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REVIEW OF ARTISTIC EDUCATION

No. 3 - 4

Center of Intercultural Studie and Re earc!e De"art#ent for Teac!er Education $%eor&e Ene cu' Uni(er it) of Art Ia*i+ Ro#ania

ARTES ,U-.IS/IN% /OUSE IA0I 1 2342 RO5ANIA

EDITORIA. -OARD
Prof. PhD. Brge Pugholm (Via University College, Viborg, Danemarca) Prof. PhD. Regine immelbauer (!ose"h ay#n $onservatorium, %isensta#t, &ustria) Prof. &lessan#ra Pa#ula (Conservatorio '(iuse""e Ver#i) *ilan, Universit+ #egli ,tu#i from -.&/uila, 0taly) Prof. PhD. Constantin Cuco1 (2&le3an#ru 0oan Cu4a2 University, 0ai, Romania) Prof. PhD. 5eo#or Co4ma (2&le3an#ru 0oan Cu4a2 University, 0ai, Romania) Prof. PhD. -aureniu oitu (2&le3an#ru 0oan Cu4a2 University, 0ai, Romania)

EDITORIA. STAFF
Prof. PhD. %ugenia *aria Paca ('(eorge %nescu) University of &rts, 0a1i, Romania ) 6 7oun#er Director 8 %#itor9in9chief -ect. PhD. *ihaela *itescu -u"u ('(eorge %nescu) University of &rts, 0a1i, Romania) 6 &ssistant %#itor

5E5-ERS
-ect. PhD. Dorina (eta 0uc: ('(eorge %nescu) University of &rts, 0a1i, Romania) &ssist. &na *aria &"rotosoaie 0ftimi ('(eorge %nescu) University of &rts, 0a1i, Romania) -ect. PhD. %lena ,eghe#in (2&le3an#ru 0oan Cu4a2 University, 0ai, Romania) Prof. PhD. -iliana ,tan (2&le3an#ru 0oan Cu4a2 University, 0ai, Romania)

REVIEW OF ARTISTIC EDUCATION


Revie; "ublishe# by $%eor&e Ene cu' Uni(er it) of Art Ia*i+ Ro#ania un#er Center of Intercultural Studie and Re earc!e De"art#ent for Teac!er Education 0ng. 7elicia Balan 0nternational Relations &ssistant Doctoral Can#i#ate 7lorin -uchian 5ranslator Carmen &ntochi Des<to" Publishing

%eneral Infor#ation
6ear of Relea e7 2342 ,u8li !in&7 $%eor&e Ene cu' Uni(er it) of Art Ia*i ISSN 9 23:; 1 <==4 ISSN-. 9 23:; 1 <==4 >>>.rae.art .ro For#at7 "rint and electronic a8 tract
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Relea e ?)ear7 2 CONTENTS AR%U5ENT>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>.................................? ,ART I7 CO5UNICATION AND INFOR5ATION TEC/NO.O%IES IN T/E FIE.D OF ARTISTIC EDUCATION>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>.@ A. &BBU5 &UD050V% 7&C5BR 0C *U,0C ? 0on (agim 8 Professor PhD, ,tate University D&lecu Russo) from B:lEi, Re"ublic of *ol#avia >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>........@ =. 5 % *%C &C0,* B7 &R50,50C CB(C050BC 0C 5%&C 0C( *U,0C 8 Viorica Cri1ciuc 8 -ecturer Doctoral Can#i#ate, ,tate University D&lecu Russo) from B:lEi , Re"ublic of *ol#avia.............................................................................................................................A? F. 5 % 0*&(% &, 7BR* B7 CR%&50BC 8 5he assertion of the inner artistic free#om ;ithin arts e#ucation 8 %caterina 5o1a 8 -ecturer PhD, University of &rts an# Design from CluG Ca"oca of Romania .........................................................................................................=H I. 5 % D0&-B( PRBV0D%D BJ 5 % P 0,0C&- %DUC&50BC B%5K%%C &R50,50*&!BR, 0C 5 % UC0V%R,05J B7 &R5, '(%BR(% %C%,CU) 7RB* 0& 0 8 &na Cristina -ee 8 -ecturer PhD, '(eorge %nescu) University of &rts from 0a1i of Romania ....................................................................................................................................... ...........=L ,ART II7 ART ,EDA%O%6 IN CO5,ARATIVE A,,ROAC/ES>>>>>>>..FH A. P%D&(B(0C&- PR0CC0P-%, B7 05&-0&C 0C,5RU*%C5&- D0D&C50C, 8 &lessan#ra Pa#ula 8 Professor, Conservatorio '(. Ver#i) from *ilan, Universit+ #egli ,tu#i from -.&/uila of 0taly.............................................................................................................FH =. 7BR*&50BC B7 0C5%RPR%5&50BC CB*P%5%CC% B7 5 % *U,0C&- 0*&(% &5 *U,0C 5%&C %R 8 -ilia (raneE<aia 8 ,enior -ecturer PhD, ,tate University D&lecu Russo) from B:lEi , Re"ublic of *ol#avia.............................................................................43 F. 5 % l,5BRJ B7 *U,0C &CD 5%&C 0C( 05 0C 5 % UC0V%R,050%, 8 Ramona PreGa 8 -ecturer PhD, University of &rts from 5Mrgu 9*ure1 of Romania>..>>>>>>I@ I. 0*P-0C&50BC, B7 %*0,P %R0C05J BC 5 % *U,0C&- 70%-D 8 Dorina 0u c: 8 -ecturer PhD, De"artment for 5eachers %#ucation, D(eorge %nescu) University of &rts from 0asi of Romania.........................................................................................................................?? ?. 5 % CBC5R0BU50BC B7 &R5 5B 5 % %CB-B(0C&- BU0-D0C( UP B7 5 % PUP0-,. P%R,BC&-05J 8 Viorica 6 5orii Caciuc 8 &ssistant Doctoral Can#i#ate, De"artment for 5eachers %#ucation, DDun:rea #e !os) University from (alaEi of Romania>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>L= ,ART III7 T/E FOR5ATION OF TEAC/ERS IN T/E FIE.D OF ARTISTIC EDUCATION >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>.@H A. 5 % K&J, B7 0C5%(R&50BC B7 5 % PRBC%,, B7 *U,0C 5%&C %R UC0V%R,05J 7BR*&50BC 8 *argarita 5etelea 8 &ssociate Professor PhD, ,tate University D&lecu Russo) from B:lEi , Re"ublic of *ol#avia>>>>>..>>@H =. 5% CB-B(0%, 7BR D%V%-BP0C( *U,0C 5%&C %R,. VBC&- CB*P%5%CC%, 8 Petr ,i<ur ? &ssociate Professor , ,tate University D&lecu Russo) from B:lEi , Re"ublic of *ol#avia@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@..@? F. 5%&C %R, 7BR*&50BC 7BR *U,0C&--J (075%D PUP0-,N R%&-05J &CD D%*&CD, 8 5atiana Bularga 8 &ssociate Professor PhD, ,tate University D&lecu Russo) from B:lEi , Re"ublic of *ol#avia>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>...@O I. %*P&5 J 7BR *U,0C &, 5 % %,,%CC% B7 *U,0C&- %DUC&50BC 8 *arina *orari 8 &ssociate Professor PhD, ,tate University D&lecu Russo) from B:lEi , Re"ublic of *ol#avia>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>...P@
F

?. 0C050&- 5R&0C0C( &,P%C5, B7 5%&C %R *U,0C %DUC&50BC 8 *arina Caliga 8 -ecturer, Doctoral Can#i#ate, ,tate University D&lecu Russo) from B:lEi , Re"ublic of *ol#avia>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>...OP L. BK C&C 5%&C %R %DUC&50BC BR0C( 5B -07% VJ(B5,$J., 0D%&, BC &R5 &CD P,JC B-B(J 8 *ihaela *itescu -u"u 8 -ecturer PhD, De"artment for 5eachers %#ucation, D(eorge %nescu) University of &rts from 0asi of Romania>>>>.AHI ,ART IV7 INTERCU.TURA. DI5ENSIONS OF ARTISTIC EDUCATION>>.AAF A. C BR&- ,0C(0C( 6 & *%&C, B7 0C5%RCU-5UR&- CB**UC0C&50BC 8 ,vetlana Postolachi 8 ,enior -ecturer , ,tate University D&lecu Russo) from B:lEi , Re"ublic of *ol#avia>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>AAF =. &R50,50C &CD CU-5UR&- ,%C,050Q&50BC 0C &DU-5 %DUC&50BC 8 Vangelis $arafilli#is 8 Pianist, Piano Di"loma, *ace#onian Conservatory, Com"oser, Com"osition Di"loma, *usic College, Physicist, Physics Degree, D&ristotle) University, Piano 5eacher, ,tate igh *usic ,chool from 5hessaloni<i of (reece>>>>>>>>>>>>>.>AAL F. &55R0BU50BC&- ,5J-% B7 ,5UD%C5, 7RB* RB*&C0&C *0(R&C5 7&*0-0%, 8 Cicoleta -aura Po"a 8 -ecturer PhD, Post#octoral 7ello; Romanian &ca#emy from 0a1i Branch of Romania>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>.A== ,ART V7 ART AS A 5EANS FOR 5EDIATION AND CO55UNIT6 ACTIONS...A=P A. PR%*0,%, B7 D%V%-BP0C( PUP0-, *U,0C CU-5UR% 0C 5 % CBCD050BC, B7 0*PRBV0C( %R5R&CURR0CU-&R *U,0C %CV0RBC*%C5 8 *arina Cosumov 8 Doctoral Can#i#ate, ,tate University D&lecu Russo) from B:lEi , Re"ublic of *ol#avia>A=P =. 5%&C %R, K05 &R50,50C ,P%C0&-0Q&50BC, B%5K%%C CU-5UR&*%D0&50BC &CD 0C5%RCU-5UR&- %DUC&50BC 8 %ugenia *aria Pa1ca 8 &ssociate Profesor PhD, De"artment for 5eachers %#ucation, '(eorge %nescu) University of &rts from 0a1i of Romania>>>>>>..............................................................................................AF? F. &CC0%C5 (R%%$ 5R&(%DJ &CD *U-50D0*%C,0BC&- ,BC0%5J 6 7R&(*%C5, B7 5 % -&,5 70V% D%C&D%, 8 0oana Petcu 8 &ssistant PhD, '(eorge %nescu) University of &rts from 0a1i of Romania>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>..AIF I. BK 5B R%&D 5 % -BU0,% BBUR(%B0,. KBR$ 7RB* 5 % P%R7BR*&50V05JS 8 %va ,antos ,Tnche49(u4mTn 8 Professor, University from *urcia of ,"ain>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>A?=

