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# Problems Set 5: Graph Theory

Graph Theory
1. Show that every connected graph has at least two vertices u and v such that G u and G v are connected. 2. Show that for any graph G = (V, E ) the vertex set V can be partitioned into two sets V1 and V2 such that |E | e(V1 ) + e(V2 ) 2 where e(Vi ) means the number of edges in E with both end points in Vi . 3. Prove that a regular bipartite graph of degree at least 2 does not contain a bridge. 4. Let G be a graph with minimum degree 2. Show that there exist a connected graph with same degree sequence. 5. Let T1 , . . . , Tk be subtrees of a tree T such that for all i, j the trees Ti and Tj have a vertex in common. Show that T has a vertex that is in all Ti . 6. Let G be a planar graph, with edges colored red and blue. Show that there is a vertex v such that going round the vertex in a clockwise direction we encountered no more than two change of colors. 7. If G = (V, E ) is a graph on n vertices such that all the vertices have even degree. Show that the edge set E can be partitioned into pairwise disjoint sets C1 , C2 , . . . , Ck such that for all 1 i k the subgraphs (V, Ci ) is a cycle and a collection of isolated vertices. 8. If a graph has maximum degree less than or equal to k then it is (k + 1)-colorable. 9. A tournament is a directed graph (digraph) obtained by assigning a direction for each edge in an undirected complete graph. That is, it is a directed graph in which every pair of vertices is connected by a single directed edge. Prove that a tournament always has a Hamiltonian path.

10. If in a directed graph number of incoming edges is equal to number of outgoing edges then the graph has an Eulerian Path. 11. Prove that the n-dimensional cube graph has a Hamiltonian path.

12. Prove that 101 999 grid does not have a Hamiltonian Cycle. 13. Prove that a graph with n vertices and n + 2 edges in planar. 14. How many 4-cycles are in Kn,n ? is connected. 15. Prove that either G or G 16. A chord of a cycle is an edge that connects two non-adjacent vertices in the cycle. Prove that if every node of G has degree 3 then G contains a cycle with a chord. 17. If G is a bipartite graph with m nodes on each side. If each node has degree more than m/2 then prove that it has a perfect matching. 18. Prove that a planar bipartite graph has at most 2n 4 edges. 19. If every node has degree d and at least one vertex has degree strictly less than d then prove that the graph is d-colorable. 20. If every face of a planar graph has even number of edges then prove that the graph is bipartite. 21. Prove that there is a tournament T with n players and at least n!2(n1) Hamiltonian paths.