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U. S.

GRANT,

^.Cifi^or--:$'o('Mci-":^tatOiMiiaii.

H Ulemorial Sketch.

WITH PORTRAIT.

CHICAGO:
THOMAS
H.

BUSH AND COMPANY,

53

WEST VAN BUREN STREET.

1885.

Ulysses . Qrant,
THE
CITIZEN,

THE SOLDIER, THE STATESMAN.

fficmoviat

OF HIS LIFE AND HIS SERVICES TO HIS COUNTRY, FROM BOYHOOD TO THE EXALTED POSITION OF CHIEF MAGISTRATE OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE
TOr.BTHBtt

WITH

A FULL AND COMPLETE LIST OF THE HONORS AND SOUVENIRS BESTOWED UPON HIM BY OTHER NATIONS OF THE WORLD.
ALSO,

EXTRACTS FROM SPEECHES, LETTERS AND REVIEWS,

ETC., ETC.,

CAREFULLY SELECTED AND VERIFIED.

IPit^ portrait,

CHICAGO:
THOMAS
H.

BUSH AND COMPANY, PRINTERS AND PUBLISHER!?.


1885.

/-

Entered, according to Acl of Congress, in the year 18S5, by

Thomas

H.

Bush and Company,


Washington.

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at

THOMAS

H,

BUSH AND COMPANY,


PRI

NTEHS,

83 W. VAN

BUREN

ST.

;*>

i\j^m^\

PAGE

Portrait.

Frontispiece
5

Early Life
In

the Field

The White House


Around the World
Souvenirs

20
23

29

Extracts from Speeches and Messages

32
35

Personal and Press Opinion


Closing Scenes

44

I,

Not ])y the ball or brand Sped by a mortal hand Not by the lighning-stroke When fiery tempest broke, Not mid the ranks of war
Fell the great Conqueror.
II.

Unmoved, undismayd, In the crash and carnage of the cannonade, Eye that dimmed not, hand that failed not,
8teel nerve, iron form.

Brain that swerved not, heart that quailed not,

The dauntless

spirit that o'erruled


III.

the storm.

While the Hero peaceful slept A foeman to his chamber crept, Lightly to the slumberer came, Touched his brow and breathed his name O'er the stricken form there passed Suddenly an icy blast.
IV.

The Hero woke rose undismayd Saluted Deathand sheathed his


:

blade.

V.

The Conqueror of a hundred fields To a mightier Conqueror yields No mortal foeman' s blow
;

Laid the great Soldier low Victor in his latest breath Vanciuished but by death.

Francis
F. Browne.

EARL Y

LIFE.

ENERAL GRANT

is

dead,

and a nation looks

mournfully on the dust of him who was, but is not. One by one the silvered heads of the old war leaders are dropping before the scythe of the

grim reaper, ancT in a few years, at most, their names and Of him who their deeds will be but a memory of the past. has just fallen it may well be said that he conspicuously illusBorn in a trated the possibilities of American citizenship. rank in life but a few degrees removed from poverty, he
climbed the heights to the proud position of chief magistrate of the land, and leaves a name which will grow brighter with
the growing years.

His ancestors were of Scotch stock, and from them he undoubtedly inherited that firmness of will which carried him vidoriously over so many hard-fought fields. He was born on the 27th of April, 1822, at Point Pleasant, Ohio. A year
afterward, his parents

removed to Georgetown, in the same At 17 he received an State, where his boyhood was passed. appointment to West Point, and there acquired the military education which fitted him for the distinguished commands he During the four years of study there he subsequently held.

(i

ULYSSES
for his lo\-c of

S.

GRANT.

mathematics and riding, and his careNot that he was at all slovenly lessness in matters of dress. in his personal appearance, but he did not always conform to

was noted

the standard of primness which characterizes that


tal institution.

governmen-

graduated in 1843, twenty-first in a class of thirtv-nine, amono;- whom were a number who after ward distinguished themselves in various commands on both sides in the war of the rebellion.
General Grant's
ist
life

He was

of real service in the


to the

army began on

Fourth Infantry, with the rank of Brevet Second Lieutenant. At that time the events were ripening which brought on the Mexican war, and in 1845 his regiment was sent to Corpus Christi, at the mouth of the Nueces river, in Texas. Here the regiment became a part of the expeditionary force, which, under " Rough-andReady Zachary Taylor, inaugurated the war. There were numerous points of similarity in the chara6i:er of the callow lieutenant and the grim old warrior in command, one of which was that neither of them knew when he was beaten or, in other words, both possessed that stern tenacity of purpose which never let go its grip until the end sought was attained. On the 6th and 7th of May, 1846, the American forces mo\L'd into the twin battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. and although there is no record at hand of the bearing of Lieutenant Grant in these initial struggles with a superior
of July, 1S43,
' ;

when he was attached

subsequent career affords ample evidence that he must have borne his share of the danger. Palo Alto and Resaca gave Taylor control of the Rio Grande, across which stream the army moved, and in September fought the bloody
force, his

EARLY
battle

LIFE.

of Monterey,

capturing the town and storming the

bishop's palace.

In this fierce contest Grant participated,

from

it

learned somethincv of what American soldiers

and could do

ag-ainst the

odds of numbers and formidable fortifications. Soon after Monterey, the fourth regiment, with other troops under Taylor's command, were detached to join the army of invasion led by General Scott, which followed the Grant was present track of Cortez to the City of Mexico. at the siege and capture of Vera Cruz, and wdien the forces were organized for their perilous march into the interior he was appointed regimental quartermaster, which post he held
until the close of the war.

As

a rule the quartermaster

is

not

supposed to see much of that dangerous neighborhood known as "the front," his duties lying mainly with the wagon-trains but this young Quartermaster Grant was an enin the rear ergetic, inquisitive sort of a fellow, and whenever the firing indicated an engagement he came riding up to know w^hat was
;

going on, and


the reofimental

to take a
staff.

hand

in

it

with the other

members of

At Molino
brevet
first

del

Rey

his gallant behavior attraded the at-

tention oi his superior officers,

and he was rewarded with a


full
first

lieutenancy, but he declined because the casualties


lieutenant.
slight opportunity for the exer-

of the battle gave him his promotion to

At Chapultepec, with a very


cise of his fertility of resource

and courage, he gained from his regimental, brigade, and division commanders, the encomium of having "acquitted himself most nobly," and for the same adion he received the brevet of captain on the ground of
"gallant and meritorious conduct."

UL YSSES
at

S.

GRANT.
Au-

After the close of the war he served as captain with his

regiment

\arious points

in

the United States, and in


sister of his

gust, 1848, he married Miss

Dent a
In

classmate at

West
ment
the

Point, Frederick J. Dent. was ordered to Oregon,


in

1852 the Fourth Regi-

by way of the Isthmus, and


and

here again,

the face of

fell

disease, the sterling qualities of

coming hero shone out

as brightly as in the roar

crash of battle.

On

the passage across the isthmus the chol-

made fearful ravages in the party. Beside the soldiers were a number of passengers who secured all available means of transportation and moved on, leaving Grant in
era broke out, and
that paradise of

miasma with the

there a week, toiling, like

and dead. He remained the hero he was, for the comfort of


sick

the stricken ones, directing, with fine executive ability, the affairs

of the camp, and by his display of courage and determi-

nation curbing the turbulent natives.


fifty

Of the one hundred and


to the Pacific in safety.

who composed

the party, seventy-five survived the dis-

ease,

and these Grant carried through

After serving with his regiment in

Oregon

until the

sum-

mer of
self

1854, ^^ resigned from the army,

and established him-

and family on a small farm near St. Louis. This venture proving unprofitable, he became a money collector, and subsequently entered into the leather and saddlery business with his father, at Galena, Illinois.

IN THE FIELD.

ill iht j|feM.

