then, weren't you? It is often used to refer to an action which was going on when a second shorter action interrupted it. e.g. He was driving home when he saw the accident. The past continuous is often used to describe the background to events in a story. e.g. It was a beautiful summer day The sun was shining and the birds were singing. The past continuous can be used to describe two actions which happened at the same time when we are more interested in the fact that they happened together than in the result. e.g. While I was preparing the dinner, she was out having a good time. The past continuous can be used with always or forever to emphasise the frequency of an action. In this case, the speaker is often expressing criticism or annoyance. e.g. They were always quarrelling till the early hours. The past continuous is used in the expressions I was wondering if / whether and I was hoping (that) ... as a way of making a present/future invitation, a request, etc. more polite. These expressions do not refer to the past. e.g. I was wondering if you would like to join us? Past perfect Form Past perfect simple Affirmative: had + past participle e.g. He'd already sold his house. Negative: had not + past participle Interrogative: Had + subject + past participle? Past perfect progressive Affirmative: had been + present participle e.g. I'd been playing tennis for two hours. Negative: had been + v-ing Interrogative: Had + subject + been v-ing? Note: Certain verbs are not usually used in progressive tenses (see above). Use The past perfect refers to actions which happened, or situations which existed, before another action at a particular time in the past. e.g. The shop had dosed by the time Doris got there. When I reached the car, I realised I had lost my key. The past perfect is used to make the order of events clear. It is not necessary to use it when the two actions happen quickly, one after the other, or when the order of events is clear anyway.
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e.g. I recognised Mathew as soon as I saw him. After I left the office I went to collect his car from the garage. The past perfect continuous is used when the first action continued for some time or was unfinished. e.g. The fire had been burning for some time before the fire brigade arrived. Past forms used to express hypothetical situations (Module 12) 4.1 Past forms can be used after the following expressions to talk about situations which do not exist or events which did not happen but which we are able to imagine. I wish if only would rather if suppose/supposing as if / as though The past simple is used for present or future reference. e.g. I wish I had a flat. (I haven't got one.) I'd rather you didn't drink. (You are drinking or you may do so in future.) She spends as if she earned a lot. (She doesn't.) Suppose you didn't get to see me, what would you do? Note: I wish + would is used to express a wish for something to change in the future. It cannot be used to refer to oneself. e.g. I wish you would improve. The past perfect is used for past reference. e.g. If only he had telephoned before he came. (He didn't) I'd rather she hadn't told me lies. (She did tell me lies.) He speaks as if he had read the book. (He didn't.) Supposing you had had an accident! (You didn't.) The past simple is also used after the expression It's (high/about) time. e.g. It's high time we did something. (It's late and we haven't done anything yet.)

Ways of expressing the future (Module 5)


going to Uses: - to express personal intention; the action has usually been considered in advance and some arrangements may have been made. e.g. We're going to have a party. Are you going to invite Mary? - to make a prediction based on what you know, feel or can see. e.g. I think the car is going to break down. 154 Marius Velica PARTNER

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Future simple Uses: - to express a future fact or prediction. e.g. He'll be forty in June. - to express a sudden decision. e.g. All right, I'll order some pizza. - to express an offer or request. e.g. Shall I give you a lift? - to express a threat or a promise. e.g. Ill walk out if you say one more word. Don't worry, Ill give you the money. - to express an opinion about the future after verbs like think, suppose, expect, doubt if and also with probably. e.g. I suppose you wont be late. Do you think he'll phone? - to express strong probability. e.g. There's a knock on the door. Oh, that'll be the postman. Present continuous Uses: to express a pre-arranged future action; Similar in meaning to going to but with less sense of personal intention. e.g. What are you doing this evening? The programme's being installed the day after tomorrow. Present simple Uses: to express the certain future, a fixed future event usually based on a timetable or programme. e.g. What time do you arrive at Henry Coanda? We meet the Director General and the Chief Executive. Is to Uses: - to express an instruction or order e.g. You are to do exactly as I say. - to talk about an action or event which has been arranged, often officially. e.g. The Prime Minister is to visit Washington. About to/due to Uses: to talk about actions or events which are expected to happen, usually fairly soon. e.g. The office building is due to be completed soon. Future continuous Uses: - to talk about an action which will be in progress at a point in the future. e.g. I'll be driving to Bucharest this time next week! Marius Velica PARTNER 155