AR%U5ENT 5he volume, ;hich inclu#es three an# four numbers of the maga4ine, ;ith the theme Co#"arati(e re earc!e and tudie in arti tic and intercultural education+ contains a "art of the scientific ;o<s8stu#ies "resente# at the international event that ;as initiate# an# organi4e# by the De"artment for 5eachers. %#ucation ;ithin '(eorge %nescu) University of &rts from 0a1i through the Center of 0ntercultural ,tu#ies an# Researches in the year =HAAan# other communications. 5he organi4ing on AOth of Covember =HAA of the 0nternational Conference ;ith the theme Social-educational #ediation t!rou&! art aime# to be an o""ortunity for an inter#isci"linary an# intercultural a""roach o"en to the "e#agogic, "sychological, sociological an# e#ucational "olitics analysis ;ithin the #omain of intercultural e#ucation through the same artistic9e#ucational #omains, ta<ing into accountN the Develo"ment of intercultural #imension ;ithin the culture an# e#ucation #omainsN %#ucation in the s"irit of human rights, the reform of e#ucational system, the "rotecting an# enhance of the cultural "atrimony8heritage, the intercultural e#ucation of youth, "ractical e3am"les of a""lying the intercultural "ers"ective ;ithin the aime# #omains, as ;ell as the coo"eration bet;een authorities an# the civil society. 5he scientific "resentations8lectures ;ithin the sections ;ere in the follo;ing #omainsN *usic, 5heatre, 7ine &rts, %#ucation 8De"artment for 5eachers %#ucationN A. Communication an# 0nformation 5echnologies in the fiel# of &rtistic %#ucationU =. &rt Pe#agogy in Com"arative &""roachesU F. 5he formation of 5eachers in the fiel# of &rtistic %#ucationU I. 0ntercultural #imensions of &rtistic %#ucationU ?. &rt as a means for *e#iation an# Community actions. 5he #eclare# goal ;as an# it is to stimulate the "ro#uction of scientific <no;le#ge in the fiel# of artistic e#ucation an# to #evelo" the community of e#ucational "ractice an# research in artistic #omain, as in this #omain, in Romania, #oes not e3ists these <in# of "ublications. 0n this ;ay, ;e consi#er to be im"ortant the o"inion of a s"ecialist in the musical e#ucation #omain, &lessan#ra Pa#ula, Professor at Conservatorio '(iuse""e Ver#i) from *ilan, Universit+ #egli ,tu#i from -.&/uila of 0taly D-earning to "lay a musical instruments has relevant 'strictly #isci"linary) goals, as fluency, strength an# in#e"en#ence of the fingers, correct "hrasing, stylistically a""ro"riate e3ecution of ornaments, etc. o;ever, "u"ils ;ho "lay a musical instrument can also reach or o"timi4e fun#amental "erce"tive, cognitive, an# motor ca"abilities. 5hey can enhance their ability to Goin other "u"ils, raising self9esteem an# self9 control, an# #evelo"ing a sense of belonging. 5hey can train memory, #evelo" creativity, an# enhance their o;n e3"ressive an# organi4ational ca"abilities. *oreover, in "laying a musical instrument they can get <ey com"etences for lifelong learning, an# get "ossession of a fun#amental "art of %uro"e.s rich cultural heritage. 5he "a"er outlines the courses offere# by 0talian "ublic schools
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in the instrumental fiel#, an# cites the ;or<s of many 0talian com"osers inclu#e# in the syllabi of music schools an# Conservatories. 5he "e#agogical "rinci"les on ;hich these "ieces are base# are relate# to the thought of some im"ortant "e#agogues an# "sychologists, such as Pestalo44i, *ontessori an# (ar#ner.) 5he interest manifeste# by the s"ecialists8"rofessionals from our country an# from %uro"e ((ermany, 0taly, ,"ain, Re"ublic of *ol#avia, (reece) to;ar# these initiatives is conclusive through the communications that ;ere "resente#.

Editorial taff

,ART I CO5UNICATION AND INFOR5ATION TEC/NO.O%IES IN T/E FIE.D OF ARTISTIC EDUCATION

4. A-OUT AUDITIVE FACTOR IN 5USIC


Ion %a&i#1 A8 tract7 The article, structured from two parts, scientific-theoretical and practicalapplicative describes the auditive factor of music. The question isnt about ear for music, about musical perception or about listening to music in a traditional treatment of the given concept. These questions have been investigated widely and it has been written much about their role in musical activity. The author suggests a broader approach to the subject treating fundamental factor in the auditory sense and defining the art of music, under its general aspects of cultural, philosophical, spiritual, psychological and derived from them and together with them in terms of specific-musicology. !n the second part of the article the author presents a possible technology of forming listening and hearing competence, of understanding of an abscons message and of a musical creation, based on the principle of "interiori#ation of music, formulated and elaborated by the author. $s a result of the listeners conceptuali#ation of the problem and the practical wor% of growing competence mentioned above, a &new& musical hearing is formed, a new vision about music and about personal relationship with it, a new understanding of what we understand of this enigmatic art, the ultimate goal is building according to its sublime laws. Ae) >ord 7 musical hearing, psychology of musical hearing, sound phylosophy, music 'istener, music listening, phenomenology of music listening, principle of interiori#ation of music, music listening technology.

5he article is #evote# to the "roblem of hearing in music. 5he /uestion isn.t about 'ear for music), about 'musical "erce"tion) or about 'listening to music) in a tra#itional treatment of the given conce"t. 5hese /uestions have been investigate# ;i#ely an# it has been ;ritten much about their role in musical activity. Ke suggest formulating the "roblem more ;i#elyN e3amining the hearing8 listening factor in general, as #efining for the musical art. Ke consi#er it necessary to raise the /uestion of hearing not in the "sychological, "hysiological, etc. "lan (as a rule, it is e3amine# e3actly in this ;ay in the a""ro"riate literature, inclu#ing the musicological9"sychological), but in the "rofoun# an# all9embracing, universal, "hiloso"hical9s"iritual, cultural, that is 9 fun#amental value. Because only at this level music, as is <no;n, sho;s an# reali4es itself in the true sense. 0f one #oesn.t un#erstan# that music is more than 'beautiful soun#ing), than 'a "sychological (emotional) con#ition) or than 'artistic craft) means that one #oesn.t un#erstan# it in its "rofoun# #estination for a "erson. 5he e3amination of hearing in the suggeste# version ;ill hel" to reali4e its true role for music an# for musical culture as a ;hole, an# if stricter 6 for #estiny of the music. 7or the auditory factor in music is all. *usic is music, in its any manifestation an# in any form (com"osing, "erforming, listening) #ue to the au#itory "henomenon as such. But at the same time the hearing is little stu#ie# in the sense of its role in the "erson.s life
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activity, es"ecially in the general9cultural, e#ucational an# s"iritually9 "hiloso"hical value.) (5he visual factor in culture is stu#ie# more thoroughly than the au#itory one). o;ever, ;ithout this <no;le#ge (the role of hearing in "eo"le.s life activity), it is im"ossible to consi#er the hearing #ee"ly an# in a "urely musical sense. 7or the culture of music is, basically, the culture of hearing . ence the e3istence of #ifferent musical culturesN ;estern, eastern, the cultures of "eo"le #istant from the mo#ern civili4ation, etc. %ach of them has its o;n music, because each has its o;n hearing of the ;orl#.s soun#ings, its o;n attitu#e to the au#itory9soun# "henomenon in general, its o;n general hearing, inclu#ing ear for music. Khat ma<es the "roblem of hearing, of the au#itory factor in music so actual to#ayS 5he first reason is the emergence of a ne; #irection in the theory of art, inclu#ing in musicology name# receptivistics. 5he secon# reason is the absence of the theory of music listening alongsi#e ;ith the e3isting theories of the other t;o ty"es of musical activity (or broa#er 6 ty"es of the #ialogue '"erson9music)) 6 com"osition an# "erformance ;hich together form ;hat can be name# 'triune musical "rocess) 6 the movement of a "iece of music from a""earance9creation before its actuali4ation in the listener.s consciousness. 0n fact it is in the listener (more e3actly, o;ing to the listener) ;here music fin#s its true #estination, reali4es itself, becomes ;hat it is, thus Gustifying its o;n e3istence. 0n the conte3t of creation of the theory of music hearing it is also necessary to #efine the conce"t of 'listener), inclu#ing its 'ontological) an# 2common cultural2 sense as this conce"t remains outsi#e the vision fiel# of researchers9culture e3"erts an#8or musicologists. 5he given omission is not Gustifie# at all. 5he listener is usually un#erstoo# as an abstract, 2minor2 for musical culture an# 'not <no;le#geable) in this area "ersonage ;ho is as a rule loo<e# u"on ;ith con#escension by 'an e3"ert9"rofessional). 0t is necessary to inclu#e in the category of 'listener) not only 'non9musicians), but also musicians, i.e. any "erson ;ho is in contact ;ith this art. 0n fact creating, "erforming an# listening to music are #ifferent things. &n# it is not a3iomatic at all, that if you are able to create or "erform it, you are also able to listen to it. 0t cuts both ;ays. *usic, #uring its #evelo"ment, 2having risen2 onto the stage, gra#ually starte# to 'se"arate8move a;ay) from the source of its interest 6 from a "erson (;ho 2has remaine#2 in a hall or in general outsi#e of a hall). 5he main figure of musical life began to be lost behin# 'the curtain) of "rofessionali4ationN the listener began to be "erceive# as 2not serious2 for a 2serious2 musical science.
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Ke mean 9 in the ;estern culture, for in the eastern tra#ition the "roblem of hearing (an# the "roblem of a soun# connecte# ;ith it) is treate# #ifferently. 0t has been stu#ie# here at least several thousan# years. P

,"ea<ing about the necessity of creation of the theory of music hearing ;e #o not forget that a lot of ;or<s of e#ucational9metho#ical an# a""licative in #are #evote# to this activityN ho; to teach (basically, chil#ren) to listen to music. But it #oes not mean yet, that the "roblem is stu#ie# in its bases. 0t is tac<le# from an 2amateur2 "ers"ective, as a rule, in con#itions of a com"rehensive school an# it is not raise# in s"ecial (musical) e#ucational institutions at all. *aybe the e3"erts thin< that the given a"titu#e is forme# by itself or that it is not necessary for musician, or that this occu"ation is 'not serious) for a 2serious2 musicianS 5he given /uestions are not rhetorical. 5hey re/uire an ans;er 9 at least, in the conte3t of a ne; #irection in art criticism, rece"tivistics. 5.V. Bu<ina gives reason for the necessity of creation, ;ithin the limits of a musical science, of the ne; conce"t #evote# to the rece"tive research an# assuming 'essentially other reference "oint in stu#ying the "henomena of the artistic culture base# on the recognition of an active role of the au#ience in formation an# functioning of the artistic "rocess). * 0t is the /uestion of a ne; scientific "ara#igm, '#escribe# as a metamor"hosis of the listener.s status in the area of the musical science com"etenceN from an abstract Reci"ient conventionally e3isting outsi#e of the analy4e# te3t 6 to the s"ecific, historically changeable "ersonage "laying active, if not #efining role in cultural "ro#uction. 5he further ignoring of this role, the author affirms, ris<s to lea# to #ramatic #ivergences bet;een the theory an# "ractice. Bne of the "o"ular ;rong beliefs, 5.V. Bu<ina claims, is to regar# the score as a self9sufficient music analogue). But a "iece of music, ;e.# li<e to remin#, is not e/uivalent to a te3t, it may not be 'free) from "erforming as ;ell as hearing factors. + '5he e3"ert assessment of the com"osition, continues the /uote# author, "roves to be im"ossible ;ithout its correlation ;ith numerous au#itory "ictures of the ;orl# 8...8.5he musical science searches on the given "roblem, 5.V. Bu<ina #ra;s our attention, are in <ee"ing ;ith the searches in a#Gacent areas of humanitarian <no;le#ge ;here in

Bu<ina 5.V. ,-.-/012130145 1 678945:;<5= <5745 <5 >7?-@- 093=A-:-01B 2 /C1345D 4C6/>C61335 (Eeceptivistics and the musical science on the boundary of millenniums in search of a compromiseF. 88 htt"N88;;;.terrahumana.ru8arhiv8H@WHF8in#e3.html + 0n musicology the thesis that a "iece of music is foun# not in musical notation (te3t) but in its soun#ing became firmly establishe# long ago. o;ever the given statement, ;e consi#er, re/uires s"ecification. 0t is not enough to claim that music is foun# not in musical notation but in its insonation ("erforming). 0t is necessary to reali4e the fun#amental fact that the /uestion is not about the soun#ing of a musical ;or< 2in general2, in an abstract9 obGective, 'outsi#e the hearing) an# 'outsi#e the "erson) ('outsi#e the subGect)) s"ace, but about the soun#ing ;hich is in contact ;ith hearing. 0t is here, at the moment of 2lin<9u"2 (2fusion2) of soun#ing ;ith hearing, ;here music actually arises. But this isn.t all. 0t is im"ortant to a##, that music not only arises at this moment but also lasts as long as the moment lasts, i.e., it e3ists as music only #uring the given s"ace of time. Butsi#e this s"ace of time music is not music as suchN ;hat arose before the #ialogue bet;een hearing an# a "iece of music (;hen "re"aring for listening, etc.) ;asn.t music yet (it is only 2forthcoming2, 2"ossible2, 2future2 music), an# ;hat ;ill arise after that moment (the analysis, theoretical stu#ying, the tal< about it, etc.) alrea#y isn.t music (an# only the 2memory2, the remaine# i#ea, etc.). o;ever the music researcher, as a rule, often #ra;s far9 reaching conclusions about this or that "iece of music on the basis of the 2soun#less2 te3t, let alone the fact that he8she #oes not consi#er the #efining factor 6 the au#itory one. &n# on this "rinci"le all tra#itional musical science is built. O