N
Away

861

the

booming of the cannon battering Fort


land,

Sumter echoed over the


enthusiasm sprang out
off in the

and a blaze of martial


the people.

among

Galena the sound came to the ears of the plain leather-dealer, and roused not only the
city of

remote

but the righteous indignation of the patriot; and without a moment's delay he tendered his services to the government. Possessed, by his West Point
education, of a thorough knowledge of the military art, this man, who afterward skillfully maneuvered 1,000,000 soldiers,

dormant

spirit of the soldier,

modestly thought he had sufficient ability to command a regiment Raising a company in his own neighborhood, he proceeded with it to Springfield, where, upon the recommendation
!

of E. B. Washburne, then a

member

of congress from

Illinois,

he was appointed by Governor Yates adjutant general of the state. Having succeeded in the difficult task of organizing the state troops, he proceeded to Cincinnati for the purpose of securing a staff appointment under McClellan, but failed, and returning to Springfield he was commissioned as colonel of
the Twenty-first Illinois infantry.

Reducing the somewhat

unruly organization to a state of admirable discipline, he

1(1

ULVSSBS
to Ouincy,

S.

GRANT.
to

marched them

which was then supposed


in Missouri.

be

in

danger from a raid by confederates

While on the
Twenty-first

line of the Mississippi river, in this vicinity, the

was brigaded with other troops, and Grant, though the youngIn est colonel, was selected as commander of the brigade. August he received a commission as brigadier general, and was assigned to the command of the "Distri6l of Southeast This was a disMissourri," with headquarters at Cairo, 111. trid: of the first importance in the west, and it gave the young brigadier an independence of a6lion which he retained in his His first move various commands to the close of the war. was the occupation of Paducah, Ky. at the mouth of the Tennessee river, which gave him command of the embouchure As a of an artery leading into the vitals of the confederacy. strategic movement it gave promise of that foresight and enIn ergy which characterized his whole subsequent career. November, 1861, Grant fought the battle of Belmont, the initial fight of that series of contests which, beginning on the Mississippi, curved around through a dozen states, and closed in North Carolina more than three years afterward, almost
,

within hearing of the surf of the Atlantic.

The next important


the

operation in which he engaged was

campaign against Forts Henry and Donelson. It is not necessary to go into a description of these battles, which opened up the Tennessee and the Cumberland to the Union armies; but the a6tion at Donelson gives us a further insight into his character as a soldier. When his lines had been driven back with fearful slaughter, and the momentum of the enemy's onset was exhausted, he direded a vigorous advance, and the result

IN THE FIELD.
was the surrender of the
adversary.
fort.

11

This battle also afforded an

illustration of his readiness in penetrating the the plans of his

All the prisoners captured in the rush of the enehis

my were found possessed of full haversacks, and


instantly to the conclusion that
tion to
it

mind leaped
inten-

was the confederates'


it

abandon the
in

fort,

and with

necessarily the long line

of fortifications constituting- the northern defensive line of the

Kentucky. Pushing: on at once through the broken line of defense, we find Grant at Shiloh in the early days of April, confronting the confederate army of Beauregard, and Albert Sidney Johnston a few miles in his front at Corinth, Mississippi. Across the breadth of two great states he had marched, and the magnitude
confederacy
of the war had been

made apparent

to the country.

The con-

federacy had been almost cut asunder by his bold forward

movement, and but the length of one state lay between him and the gulf Whole libraries have been written upon this notable battle, but nothing has changed the fad that it began with a surprise, that its first day was a monumental exhibition of the poltroonery of some and the heroic gallantry of the little band that confronted the confederate surge until night and Buell came, and that its second day saw Johnston dead and Beauregard At no time in his staggering back to his works at Corinth. career did Grant's bull-dog tenacity show so strongly as at the close of the first day at Shiloh. Whipped, driven back step by step to a last position on the bank of the river that foamed
he coolly took a survey of the desperate situation and ordered an advance at daylight on the exultant enemy.
at his back,

12

ULYSSES

S.

GRANT.
who assumed com-

Aficr Shiloh the great leader was under a temporary cloud

which obscured
niand,
left at

his prospe6ls until Halleck,

(\\v^

liis

slow

way

into Corinth,

hberty to plan and

work out

his

when Grant was again campaigns. With his

eye on Vicksburg as an objective, he incidentally fought the battles of luka and Corinth, and was compelled to fall back temporarily by the capture of his base of supplies at Holly Si)rings, through the cowardice or incompetency of the officer
in

command at that point. The struggle for Vicksburg was


all

a fine

illustration

of

nearly

charader which stamp him as a great captain. Comprehensive strategy, celerity of movement, combinations of times and forces, fertility of resources,

the

features

of

Grant's

indomitable

persistence against

apparently insur-

mountable obstacles, recuperation from mishaps which would have overwhelmed an ordinary commander, all found a place
"Gibraltar of America," and when the sun rose on that Fourth of July which witnessed Lee's retreat from Gettysburg, Grant was marching into a conquered Vicksburg, and the Mississippi ran "unvexed to the sea."
this
in his

movements on

After the

fall

of Vicksburg Grant's

command was

enlarged

departments of the Ohio, the Cumberland, and the Tennessee, which covered nine states and portions of states, extending from the Alleghanies to the Mississippi. In September, 1862, Rosecrans was defeated at Chickamauga, and retired into Chattanooga, where his soldiers were starved into almost atmospheric thinness by the confederates who occupied the adjacent heights. To this beleaguered point Grant hastened with relief, not only in the form of troops, but in the

to include the

IN THE FIELD.

13

elements within that capacious brain which had solved the problem before he reached the scene of action.

At Chattanooga Grant's strategic combinations were rapidly worked out, and the battles of Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge sent Bragg and his shattered army
flying across

the

hills

of northwestern Georgia.

Thomas
fat-

had held out, ten up on full It was now a campaign in whole contest. was a prospecf

and

his lean soldiers

were permitted to

rations.

the winter of 1863-4 ari<^ events were ripe for the coming summer which should decide the

There was a feeling in the north that there of success looming up above the horizon, and that in order to achieve it one man should control all the armies. Halleck, at Washington, was a sort of major domo
with the
title

of "General-in-Chief," but

nobody suspected

him of possessing the capacity required of the man who should guide the million soldiers of the north to permanent vi6lory. As pithily expressed by Grant, the various commands were pulling "like a balky team," and a driver was needed who could make them stretch the traces equally on each side. The only general in the service who had so far induced a belief

among

the people that he could successfully dire6l the various

armies operating on the shrunken periphery of the confeder-

acy was Grant, and he accordingly was called to Washington and invested with the necessary authority. At last he had gained supreme command, and it was, perhaps, fortunate for his fame that civilians in high office were given to understand
that they

must keep their bungling hands off while a soldier did the work. Three years of practical disaster in the neigh-

14

UL YSSES

S.

GRANT.

borhood of Washington had wrought a remarkable conversion


in this regard.

1864 Grant, now heutenant-general, assumed command of all the armies of the United States, and set himself at work upon the difficult problem.
In the spring of

While
panied
in

directing the operations of

all

the armies, he accom-

person the army of the Potomac, and intrusted the command of the principal western army to his brilliant lieutenant and friend, Gen. Sherman. A number of auxiliary armies

were unleashed in various parts of the immense field, among which was that of Banks, which marched up the Red river to Shreveport, and skedaddled back to New OrAnother was the leans under its incompetent commander.

Shenandoah valley, out of which several confederate irruptions had already But Sigel was soundly been made into the loyal states. thrashed, as was his successor. Hunter, and this back avenue of approach to Washington was not closed until October, 1864, when Sheridan, at Cedar creek and beyond, paralyzed all hope of successful confederate invasion on the line of the
expeditionary
force

of

Sigel,

in

the

Shenandoah. A force under Gen. Butler was dispatched from Fort Monroe and Yorktown to operate on the southern and eastern approaches to Richmond, and,
confederate capital.
de sac at
if

possible, steal a

march

into the

Butler, however, ran himself into a cul

Bermuda Hundred,
his
final

and, as was neatly expressed by

Grant

in

report,

was as hermetically sealed as

if

located in a bottle tightly corked.