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- to express a request for information rather than a request for action. e.g. Will you be having lunch at Tai Chens? - to express strong probability. e.g. I think Vanessa will be studying in the library tonight. Future perfect Uses: to talk about a future event which will be complete by a time which is further in the future. e.g. They will have finished correcting the papers by Wednesday. Future perfect continuous Uses: to talk about the duration of an action, as seen from a point in the future. e.g. Hell have been working in this company for 10 years next month.

Modals (Module 6)
Modal verbs are a special kind of auxiliary verb. Like other auxiliary verbs, they are always used with a main verb but modal verbs express an attitude to what we say. They can express certainty or uncertainty, willingness or unwillingness, ability, permission, obligation, for example. Apart from modals (can, might, shall, would, could, must, should may, ought to, will), there are three so -called semi-modals (dare, need and used to) whose special characteristics are described later. General characteristics of modals Modal verbs are followed by the base form of the verb or by the base form of be (present) or hove (past) + participle. e.g. You may go. You could rent a car. Would you like to sit down? They might be having a party. He could have given you the wrong address. Modal verbs do not inflect, i.e. they do not take an -s in the third person or -ing or -ed. Modal verbs do not take the auxiliary do. The negative is formed by adding not. Questions are formed by inverting the subject and the modal. e.g. You can't go in there. It mightn't snow after all. Can you go there? Should I have taken her advice? Modal verbs are also used in question tags. e.g. Must you make that noise? May I come in? You'd join the team, wouldn't you? Marius Velica PARTNER 156

Grammar notes

Modal verbs have no infinitive. Other expressions must be used instead. e.g. (can) Will you be able to help me? (must) I'm going to have to leave. Concepts expressed by modals 1. Ability: can, could, be able to Can is used to talk about present ability and awareness. e.g. Smoking can damage your health. Can you swim? It can also be used to talk about future ability (but not awareness), often with the idea of personal willingness. e.g. Can I see you tonight? I can give you a lift tomorrow, if you like. As can has no infinitive, be able to is used with will, going to, used to, etc. e.g. We'll be able to give you an answer soon. Will you be able to ride the bicycle? I used to be able to run three miles without stopping. Could is only used to talk about general ability in the past. To talk about a specific example of ability, we use was able to. Couldn't refers to both general and specific ability. e.g. I could play the piano when I was 15. Luckily, I was able to find a taxi. Could + perfect infinitive is used to talk about how things might have been different It can also suggest criticism. e.g. He could have won the prize. (but he didn't win.) You could have telephoned me. (But you didn't phone.) 2. Likelihood, assumption and deduction: must, can't, could, may, might Could, may and might are used to talk about the possibility of something. Strong possibility is indicated by adding well; weak possibility is indicated by adding possibly. e.g. Don't press the button! It could/may/might damage the soft. Prices might well rise. She might possibly be wrong. Negative possibility is indicated by may/might + not. Couldn't indicates impossibility. e.g. He might not have our phone number. Must is used to express certainty that something is true or is going to happen, while can't is used to express certainty that something is not true or is not going to happen (unavoidable assumptions and deductions based on what you know). e.g. It must be 7 o'clock. There's the time signal. It can't be him at the door. He's at work. Assumptions and deductions about the past are expressed by using a perfect infinitive. e.g. He could have been held up by traffic . (possibility)
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Grammar notes