the secon# half of the =Hth century the tra#ition of rece"tive research ;as generate#). Ke suggest vie;ing the state# subGect matter from the other en# ;hich, as a matter of fact, mar<s the beginning 6 #efinition of the 2ontological2 nature of hearing9listeningN its role in a "erson.s life (life activity), its s"ecific character, #ifference from other forms of #ialogue ;ith the ;orl# an# "erce"tion of the ;orl# (mainly, from an eye9vision 6 the secon# main channel by means of ;hich the "erson "rovi#es his8her e3istence an# reali4es himself8herself in all manifestationsN "hysical, "sychological, social, cultural, artistic, scientific, religious, etc.). ... 5he Person (&#am) ;ishe# to cogni4e. &n# the (o# satisfie# his #esire, 2having o"ene#2 his eyes. Khat #i# he fin# outS 5hat he is 'na<e#). &n# he reache# for a leaf... 5hus, a "erson has got a gift of vision 6 cognition by 'one.s o;n eyes). But accor#ing to the ;ell9<no;n la; ('ac/uiring one thing, you lose the other thing)) a "erson lost other "recious gift 6 fine ear (2meta"hysical2 hearing).Ve#a, the ancient in#u scri"tures (2oral2, #irect form of cognition) transforme# into more mo#ern U"anisha# (a 2;ritten2, 2boo<2 form of cognition 6 through 2interme#iary2). &live soun#9intonation has ac/uire# a 2letter9"a"er2 form. 2,"eech2 became 2language2. 5he fol<lore became a boo< about fol<lore. 2%3"erience2 became 2<no;le#ge2. 5he Ve#ic gnoseology from #ifferent "ossible ;ays of cognition "refers the ,hab#a ;ay instea# of hearing.G (ra#ually the ancient 2au#itory2 civili4ation accom"lishe# a crucial gnoseological turn 6a transition (basically, beginning from ancient (ree<s) onto the ;ay of an eye 8 light (i.e., 2e3ternal2, 2visible2 forms of cognition)N 'light of truth), 'light of reason), ';orl# vie;) 2outloo<2, 2e#ucation9enlightenment2, 'to bring to the light), 2"oint of vie;2... H Before the (ree<s the i#eas ha# an au#itory character. Beginning from ancient (ree<s the i#eas ;ere 2to be seen2. 5he motto of the ne; ;orl# (of thin<ing9consciousness) became the statement 'it.s better to see one time than to hear ten times). 5he secret hearing (an# together ;ith it, the secret sense of au#itory cognition) began to be combine# ;ith 8be #is"lace# by an eye. 0nterest to the ;orl# move# from 2the #e"ths2 9 to 2the surface2. 5herefore, a "erson became more an# more unable to hear the Voice of %3istence. *usic remaine# the last e3"ression of this Voice. 5he au#itory logos is a logos of essence, #e"ths, roots, invisible life. 5he mo#ern language contains the ;or# 'clairvoyance), but in it there is no ;or# 'secon# hearing) (#ictionaries of occult sciences ma<e e3ce"tion) 9 "erce"tion of soun#s (vibrations) outsi#e a "hysical ear, at the level of
G

ViGnana Bhairava 5antra. Iartea secretJ a cJii tantrice, comentatJ de Ksho LThe Mecret Noo% of the Tantric Oay, commented by KshoF, vol.00, Bucure1ti, =HHH. H ,ee interesting from the "oint of vie; of the mentione# /uestion 9 inclu#ing in connection ;ith a "henomenon of music 6 a boo< by (achev (.D. P78945 1 32-0C25= .121:185.1= LQusic and the light civili#ationF. *osco;, AOOO.

AH

hy"er"hysical consciousness. 5his sacral feeling has got lost. 5he im"ortance of (an# #eman# for) visual abilities to the #etriment of the thin au#itory ones has increase# in #ue course. 2Visibility2, 2theatricality2, 2sho;2 got more an# more attractive for a "erson. But the science statesN the hearing as a "erce"tion organ, is more im"ortant than vision for a chil#, because the chil# #e"rive# of hearing shar"ly lags behin# in his8her "rogress. 5he given fact #oesn.t refer in the same #egree to chil#ren #e"rive# of vision since birth. 5he ear is the organ forming human consciousness. 5he eye gras"s a hori4ontally9"lanar (monosemous) "lan, the ear gras"s a vertically9volumetric, multi9storey ("olysemous) "lan. 5he visual "erce"tion nee#s 'the thir# eye )to be able to ca"ture more (to "enetrate more #ee"ly). 5he eye "erceives8sho;s to us "arts of the ;orl#, its fragments 6 'a for;ar# "art), 'a bac< "art). 7or hearing9music there are no bac<8for;ar# "arts9fragments. 0t sei4es the Khole. *usic is a voice9logos of invisible metavisual life 6it #oes not len# itself to translation into the language of visual (2light2) measurement. Eeturn to the auditory beginning means return to the music itself. 5he above9state# lea#s to the conclusion that the hearing 8 listening factor shoul# be givenan a""ro"riate status in the musical science. 5he logic of thin<ing an# arguments also con#uct to the conclusion about the necessity of creation of the theory of music hearing8listening. Certainly, it ;on.t be sim"le to reali4e the given a""roach, to #evelo" the a""ro"riate investigative techni/ues. Because the researcher faces the ne; reality ;hich #oesn.t len# itself easily to an obGective stu#yingN the subGect matter here is not 2the obGect2 (music in its formal9te3tual as"ect) but the relation 2obGect9subGect2. o;ever "hysics in #ue time foun# itself in the same com"licate# "osition ;hen the ne; ;orl# ;as #iscovere# 6 the /uantum ;orl# ;here the classical metho#ology #i#n.t ;or< any more. Cevertheless, "hysicists foun# an# continue to fin# a#e/uate metho#s, they #i#n.t 'ca"itulate) before a 2mysterious2 /uantum reality (;here, by the ;ay, the relation 2obGect9subGect2 is also #efining). 5he ne; scientific "ara#igm that ;as acce"te# follo;ing "hysics an# other sciences must be also a""lie# in the frame;or< of musicology for it cannot <ee" a;ay from the ne; main scientific #irection. 5he more so because the character of this "ara#igm is close to a s"ecific character (nature) of the music itself.R '5he au#itory) a""roach in stu#ying music shoul# cover all "ossible levels an# as"ects of the #ialogue 'a "erson9musical soun#s) an#, accor#ingly 'a "erson9music)N common cultural, "hiloso"hical, musicological, "sychological, e#ucational9"e#agogical an# so forth. 7urther ;e suggest a

Ke e3amine this "roblem in the article '*usic an# the ne; ;orl# of sciences)(' *u4ica 1i lumea nou: a 1tiinEelor)) 88 $%ademos. Cr.A (=L), =HAA, ". AHO9AA?. AA

"ossible music listening technologyP ;ith the title of as a manifestation of the theoretical reasoning mentione# above.S earing activity of a creation is an investigation (au#itory) in the "ro"er sense of the ;or# 9 a research, a search an# a discovery. 0t re/uires a discipline of hearing and mind, but the one that #evelo"s the #isci"line hearing an# min#, #evelo"ing (e3"an#s an# #ee"ens) the ;hole consciousness. & real listening "enetrating of a creation suggests a "ursuance as careful as "ossible, concentrate# an# analytical of a #iscourse. 25he ;or<ing tool2 in this case is hearing, in its active "artici"atory form. 5o enter the hi##en meaning of a creation it re/uires commitment an# inner listening, attending to ;hat ha""ens to music, merge to hearing #iscourse. & musical creation is an action (an# not a 2static "icture2) ;here certain events occur (soun#, music). 5hey must be 2read2 by hearing, i.e. follo;e# actively an# continuously. 5echnology of au#itory ac/uisition of a "iece of music is similar, in general, ;ith the techni/ue of ac/uisition of an by an instrumentalist (i.e., ;hat a "ianist ma<es, for e3am"le, in learning a ne; song), namely ste" by ste" its con/uest through re"etition an# "ractice, through #ismantling the elements an# combination of elements, through con/uest an# #omination of every "assage, every movement, every s"ecific moment, of 2#ifficult2 "laces, etc.5echnology "hases areN A. Kverall listening creation 9 as it a""ears for the first time leaving us on its ;aves ;ithout a very s"ecific "ur"ose. =. -istening overall, but ;ith intention to cause certain structures ("arts, movements, e"iso#es, elements of the ;hole) 9 in the most general ;ay. (5here may be t;o, three, etc. re9listening of a creation). 0t re/uires an increase in the intensity of listening. F. Ilarifying the structure of creation. 5here is 2a catching2 an# its setting on the "age e#ges of a hi##en architecture (architectural or#er) of a ;or<. Totation by letters (large or small, #e"en#ing on the si4e of the ;or<), by the numbers of the general structure. 7or e3am"leN &, B, C, & or 0, 00, 000, 0. I. Bverall listening, #etermining an# noting on the "age some substructures in large structures (overall). 7or e3am"leN & (aa), B (bbX), C, & (aaY). ( ere one listens se"arately, through resum"tions, fragments, substructures, reasons, "arts, etc.). Re"eate# hearing an# every time more concentrate#.
U

5he suggeste# technology elaborate# accor#ing to "rinci"le of Dinteriori4ation of music), formulate# an# elaborate# by the author an# ;hich is summari4e# to moving music from its De3terior) to Dinterior), to its transformation from "hysically9soun# hearing into "sycho9s"irituat livingU ;e are tal<ing about musical Drecor#ing) in yourself an# its filling at the foun#ation of self. S 5he author has #evelo"e# an# teaches at the University 2&lecu Russo2 Balti (but also in other universities) the course of Iommented musical actions an# "romotes "ublic au#ition conferences ;ith the title The art of listening and understanding music. 5he technology is an as"ect of these activities. (,ee, for e3am"leN Venomenologia audiWiei mu#icale, (Xhenomenology of Qusic 'istening) 88 0on (agim. Qu#ica Yi filosofia LQusic and philosiphy). Chi1in:u, =HHOU 0on (agim. Kmul Zn faWa mu#icii L$ Xerson and Qusic Vace to VaceF. B:lEi, =HHH). A=

?. Re"eate# re9hearings ;ith the aim of #etermination (through ins"ections an# mo#ifications) an# mar<ing small structures (aa, bb, etc.). 5hese re9hearings may be accompanied by a hum of reasons, music, themes. [ummingAH can beN as a 2hum2 (murmur, unintelligible song), the stream of air through the ;histle light, through #ifferent voice (i.e. 2a2) or syllables (2ta9ta9ta2, 2"a9"a9"a 2, etc.), #e"en#ing on the nature of the song. umming, as ;ell can beN a) au#ible, b) almost inau#ible, c) mute (inau#ible 8 mental). L. &fter noting on the "age the structure of the "a"er in its elements, melogestics is a""lie# (2"lastic singing 2 8 2#ancing of han#s2) accor#ing to the line after then every melo#y an# theme is going on (a, a, b, b X etc.) . 5he han# 8 han#s are in the air 2traGectory2 of music #evelo"ment trac< #ata (given reason). Khy the 2han#s2 an# not Gust 2a han#2S Because #ifferent han#s can ;atch for #ifferent reasons (to #ifferent voices or instruments), ;ith #ifferent configuration or #ifferent elements of that reason 9 for e3am"le, sub9motives etc. 0n some cases, both han#s can 2"aint2 the same figure in the air. @. 7i3ing meloritmia on the "age 9 gra"hic notation by figures in the "attern of reasons, songs, s"ecific moments, byN lines 8 ;ave lines fragments in 4ig4ag, the Gum"s, bro<en, curve#, ;ith s"irals, #ots, u", #o;n, by arro;s, the other signs. 0t is a""lie# everything ;hat is "ossible to 2catch2 an# fi3 the most a""ro"riate 2character2 (2s"irit2) of these reasons, songs, some moments (2events2) characteristic of them, Gum"s, significant "auses, #issonant soun#s, s"ecific rhythmic elements, ga"s, etc. 5his ;or< is #one base# on several rehearings. (0n the ;or<s of "ro"ortions 9 sym"honies, concertos, sonatas, entertainment, /uartets, etc. 6 it is move# from small to the ;hole ensemble e3"an#e# gra#ually). 5he final version of the "age creation notation ;e can call 2listener score.2(( P. Kor< hearing as a ;hole followed the visual wor% #one entirely on the "a"er. O. earing all the ;or< combining the visual trac%ing of melogestics ;ith meloritmia. AH. earing all the ;or< by combining melogestica ;ith humming. AA. earing all the ;or< by combining three elementsN humming, melogestics, meloritmia trac<ing. A=.*ulti"le rehearing of a ;or< till its inner memori#ing them (at the level of inner hearing). AF. 2[earing2 (re"ro#uction) of a full ;or< till insi#e ;ithout hearing it in e3terior. (0f it is necessary, the ;or< can be rehear# till memori4ing it. 5his "roce#ure may be accom"anie# by humming or melogestics. &n# rarely, if it is strictly necessary, it can be accom"anie# by follo;e# meloritmia).