The

vital

point of the confederacy was undoubtedly in Vir-

IN THE FIELD.
ginia,

15

Grant placed himself at the head of the Army of the Potomac, and inaugurated the campaign which stands without parallel in military history. His

and recognizing

this fa6l,

Gen. Robert E. Lee, than whom the conAmong the generals federacy produced no abler commander. whom he had out-maneuvered and out-fought were McClellan, It is true Meade had successPope, Burnside, and Hooker. fully resisted Lee at Gettysburg, but in strategy, in tactics with the one error of Pickett's charge at Gettysburg there
antagonist was

was no comparison between the two commanders. On the other hand, Grant had shown himself superior as a general to Pillow and Buckner at Donelson, to Beauregard and Albert Sidney Johnston at Shiloh, to Pemberton and Joe Johnston at Vicksburg and Jackson, and to Bragg at ChatThere was a dramatic harmony in the decree of fate tanooga. which brought face to face at the close of the war the two generals

who

had, of

all

others, maintained their

own

against

all

opponents.
1864 we find Grant on the Rapidan, with a veteran army of some 120,000 men looking across that yellow stream at the confederate army, and

So

at the

opening of the spring

in

planning for
It is

its

destru6fion.

not belittling Sherman to say that the campaign which that gifted commander conduced was a secondary affair to The heart of the confederacy the titanic struggle in Virginia. was in the " Old Dominion," and here the crucial test was to

be applied. In pursuance of his policy of fighting the war out in this campaign. Grant directed his subordinate commanders to

Iti

UL YSSES
enemy
in

S,

GRANT.

" keep the

sight

all

the time," and this was the key-

note of the operations of the armies.

Potomac moved to and across the Rapidan, turning Lee' s right flank. Promptly availing himself of the opportunity of entangling his opponent in the gloomy ravines of the " Wilderness," Lee struck at the Two marching column and the desperate struggle began. days of slaughter in the wilderness resulted in a drawn battle, and in accordance with established precedent the northern army should have withdrawn. On the contrary, when Grant discovered that the enemy had been fought to a stand-still, he directed the army forward into the carnage of Spottsylvania. This was the beginning of that series of flank movements which finally shut the confederate army up in Petersburg, from which it emerged only to surrender. Keeping the enemy "constantly in sight" Grant moved forward through the terrific campaign, flanking and fighting through the battles on the North Anna, Tolopotomy, and at

On

the 4th of

May,

1864, the

Army

of the

Cold Harbor,
reached.

until the

immediate defenses of Richmond were


fighting of the confederate

The desperate

army

at

every point demonstrated the fact that


the correct solution of the problem.
resistance be crushed.

In

"hammering" was no other way could

From Cold Harbor


drew his his whole
lines
force.

he

moved south

across the James, and

about Petersburg, where Lee was found with

campaign Grant had lost some sixty or eighty thousand men, and had inflicted on the enemy a loss of, perhaps, forty thousand. The " cat-tail " policy was being
In the overland

IN THE FIELD.
worked
this

17

and its correctness was exhibited in the thin with which Lee was compelled to man his fortifications.
out,

lint^s

At

point the engineer element in the southern army was brought forward, and behind triple rows of abattis, chevaux de

and earthworks, where one man was equal to a dozen in the open field in front, Lee bade defiance to his merciless antagonist. Months of thrust and parry followed, carrying the siege through 1864 and into the spring months of 1865. In the meantime Sherman had forged across Georgia to sea and wheeled to the north in that magnificent march, and his drums and bugles were heard pealing out their loud chalfrise,

lenge in the forests of the Carolinas. Raids up the Shenandoah valley to the rear of Washington had failed to loosen Grant's
grip on the throat of the confederacy
;

propositions to super-

sede him by Sherman and others had drawn from the silent soldier no word of remonstrance the impatient clamor of the populace fell on his inattentive ear, because he knew he was
;

throtding the larynx of the rebellion at Petersburg, and, having done all that mortal man could do, he was content to abide
the issue.

Confident

in his genius,

grim

as the

King of Terright,

rors in the execution of his plans,


left all

knowing he was

he

Providence and the eternal justice of the cause of which he was the acknowledged champion. There is hardly
else to
in history

except the spectacle of the blind, uncomplaining Belisarius a parallel with the patience and fortitude exhibited

by General Grant during the siege of Petersburg. On the one hand Sherman came marching through states as if they were mere townships, and the populace, without the military knowledge which could comprehend the whole situation.

18

ULYSSES

S.

GRANT.

clamored for commensurate adion by Grant. On the other hand, Grant stood charged with not only the protedion of Washington, but the permanent overthrow of the confederate armies which menaced it, and in the popular view he had accomplished nothing more than McClellan had accomplished
in

1862 in his fruidess campaign against Richmond.

Under

these

an ordinary commander would have dashed his soldiers at the impregnable fortifications and died as the ratdesnake dies by heroic suicide. But Grant was ol
circumstances

a higher order of genius

and patriotism. As silently as he bore obscuration after Shiloh, he would have endured removal at Petersburg, and fortunate it was for him and the country that Lincoln never doubted him after Vicksburg. The winter months of 1864-5 wore on and there was no
emergence from the dead-lock at Petersburg, but in the public mind was visible a dim appreciation of the possibilities which might grow out of the gigantic struggle in Virginia. With Lee held in that terrible hug, and Sherman driving before him to the north the scattered resistance of the confederacy, men began to look forward to a time when organized rebellion would be crushed. ^ The plans which the great leader had made a year before were bearing fruit, and no one knew so well as the taciturn chieftain at City Point how near was the
end.

Lee made a desperate lunge at the union works which hemmed him in, but the breach was quickly repaired, and Grant began the final movement which
In the last days of March, 1865,

overthrew the rebellion. When he turned Lee's right flank at Five Forks and crumbled up that wing of the confederate

IN THE FIELD.

19

army, the southern commander at once evaculated Petersburg and Richmond and set out on the despairing race which ended
at

Appomattox.

From

a state of patient waiting in front of the

confederate fortress Grant passed at once into a condition of

tremendous a6fivity and prosecuted the merciless chase with an energy that never tired. The 9th of April came, and when the ragged remnant of the army of northern Virginia moved out for its last day of marching and fighting, they found General Grant's troops
stretched across their line of retreat.
It

was the end.

20

UL YSSES

S.

GRANT.

HEN
eral

the volunteer armies were disbanded,

Gen-

Grant established his headquarters at Washington, and on July 25, 1866, he was commissioned by Congress General of the United States Army, an exalted rank created especially for him. When President Johnson suspended Stanton from the post of Secretary of War on the 12th of August, 1867, ^^^ appointed General Grant ad interim Secretary of War, which place he filled until January 14 of the following year, when, the Senate having refused to sandion the removal of Stanton, the office reverted to the latter. Grant's reticence on political matters was such that the country was completely in the dark as to his opinions, but it was well known to some of his intimate friends that he was a republican in principle. He was generally looked upon, however, as the coming man, and on May 21, 1868, he received the nomination for President at the hands of the Republican National Convention, in session at
defeated his democratic competitor, ex-Governor Seymour, of New York, by a decided majority, and was

Chicago.

He

inaugurated on the 4th of March, 1869. The regular Republican Convention at Philadelphia, June

THE WHITE HO USE.


5th,

21

Grant by acclamation, and A brief put Henry Wilson on the ticket for Vice President. letter of acceptance was dated June 10, in which the candidate " If elected in November and protected by for President said a kind Providence in health and strength, I promise the same zeal and devotion to the good of the whole people for the fu1872, renominated General
:

ture of

my

official life as

shown

in

the past.

