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Water Pollution & Control Introduction Global water resource scenario.

Global water Resources (1.386 x 1018m3)

Saline Water (97.2 %)

Fresh Water (2.8 %) Ground Water (0.6 %)

Surface Water (2.2 %)

As ice in ice cape glaciers (2.15 %)

As Moisture (0.04 %)
As utilization water besides (river, Lake etc)(0.01 %)

i) Global fresh water withdrawal from rivers, lakes & aquifers is 3800 bm 3 per year, which is twice the volume 50 years ago. This can be attributed to this fact that global population has been tripled in 20th century. Indian Scenario India, (a) Land Mass = 2.45 % of global land mass. (b) Population = 16 % of global populatioin. (c) Fresh water resources = 4 % of global fresh water resources.

Indias Population 2001 2050 102.7 crore. 158 crore.

Per Capital Water Availability 1063 m3 758 m3

UNEP ( Classification) Water scarced Water stressed Water famine < < < 1700 m3/ Capital. 1000 m3/ Capital. 500 m 3/ Capital.

Introduction

Water resources Indicator = Water withdrawal Water availability It W.S.I. = 0, No stress condition It W.S.I. = 0.1, Low stress condition It W.S.I. = 0.2, Medium stress condition It W.S.I. = 0.4, High stress condition It W.S.I. = 0.8, Very High stress condition In India Land area = 3.25 million sq.km. = 3.25 x 106 sq.km = 3.25 x 106 x 106 sq.km = 3.25 x 1012 m2 Annual avg. Rain fall 1.0 or 1000 mm. Rain water received per year = (3.25 x 102 x 1.0) m3 3000 billion m3 Rainfall Surface rainfall (1600 bm3) Percolation (300 bm3) Water uses in India Irrigation & Livestok Power Generation Domestic Industrial Sector 869 bm3 150 bm3 38 bm3 35 bm3 -----------------1092 bcm

Tentative contribution of surface water courses = 1092 x 1600/(1600 + 300) = 920 bcm > 1/2 x 1600 bcm. This figure implies that the surface water courses of our country are almost half flooing which means that aquatic life is going to be endangered. The two basic needs to keep a river free from pollution are -----1) To achieve desirable drinkable quality of water & 2) To preserve proper aquatic life. Conservation & Prevention of water pollution are needed for the following reasons ----i) More than 97.2 % of water available is saline and unfit for human consumption or industrial & agricultural purposes, unless sea water is desalinated involving westly treatment. ii) Natural water resources are first depleting.

Introduction

iii) Indiscriminate deforestation & urbanization are adversely affecting the natural Rainfall. Rainfall is becoming more & more uncertain & unpredictable.

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iv)

Ground water is being contaminated by to x ic substances like As, Pb & Fluoride.

Water uses ------- (a) Abstracted water uses (b) Drinking (c) Industrial uses (d) Irrigation In these cases water is utilized away from the respective sources of water. a) In situ or non abstracted water uses b) Outdoor organised bathing c) Water transport d) Propagation of aquatic life Water is directly utilized at the respective water sources. This different water uses will demand different grades of water quality. In India, following grading of water uses is done based on the quality requirement. Grades of water uses Water Use 1) Drinking with in situ chlorination. 2) Outdoor organised bathing. 3) Drinking after full scale treatment. 4) Propagation of aquatic life. 5) Industry + Irrigation Grade A B C D E

Introduction

Primary Water Quality Criteria

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Introduction