(\

umming "henomenon is consi#ere# fun#amental in the ;or< by (eorge B:lan Xetit traite de lart de fredoneer (,an<t Peter, *usicoso"hia, AOO=). (( Cote that no 2"artirura2 matter itself, but loo<ing as such effort that ;e au#it to create it. AF

AI. 5he interior 2interpretation2 (2the singing2), in all its musical value as a

"articular #iscourse content, as a narrative 8 #rama ;ith semantic 2events2, ;ith its 2"hiloso"hical2 meaning an# so on. A?. Qusic meditationN the #evelo"ment, the 2bac<#ro"2 of music that echoes insi#e the "ersonal living con#itions of some s"ecific states, cause# by this music, ;ith the a""earance of some 2interrogations2 an# "ossible 2ans;ers2 ;ith the a""earance of reflections, thoughts, etc.. *usic causes unre"eatable states (;hich only music can cause them), an# it accom"anies these states, ;hich coul# not occur outsi#e this music (a 2#ialogue2 ;ith it). 7or this, it is necessary an 2amalgamation2 to inner music 6 till the s"iritual i#entification ;ith it. 5his music becomes a "art of interior '0 am), of the ;hole being, resoun#ing, at the 2cell2 in terms of all consciousness. 5he 2content2 (meaning, message, i#ea, s"iritual 2feeling2) can be of #ifferent character, #e"en#ing on the "erson, the #egree of his8her culture, intelligence, thin<ing, feeling, etc. AL. ]eeping music in the heart, mind, and on the lips. *aintaining an inner #ialogue ;ith it, of a intimate uninterru"te# 2conversation2. 5his may be the highest level of communication ;ith a musical ;or<. A@. &s a result, a new musical hearing is developing. Qusic in general a""ears in another ;ay. & ne; un#erstan#ing of music is forme#, a ne; vision of itself an# the "ersonal relationshi" ;ith it. Bnly music at this level can change (transform) its inner ;orl# accor#ing to its sublime la;s. -i8lio&ra"!) A. Balan (. Ium sJ ascultJm mu#ica ([ow to 'isten to Qusic), Bucure1ti,AOOO. =. (agim 0. ^imensiunea psihologicJ a mu#icii (Xsychological dimention of music). 0a1i, =HHF. F. (agim 0. Venomenologia audiWiei mu#icale (Xhenomenology of Qusic 'istening) 88 (agim 0. Qu#ica Yi Vilosofia LQusic and phylosophyF , Chi1in:u, =HHO, P. AFI9AIH. I. (agim 0. _tiinWa Yi arta educaWiei mu#icale (The science and the art of music), Chi1in:u, =HH@. ?. (agim 0. Taina mu#icii (The Qystery of Qusic) 88 (agim 0. Kmul Zn faWa mu#icii ($ Xerson and Qusic Vace to Vace), B:lEi, =HH=, Z. LF9OF. L. 0orgulescu &. Timpul mu#ical. Qaterie Yi metaforJ (Qusical Time. Qatter and metaphor), Bucure1ti, AOPP. @. *oretta &. Iuv`ntul Yi tJcerea (The Oord and Milence), Bucure1ti, AOOI. P. ViGnana Bhairava 5antra. Iartea secretJ a cJii tantrice, comentatJ de Ksho (The Mecret Noo% of the Tantric Oay, commented by Ksho ), vol.00, Bucure1ti, =HHH. O. Bu<ina 5.V. Eeceptivistics and the musical science on the boundary of millenniums in search of a compromise. 88htt"N88;;;.terrahumana.ru8arhiv8H@WHF8in#e3.html
AI

2. T/E 5EC/ANIS5 OF ARTISTIC CO%NITION IN TEAC/IN%

5USIC
Viorica Cri*ciuc() A8 tract 7 The mechanism of artistic %nowledge is the main one in the process of teaching music. Ionsisting of the traditional structural elements of general pedagogy and music pedagogy, on the basis of the perceptive-aperceptive biphasic concept, the elements of this mechanism are differently restructured during musical-didactic activities in relation to music %nowledge levels. Ae) >ord 7 mechanism of artistic cognition, perceptive phase, aperceptive phase, music %nowledge, musical-didactic activities.

5he cognition act in the "rocess of teaching music #uring music e#ucation lesson is not only a "e#agogical act of <no;le#ge assimilation, but it is also a cognition s"ecific act, an act of emotional e3"erience of ;or< message, investigation an# #iscovery of truth, of ca"acities formation, of <no;le#ge a""lication in music9#i#actic activities. 0n virtue of such a characteristic "u"il ;ill not be only the receiver of the e#ucational "rocess, but he ;ill be the one ;ho #iscovers the truth himself. (*[=, ". O@\ 5he organi4ation of the e#ucational "rocess (teaching 6 learning 6 evaluation) is #one in the conte3t of interaction of certain stagesN "e#agogical, "sychological, gnoseological an# logical. 5hese stages in 0. Bonta1.s o"inion coinci#e to tra#itional cognition mechanismN A. 5he obGects an# "henomenon "erce"tion corres"on#s ;ith sensorial cognition stage, in ;hich through the #irect contact ;ith the reality by means of senses an# rational ca"acity, it forms the reality global "icture as "erce"tions an# re"resentations on the mental level. =. 5he com"rehension, abstracti4ation an# generali4ation of <no;le#ge is the stage of conscious, logical, rational an# abstract cognition. F. $no;le#ge fi3ation is the act of mental recor#ing an# setting (storage). During this stage it is create# the a""erce"tive bac<groun#U it insures the logical storage of <no;le#ge. I. ,<ills an# abilities formation is the <no;le#ge a""lication stage of ca"acities, s<ills an# intellectual an# "ractical com"etences, the stage of "lanning an# scientific research. ?. $no;le#ge evaluation is the #i#actic chec<ing act (verification), a""reciation an# <no;le#ge mar<ing. 0t highlights the level, the value an# the teaching9 learning efficiency. %valuation is "lanne# by the teacher in #ifferent ;ays, it has control character for the teacher an# self9control for the "u"il, achieving to the fee#bac< "rinci"le [=, ". AHA\.
()

-ecturer Doctoral Can#i#ate,,tate University D&lecu Russo) from B:lEi , Re"ublic of *ol#avia, emailN vicacrisciucVrambler.ru (* Bonta1 0., Pe#agogie., AOPP, %#itura &-- %DUC&50BC&-, 5imi1oara. A?

5he art "ur"ose is to give a com"lete <no;le#ge about the ;orl#. 0n artistic ;or<s the nature an# the man a""ear in a #ee"er reality than it a""ears in sciences. &rt hel"s us to "enetrate the ,,eternal human through a more #irect ;ay as ;e "enetrate by means of science) (+ [=, ". =O\. 5hus, the emotions are the basis of music cognition #ue to ;hich the "u"il "enetrates the musical content of the message. But, the com"lete assimilation of the music is inse"arable relate# to the rational9logical cognition o"erations. 0n music cognition the rational cognition is #ominate# by the emotional one. 0n teaching music, the teacher must subor#inate the music <no;le#ge accor#ing to their utility in teaching musical activities, the "ractical an# the e#ucational role, the accessibility for school age "u"ils an# accor#ing to "sychic functions in the act of musical "henomenon cognition. 5he "rocess of artistically cognition involves #irectly the musical creation "erce"tions, by a ;i#e scale of e3"eriences, emotions, feelings. 5he music analysis #erives from the #ata of sensesU reason is the one that interferes an# allo;s the art com"rehension in general. &ccor#ing to Orlo( %!., the elements of artistic cognition "rocess <ee"s to a hierarchy insi#e. %ach element of the "sychological mechanism is activate# by an im"ulse ;hich is reflecte# in the follo;ing element. 5he mechanism of cognition "rocess is structure# in t;o "hasesN A. 5he "erce"tive "hase 6 the reaction of emotions8e3"eriences of musical "henomenon. Perce"tive "hase consists of tra#itional elements of the music cognition mechanism (cognition, com"rehension, a""lication, analysis, synthesis, an# valorisation). =. &""erce"tive "hase 6 here are inclu#e# "roce#ures of i#entification, #ifferentiation an# organi4ation of ,,structural lin<s of musical <no;le#ge), aime# to the valorisation an# assimilation of the musical message (G [I, ". A=F\. 0n his researches A afie( -. un#erline# I levels of music cognition ;hich #evelo" the "erce"tion of acoustic message to "u"ils through interactionN A. AcBuire#ent of #u ical-aural eC"erience. =. 5he secon# level of musical cognition su""oses ste" by ste" intro#uction in "u"ils. min# of #u ical lan&ua&e ele#ent ;hich organi4e the musical movement. F. 5he thir# level of the musical cognition is t!e eC"erience "!ere it- elf, ;hich consists of #ifferent teaching activities, beginning ;ith the transcribing of the musical notes in or#er to assimilate the musical rea#ing an# ;riting of logics, en#ing ;ith the inter"retation of musical ;or<s of #ifferent ty"e. I. 5he creativity level is consi#ere# by &safiev B., the most im"ortant level in musical cognition. 0t contributes to the "ractical assimilation of the acoustic material. 5he intro#uction of im"rovisations at the lessons, songs com"osing favour the creative imagination #evelo"ment to "u"ils.
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Bonta1 0., Pe#agogie., AOPP, %#itura &-- %DUC&50BC&-, 5imi1oara. Brlov (h., =HHL, ]^_`a bcdefg, haZf`i.

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5he cognition i#ea as a com"onent of musical e3"erience belongs to the musicologist (eorge B:lan. 5hus, %eor&e -Dlan #efines four levels in the cognition "rocess of the musical artN 4. E#otional reactionE 2. I#a&inati(e "erce"tion, ;hich consists of mental re"resentation (scenes, characters, lan#sca"es etc.), ;here ;e can fin# literary e3"licationsU 3. 5u ical t!inFin& is #ivi#e# into three levelsN a) 5his level #eals ;ith the music effect on thin<ing, ;hich lea#s to the subGective me#itations ins"ire# from moo#s an# mental re"resentations mentione# aboveU b) 0n the follo;ing level the musical contem"lation becomes an obGective reality, acoustic one. c) 5his level is characterise# by musical "erce"tion as the ;orl# insi#e, ;hich lives e3clusively through elo/uence an# force of soun#. 4. ECi tential le(el 9 music transforms into a ;ay of cognition ;hich can not be #escribe# by ;or#s, 'listening to the music as a vital nee#) (H [A, ". O@\. 5he artistic cognition "rocess involves in teaching "ractice the analytical an# global listening. 5o "ractice analytical listening means to analyse music by fragmenti4ing the #iscourse in small "arts in or#er to #iscover it. Ion %a&i# asserts that music is a u"re#e co&nition, a self9cognition. 5here are "henomena (an# meanings) that can be got by senses an# s"ecific states. ,uch s"ecific e3"eriences an# senses can be reache# through music. *usic is also a ,,religans) (relation) because it re9establishes our relation ;ith the $bsolute. 0on (agim asserts that the musical thin<ing focuses on the human aural consciousness 6 the ca"acity of thin<ing in an acoustic ;ay, the ca"acity that #evelo"e# #uring the multimillinary life e3"erience. *usical consciousness ;as forme# un#er aural consciousness basis. 0t is the a"titu#e of thin<ing in s"ecific soun#s 6 musical soun#s an# in categories, #erive# from the musical soun# assimilation. 5hus, briefing the scientific sources, Bontas 0., Brlov (h., &safiev B., B:lan (., (agim 0. le# us to the #etermination of s"ecific factors of the artistic cognitionN A. 5he emotional9imaginative factor. 0t is base# on the cognition of musical "henomenon through emotions8e3"eriences. =. 5he logical9rational factor, "ractical9utilitarian, scientific9theoretical that is base# on "sychological cognition o"erations. &naly4ing the theoretical sources an# stu#ying the school "ractice, ;e consi#er that the tra#itional a""roach of cognition #irection at the lesson has useful "oints, but the teaching music #uring music e#ucation lesson, re/uires an essential reorgani4ation from the "ers"ective of artistic cognition #uring the lesson. 5he s"ecificity of the artistic cognition is manifeste# by its "ractical an# sensitive character of musical "henomenon "erce"tion. 5hus, #ue to the value of
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B:lan (., AOOP, Cum s: ascult:m mu4ica, Bucure1ti, umanitas. A@

the e3"erience act an# the rationali4ation of the music, t!e co&niti(e Fno>led&e fulfills the arti tic co&nition. 0t facilitates the un#erstan#ing of the sensible ;orl# of music. During the music teaching "rocess the accent moves fro# t!e t!eor) an# basic <no;le#ge of musical mar<ing, inter"retation an# sol9faing s<ills, to the emotional9artistic factor, the e3"erience an# music feeling as an artistic, s"iritual, emotional9"sychological "henomenon. 5hus, the musical <no;le#ge is vocali4e#, is visuali4e# an# verbali4e# trough the ac/uisition techni/ues. 5hey are assimilate# #uring the musical9teaching activities. 0n this ;ay, the cognition #irection le# us to the reali4ation of the artistic cognition mechanism, ;hich is relate# to the "u"ilsj "sychological functions an# the #ynamic s"ecificity of the musical <no;le#ge. Ke suggest the artistic cognition mechanism, elaborate# accor#ing to the "erce"tive9a""reciative "hases an# the constituents they are built u" ;ithN ,erce"ti(e "hase. &ural re"resentation 6 emotional reaction. 5he contact ;ith music starts after aural re"resentations. &ny attem"t to teach ;ill be accom"lishe# using the life music #irect contact. A""reciati(e "!a e is focuse# on valori4ation an# assimilation of the musical "henomenon. Ke "ro"ose in 7igure k A the mechanism of artistic cognition in teaching music.