Past experience

may

avoiding mistakes inevitable with novices in He expressed the hope all professions and all occupations." of leaving to his successor, whether at the end of that or another term of office, "a country at peace within its own

guide

me

in

borders, at peace with outside nations, with a credit at

home

and abroad, and without embarrassing questions


its

to threaten

future prosperity."

He

received a popular majority at the

eledion in
all

of 762,991, and the Eledoral votes of the States except Georgia, Kentucky. Maryland, Missouri,

November

Tennessee and Texas. The principal measure of his administration was the settlement by arbitration of the claims against England on account of the depredations of the confederate cruiser Alabama. During his incumbency an attempt was made to secure a naval station for the United States on the island of San Domingo, Soon after the but Congress refused to ratify the .purchase.
expiration of his last term as president he

made

a tour of the

world, and was received by monarchs and people with the

fame as a military commander and ruler. On his return to America his name was pressed as a candidate for a third term, but he was defeated in the presidential conEngaging in busvention of 1880, and retired to private life.
honors due to
his

'))

UL YSSES
New
York,
his

S.

GRANT.
before

incss in

name was brought prominently

the public through the rascality of his partners, but the old short time before his death hero's fome was unsmirched.

army, as a reward for the distinguished services he had rendered his country and going down into the dark valley the last words that came to his dulled ears were those of his grateful countrymen "Well done, good and faithful servant."

he was retired on

full

pay

as general of the

AROUND THE WORLD.

23

RESIDENT GRANT'S
expired March
4,

last

1877.

term of public service For sixteen years he had

been incessantly engrossed with military or national ^ affairs, and with extreme relief he laid aside To gratify a long-cherished wish his weighty responsibilities. he decided to seek relaxation in foreign travel. After beingaccorded high honors at various cities, he sailed from Philadelphia on May 17, accompanied by Mrs. Grant and their son
Jesse.

At the moment of his departure he received a telegram from President Hayes wishing him safety and good fortune. He closed his reply by saying that he "hoped to return to his country to find it prosperous in business, and with cordial The vessel upon feelings renewed between all sections." which he sailed was escorted to deep water by a flotilla ot steamers and sailing craft, many of the most distinguished men of the nation being on board. On May 23, Secretary of
State Evarts isued a circular letter to the diplomatic officers ot the United States in every part of the world, notifying them
of General Grant's departure, and requesting them to show him that attention and consideration which is due from every
' '

officer of the

government

to a citizen of the republic so signally

24

UL YSSES

S.

GRANT.

and personal renown." On May 27 the vessel arrived in Oueenstown harbor, where a delegation of Irish crentlemen came on board and welcomed General Grant to Ireland with the most sincere cordiality. He was welcomed to the shores of England by the mayor of Liverpool, who declared himself proud of the privilege of
disting-uished both in official service

extending hospitalities to " so distinguished a citizen of the Wherever he halted public receptions were United States.
'

'

tendered him, and every evidence of respect and esteem were


manifested.
After receiving

many

exceptional honors, the ex-president

were invited by Queen Victoria to visit Windsor castle. They arrived there on the 26th of June, and were welcomed by the queen and her court in a becoming manner.

and

his family

After visiting

many

points of interest in

London and

vicinity.

General Grant and family took a run over to Belgium. The municipal and military authorities of Ostend congratu-

and at the king's command a special train awaited to convey him to Brussels. At that city he was called upon at his hotel by the king. At Geneva he officiated in laying the corner stone of the American Episcopal church, in compliance with a request to that effect, assisted by the
lated
his arrival,

him on

vice president of the council of state of Switzerland.


to

visit

Mont Blanc succeeded, which was

illuminated in honor of

the occasion, and the wonderful scenes of that grand mountain region were viewed to unusual advantage. The party

then crossing the Simplon pass, made a tour of the northern part of Italy. On the 31st of August they reached Edinburgh

and were received by the lord provost. In the Free Assembly

AROUND THE WORLD.


hall, in

25

the presence of thousands, the general was presented with the freedom of the city. Subsequently he visited all the

and about that beautiful metropolis. He strolled through those parts of town that have become familiar to all readers of Scott's prose and poetry, as well as visited the castle and Holyrood palace, meeting many distinguished military men and noted civilians. An excursion followed to Dundee, Tayport, Melrose, and Abbotsford. On Sept. 4 the general was the guest of the duke of Sutherland at his stately home near Dunrobin; and at Castle Grant was the guest of the earl of Seafield, the traditional head of the Scottish clan of
interesting places in

Grant.

After a

visit to

the

home

of Burns, the general was

the guest of the duke Argyll at Inverary castle, and formed a great friendship for that humane and intelligent nobleman.

The

general visited the

home

of Shakspeare, and other his-

toric scenes,

and then

set out for Paris.

He

was welcomed by

His reception was extremely cordial. The marshal greeted him as a comrade and a fellow-soldier, and the interview was so pleasant that many subsequent and
informal ones occurred.
After sojourning a
its

President

MacMahon.

month

at the

French

capital

and

visiting

many

objects of grandeur, the

distinguished tourists set out for the south of France, and on Dec. 17 cast anchor in the beautiful bay of Naples. An ascent

Mount Vesuvius and an excursion to Pompeii having been accomplished and many attentions having been extended by the Italian authorities, a voyage was made to Palermo. He
of

passed Christmas day on board the Vandalia, and the crews of German and English ships loudly cheered him as they sailed
by.

After various delightful wanderings along the shores of the

26

UL YSSES

S.

GRANT.

Mediterranean, the Nile was ascended, and on Jan. 5. 1878, At Cairo the the tourists arrived at Alexandria, Egypt. khedive placed a palace at their disposal, and omitted nothing

dominions a bright page in the After doing the sights of annals of their lengthy journey. Egypt thoroughly, the Holy land was next visited. The anto render their stay in his

cient

town of

Jaffa

was decorated

in their

honor, and at Jeruthe 5th of

salem a formal reception awaited them.

On

March

they reached Constantinople, where the sultan vied with preceeding rulers in tendering graceful hospitalities. Greece,

Rome,
their

Florence,
in the

curiosity.

Milan successively gratified Everywhere honors were freely accorded,


that

Venice, and

much

manner

had characterized

their arrival at

The opening of the Paris exhibition on May 11 found Gen. Grant among the dignitaries present, after which he made a tour of Holland, and thence proceeded to Berlin, where he met Prince Bismarck. "Glad to welcome President Grant to Germany," exclaimed the famous chancellor, shaking his hand cordially. "There is no incident in my German tour," replied Grant, "that is more interesting to me than
other scenes.

meeting Prince Bismarck." Grant remarked to a friend "I am glad I have seen Bismarck. He is a man whose manner and bearing fully justify the opinions one forms of him."
:

During the stay of the party

in Berlin

many

public

demon-

strations took place in their honor.

Fully satiated with European scenes and excitements, they passed through the Suez canal and enjoyed a prosperous voy-

age to Calcutta viewing the glories of the orient under peculiarly advantageous circumstances. At Rangoon, the princi-

AROUND THE WORLD.


pal city of

27

men-of-war were found riding at anchor with yards manned and decorations displayed. The After visiting official reception was novel and magnificent.
British

Burmah, two

the Golden
sident

Pagoda and other renowed

localities,

the ex-pre14

and

his family sailed dire6l for

Hong Kong. On June

they reached the city of Pekin. The general was immediately waited upon by the members of the Chinese cabinet in a body,

accompanied by the military and civil governors of the mivnicipality. The emperor being a child of 7 years. Prince Kung, the prince regent of the empire and brother of the late emperor, dispatched a deputation to invite Gen. Grant to an audience. The following afternoon was named. Attended by
a party of friends the general appeared at the palace.

Prince

Kung awaited with

his ministers

and saluted

his guest in

Tartar

fashion by looking at him for a

moment with an

earnest, curious

gaze, as though he had formed an ideal of

some kind and was


evidently ex;

anxious to see

how
in

far

it

was

realized.

