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Section I: Short Answers 1. Aversive racism Also called modern racism, or symbolic racism.

. It is a subtle form of racial prejudice that shows up in situations where guidelines for appropriate social behaviors are ambiguous and unclear. a. The potential relies in being able to provide psychoeducation to clients. By acknowledging and educating clients about the presence of subtle forms of racism, it may help them better understand and frame their experiences of racism. 2. The Elaboration Likelihood Model It is a framework of persuasion that suggests that there are two key processing routes for information: the central and peripheral route. In the central route, the power lies in the message of the argument. It is more persuasive for those who are more highly motivated and invested in the message. In the peripheral route, the power lies in the context of how the message is delivered and the source of the message. It is more persuasive for those who are less motivated and less invested in the message. a. A potential value to clinicians and consultants in terms of determining the route that would be most persuasive in conversation with clients. 3. Equity Theory It is a framework that conceptualizes the ratio between what you give and get in a relationship. It weighs your own benefits and contributions against the benefits and contributions made by your partner. According to this theory, when overall balance is inequitable, it leads to distress in relationships, increase in anger, resentment, and guilt. a. This has the greatest potential of being employed in couples therapy. By conceptualizing relationships as a give-and-take model, feelings that stem from perceived inequalities may be better understood and processed. 4. Revised Frustration Aggression Hypothesis In the original theory, it suggests that aggression is more likely to be expressed in a person who is frustrated because their progress towards a desired goal is interrupted. Subsequent studies found little correlation between aggression and frustration. In the revised theory, frustration is understood as one of many possible unpleasant experiences that can trigger possible aggression. In general, negative affects and uncomfortable feelings increase the likelihood of aggression. a. Particular important for educators and administrators with constant exposure to those labeled as having behavioral problems. By understanding aggression as stemming from multiple uncomfortable and unpleasant affect and experiences, educators and administrators may better equipped to provide a more pleasant environment. 5. Self discrepancy theory It is a theory that suggests that one experiences anxiety when their actual selves are incongruent to ones internalized standards of the self. a. Self discrepancy theory appears to be a useful way of conceptualizing the source of anxiety for clients. By differentiating between the actual self and ones self concepts, there is room to discuss discrepancies of feelings, actions, and behaviors.

6. Bystander apathy It is a phenomena that occurs when believe that they are in a presence of a larger group, they are less likely to help compared to when they believe that they are the only witness. Inaction occurs in larger groups because of a diffusion of responsibility wherein one looks to others to take charge, and one believes that others will and should intervene. a. A potential is that it could increase self-empathy for clients who have had an experience of bystander apathy. By normalizing the behavior, clients may better understand the dynamics that occur, which may potentially lessen experiences of guilt. 7. Minority influence in conformity studies When the majority exercise power in numbers, minority views are impactful because of the style of their behaviors and commitment to their views, which are seen as ingenious and novel. Alternatively, majority views may be seen as more conventional and rigid. To have the greatest impact, the minority must demonstrate consistency in their views until the majority views no longer work, which would allow space for minority views to become popular and receive more attention. Subsequently, this would increase the likelihood that the minority views become adopted as a majority view. a. Potential value for administrators and educators particularly those who experience themselves as part of the minority. This has the potential to provide hope for those who hold minority views and are coming up against the power of the majority. 8. Fundamental attribution error The theory suggests that perceivers fail to take into account situational factors when evaluating out-group members, and attribute their behaviors as internal, dispositional, and stable to the actor. It is the tendency to focus on others behaviors and view them as personal causes and dispositional variables, along with the tendency to underestimate the impact of situations on others behaviors. a. Potential value to educators who are frequently exposed to problem students. By being able to conceptualize behaviors as also situationally influenced, there may be an increase in empathy for these students. 9. Jigsaw method Developed by Elliot Aronson to break down stereotypes and prejudice among classmates. In this method, individual students are assigned responsibility for learning one piece of a larger topic. It is their task to investigate and teach their piece to the larger group. This method sets up an egalitarian setting where everyone is accountable and plays an equal role in creating a solution. a. Potential for educators and administrators in highly divided group settings. By fostering more cooperation and placing less emphasis on competition, group cohesion may be developed and bolstered. 10. Self-monitoring Refers to how concerned one is about the public image they put out. It is ones level of image consciousness. Those who score high on selfmonitoring are very concerned about their public image, while those who score low are less influenced by how other see them, and they tend to be more internally focused.

a. Potential value for clinicians with clients who score high on levels of selfmonitoring. This allows room to discuss self-image and its relationship to how they believe they are perceived.

Section III: Short Essay Option 2: An important factor for Lucinda to consider is how she may be able to express her romantic interest to her new acquaintance. According to the hard to get effect we tend to give up our pursuit when we see that the person we are pursuing is committed to another person, or if they show no interest in us (Wright et al, 86). Expressing her interest may be done by increasing her levels of self-disclosure, and asking more questions of her new acquaintance to increase their levels of self-disclosure. I would advice Lucinda to not feel disheartened if there is little self-disclosure that occurs in the beginning phases since people tend to reveal more to each other as their relationship grows (Altman et al, 73). It is also important that Lucinda is able to capitalize on their similarities especially during the initial phase of their courtship. It is found that proximity is the strongest predictor of who we are attracted to (Latane, 95), and frequent exposure increases our likelihood of becoming attracted to someone. Given these findings, it is important for Lucinda to physically be around her new acquaintance to increase their attraction to one another. Mate selections shows that we tend to like those who have attitudes that are similar to our own, and who spend leisure time in the same way we do (Houts, 96). Honeymoon stages are kept by couples who actively build in novelty to their relationship, and by couples who have more varied and frequent new experiences with one another. In the same line of thinking, having mutual exchanges and joint activities with her new acquaintance will help foster feelings of liking towards one another. According to the Curtis and Miller study (1986), when a participant was viewed positively, they tend to view the other as warmer, more agreeable, and more self-disclosing. By expressing her positive regard towards her new acquaintance, mutual feelings are encouraged. Furthermore, according to the Social Exchange Theory, we are more motivated to maximize gains and minimize potential losses in a relationship. According to a study by Berg et al (1986), dating couples who experience more gains stay together. In this manner, exchange of positive regard may be viewed as a gain. Though new relationships are exciting, it is also important for Lucinda to keep in mind that those who have lower expectations about their intimate relationships tend to have higher levels of satisfaction. There are three stages to intimacy: Stage 1 the Stimulus stage is where attraction is based primarily on physical characteristics, Stage 2 the Value stage is where attachment is based on having similarities in values and goals, and Stage 3 the Role stage is when commitment is based on shared goals and experiences. Once attraction is established, in considering developing the relationship into one that is long-term and committed, it is important to discover and develop values and goals that are similar with one another that a sense of interdependency can be fostered. In considering Lucindas desire for a long-term committed relationship, which may be considered similar to having desire for a communal relationship (a partnership that focuses on long term benefits and outcome rather than proximal rewards), it is important to note that equity in contributions and benefits for each person is important in terms of developing a satisfying and enduring partnership (Cate et al, 92).