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VocaliGed music <no;le#ge

Ele#ent of arti tic co&nition in teac!in& #u ic

,erce"ti(e "!a e Cognition Com"rehension &""lication ,ynthesis Valorisation

Vi ualiGed music <no;le#ge

5u ic education acti(itie

Verbali4e# music <no;le#ge

A""erce"ti(e "!a e

Vigure a (. The mechanism of artistic cognition in teaching music

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S"ecific #u ic education co#"etence

Conclu ion 5his mechanism is available only after having e3"erience# the life music. 5he music teaching "rocess can not be conceive# an# achieve# ;ithout the emotional com"onent, the e3"erience8reaction. 5he music teaching "rocess is achieve# #uring the main musical9teaching activities of the lesson. 5hus, being in motion in the interior, the constituents of the artistic cognition mechanism form a hierarchy ;hich is structure# #e"en#ing on the musical9teaching activities, teaching tas<s #uring the lesson an# base# on the classification of the music <no;le#ge (vocali4e#, visuali4e# an# verbali4e#). -i8lio&ra"!) A. =. F. I. B:lan (., AOOP, Cum s: ascult:m mu4ica, Bucure1ti, umanitas. Bonta1 0., AOOP, Pe#agogie, %#itura &-- %DUC&50BC&-, 5imi1oara. (agim 0., =HHF, Dimensiunea "sihologic: a mu4icii, %#itura 5im"ul, 0a1i. Brlov (h., =HHL, ]^_`a bcdefg, haZf`i.

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3.T/E I5A%E AS FOR5 OF CREATION T!e a ertion of t!e inner arti tic freedo# >it!in art education
Ecaterina To*a(R A8 tract7 The !mage, as a source of communication is the materiali#ation of cognitive ebperiences which organi#e the accumulated visual information and facilitate the valued aesthetic references. The !mage, as well as a visual-mental scheme facilitates the understanding of the connebions between perceptual information and the reproduction. [owever, to recogni#e an artistic motif or another one doesnt ebactly mean to understand the message of the picture, wherein could have a significance related to both the contebt and receivers %nowledge. ]nowing the principles of discovery methods of the visual message, one could rise the question "^oes our interpretation match the authors true intentionsc Ae) >ord 7 The image in $rt is a form of creation, study, discovery, %nowledge and communication.

Bne of the frame obGectives of arts e#ucation is to ma<e stu#ents better un#erstan# ho; the image can communicate an# convey messages.5he analysis of the image can increase the esthetic an# communication "leasure, shar"en the observation an# the sight, enrich <no;le#ge, thus enabling one to achieve more information u"on "erceiving s"ontaneous images. 5he analysis bears a "e#agogical function, "roving that the i#a&e is a lan&ua&e. &nother function it has is the research an# control of ;hy the visual message ;or<s. %very #ay ;e are challenge# by images ;hich nee# to be #ealt ;ith, #eci"here# an# inter"rete#. &""arently, rea#ing such images re/uires no "rior training, the rea#ing metho# is "erfectly 'natural). T!e co#"le#entarit) i#a&e 1 lan&ua&e is evi#ent, since language "artici"ates in the creation of the visual message. Regar#less ;hether it is a chil#.s #ra;ing, a ru"estral or an im"ressionist "ainting, a virtual image or a "oster, ;e un#erstan#, #es"ite the ;i#e #iversity of meanings, that each #e"icts certain features. W!at eCactl) i an i#a&eS 6 ! firstly call images the shadows d as Platon sai# d then the reflections we see on the water or on the surface of opaque, polished and brilliant bodies. AP Fro# tudent H "oint of (ie>+ the image is that ;hich #oes not move, ;hich remains still, ;hich #oes not tal<, such as comics, illustrative "ictures from the chil#ren.s first boo<s, from ;hich they learn to s"ea<, to rea# an# ;hich hel" them recogni4e sha"es an# colors. In art + the conce"t of image is essentially interrelate# ;ith visual re"resentationN frescos, "ainting, miniatures, #ecorative illustrations, #ra;ing, engraving, but also films, vi#eo an# "hotogra"hy. *ental re"resentations are
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-ecturer PhD, University of &rts an# Design from CluG Ca"oca of Romania, emailN catitosaVyahoo.ca Platon, AOOI, "'a Eepublique, translation of l. Chambry, -es Belles -ettes, Paris

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also images, impressions, ;hich ;e visuali4e u"on rea#ing or hearing the #escri"tion of certain "laces or obGects, res"ectively ';e see) the images ;e are #reaming.$T!e ne> i#a&e '+ the synthesis images create# on the com"uter (from tri#imensional re"resentations to the cinema stan#ar#) are virtual universes, ;hich can be ta<en as such or, if mani"ulate#, can forfeit any a""arently real image. Conte#"orar) art education is base# on e3"loring, analy4ing, buil#ing an# creating images. -earning ;ithin arts e#ucation activities is con#ucte# through various images achieve# in various styles. 0t is necessary that stu#ents a""roach a ;i#e array of artistic means, from the classical, tra#itional, to the latest creational e3"eriments.5hese sim"le or com"le3 images, u"on being analy4e#, com"are#, #econstructe# or combine# by stu#ents, are receive#, reassesse#, 'translate#) an# integrate#. 5he image of a real obGect is subGectively reflecte# accor#ing to its features, an# ;ith a vie; to creation, stu#ents rebuil#, transform, co#ify, semantisi4e these signals ;hich they #e"icte# an# analy4e#. 0n stu#ents. creation, the image is ren#ere# subGective connotations. Dra;ings an# other images create# by stu#ents #o not imitate real obGects in their concrete a""earance, but become configurations characteri4e# by the com"le3 !a"e- i&nificance- )#8ol. 5he effect of these #ra;ings entails a fictitious level, #emonstrates an# acts as "roof of an i#eal reality, invente#, built, ren#ere# as re"ro#uctions ;hich configure certain things, obGects or conce"ts, emotions ;hich "reten# to re"lace #irect e3"erience ;ith them. Direct <no;le#ge, connecte# ;ith e3"eriencing reality, the contact ;ith the obGective reality, #oes not come in o""osition to the image, to the re"resentation, reality #u"lication, lea#ing to in#irect, me#iate# <no;le#ge. Bn the contrary, t!e i#a&e+ a ource of co##unication, forms the manifestation of the cognitive e3"eriences ;hich structure the visual information accumulate# an# favor the esthetically valori4e# lan#mar<s. 5his is e3em"lifie# in my artistic ;or< entitle# $erofonium. 7ascinate# ;ith the beauty of the trum"et tubing, 0 inclu#e# the e3act sha"e of a tropette demi-lune into this observational #ra;ing.(S

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5rom"ette #emi9lune, musical instrument use# in sym"hony orchestras aroun# AP=H, is ben# in the sha"e of an arch, of half moon (hence its name), so that the inter"reter.s right han#, ;hich ;as use# to tone #o;n the soun#s, coul# reach the funnel more easily. Khen "laying, the funnel ;as <e"t u", or leaning on the arm. 5he tubing ;as much elongate#, for the alteration of the soun# chromatics 6 #escri"tion by !. . van #er *eer [angs#ere%, Qenemm<ia#n, Bu#a"est, AOPP, "age === =A

ToYa fcaterina $erofonium mibed techniquegpaper, +\gG( cm

0 #ismisse# any intervention u"on its real a""earance as ill9suite#, an# therefore 0 su"er"ose# its actual image over an abstracte# surface, obtaine# through the #iffusion of color ;ithin ;i#e chromatic ranges.5he com"osition is built aroun# the "o;erful #ichotomies abstract 6 concrete, #efinite 6 in#efinite, firm 6 #iffuse. *oreover, there are #irectional an# rhythm corres"on#ences bet;een form an# content. 5he most evi#ent is ren#ere# by the re"etition of the arch forme# by the a3is of the musical instrument an# the "astel ranges, ;hich cross the surface from left to right. 0 ;ill also "oint out the intense outline of the intricate tube an# the colore# labyrinth of the bac<groun# geogra"hy, ;hich accumulates in irregular e#ges the #ar<est tonalities. 5he grey of the shar"ly s<etche# instrument gains color against the grayish bac<groun# mist. 5he chaos of the irregular blurs, unfol#e# ;ith great sensitivity, un#erlines the im"ortance of the musical instrument.s sha"e. 5he im"ro"er association of techni/ues ensures a sense of Gustification of o""osites. affinity, in vie; of the concreti4ation of values forme# by harmoni4ation of contrasts. 5he <no;n clearly reveals to us only in o""osition to the un<no;n. 5he #eci"herable, the rational, is imme#iately cast for;ar# by the "oetics of the irrational. 5he ;or< also encloses a time reference. 5he vivacious, bouncing rhythm of the arching tubes is s;allo;e# by the am"le ;aves of the great intervals evo<e# in the foregroun# by the time ;hich grin#s an# eventually #estroys any e3istence in the "rocess of erosion. 5he image, as a visual9mental s<etch facilitates the un#erstan#ing of the re"ort bet;een "erce"tive information an# the re"ro#uction, the artistic image, the gras" of the re"orts bet;een the creator.s e3ternal an# internal realities. &s concerns #eco#ing the information "rovi#e# by the visual9artistic ;or<, ;e may state there are t;o ty"es of image referencesN "erce"tive image an# mental image. 7rom a "sycho9"hysiological angle, t!e o8 er(ational dra>in&, as "erce"tive image, is connecte# to <no;le#ge an# maintains a #irect an# intuitive relationshi" ;ith the actual obGect it re"resents. Khen the artistic intention lies in the creation of a (i ion-i#a&e, the image can be consi#ere# from a "sychological angle, as a mental image bearing symbolical an# meta"hysical meanings, in relation to the creator.s "ersonal unconscious.
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5he I9;or< series associate# un#er the title Qusical !nstruments #ra;s its ins"iration from the sha"es of some magnificent instruments, aiming to achieve vision9images. Bearing a;ay from the functional as"ect, their image achieves ne; artistic forces. 5he information is "rocesse# "revailingly through the filter of emotional "erce"tion an# #ri""ing creative fantasy. 5he first t;o "aintings borro; the motif of hybri# instrumentsN harp-luteguitar an# nic%elharpa, closely interconnecte# ;ith the ins"iration source. 5he last t;o images "rovi#e a greater "ersonal artistic contribution, alienating significantly from the actual sha"es of the clarinet an# %ettledrums. 5he frontal e3"osure of the instruments. "rivate insi#es recalls the #issection tables. ,"ecial focus is "lace# on the com"le3ity of the ornament, cor#s an# tubing.

ToYa fcaterina Qusical !nstruments d series, oil on canvas, (U\g+G cmgpc.