He had

pected a person
ing dress.

gaudy

.uniform with a lion-like air

but

in-

stead found a self-possessed, middle-aged gentleman in even-

great feast soon followed.

At every point

in

China he
tions.

he was the recipient of most courteous attenArriving at Yokohama, Japan, on the 3d of July, a
visited

Vessels of remarkable pageant was presented in the harbor. war from almost every civilized nation flung their bunting to

the breeze and volleys of artillery rent the

air.

An

imperial

barge conveyed the party to the shore, and they were received by the princes, ministers, and high officials of the empire. A special train was in readiness, and in an hour they reached the
city of Tokio, the capital,

where a palace was assigned

for

UL YSSES
their occupancy.

S.

GRANT.

a refinement of courtesy, the Japanese had timed his arrival at Yokohama on the 3d of July, in order

With

Grant might be received by the emperor on the Bands played the anniversary of American independence. At the audience that folnational airs of the United States. lowed the emperor shook hands with the general, an honor heretofore unknown to the ancient customs of the empire. The empress and Mrs. Grant also exchanged compliments in a After most enjoyable experiences in Japan, formal manner. Gen. Grant and family sailed from Yokohama to San Francisco on the 2d of September, 1879.
that Gen.

SOUVENIRS.

9f)

i0iitteiiir^.

HE

following

is

list

of the
official

various
career

mementos
of

of the

military

and

General

Grant, together with the addresses and objects of value and art presented to the General

during his triumphal


Mexican onyx

trip

around the world

cabinet, presented by the people of Pueblo, Mexico. Aerolite, part of which passed over Mexico in 1871. Bronze vases, presented by the Japanese citizens of Yokohama, Japan.

Marble bust and pedestal, presented by workingmen of Philadelphia. "Gen. Grant and Family," painted by Coggswell. Large elephant tusks, presented by the king of Siam. Small elephant tusks, from the maharajah of Jehore. Picture of Gen. Scott (by Page), presented by the City of New York. Crackleware bowls (very old), presented by Prince Koohn, of China. Chinese porcelain jars (old), presented by Li Hung Chang. Arabian bible and Coptic bible, presented by Lord Napier, who captured them
with King Theodore, of Abyssinia. Sporting rifle and sword of Donelson, presented to Gen. Grant after the fall of Fort Donelson by officers of the amy, and used by him until the end of the war New York sword, voted to Gen. Grant by the citizens of New York, at the fair
held in

New

York.
to Gen,

Grant by the citizens of Jo Daviess county. Galena, 111., after the battle of Chattanooga. Roman mug and pitcher, silver menu and card, farewell dinner at San Fran-

Sword of Chattanooga, presented

cisco, Cal.

menu, Paris dinner. Horn and silver snuff" box and


Silver

silver

match box used by Gen. Grant.

80
Gilt
J.,ce

UL YSSES
tii))l(.'.

S.

GRANT.

inofU'lcd after the table in Mr.

sifrncd tJie articles of surrender.

McClean's house, in which Gen. R. E. This was presented to Gen. Grant by ex-con-

fcderate soldiers.

by the celestial king of Siani. (iilt cij^'ar case (plain), presented by the second king of Siam. Gilt-handled knife, presented by the miners of Idaho territory. Nine pieces of Jade stone, presented by Prince Koohn, of China. Silver trowel, used by Gen. Grant in the laying of the corner-stone of the AmerCJold cipir case (enameled), presented

ican

Knife,
.hii>an.

Museum of Natural History. made at Shetlield, England


pictures,

Embroidered

for Gen. Grant. . cock and hen, presented to Gen. Grant by citizens of

Field-glasses, iised by Gen. Grant during the war. Iron-headed cane, made from the rebel ram Merrimac. Silver-headed cane, made out of wood used in the defense of Fort Sumter. Gold-headed cane, made out of wood from old Fort Duquesne, Pa. Gold-headed cane, presented to Gen. Grant as a tribute of regard for his humane treatment of the soldiers and kind consideration of those who ministered to the sick and woiuided during the war. (; old-headed cane, used by Lafayette, and presented to Gen. Grant by the ladies

of Baltimore,

Md. Carved-wood cane, from the estate of Sir Walter Scott. Uniform of general of the United States army. Fifteen buttons, cut from coats worn during the war. Hat ornament used at Belmont. Hat ornament, used at Fort Donelson. Shoulder-strap (brigadier-general's), cut from the coat used by Gen. Grant in the campaigns against Richmond and Petersburg and Lee's army. Shoulder-strap (lieutenant-general's), cut from Gen. Grant's coat. Pair of gilt straps, cut from the coat of Gen. Grant, used after the war. Medal from the American congress (gold), for the opening of the Mississippi. Gilt medal, from Pliiladelphia. Badges, army and corps. Twenty-one medals, gilt and silver, and ten medals, silver and brass, sent to
Fourteen medals, in memory of events. Silk paper, Louisville Commercial, printed for Gen. Grant. Silk Daily Chronicle and Burlington Hawkeye, printed for Gen. Grant. Collection of .Japanese coins. This is the only complete set, except one, which in the Japanese treasury. The value of this set is $5,000. Presented by the gov-

(ren. Cirant at different times.

is

ernor of Japan. All the military commissions of Gen. Grant.

SOUVENIRS.
Commission Commission Commission Commission Commission
L. A. of San Francisco. Society of Pioneers. Sacramento as member of as member of the Royal Historical society. as member of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion.

31

as honorary

member M.

of the Aztec chib. Certificate of election as president of the United States of America. Certificate of Re-election. Certificate as honorary member of the Territorial Pioneers of California.
as
Certificate as

member

honorary

member

of

St.

Andrew's

society.

Certificate of election as

LL. D. of Harvard College.

Certificate as

honorary

member

of the Sacramento Society of the Pioneers of

California

member of the Mercantile library of San Francisco. England, Ireland, Scotland, including London, Edinin The freedom of cities burgh, Glasgow, and Dublin, and other parts of the world.
Certificate as

honorary

Addresses to Gen. Grant from various chambers of commerce and worlvingmen's societies all over the world. Resolutions of the Territorial Pioneers admitting Gen. Grant to membership. Resolutions of the Caledonian club, of San Francisco, admitting Gen. Grant as

honorary member.
Resolutions of the citizens of Jo Daviess county in presenting to Gen. Grant the sword of Chattanooga. Resolutions of the Washington camp, of Brooklyn, L. I. Resolutions embodying the first thanks of the congress of the United States. Resolutions inviting Gen. Grant to visit the house of representatives of the commonwealth of the state of Pennsylvania. Resolutions embodying the second thanks of the congress of the United States. Letter from the citizens of Jersey City thanking Gen. Grant for his Des Moines
(Iowa) speech on the question of the public schools. Resolutions at the presentation of the silver medal by the Union League club. of Philadelphia, for gallantry and distinguished services. Resolutions accompanying the vote of thanks by congress to Gen. Grant. Other resolutions and addresses presented to Gen Grant on his receiving the

freedom of the

city.

32

UL YSSES

S.

GRANT.

xl:rcBct5 fVam #^^if I

iflties

# J^H^agE^^.

did under the circuinstances in which I found myself during the war. If I had never held command if I had fallen if all our generals had fallen, there were 10,000 behind us who would have done our work just as well, who would have followed the contest to the end and never surrendered the union. Therefore, it is a mistake and a reflection upon the people to attribute to me, or to any number of us who held high commands, the salvation of the union. We did our work as well as we could, and so did hundreds of thousands of others. We deserved no credit for it, for we should have been unworthy of our country and of the American name if we had not made every sacrifice to save the union. Speech at Hamburg.
far better
I
;
;

There are many

men who would have done

than

When one gets to see the nations of the world he begins to appreciate the inestimable value of our broad acres and the great energy of our people. It affords me very great satisfaction and pleasure to receive the gentlemen who were, long ago, opposed to us, and I hope if this country ever sees another war Ave shall all be together, under one flag, fighting a Francisco.

common enemy. To

Confederate Soldiers at

San

to any of those who fought against us any privileges which Ave on the contrary, Ave Avelconie all such Avho come forAvard in good faith to help build up the waste places, and to perpetuate our institutions as brothers in full interest with us in a common heritage but Ave are not prepared to apologize for the part we took in the wkr. Speech at Des Moines, 1875.