You must have been thrilled. (certainty) She can't/couldn't have said that. (impossibility) 3. Obligation: must, need, ought to, should Must and mustn't are used to say that it is very important to do, or not to do something. This can be a personal recommendation, a strong suggestion or an obligation. e.g. You must try the ice cream. It's delicious. We mustn't forget to phone her. You must try to be more punctual. Obligation in the past is expressed by had to. Obligation in the future can be expressed by must when the obligation already exists now. If it will only exist in the future, will have to is used. e.g. He told me that I had to try harder. You must telephone first before you arrive next time. If I'm wrong, I'll have to apologize. Must vs. have to: must usually expresses an obligation which comes from the speaker while have to generally expresses a more impersonal obligation. e.g. You must see the photos. (friend speaking) You have to comply with the regulations. (manager speaking) Mustn't vs. don't have to/don't need to: mustn't expresses negative obligation while the other forms express absence of obligation. e.g. You mustn't make so much noise! You don't have to / don't need to make an appointment to see the manager. Should and ought to express strong advice or obligation. They are very close in meaning, but note the difference in word order in the examples below. The past is formed with a perfect infinitive. e.g. I should really go now. You really ought to go now. They should/ought to have been more considerate. Need exists both as an ordinary verb and as a modal auxiliary. It is used as a modal auxiliary mainly in questions and negative statements in the present tense, to express lack of necessity, and in the expression needn't have done . e.g. Need you say more? You needn't yell, I'm not deaf. Didn't need to vs. needn't have done : didn't need to is used when something wasn't necessary so wasn't done, while needn't have is used when something was done even though it turned out to be unnecessary. e.g. He didn't need to take the umbrella because it wasnt raining. I needn't have taken the umbrella. Jean had hers. 158 Marius Velica PARTNER

Grammar notes

4. Permission: can, may, could Can and may are used to talk about what is and isn't permitted in the present . May not is more formal than cannot. e.g. You can get married when you are 16. You may use the soft, but you may not make multiple copies. Could and was / were allowed to are used to talk about activities which were generally permitted in the past. Only was/were allowed to can be used to refer to permission given on a particular occasion. e.g. At school, we could wear any clothes we wanted. When the MTV Music Awards was on TV, I was allowed to stay up late and watch. Will be able to l will be allowed to are used to talk about future permission. When asking for permission to do something, can is the least formal, while could and may are more polite. The addition of possibly or the use of the form I wonder if I ... makes the request more polite. Might is very formal. e.g. Can I borrow your pen for a minute? Could I (possibly) use your telephone? May I use your name as a referee? I wonder if I could interrupt you for a moment? Might I make a suggestion? When replying to a request for permission, only can and may are used. e.g. Yes, (of course) you can/may. No, (I'm afraid) you can't (cannot)/may not. Semi-modals: need, dare, used to These verbs exist both as ordinary verbs and as modal auxiliary verbs. As modals, they have certain special characteristics. dare and need - mainly used as modal auxiliaries in questions and negative sentences in the present tense; the meaning is the same as when they are used as ordinary verbs. e.g. How dare you speak to me like that? We needn't take the umbrella. It isnt raining. dare In the present simple, dare sometimes takes an -s in the third person singular, while the past simple is usually formed with -d. Dare can also be used with the auxiliary do and didn't, and with the modals will, would and should. e.g. She's the only one who dares challenge me. Don't you dare say that again. Nobody dared leave before the end of the meeting. We didn't dare take what we wanted.
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Used to Used to only refers to the past. In general, its use as a modal auxiliary (Used you to ...? He used not to ...) is more formal and less common than its use as an ordinary verb with did. In the negative, never used to is often used instead of didn't use to. e.g. Didn't you use to drink more milk? She never used (didn't use) to be so mean.