5heir rhythms ta<e forms resembling the internal organs, muscle fibers or lab "lants, ;hich transform the musical instrument into a fermentation an# filtration, boiling an# #ecanting mechanism of the soun#. %very image conveys a message to its vie;er. Regar#less ;hether it is a real or virtual image, visual or immaterial, fabricate# or natural, ancient or contem"orary, sacre# or "rofane, conventional or e3"ressive, in or#er to un#erstan# it one re/uires reflection an# analysis. &naly4e# in terms of resemblance or #ifference, the image a""ears as the 're"ro#uction of something), in other ;or#s it #oes not e3ist only in itself, but entails a "ree3isting obGect or conce"t. *aterial or immaterial, visual or not, natural or fabricate#, the image is something that resembles something else, relates to a referent. 5he image #e"en#s on something else in terms of mor"hological resemblance. 5he image ;ill only e3ist if a material or conceive#
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reality is re"ro#uce#. 5he image "erceive# is enco#e# an# 'translate#) subGectively, ren#ere# un#er another form, another material, re"resente# by artistic means in #ifferent techni/ues. T!e e#iotic t!eor) hel"s us a""roach the image from the "oint of vie; of its meaning, not that of esthetic "leasure.5he semiotic aspect of the image resi#es in the manner it produces meanings, #enotations, inter"retations. 5he sign #enotes something that can be "erceive#N colors, sha"es ;hich are ren#ere# a meaning.)\ &ccor#ing to Peirce.s theory, 'the sign is something that replaces something else, under a certain relation or with a certain title ). 5he image is "erceive# as re"resentation, something that means something else than itself, the image is "erceive# as a sign. 0n visual arts terminology, a sign refers to a concept, ;hich can vary accor#ing to the conte3t. 5he analysis of visual images relies on the "rinci"le accor#ing to ;hich t!e i#a&e i heterogeneous (it reunites an# coor#inates ;ithin a frame, ;ithin a limit, various categories of iconic, analog an# artistic signsN colors, sha"es, te3ture). 5he functioning "rinci"le of the image is resemblance, therefore it is "erceive# as analog sign. Cevertheless, i#entifying one or another motif #oes not translate as un#erstan#ing the message of the image, ;ithin ;hich the motif may bear a certain significance relate# to the conte3t, but also to the receiver.s <no;le#ge. 7or instance, the fact that ;e i#entify certain signs or sha"es in an artistic ;or< #oes not "rovi#e further information on their e3act significance. 0#entifying an# inter"reting motives in visual messages are t;o com"lementary mental o"erations. *. !oly #efines t;o metho#s to di co(er t!e #e a&e )(N A. The permutation principle (enables one to trace a relatively autonomous item, by re"lacing it ;ith another). 0t assumes that at a mental level 0 have at my #is"osal other similar items, ;hich #o not a""ear in the message 6 replaceable elements. 7or e3am"le 6 0 see re# an# not green, blue or yello;. 5his ty"e of mental association allo;s us to #istinguish among elements an# inter"ret them as what they actually are (an# ;e #o this s"ontaneously), an# as what they are not (an# this re/uires imagination).

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5he ty"es an# functioning la;s of the various sign categories are stu#ie# by the science of signs, ,emiology an# ,emiotics, #evelo"e# at the beginning of the =Hth century. 0ts "recursors are the ,;iss linguist 7er#inan# #e ,aussure AP?@9AOAF in %uro"e, an# the scientist Charles ,an#ers Peirce APFO 6 AOAI, in the Unite# ,tates. )(=A *. !oly, AOOI, "!ntroduction h l$nalyse de l!mage, Cathan Publishing ouse, Paris. =I

ToYa fcaterina Iinfonia mibed techniquegcanvas, U\gR\ cm

5his analysis metho# relies on the "ermutation of the "erceive# elements, ;hich ;ill fin# their meaning not only in their "resence, but only in the absence of many others, to ;hich they are associate# at mental level. =. ^econtebtualisation procedure 6 another metho# to reveal the message. By changing the conte3t, ;e can ta<e by sur"rise, even shoc< the receiver.s e3"ectations. 7or instance, "lacing a common obGect ;ithin a museum raises it to the status of 'art ;or<). 5he artistic message enco#e# by the author in a certain conte3t is offere# to the s"ectator for '#eco#ing). Conte3t o &uthor 99999999999999999999999999 *%,,&(% 99999999999999999999999 Receiver o Co#e o Physical contact Cevertheless, one /uestion arisesN '0s our a""roach consistent ;ith the author.s intentionsS) 6 Khat the artist inten#e# to convey, nobo#y can <no;. Deco#ing the message means fin#ing out ;hat meanings it generates to the vie;er now. 5he out"uts translate# by artistic elements of the ins"irational motives, become enco#e# images ;hose natural role is to ca"ture an# allure the vie;er into the artistic universe. Bf utmost im"ortance is to "erceive the motives as me#itation visual images, ;hich generate ne; conventions. Ke fin# it essential to highlight the com"lementarity bet;een the image re"resente# an# language, the ;ay language "artici"ates in the creation of the visual message an# com"letes it in a refle3ive an# at the same time creative circularity. Dra;ing or "ainting artistic motives reveal a focus on memory an# sensation, in or#er to achieve e3tremely sim"le com"ositions, of great truthfulness of e3"ression.

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-i8lio&ra"!) &U*BC5, !ac/ues, (AOOH), '!mage, Cathan Publishing ouse, Paris. B%R(%R, !ohn, (AOO@), Oays of Meeing, Publishing ouse British Broa#casting Cor"oration an# Penguin Boo<s. C&D%5, Christiane, (-&U,, !.9-uc, (AOOH), 'a communication par limage, Cathan Publishing ouse, Paris. DUR&CD, (ilbert (AOOO), $venturile !maginii d imaginaWia simbolicJ, imaginarul, Cemira Publishing ouse. (RBUP% *U, (AOO=), Traite du signe visuel Xour une rethorique de limage, ,euil Publishing ouse, Paris UJ( %, R (AO@A), Xuterea imaginii), *eri#iane Publishing ouse, Bucharest. !B-J, *., (AOOL), !ntroducere Zn anali#a imaginii, &ll Publishing ouse, Bucharest. KUC%CBUR(%R, !., (AOOP), iiaWa imaginilor, Cartim"e3 Publishing ouse, CluG.

4.T/E DIA.O% ,ROVIDED -6 T/E ,/ISICA. EDUCATION -ETWEEN ARTISTIC 5AIORS IN T/E UNIVERSIT6 OF ARTS $%EOR%E ENESCU' FRO5 IAI
Ana Cri tina .ee)) A8 tract7 The stimulation of the psychophysical s%ills, practicing phyisical ebercices in an organi#ed setting has proved to be the antidote of the confused artistic ebpression, smothered by the avalanche of quotidian attitudes. Xhysical education mediates in our !nstitution by creating possibilities of physical races between students with different artistic majors, offering them the opportunity to %now themselves in different situations. Ae) >ord 7 psychomotric activity, physical ebercices, creativity, art stimulation.

Kithin the conte3t of our stu#ies on this issue, ;hich is being increasingly a##resse# in the recent years, ;e s"ecify the role an# "lace of the subGect Physical %#ucation in the mental9"hysical con#ition of stu#ent artists. Ke have "ointe# out on other occasions the nee# for this "ractical subGect of stu#y in the institution of artistic e#ucation. Co; ;e ;ill only mention the fact that each artistic s"ecialty re/uires a certain bo#y "osition ;hile ;or<ing for a minimum of ?9L hours. 5his lea#s to ba# bo#y attitu#es, as ;ell as intense mental fatigue that affect the "hysical creative ca"acities. Besi#es this im"ortant role, ;e also assign to the subGect of Physical %#ucation the role of a 'me#iation instrument) bet;een artistic s"ecialties. Ke ma<e this statement starting from the role of
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-ecturer PhD,'(eorge %nescu) University of &rts from 0a1i of Romania,emailN analese=HHHVyahoo.com

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cultural #ediation, to create the con#itions for a meeting, an o"en #ialogue an# to form a tria# ma#e u" of the "ublic, the ;or< an# the me#iator. o; can the "ractical course in Physical %#ucation su""ort cultural me#iation ;ithin our institution of artistic higher e#ucationS & first ste" is ma#e by creating situations ;here stu#ents of #ifferent artistic s"ecialties meet to form a &rou". 5he term group ;as use# for the first time as 'a technical term in belle9arteU it comes from 0talian (groppo or gruppo) #esignating several in#ivi#uals, "ainte# or scul"te#, forming a subGect.))* 5hrough its interactive element, t!e &rou" "resents itself as an environment an# a means of learning certain social roles, forms evaluation s<ills for others an# may contribute to the #evelo"ment of its members. self9a;areness. Physical e#ucation has the necessary means to form a com"le3 "ersonality, ;ith /ualities such as courage, s"ontaneity, acce"tance of failure, Goy of ;inning, strong ;ill. 5hese /ualities are associate# ;ith beneficial mental9"hysical effects "ro#uce# by "racticing various forms of organi4e# "hysical e3ercises. 5he "ractical course in Physical %#ucation brings together (larger or smaller) grou"s com"ose# of stu#ent artists an# a#s norms an# values to the in#ivi#ual "ersonality through "hysical means (various "hysical e3ercises). 5hus, the subGect of Physical %#ucationN 9 "lays an im"ortant role in the evolution of the in#ivi#ual, through e3"eriences accumulate# in such a grou"U 9 is an im"ortant means of sociali4ation an# school9university integrationU 9 contributes to transmitting "ersonal values to colleagues in other artistic s"ecialtiesU 9 "rovi#es the in#ivi#ual ;ith means of "roving his or her ;orthU 9 satisfies the associative an# "erformance nee#s of the human beingU 9 an#, most im"ortantly for the stu#ent artist, it stimulates artistic creativity as a form of "racticing "hysical e3ercise in grou"s. 0n China, the ,!) ical Education system #evelo"e# by Confucius (in the th AO century, BC) <no;n as pthe si3 liberal arts) inclu#e#N music, ceremony, arithmetic, calligra"hy, fencing an# chariot #riving. 5he !a"anese, as <ee"ers of tra#itions in terms of "!) ical eCerci e, create# an original conce"t for its use, #evising concentration techni/ues, coor#inating the movement by focusing the min#, in thera"y, as ;ell as in e#ucation. Baron Pierre #e Coubertain, ;ho, in APO=, ma#e the first attem"t to revive the Blym"ic (ames (;hich ;ere cancelle# in FOI by the By4antine em"eror 5heo#osius 0)+), #uring a conference at the ,orbonne, argue# that 's"orts can restore the bro<en balance of the human being an# it must have its "lace in any system of e#ucation.))G 0t all starte# from the i#ea that &ncient (reece ma#e
)* )+

&#rian Ceculau, ^inamica grupului j^ynamics of the kroupl, Course, 0a1i, Polirom Publishing ouse, AOOL Carmen Voiculescu, , !storia fducaWiei fi#ice Yi sportului jThe [istory of Xhysical fducation and Mportsl , ConstanEa, Bvi#ius University Press, =HH=, ". ?F )G 0#em, ". AH@ =@

"rominent in the history of human e#ucation through the fact that it "erceive# the human being as a com"osite, a combination of "hysical an# s"iritual /ualities, ;ith a "ermanent ten#ency to;ar#s "erfection an# #irecte# to;ar#s the i#eal. 0n the creative "rocess that #elineates culture, "!) ical eCerci e, through its effects stimulates, balances an# ennobles the human beingU the conce"t of "!) ical culture is thus fully Gustifie# as a "hrase that e3"resses the "rocess of cultivating the bo#y. ,!) ical culture #oes not im"ly, in itself, an activity, but 'it summari4es all the values (legitimacy, categories, institutions, goo#s an# information, etc.) meant to use "hysical e3ercises to im"rove the biological, s"iritual an# actuating "otentials of the human being.))H 5he i#eal of ,!) ical Education in the general training of the artist ten#s to "lace the s"irit an# "hysical strength in a relationshi" of inter#e"en#ence, ;hereas the s"irit nee#s a language to e3"ress itself an# the movements focus on mental conce"ts. 5he issue of ,!) ical Education can not be ignore# in the fiel# of artistic higher e#ucation, as it is almost common <no;le#ge that ,!) ical Education "romotes the mental9"hysical bac<groun# of the stu#ent artist. 5he "rovision of high /uality artist training is ensure# by a high #evelo"ment of all "hysical an# mental s<ills. Khen ;e tal< about #ental Fill , ;e refer to mental com"onents, such as thin<ing, ;ill, memory. ,!) ical Education shoul# be "erceive# as an authentic formative "rocess, ;hose "ur"ose is given by the multitu#e of s<ills, abilities an# attitu#es ac/uire# by stu#ent artists. ,u""orting our belief, in his boo< $ Xoetics of the $ctors $rt, 0on CoGar, #irector an# "rofessor, argues thatN 'Trainin& is a #elicate "rocess of recovering the human totality, the full in#ivi#ual "otential, a com"osite that generates ne; s<ills, s"ecific for an activity of s"iritual an# mental9"hysical "erfor#ance, to overcome the limits of the common man.))R Physical %#ucation, also <no;n as Bo#y %#ucation or (ymnastics is the common element in the three ty"es of creative arts "erforme# in our institutionN &rts, *usic an# 5heatre. *oreover, this #isci"line, originating in its turn from the &rt of *ovement (ac<no;le#ge#, but not homologate#) is a #ialogue that communicates ;ith each artistic s"ecialty an# also brings them together un#er the same i#ealsN mental9"hysical stimulation an#, im"licitly, creativity stimulation, ;ill, fortifying one.s health. 5his art of movement is involve# in the formal training of the artist, abi#ing by the same "rinci"les offere# by me#iation as an instrument of civil society, namelyN it is use# to create social relations an# assert values such as autonomy, res"onsibility, a#a"tation to ne; con#itions, soli#arity, an# agreement. 5he s"ecific issues of general training, com"etent e3"ression, stimulating creativity an# social assertion of "u"ils an# stu#ents is a maGor res"onsibility
)H