We

will not

deny
;

claim

for ourselves

With the expression of a desire to see a speedy healing of all bitterness of feeling betAveen sections, i)arties, or races of citizens, and the time when the title citizen carries Avith it all the protection and privileges to the humblest that it does to the most exalted, I subscribe myself, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
U. S. Grant. Letter of Acceptance, 1872.

Let us all labor to add all needful guaranties for the more perfect security of free thought, free speech, and free press, pure morals, unfettered religious sentiments, and of equal rights and privileges to all men, irrespective of nationality, color, or religion. >>frc/t at Des Moines.

EXTRACTS.

33

The present system of appointments does not secure the best men, and often not even fit men for public place. The elevation and purification of the civil service of the government will be hailed with approval by the whole people of the country.
^Second

Annual Message,

1870.

What saved the union was the coming forward of the young men of the nationThey came from their homes and fields, as they did in time of the revolution, giving everything to the country. To their devotion we owe the salvation of the union.
Speech at Hamburg.

results of the

The humblest soldier who carried a musket is entitled to as much credit for the war as those who were in command. So long as our young men are animated by this spirit there will be no fear for the union. Speech at Hamburg.
I,

Ulysses S. Grant, call attention to the act of congress and direct that no reduction be made in the wages paid to workingmen and mechanics on account of the reduction of the hours of labor. Proclamation, Mag 11, 1872.
It is my conviction that the civilized world is tending toward government by the people through their chosen representatives, and that our own great republic is destined to be the guiding star to all others. Second Inaugural.

just once, at

ballot, where every man entitled to cast a vote may do so, each election, without fear of molestation, or proscription on account of his political faith, nativity, or color. Second Annual Message.
piire,

untrammeled

Although a soldier by education and profession, I have never felt any fondness and I have never advocated it, except as a means of peace. Heply to the Lord Mayor of London.
for war,

your attention to one abuse of long standing which I would like to see remedied by this congress. It is a reform in the civil service of the country. Second
I call

Message, 1870.

nation that cannot give protection to the life, property, and all guaranteed civil rights of the citizen is a failure. Letter on South Carolina Affairs, July 26, 1876.

When
The
nation.

education

is

generally diffused

we may
at

feel

assured of the permanency


to preserve us a free

and perpetuity of our institutions. .Sjjc^'c/i


free school is the

Oakland.
is

promoter of that intelligence which

Speech at Des Moines, November, 1875.

We are a republic
Annual Message.

whereof one

man

is

as good as another before the law.

Sixth

Among
long

the

many

writings of the dead General during his

illness the

following remarkable

document had been kept

84
religiously secret

UL YSSES
its

S.

GRANT.
until

sented to
it

July 26, when he conpublication, explaining- that General Grant wrote

by Dr. Douglas

in his
I

presence on Thursday, July

2.

ask you not to show this to any one, unless to the physicians you consult with, \nUil the oiul. Particularly I want it kept from my family. If known to one man the pajters will get it. It would only distress them almost beyond endurance to know it, and by reflex would distress me. I have not changed my mind materially since I wrote you before in the same strain. Now, however, I know that I gain strength some days, but when I do go back it is beyond wliere I started to improve. think the chances are very decidedly in favor of your being able to keep me alive I until the change of weather toward winter. Of course there are contingencies that might arise at any time that would carry me off very suddenly. The most probable of those is choking. Under the circumstances life is worth the living. I am very thankful (for "thankful" "glad" was written, but scratched out and "thankful" substituted) to have been spared this long, because it has enabled me to practically complete the work in which I take so much interest. I cannot stir up strength enough to renew it and make additions and subtractions that would suggest themselves to me, and are not likely to suggest themselves to any one else. Under the aljove circumstances I will be the happiest the most pain I can avoid. If there is to Ije any extraordinary cure, as some people believe there is to be, it will develop itself. 1 would say, therefore, to you and your colleagues, to make me as comfortable as you can. If it is within God's providence that I should go now, I am ready to obey His call without a murmur. I should prefer going now to enduring my l>resent suifering for a single day without hope of recovery. As I have stated, I am thankful for the providential extension of my time to enable me to continue my work. I am further thankful, and in a greater degree thankful, because it has ena]>led me to see for myself the happy harmony which has so suddenly sprung up Ix-tween those engaged but a few years ago in deadly conflict. It has been an inestimable blessing to me to hear the kind expressions toward me in person from all parts of our country from people of all nationalities, of all religions and of no religion of Con federates and national troops alike; of soldiers' organizations; of mechanical, scientilic, religious and other societies, embracing almost every citizen in the land. They have brought joy to my heart, if they have not eflfected a cure. So, to you and your colleagues, I acknowledge my indebtedness for having brought me through the valley of the shadow of death to enable me to witness these things. Mount McGregor, x\. Y., July 2, 1885. U. S. GRANT.
;
;

PERSONAL AND PRESS

OPINION.

35

James G.
He had

Blaine, in his

"Twenty Years

in

Congress," thus

speaks of General Grant


entered the service with no factitious advantages, and his promotion from the first to the last had been based on merit alone without the aid of political Criticism of military skill influence, without the interposition of personal friends. of victory, and Gen. Grant's career unbroken of an the face is but idle chatter in campaigns have varied in their reqiurenaents, and, but for the fertility of his resourses and his unbending will, might often havcTesulted in disaster. Courage is as contagious as fear, and Gen. Grant possessed in the highest degree that faculty which is essential to all great commanders the laculty of imparting throughcnit the rank and file of his army the same determination to win with which he was always himself inspired. One peculiarity of General Grant's military career was his constant lost no opportureadiness to fight. He wished for no long periods of preparation nity which promptness could turn to advantage. He always accepted, without cavil or question, the position to which he might be assigned. He never troubled the
;

War department with requests or complaints, and when injustice was inflicted upon him he submitted silently and did a soldier's duty. Self control is the first requisite for him who seeks to control others. In that indispensable form of mental discipline
General (^rant exhibited perfection. When he was appointed Lieutenant General and placed in command of all the armies of the union he exercised military control over a greater number of men than any other general since the invention of firearms. In the campaigns of 1S(V1 and 1S65 the armies of the union contained in the aggregate not less than a million of men. The movements of all the vast forces were kept in harmony by General Grant's comprehensive mind, and in the grand consummation, which insured union and liberty, his name became inseparably associated with
the true glory of his country.

wish to do simple justice to General Grant when I say that his adion toward my army is without a parallel
I

3G
in the

UL YSSES
annals of nations.

S.

GRANT.
poor
soldiers, with

When my

fam-

ished faces, having neither food nor raiment,


sore,

came before

liim in

hungry and footthe hour of surrender, it was then

that General Grant gave the

humane order

that forty

thousand
all.

rations should be given to them.

And

that

was not

was giving orders

to

one of

my

subordinate

officers,

who was

making out a list of the things to be surrendered, and told At that very moment General him to include the horses. Grant, who seemed to be paying no attention to what was "No, going on, quickly rose from the camp-stool and said Not one, not no, General Lee, no surrender of the horses. Keep them all. Your poor people will need them for one.
:

was a scene never to be forgotten. There was much in Napoleon to awaken admiration, but his humanity was not to be compared to Grant's. Napoleon's chief glory was glory, mere glory. Grant's action is distinguished by his simplicity and strong sense of duty. Napoleon did not hesitate to sacrifice thousands of lives for his own personal gratification. General Grant seems to be a man of self abnegation, having no end in view but the safety of the cause he detends. The courage of Napoleon cannot maintain a minute's comparison with the calm heroism and sublime magnanimity exhibited by General Grant toward my troops and myself There is one thing about General Grant which I have noticed as peculiar to himself He never complains of adverse and unmanageable circumstances, but seizes the materials as they are presented and masters \}[\^m. Ge^ieral R. E. Lee.
the spring crops."
It

PERSONAL AND PRESS OPINION


To

37

the litany of suffering and sorrow which in his last sad

experience he was called to repeat, came from North and

East and West the prayerful, tearful, sympaAnd as it came the cloud was lifted, and thetic response. back again into his life came the brightness of hope, and

South and

confidence,
fires

and joy
fortli

in

God.