The infinitive (Module 7)


The to infinitive It is used: - to express purpose. e.g. There's a reporter here to interview you. -after certain verbs: afford agree aim appear arrange ask attempt beg care choose consent dare decide demand deserve expect fail fight guarantee happen help hesitate hope intend learn long manage mean neglect offer pause plan prepare pretend promise prove swear tend threaten undertake volunteer vow wait want refuse seem wish yearn

e.g. We can't afford to go out much. I hope to see you soon - after the auxiliary verbs be and have. e.g. Do I have to repeat the story? - after adjectives. e.g. This is not likely to happen. - after too + adjective and adjective + enough. e.g. The coffee is too hot to drink. Is she strong enough to carry the luggage. Infinitive without to It is used: - after modal verbs. e.g. We could telephone to see how she is. - after the objects of certain verbs. a) make, let and sometimes help e.g. She wouldn't let me pay for the damage. You can't make me go. Marius Velica PARTNER 160

Grammar notes

The porter will help you carry your cases. b) hear, see, feel, notice, watch when used in the sense of perceiving a complete action. (When a sequence of an action is perceived, an -ing form is used.) e.g. I heard them shout. (Compare: I heard them shouting so I woke up.) I saw him go into the office. (Compare: I saw him talking to someone.) - after would rather ..., had better... and why not...? e.g. I'd rather talk to you in private. You'd better shut up. Why not take a vacation? Perfect and continuous infinitive The perfect infinitive (to + have + past participle) is used to refer to the past. e.g. It's useful to have had some information. He is thought to have invented the soft . The continuous infinitive (be/to be + -ing form) - used for actions which are or were happening at the time of speaking. e.g. It's nice to be talking to you. - used with modal verbs. e.g. We could be playing games instead of working here.

-ing forms (Module 7)


-ing nouns, or gerunds, can be used with an article, with a possessive adjective, and with other determiners that go with uncountable nouns such as this/that, some/any, much little, more/less, all, etc. e.g. You'll enjoy the singing. Any talking is completely forbidden. Verb + -ing form Certain verbs are followed only by -ing forms (or nouns). admit adore appreciate avoid celebrate commence consider contemplate delay deny detest dislike dread endure enjoy face fancy finish go imagine involve keep lie loathe mention mind miss postpone practise report resent resist risk stand suggest

e.g. You know how I hate going to parties.


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A few verbs can take both -ing forms and infinitives with little difference in meaning, while there are others which can take both forms but with a difference in meaning. Verbs followed by -ing forms or a to infinitive a) With little difference in meaning attempt cease fear love enjoy begin continue hate prefer bother deserve like start b) With a difference in meaning come + -ing move in a particular way come + to gradually start doing something dread + -ing dread + to inf regret + -ing regret + to inf remember/ forget + -ing remember / forget + to inf stop + -ing stop + to inf try + -ing try + to inf be fearful about a future action (used only with think) be sorry about an action in the past (with say, tell, inform and announce) be sorry about a present action refers to an action before the moment of remembering or forgetting refers to an action after the moment of remembering or forgetting finish an action interrupt an action in order to do something else make an experiment make an effort to do something difficult can't help spend time/money (on) not worth no use

Other expressions + -ing form can't bear can't stand go (e.g. camping) no good

Preposit ions/conjunctions + -ing form -ing forms can be used after any preposition. verb + preposition + -ing form e.g. I finally succeeded in starting the computer. noun + preposition + -ing form e.g. Reading is a good way of relaxing. adjective + preposition + -ing form e.g. He's far from getting any results. Due to the great number of combinations, we cannot present a comprehensive study of verb / noun / adjective + preposition constructions. We recommend dictionary study in order to check the form and meaning of such expressions.