(h. CMrstea, fducaWia fi#icJ d Teoria Yi ba#ele metodicii jXhysical fducation d Theory and Nases of Qethodologyl, Bucharest, &ca#emia CaEional: #e %#ucaEie fi4ic: 1i ,"ort [5he Cational &ca#emy of Physical %#ucation an# ,"ort\, AOO@, ". FA )R 0on CoGar, K poeticJ a artei actorului j$ Xoetics of the $ctors $rtl, Bucharest, UC05%R5 Publishing ouse, AOOL =P

an# a high "riority in "romoting an# im"lementing Romania.s sustainable #evelo"ment strategy. 5o this en#, every subGect ;ithin the curriculum of artistic higher e#ucation chooses the most effective means of achieving its obGectives. 0n general, art of any <in#, such as fine arts, music, #rama or movement, brings a##itional a;areness an# e#ucation to human beings. &n e3hibition, a theatrical "erformance, a musical "erformance, an au#ition, a s"orts sho; bring together various nations, conce"ts an# religions. 0n this relation of the arts, Physical8Bo#y %#ucation or (ymnastics forms, along ;ith s"eciali4e# subGects, the basis for the training of the com"lete, i#eal artist, stimulating the centres of creativity an# "rovi#ing the "hysical su""ort nee#e# for carrying out the artistic activity. 5he coor#inator of organi4e# "hysical activity, the Physical %#ucation teacher has the role of cultural me#iator, ;ith the follo;ing teaching tas<sN 9 to organi4e contests, s"orts com"etitions bet;een stu#ent artists, encouraging "artici"ation in these activitiesU 9 to #evelo" the a#e/uate environment for the "erformance of "hysical activitiesU 9 to "artici"ate ;ith traine# grou"s of stu#ents in a form of s"orting activity, in university com"etitionsU 9 to constantly coor#inate the "hysical activity of stu#entsU 9 to ins"ire stu#ent artists a ;ell9foun#e# motivation to "artici"ate in "hysical activities. 5he art of movement connects the other artistic si#es through the most im"ortant means at its #is"osal, "hysical e3ercise, carrie# out un#er the basic obGective in the fiel# of ,"orts Culture, namelyN a healthy min# in a healthy bo#y (Qens sana in corpore sano). Cevertheless, Physical %#ucation "lays not Gust a <ey role in health an# "hysical #evelo"ment, but is also the means to ac/uire the necessary values for social cohesion an# intercultural dialo&ue. -i8lio&ra"!) 9 CMrstea (h., Teoria Yi metodica educaWiei fi#ice Yi sportului, Bucure1ti, &ca#emia CaEional: #e %#ucaEie fi4ic: 1i ,"ort, AOO@ 9 CoGar, 0on, K poeticJ a artei actorului, Bucure1ti, %#. UC05%R5, AOOL 9 Voiculescu, Carmen, !storia fducaWiei fi#ice Yi sportului, %#itura Bvi#ius University Press, ConstanEa, =HH= 9 *ihail, &ntonie, $ntrenamentul ebpresiei corporale. Iurs, Craiova, %#itura Universitaria, =HH? 9 Ceculau, &#rian, ^inamica grupului, Curs, 0a1i, %#itura Polirom, AOOL 9 Piaget, !., Xsihologia inteligenWei, Bucure1ti, %#itura qtiinEific:, AOL?

=O

,ART II ART ,EDA%O%6 IN CO5,ARATIVE A,,ROAC/ES


4.,EDA%O%ICA. ,RINCI,.ES OF ITA.IAN INSTRU5ENTA. DIDACTICS
Ale andra ,adula)U
A8 tract7 'earning to play a musical instruments has relevant strictly disciplinary goals, as fluency, strength and independence of the fingers, correct phrasing, stylistically appropriate ebecution of ornaments, etc. [owever, pupils who play a musical instrument can also reach or optimi#e fundamental perceptive, cognitive, and motor capabilities. They can enhance their ability to join other pupils, raising self-esteem and self-control, and developing a sense of belonging. They can train memory, develop creativity, and enhance their own ebpressive and organi#ational capabilities. Qoreover, in playing a musical instrument they can get %ey competences for lifelong learning, and get possession of a fundamental part of furopes rich cultural heritage.The paper outlines the courses offered by !talian public schools in the instrumental field, and cites the wor%s of many !talian composers included in the syllabi of music schools and Ionservatories. The pedagogical principles on which these pieces are based are related to the thought of some important pedagogues and psychologists, such as Xestalo##i, Qontessori and kardner. Ae) >ord 7 music schools, musical instrument, cultural heritage, musical-didactic activities.

%ettin& a 5u ical Education in t!e In tru#ental Field in Ital)


)U

Professor,Conservatorio '(. Ver#i) from *ilan,Universit+ #egli ,tu#i from -.&/uila of alessan#ra"a#ulaVinterfree.it FH

0taly, emailN

0n 0taly chil#ren have si3 ;ays to get a musical e#ucation in the instrumental fiel#N at "rivate music schoolsN here "arents "ay tuition fees for their chil#ren ;ith "rivate music teachersN here "arents "ay each teaching hour at civic schools, i.e. in schools, ;here teachers, buil#ings an# instruments are "ai# by the munici"ality, the "rovince, the region. ere too "arents "ay tuition fees for their chil#ren at state <in#ergartens an# "rimary schools that offer s"ecial "roGects. ,ome years ago, 0 con#ucte# a "roGect in a "rimary school ;ith some stu#ents from the Conservatory. 0n this "roGect, a class ha# music an# "iano lessons ? times a ;ee<)S at state secon#ary schools ;ith a musical "rofile. 5hese are schools ;hich offer instrumental lessons in gra#es L9P. 5he goal of these schools is to offer instrumental lessons Gust to these stu#ents, ;ho ;oul# not have the chance to learn an instrument outsi#e the school. 5his can occur, for instance, if there are no "rivate music schools in the chil#ren.s to;n, or if their family can.t affor# the tuition fees of "rivate music schools*\. 0n recent years, in connection ;ith the raising autonomy of each state school, many schools too< on the musical "rofile. ,chools no; com"ete ;ith one another in or#er to attract more stu#entsU in effect, the larger the school, the higher the state ai#s. 5herefore, schools try to attract more stu#ents by offering su""lementary courses, in subGects such as s"orts, arts, an# instrumental music lessons. Performances offere# by the stu#ents an#8or teachers, as soloists an#8or music grou"s, are consi#ere# an effective ;ay to get e3"osure*(. 0n these schools chil#ren get 2usual2 music e#ucation lessons in the morning, t;ice a ;ee<, an# instrumental lessons, in the afternoon, t;ice a ;ee< (once a ;ee< an in#ivi#ual lesson, an# once a ;ee< an ensemble or orchestral lesson)*). at Conservatories ,ince the beginning of this aca#emic year, Conservatories acce"t only bachelor an# master stu#ents, but some Conservatories have arrange# 'basic courses,) ;here younger, gifte# chil#ren can have instrumental lessons**. But 0 ;ish to leave out Conservatories, ;here only gifte# chil#ren may atten# courses, since these chil#ren "artici"ate here "rimarily ;ith the aim to begin early '"rofessional stu#ies.2 0 ;ish to s"ea< about the subGect 'music) taught in the general schoolN <in#ergarten, "rimary school an# secon#ary school. 0n all these schools there are music lessons, although at the #ifferent levels courses have #ifferent titles. 0n <in#ergarten, the courses are calle# '%3"eriencing *usic,) in "rimary school,
)S)S

&lessan#ra Pa#ula, Kbiettivo musica. Ionoscen#e e competen#e musicali dei bambini di scuola elementare , PescaraN 0ni4iative, AOO@. *\*\ Pietro *istretta (e#.), 'insegnamento musicale in !talia, 7iren4eN -e *onnier, AOPL. *( Rossella *arisi, Ionducting a group. 'ensemble musicale come gruppo, *mnchen 9 RavensburgN (rin, =HHO. *) Paolo -an#ri, & 5em"orary %cli"se of Bureaucracy. 5he Circulation of ,chool &utonomy, !talian mounal of Mociology of fducation, FN F, =HHO. ** htt"N88;;;.unams.it8-eggiWeWnormative8-eggi8C.?HPW=AWAOOO9=A=9H=.html (retrieve# HO.AA.=HAA). FA

'%#ucation through ,oun# an# *usic), an# '*usic %#ucation) in secon#ary school. 0t is im"ortant to un#erline, that the "e#agogical "rinci"les ;hich regulate instrumental lessons at Conservatories are #ee"ly #ifferent from those ;hich regulate instrumental lessons at the general school *+. 0n the *ilan Conservatory 0 teach *etho#ology of instrumental teaching, training instrumentalists to teach their instrument, ta<ing into account "e#agogical, "sychological, an# #i#actic as"ects. 7or this reason, here 0 ;ish to focus Gust on these "e#agogical as"ects. Cultural EC"re ion a Ae) Co#"etence for .ifelon& .earnin& Because of its long an# varie# historical #evelo"ment, music can be consi#ere# a fun#amental "art of %uro"ejs rich cultural heritage. 5herefore, from an e#ucational "ers"ective, music e#ucation is in#is"ensable for the maintenance an# gro;th of musical culture in 0taly. 0t conveys the music an# cultural heritage to the ne3t generation, enhances the "u"ils. un#erstan#ing of the manifol# forms of music, an# contributes to their o;n i#entity. *usic can hel" in #evelo"ing creativity as a s"ecific s<ill *G. Creativity shoul# not be consi#ere# as much a creation from nothing, but rather a ne; combination of <no;n elements. Bf course, the more elements an in#ivi#ual <no;s, the more ne; combinations he can ma<e. 0n the music fiel#, <no;ing a gra#ually larger number of "ieces can hel" a "u"il in enhancing his8her o;n musical creativity. 0n the general fiel#, creativity can "ositively affect learning, im"acting on s<ills an# behaviors in other, non9musical areas. 0n fact, in 0taly ;e set a high value on inter#isci"linarity. Ke base on o;ar# (ar#ner.s (AOIF 9 ) research, ;ho highlighte# that there is a s"ecific musical intelligence*H. But ;e <no; also that musical e3"eriences can hel" all stu#ents establish connections ;ith conce"ts "ertaining to other #isci"lines (such as mathematics, science, social sciences, literacy, history an# the arts) *R. &n# ;e <no; that music techni/ues can be useful in memori4ing conce"ts "ertaining to other subGects*U. Besi#es that, there is an im"ortant #ocument on s"ecific com"etences, ;hich are consi#ere# <ey com"etences for lifelong learning. 0t is the Recommen#ation of the %uro"ean Parliament an# of the Council of AP December =HHL*S. Com"etences are #efine# here as a combination of <no;le#ge, s<ills an# attitu#es a""ro"riate to the conte3t. $ey com"etences are
*+