Out
as

of

the

fierce

furnace

came

the pure gold of his marvelous chara6ler.

The

clouds gathered about him

clouds

about a post-

meridian sun, seeming almost to obscure its glory, but shot through and through with its inextinguishable splendor, they became royal retainers, flaming with crimson and gold, to ac-

So the clouds on its triumphal departure. changed about him before his full-orbed descent below life's line. Great while living, he was greater while dying. The peoples' gratitude and admiration to him while in health deepened into warmest love during these last painful months.

company

it

commander, comrade, brother, to thy Thou hast fought the good fight, thou rest and thy reward. go, then, and rerun thy course, thou hast kept the faith ceive the crown which God the righteous Judge will place upon thee. Bishop Eallozvs, at Lake Bluff, July 26.

"Go,

then, illustrious

very kind of heart, and it always deeply pained "They call me a him to be charged with unfeelingness.
butcher," he said to
I

He was

me

once, "but do you know, sometimes

could hardly bring myself to give an order of battle? When I contemplated the death and misery sure to follow, I stood It was only devotion to duty that enabled him to appalled."

overcome

his natural tenderness of heart.

His love for the

GRANT.

38

UL YSSES

S.

comrades who stood with him in battle was deep and far-reachHe used to receive hundreds of letters from old soldiers ing. Soldiers worasking for aid, and none were ever slighted. shipped him. As to this latter point, while I was looking after the Grant retirement bill, nothing touched me so much in connedion with that matter as the thousands of letters I received from

maimed

soldiers in

all

parts of the country, south

as well as north, thanking


2tcl J.

me

for

my

part in the work.


r

Satn-

Randall.

That R. E. Lee Camp of Confederate Veterans with profound sorrow and sincere regret receive the announcement of that the people of Virginia the death of Ulysses S. Grant will ever revere and cherish the memory of Ulysses S. Grant that the people of the as an American soldier and citizen South, and especially the people of Virginia, will always hold in grateful memory his uniform and unvarying kindliness of purpose toward this people, and the constancy with which he maintained the inviolability of the parole which he had granted to General Robert E. Lee and his soldiers at the termination of the late civil strife. Resolutio7i adopted at Richmond,
; ;

Va.,

July

2S, '8s.

not here to speak for General Grant. No man with his consent has ever mentioned his name in connexion with any position. I say what I know to be true when I allege
I

am

that every promotion he has received since

he first entered the service was moved without his knowledge or consent. He admonishes me now that he has been highly honored al-

PERSONAL AND PRESS OPINION

39

ready by the government, and does not ask or desire anything more in the shape of honors or promotion. Washburne, in the House, March 2, 1864.

are Washington's legitimate successor, and occupy a position of ahiiost dangerous elevation but if you continue,
;

You

as heretofore, to be yourself

ing

you

simple,
life

honest and unpretendrespect of

will

enjoy through

the love and

and the homage of millions, who will award you a large share in securing to them and their descendants a government of law and stability. Sherman to Grant, March, 1864.
friends

To Major-Gen. Grant
I

do not remember that you and

ever met personally.

write this

now

as a grateful acknowl-

edgment of the almost inestimable


country.

service

you have done the

Abraham

Liyicoln,

July

ij, i86j.

His work had been perfe6led. Few men, soldiers or statesmen, have ever seen so complete a finish made of their labors. Not only had he completed all the public duties to which he had been assigned by his countrymen, both in the field and in
the cabinet, but he had written a history of his wars, which,

be questioned, or even its statements challenged, must always remain the most valuable
its

however much

conclusions

may

contribution to history that any adlor on either side could by

any

possibility

have made.

Cificinnati Post.

The

silent,
;

imperturbable, undramatic
patient, unhasting,

man who
;

quietly
his

bided his time

observant

making


40

S.

UL YSSES
much
truly

GRANT.

dispositions and completing his preparations with so httle of

demonstration, with so

of reticence, that not seldom his

friends were only less surprised than the foe

ment came.

Only the

when the denouegreat can fully comprehend and


acknowledgment Chicago News.
that

appreciate greatness.

But even Lincoln himself wrote, "I

now wish

to

make
I

the personal

were right and

was wrong."

you

The

character of General Grant was the most transparent

of any of our eminent Americans.

No man

since

Washington
citizen

moved than he by personal ambition. No has been more thoroughly and unselfishly a patriot.
has been
less

Like

Washington, he did his religion to do so.

his

duty because it was his nature, almost General Grant was incapable of deceit,
Bostoii Herald.

or envy, or malice, or uncharitableness.

In the death of General Grant the country loses


illustrious citizen

Its

most

and the world one of


a

its

most distinguished

soldiers.

He was

man

single of purpose, incapable of deceit

nothing turned him from them. The work which occupied the closing hours of his life gave him an opportunity to display a fortitude higher than the courage of the battle-field. St. Louis Republicayi.
in his friendships that

and so warm

waning of old animosities, and to find himself the center of a regard which knew no sedional or party limitations. His fame is secure, and his monument is the Union which he helped to preserve. Boston
to witness the

He

lived long

enough

Journal.

PERSONAL AND PRESS OPINION

41

Taking him all in all, from his boyhood to his decliningyears, he was an American of whom all Americans might well be proud. He was brave and generous and faithful. He never
turned his back on either friend or
great.
foe.

His services were

There were great honors conferred upon him, and now that he is no more all his countrymen, North, South, East and West, mourn him. Galveston News.

In our opinion, not only

is

his "

One

of the few immortal

names that were not born to die," but his is one of the still fewer names that are entitled to immortality upon earth. He is not only one of the immortals, but he is one of them by right. He was an Agamemnon a "King of Men." Rich-

7no7id Gazette.

Brethren of the North and South, let us join mournful hands together around that newly-opened grave, remembering
that while
all

earthly goods are evanescent, honor, truth and

love are eternally secure.

New

Orleaiis

Picayune

of General Grant will be remembered by Americans as that of the savior of their country in a crisis more appalling than

The name

any

it

has passed through since the United States

became a

nation.

New

York Times.

The foremost man


to

of the nation has closed a career second

no other in the history of the republic. The faults of others which he shouldered through life, fall from him at the grave. Nezv York Tribu7ie.


UL YSSES
No man
former epoch
will

GRANT.
and Washington
in

42

S.

since Lincoln in our time

be so deeply mourned.

Sayi Frayicisco Call.

He was
to love,

produd of American San Francisco honor, and imitate.


the radiant

civilization

ours

Post.

view of General Grant's participation in the unfortunate business complication in New York is given below There are a good many things about this Wall street affair that are not generally
:

General Grant thought that he was simply a special partner to the extent of $50,000 with Ward. To a friend who warned the general that Ward's scheme was visionary, and that no business could yield such profits as Avere promised, Grant repeated that he was liable only to the extent of the amount mentioned, and added: "There are able and experienced business men who are engaged with Ward. They would not be likely to take part in any foolish scheme. Ward has a smelting-machine in Colorado, too, that yields large protits." It was discovered, afterwards, that the smelting enterprise was a mytli, and the monthly The hold accounts rendered with regularity were manufactured in Ward's office. that Ward got upon General (irant was so absolute as to seem almost incredible. He robbed not only the general but the general's family and relatives as well. When the crash came the Grants had been so completely bled that they had less than $100 in cash among them. General Grant has been subjected to a good deal of criticism on the supposition that he willingly went to Vanderbilt, knowing that his firm was on the eve of failure, and borrowed $150,000 from him. The facts, as given to me by an intimate friend of the general, are these Ward, the Sunday preceding the failure, told the general that the firm had $750,000 on deposit in Fish's Marine Bank that he had $150,000 in his pocket and wished the general to raise $150,000 more, so that the fh-m would have on deposit altogether $1,000,000. "Thus," Ward reasoned, "the bank can make a strong showing, as they very much desire to do, and as they have always been very kind to us I wish to oblige them." The general did not ap-

known.