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Indirect Speech (Module 8)


Reporting statements To report what someone said, we use a reporting verb followed by a that-clause. In informal speech and writing, that may be omitted. e.g. She said she had been to an interview. He told me he'd be late. Reporting questions Reported questions use normal word order and do not have question marks. Reporting advice, orders, requests, suggestions, etc. To report an order, request, etc. which has been made to someone, we can use a to infinitive clause. e.g. I told them to wait in the lounge. She asked me to turn off the light. Other reporting verbs which can be used with this structure include invite, order and warn. To report a suggestion, we can use a that-clause. This clause often contains the verb should but may also contain an infinitive. e.g. The chair suggested that we should print everything. The chair suggested we print everything. Other reporting verbs which can be used with this structure include demand, insist and recommend. To report suggestions, advice, recommendations, etc. we can also use certain reporting verbs + -ing. e.g. He suggested taking a holiday. Steve recommended trying the duck. Reporting intentions and hopes To report a stated intention or hope, we can use either a thatclause or a to infinitive clause after certain verbs. e.g. I promised to give you a lift. I promised that I would give you a lift. Other reporting verbs which can be used in this way include hope, propose and threaten. Notes: a) It is not necessary to change the tense when the reporting verb is in the present tense or when the original words are still true. e.g. He says his daughter is ill and he's waiting for a doctor. Professor Samuels explained that water boils at 100C. b) Certain modal verbs (could, would, should, ought to, might) do not change in reported speech. e.g. He might be late. He said he might be late. When reporting speech, the tenses and time expressions are normally changed as follows:
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Grammar notes

Reported Speech Past simple Past continuous Past perfect Past perfect Past perfect should/would could/might must/had to then that day the next/following day the day before/the previous day that there before

Direct Speech Present simple Present continuous Present perfect Past simple Past perfect shall/will can/may must now today tomorrow yesterday this here ago

Conditionals (Module 9)
Type 0: Conditions which are always true If clause If / When + present form Main clause + present form or imperative

e.g. When you put salt on ice, it melts. If you see Brandon, give him my love . Type I: Conditions which are probable in the present or future If clause If + present form Main clause + future form or imperative

e.g. If I save up, I'll take a long holiday . Type 2: Conditions which are improbable or impossible in the present or future If clause If + past form (simple/continuous) Main clause + would / could / might + infinitive

e.g. If you met an alien, what would you do? If we had the dictionary, we might translate all the text . Type 3: Unreal conditions in the past If clause If + had + past participle (simple / continuous) Main clause + would / should / could / might + perfect infinitive

e.g. If you hadn't lied to me, I wouldnt have been late for my appointment. She could have gone to university if she'd wanted to. 164 Marius Velica PARTNER

Grammar notes

Mixed conditionals The conditional types above can be combined in several ways. The most common are: a) Unreal conditions in the past with an unreal present or future result. If clause If + had + past participle (simple / continuous) Main clause + would/should/could/might + infinitive

e.g. If you had worked faster, we could have everything ready by now. If she hadn't lost her keys, she would be taking a bath now. b) Unreal conditions in the present with an unreal past result. If clause If + past form (simple / continuous ) Main clause + would/should/could/might + perfect infinitive

e.g. If I didn't know him, I wouldn't have let him look after the baby. If I were taller, I might have got that job . Conditional links Apart from if, the following links can be used to introduce conditional clauses: unless, as/so long as , suppose / supposing (that), providing/provided (that), on condition (that). Punctuation When the if-clause comes first in the sentence, it is followed by a comma. When the main clause comes first, no comma is used. Should In type I conditionals should + infinitive (without to) in the ifclause makes the condition less likely. e.g. If you should see him, just let me know. Were + infinitive (with to) In type 2 conditionals were + infinitive with to in the if-clause can be used in formal contexts. e.g. If we were to accept your conditions, would you be prepared to increase the loan? Inversion with should/were + infinitive In very formal situations should + subject (in type 1 conditionals) and were + subject + infinitive with to (in type 2 conditionals) can replace if:
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Grammar notes

e.g. Should you need see him, please don't hesitate to contact me. Were we to ask for a loan, would you accept the application?

Passive voice (Module 10)


The passive puts emphasis on the person or thing affected by an action rather than on the agent (whoever does the action). To change a sentence from active to passive, the object must become the subject of the new sentence and be followed by a passive form. e.g. Active: Someone has stolen my bag. Passive: My car has been stolen. Form The passive is formed with the appropriate tense of the verb to be + past participle. Present simple am/is/are + p. participle e.g. He is called 'Lofty'.