As a matter of

fact,

PERSONAL AND PRESS OPINION


predate
all this, nevertheless,

43

Newcombe's house to get the money. Mr. Xewcombe was at church. The general then drove over to the residence of Mr. Randall, father-in-law of Commodore Garrison, but Mr. Randall also was out, and General Grant drove back home. After that Ward suggested a visit to Mr. Vanderbilt. "I do not wish to borrow any money of Mr. Vanderbilt," said the general. " I have had no business transactions with him." "But it is not borrowing," continued Ward. "You will simply exchange checks with him, and, as we have three-quarters of a million on deposit your check will be just the same as cash, will it not?" This seemed altogether plausible, and it was thus deceived that the general called on Vanderbilt for the money. When the failure came he was almost dazed, and then began the agony of mind that never left him. Fortunately he had insisted on securing Mr. Vanderbilt. To the minds of those who know the general well his trust in Ward to the very last was not surprising, no matter how incomprehensible it may be to others. Implicit and unshakable faith in those in whom he put his confidence was one of the striking notes of his character, and to have his trust betrayed always grieved him deeply. Indeed, a gentleman once asked him what of all things pained him most. The general answered " To be deceived by a
first

he drove

to Victor

friend." Phikuleljjhki Times.

44

UL YSSES

S.

GRANT.

J.

X\

,i~ti

\^m^ ^ttnt

<~~r^

FTER many

weary months of

painful suffering

and

and the soul of a mighty warrior was at peace. As the morning sun struggled vainly through the heavy mists which overhung the now historic mountain in New York, a grief-stricken family were gathered around the death-bed of one of the grandest characters in American history. At precisely eight o'clock and nine minutes, on Thursday, July 23d, 1885, in the modest little cottage on Mount McGregor, surrounded by those whom he had loved, and amid the tears of wife and children. General Ulysses S. Grant passed peacefully out upon the boundless
a brilliant victory

heroic struggle with a fatal malady, death achieved

sea of eternity.

heart that never quailed before mortal foe

was

was broken, and a hero and a statesman lay cold in death. Death could hardly come to any man in form freer from terror than it came to him. All who were dearest to him were at his side. His hand was fast clasped in that of his faithful wife his daughter looked over her mother's shoulder into his face, and his brow was gently pressed by the hand of his oldest son, Frederick, who through all the painful months of the illness had been devotedly at the sufferstill,

an iron

will

CLOSING SCENES.
ers's side.

45

His three physicians stood a little back from the Harrison Tyrrell, his devoted body servant, family group. leaned dejectedly against the door, and Henry, the nurse, sat The little grandchildren had not been in a distant corner. It was nine minutes called, and were fast asleep in their beds. Not a leaf stirred on the trees, in the past eight by the clock. warm morning air without, and there was not a cloud in the sky. A splash of red midsummer sunlight came in through
the open window, and had been falling
kindly-faced Lincoln which
full

upon a

portrait of

hung on

the wall just over the

bedstead, and side by side with one of the dying

man

himself,

and

it

was

just as the last of this

warm

light crept

from the
ceased to

frame of the picture


breathe.

to the wall that the great

man

At that moment Dr. Newman arrived. He had been hastily summoned, and only got to the bedside at the final moment. It was Dr. Shrady who first spoke after the soul had taken its flight. Seeing the fluttering breath had ceased to come, he bent his head and said, "At last." Dr. Douglas chokingly murmured, "All is haggard-worn with anxiety There was a silence for several moments, broken ocover." casionally by a subdued sob, as the family bent their heads There were no excessive with handkerchiefs to their eyes. The event had been so long hanging demonstrations of grief

advent was calmly None who had witnessed the dead man's long agreceived. ony could wish to see it hopelessly prolonged. Of all, none was calmer than Mrs. Grant, though it was feared she would be most prostrated. She wept but litde, and soon raised her
over the heads of
all

as inevitable that

its

46

UL YSSES

S.

GRANT.

head and walked quietly, escorted by Dr. Newman, to the Then the physicians and the family crept one by one sofa. from the room; and the end of Grant's brave struggle for life

had indeed come

at last.

The

General's death was through sheer exhaustion.

Dr.

Shradv had said some weeks before that there would come a time when the General would be unable longer to take nourThe ishment, and that the end would then be near at hand. General had reached that point two days before, and from that time on went steadily down, with no hope of saving him. The moments he was conscious during this last relapse he knew He that death was ne-ar, but he did not fear it in the least. had not in fact from the first showed any fear of death, his only apprehension having been that the end would be accomHis doctor assured him that he panied by extreme pain. should not suffer, and thereby took measures that he did not. His dissolution was absolutely painless. From midnight until the moment of his death he never made a motion, except in opening his eyes and in now and then faintly stirring his lips when moisture was applied to them.

The news

of the sad event was received in

all

parts of the

country with profound sorrow, bells being


at half mast,

tolled, flags

hung

and the emblems of mourning displayed from


President Cleveland issued a

public and private buildings.

proclamation testifying to the magnitude of the national loss, and ordering the payment of appropriate honors to the memory of the deceased by the several departments of the government. The Georgia legislature passed resolutions of regret

CLOSING SCENES.
and
at

47

once adjourned for the day, and similar action was taken by many municipal bodies, commercial organizations,
etc., in all sections.

which the body lay temporarily was 20 ft. by 16, with doors opening from the end and the side on to the veranOn the floor a pearl-gray da, the openings north and east. " Ancarpet, a few easy chairs of cane, an etching of Millet's on one wall, and a rough water-color on the other. In gelus the northwest corner of the room, a few feet from each wall, stood a catafolque, its frame of dark wood underneath its canopy of black broadcloth, a cofhn over which the American flag

The room

in

'

'

An undertaker's the union at the head of the bier. assistant drew away the flag and the face of the great chieftain was revealed. Some oak leaves surrounded his head, on the
was
laid,

foot of the coffin

by smilax formed a quaintly shaped letter " G," but by these symbols the eye was held only a moment, and turned to the face of the dead. There was a tinge of color in the cheeks certainly they were not so The sparse gray hair was white* as the forehead and temples. combed back, the beard trimmed closely and evenly around, and the mousta:he, longer and carefully trimmed at the ends,

some

sprigs of green held

drooped over the firm mouth, in life so silent, but now silent indeed and forever. There was no suggestion of pain nothon ing was conveyed by whatsoever of expression there was
;

that calm face but peace.

Sleep could not dispose the features The eyebds were of its finest-minded subject as those were. drawn over the eyes, and the flesh-color was lifelike, and the from their corners, so well known in life, were gone.
lines

^.

48

UL YSSES

S.

GRANT.

There was no suggestion of weariness, only that of rest. The casket is of oak, and hned with copper. The covering a dark shade of purple silk velvet, and the lining a cream satin,

tufted with a cream-satin pillow to match.


its full

The

casket

is

open

length, with plate-glass top, the handles extension


full

bars of solid silver, to run the


inscription-plate
es wide,
is

length of the casket.

The
At the

of solid gold, six inches long by four inchS.

and contains only the name, "U.


This
steel
will

Grant."

burial the casket will be encased in a red cedar box, polished

and lined with lead. into an oval shaped

be sealed hermetically and put box, which will be riveted together.

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