Present continuous am l is l are being + p. participle e.g. He's being followed. Present perfect has/have been + p. participle e.g. The car has been locked. Past simple Past continuous Past perfect Future simple going to Modals (present) Modals (past) Infinitive was/were + p. participle e.g. It was made of iron. was/were being + p. participle e.g. The cat was being chased. had been + p. participle e.g. The glass had been broken. will be + p. participle e.g. They'll be refused. going to be + p. participle e.g. You're going to be tested. modal + be + p. participle e.g. The ring might be stolen. modal + have been + p. participle e.g. He could have been killed. to + be + past participle e.g. We're hoping to be invited.

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Grammar notes

Get + past participle Get + past participle can be used as an alternative to the be + past participle form in informal contexts. It usually suggests that the action described was accidental rather than intentional. e.g. The trees got blown down in the storm. I'm afraid your file got lost in the move. An impersonal construction can be used after verbs of mental processes, such as agree, allege, believe, feel, judge, know, rumour, say, think. a) It + passive + that clause e.g. It was agreed that nobody should pay the fees. It is hoped that the meeting will be successful. b) Subject + passive + to infinitive/perfect infinitive e.g. She is believed to be rich. He is rumoured to have stolen the goods. Use The passive is used: - when the agent is not known or not important, or when the agent is obvious from the context. e.g. The apartment's been redecorated. - when the agent is people in general (to avoid using you or one ). e.g. Rooms can be booked tomorrow. The centre of town should be visited. - when the action or event is more important than the agent, (describing processes or scientific experiments, for example). e.g. The cereals are first checked for pests. - to make a statement more formal and impersonal, and often deliberately to avoid mentioning the agent. e.g. Your paper has been corrected. This is believed to be the only manuscript left

Comparison of adjectives and adverbs (Module 11)


Comparatives and superlatives Adjectives One-syllable adjectives add -er and -est e.g. strong, stronger, the strongest If the adjective ends in -e , -r and -st are added. e.g. wise , wiser, the wisest If the adjective ends in a consonant + -y, this changes to -er, -est. e.g. dry, drier, the driest If the adjective ends in a single consonant after a single vowel, the consonant is doubled. e.g. hot, hotter, the hottest
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Grammar notes

Some adjectives have irregular forms; the following are selected from a bigger list: good, better, the best bad, worse, the worst far, farther (or further), the farthest (or furthest) Two-syllable adjectives which end in -y add -er and -est. e.g. funny, funnier, the funniest Most other two-syllable adjectives take more and the most. e.g. ancient, more ancient, the most ancient The following two -syllable adjectives can form superlatives with either the endings -er l -est or with more/most : common, cruel, gentle, handsome, likely, mature, narrow, pleasant, polite, shallow, simple, stupid. Adjectives of more than two syllables take more and the most. e.g. interesting, more interesting, the most interesting few and less fewer (the comparative of few) is normally used before plural nouns. e.g. fewer people, fewer opportunities less (the comparative of little) is normally used before uncountable nouns. e.g. less time, less money In informal English, however, less is often used with plural nouns. e.g. There were less people than I expected. Adverbs Most adverbs form comparatives and superlatives with more and the most. e.g. easily, more easily, the most easily Adverbs with the same form as adjectives form comparatives and superlatives in the same way as adjectives. e.g. fast, faster, the fastest hard, harder, the hardest early, earlier, the earliest The following have irregular forms: well, better, the best badly, worse, the worst as ... as ... This structure can be used with adjective s and adverbs, and also with much and many + noun. The second as can be followed: e.g. He's as tall as his father. He thinks nobody knows as much as him. I'll stay as long as possible. He looked as handsome as ever. The negative is formed with not as ... or not so ... . e.g. He's not as calm as he should be. We haven't had so much snow as last year. 168 Marius Velica PARTNER