&lessan#ra Pa#ula, Qusica viva. Xroposte per listru#ione musicale nella scuola elementare, PescaraN 0ni4iative, AOOI . *G Pa#ula, Qusica viva, cite#. *H o;ar# (ar#ner, Vrames of Qind The Theory of Qultiple !ntelligences, Ce; Jor<N Basic Boo<s, AOPF. *R &lessan#ra Pa#ula, '*usic e#ucation), in Barbara $err (e#.), fncyclopedia of kiftedness, Ireativity, and Talent, 5housan#oa<s, California (U,&), ,&(%, =HHO. &lessan#ra Pa#ula, '*usical creativity), in Barbara $err (e#.), fncyclopedia of kiftedness, cite#. *U &lessan#ra Pa#ula, Qultilingualism !n The furopean nnion Teaching Voreign 'anguages !n The Xrimary Mchool, University of Cebras<a at Bmaha, htt"N88;;;.unomaha.e#u8esc8=HH@"a"ers.html. *S htt"N88eur9le3.euro"a.eu8-e3Uri,erv8-e3Uri,erv.#oSurirB!N-N=HHLNFOINHHAHNHHAPNenNPD7 (retrieve# HO.AA.=HAA). F=

those ;hich all in#ivi#uals nee# for "ersonal fulfillment an# #evelo"ment, active citi4enshi", social inclusion, an# em"loyment. Cultural e3"ression is seen as one of the eight <ey com"etences for lifelong learning. 5his testifies to the role accor#e# to culture in the %uro"ean Union. &n# music is an im"ortant "art of culture. *usic e#ucation has therefore the tas< of #evelo"ing the chil#ren.s musical "re#is"osition an# s<ills, intro#ucing them into music culture. 5u ic Education a $Education in t!e Field 5u ic' %arly music e#ucation can be consi#ere# from t;o #istinct "oints of vie;. Ke can consi#er music e#ucation as 'e#ucation in the fiel# music) +\. 7ollo;ing this a""roach, chil#ren shoul# meet music as early as "ossible, in or#er to become familiar ;ith its "ro#ucts an# conce"ts. 5his a""roach ;as the lea#ing one till the LHsN for many centuries chil#ren ;ere seen as 2little a#ults2, similar to a#ults in thin<ing, feeling, moving an# having fun. 7ollo;ing this a""roach, the "rocess of learning to "lay an instrument ha# only 'strictly #isci"linary) goals, as fluency, strength an# in#e"en#ence of the fingers, the correct e3ecution of the legato cantabile, the brilliant "erformance of staccato "assage ;or<s, clarity of voices in "oly"honic com"osition, stylistically a""ro"riate e3ecution of ornaments, etc. Beginners, either chil#ren or a#ults, stu#ie# the same re"ertoire.7ortunately, the fine motor tas<s containe# in "iano "ieces ;ere often /uite accessible. 0n secon#ary schools stu#ents in the si3th to the tenth gra#e learn "ieces by com"osers ;ho ;rote for har"sichor# an# forte"iano. &mong them, Domenico &lberti (c. A@AH 6A@IH), Domenico Cimarosa (A@IO 6 APHA), Bal#assarre (alu""i (A@HL 6 A@P?), Pietro Domenico Para#isi (A@H@ 6 A@OA), (iovanni Battista Pescetti (c. A@HI 6 A@LL), *ichelangelo Rossi (ALHA 6 AL?L), Domenico ,carlatti (ALP? 6 A@?@), *attia Vento (A@F? 6A@@L), Domenico Qi"oli (ALPP 6 A@=L). 0n 0taly ;e a""reciate this literature as an im"ortant cultural heritage, an# believe that "laying ;or<s by ancient 0talian masters can "lay an im"ortant role in the e#ucation of the young "ianist. ,o far, ;e have focuse# on the first "oint of vie;, ;hich consi#ers music e#ucation as 'e#ucation in the fiel# music). 5u ic Education a $Education t!rou&! 5u ic'7 Ai# and %oal 5he secon# "oint of vie; regar#s music e#ucation as 'e#ucation through music)N follo;ing this a""roach, im"ortant general /ualities an# talents can be #evelo"e# through the "laying of an instrument. &mong them are "erce"tive, cognitive, motor ca"abilities, such asN 9 to listen to acoustic stimuli, concentrate on them, #ifferentiate them, an# res"on# to them 9 to res"on# to rhythmic an# musical events an# "ro#uce them
+\

&lessan#ra Pa#ula, 'e chiavi della musica. Qetodologia delleduca#ione musicale nella scuola primaria, 5orinoN (iacomelli, AOOO.

FF

9 to un#erstan# time an# s"ace conce"ts, in "laying an# im"rovising musical se/uences ;hich #evelo" through time, an# must be "erforme# enacting s"ecific gestures in the s"ace 9 to "lay using "itch an# rhythm as recreation tools 9 to "lay in a re"ro#uctive, but also in a free, im"rovising ;ay 9 to 'translate) musical e3"eriences into other me#ia (e.g. colors, materials, etc.), an# vice9versa to 'translate) other me#ia into soun# an# music+(. 0m"ortantly, musical activities can be "erforme# in smaller or larger grou"s (#uo, trio, an# so on) an# thereby contribute to social e#ucation. 0n fact, in "laying music together, chil#ren must relate to the teacher an#8or to other "u"ils, matching the styles an# soun#s of others, e3ercising "atience an# #isci"line, an# by ma<ing suggestions or listening to the suggestions of other "u"ils. 0n this ;ay a chil# feels that he or she belongs to the grou", an# belonging to a grou" raises the chil#.s self9esteem+). 0n most 0talian schools there are no; chil#ren ;ho come from other countries. *oreover, #ue to the "arents. Gob, some families move every =9F years. Khen the ne; "u"il is not an 0talian native s"ea<er, ma<ing music together may be an effective ;ay to hel" chil#ren buil# communicative relationshi"s+*. %#ucational goals "ertaining to the social fiel# areN ;illingness an# ability to Goin other "u"ils, coo"erating in common tas<s. Very young chil#ren can "lay three9han# an# four9han# "ieces ;ith the teacher, an# later "lay three9han# an# four9han# "ieces ;ith other chil#ren. Bther socio9e#ucational goals areN ta<ing over res"onsibilities "racticing self9control, "atience, an# #isci"line %#ucational obGectives ;hich "ertain to the emotional9affective fiel# areN re#ucing fears an# inhibitions raising self9esteem #evelo"ing a sense of belonging training memory encouraging creativity Bther goals "ertain to the general music fiel#. &mong them are "erce"tion of s"ecific music characteristics. Perce"tion is #evelo"e# through ac/uaintance ;ith the characteristics of a musical "hrase or "ieceN its rhythm, #ynamics, melo#y, timbre. &t first the young "u"il ac/uires <no;le#ge of single characteristics, an# then recogni4es them in various combinations an# conte3ts.
+( +)

&lessan#ra Pa#ula, Qusicoterapia e psicomotricith. $ttivith ludiche per la scuola, 5orinoN (iacomelli, =HHH. Rossella *arisi, Ionducting a group, cite#. +* &lessan#ra Pa#ula, Qusica a colori. 'apprendimento del pianoforte nella scuola elementare, PescaraN 0ni4iative, AOOL. FI

emotional e3"erience, reali4e# by listening to an# "erforming instrumental an# vocal "ieces. e3"ression. Pu"ils enhance their o;n e3"ressive ca"ability, setting their o;n thoughts in music form, an# s"ea<ing about music ;hich has been hear#, "erforme#, or com"ose# organi4ational ca"ability. 5eachers lea# "u"ils to ta<e u" an# "rocess their s"ontaneous musical i#eas an# to create musical "hrases base# on the "rinci"les of re"etition through i#entity, variation, or contrast. *oreover teachers structure com"arative vie;s bet;een ;or<s belonging to #ifferent ages an#8or styles, "romoting stu#ents. ability to recogni4e structures an# ma<e evaluations++.

,eda&o&ical ,rinci"le of Italian In tru#ental Didactic Disregar#ing the Conservatory, ;here stu#ents atten# 2"rofessional stu#ies) even if they are /uite young, instrumental lessons must attain to im"ortant "rinci"les. it is im"ortant to hel" stu#ents to learn music in the "layful ;ay in ;hich they have learnt their mother language. 7or instance, nursery rhymes hel" chil#ren buil# vocabulary, learn conce"ts, an# "erform gestures an# movements. ,imilarly, ;hen a chil# "lays the easiest "iano "iece, he or she "erforms fine motor movements, thereby "romoting the #ifferentiation of fingers, the eye9han# coor#ination, concentration, an# han# an# finger #e3terity. Ke <no; that re"eating "ieces alrea#y learnt "romotes refining techni/ue, training memory, an# buil#ing over time a "ersonal re"ertoire. Jet it is im"ortant to avoi# mechanical re"etitions, in or#er to "reserve the Goyous character of music ma<ing. Kith this aim it is a#visable to re"eat a "iece ma<ing some changes, for instance in the s"ee#, articulation, #ynamics, an# so on. ,ome teachers fear that a "u"il ;ho learns to "lay an instrument com"lying 'too much) ;ith the teacher.s suggestions cannot #evelo" an autonomous "ersonality. Jet 0 am sure that "u"ils can #evelo" an autonomous "ersonality even by #isci"line# "racticing. 0n fact, the e3ecution of music9"ro#ucing gestures in a#ults an# chil#ren can never be the sameN the "ro"ortion bet;een bo#y an# limbs are #ifferent in a#ults an# chil#ren, as ;ell as the "ro"ortion bet;een arm an# fingers. 5herefore, the music9"ro#ucing gestures also #iffer. &n# if gestures are #ifferent, the resulting soun#s are very #ifferent too. Chil#ren.s im"rovisation shoul# also be "romote#. 0m"rovisation is similar to #ra;ing, an# can be consi#ere# an aesthetic commentary on the e3"erience the chil# ma<es about the ;orl#. Kith the aim of ma<ing im"rovisation richer an# more imaginative, teachers can, at first, give chil#ren s"ecific tas<s, such as 2*a<e variations on a famous "iece2, for instance through
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&lessan#ra Pa#ula, Iomunica#ione sonora e musicoterapia, *mnchen 6 RavensburgN (rin, =HHP. F?

"ro#ucing more or less soun#sU i.e. in a musical "hrase notes of great value can be re"lace# ;ith several notes of smaller value, "erforming a <in# of #iminution o varying the lou#ness (f, ", cresc. an# #im.) the octave (the registry change) the accom"animent, e.g. re"lacing an &lberti bass ;ith a chor#, or a cluster "laying the "iece much faster or slo;er choosing a #ifferent articulationN re"lacing staccato ;ith legato, or vice9 versa (legato ;ith staccato), re"lacing long slurs by short slurs, etc a##ing sim"le embellishments &ll this can be accom"lishe# in fairly sim"le "ieces of the seventeenth an# eighteenth century, ;hich are often assigne# to "u"ils in the si3th, seventh, an# eighth gra#e of general school.
o

Didactic WorF 8) Italian Co#"o er &s a "ianist, 0 ;ill #iscuss here mainly ;or<s for teaching the "iano.0n the syllabi of music schools an# Conservatories many #i#actic ;or<s are by non9 0talian authors, such as Carl C4erny (A@OA 6 AP?@), !ohann Ba"tist Cramer (A@@A 6 AP?P), ,te"hen eller (APAF 6 APPP), !ean9Ba"tiste Duvernoy (c. APH= 6 c. APPH), 0gna4 *oscheles (A@OI 6AP@H), 5heo#or $ulla< (APAP 6 APP=), ,igismun# 5halberg (APA= 6 AP@A), 7ry#ery< Cho"in (APAH 6 APIO), 7ran4 -is4t (APAA 6 APPL), &nton Rubinstein (AP=O9APOI), &#olf !ensen (APF@ 6 AP@O), Clau#e Debussy (APL= 6 AOAP), &le3an#er ,<riGabin (AP@= 6 AOA?).5his is "robably #ue to the fact that bet;een the eighteenth an# the t;entieth century 0talian com"osers "referre# to com"ose B"eras, ;hich assure# honors an# ;ealth, rather than ;or<s for instrumental #i#actics. o;ever, in the seventeenth an# eighteenth century many ;ell9<no;n com"osers ;rote "ieces ;ith a #i#actic intentN among them, Domenico &lberti (c. A@AH 6A@IH), Domenico Cimarosa (A@IO 6 APHA), Bal#assarre (alu""i (A@HL 6 A@P?), Pietro Domenico Para#isi (A@H@ 6 A@OA), (iovanni Battista Pescetti (c. A@HI 6 A@LL), *ichelangelo Rossi (ALHA 6 AL?L), Domenico ,carlatti (ALP? 6 A@?@), *attia Vento (A@F? 6A@@L), Domenico Qi"oli (ALPP 6A@=L). 5hey ;rote mainly Monatas, ^ances, an# 'essons. 0n the nineteenth an# t;entieth century some com"osers ;rote "ieces ;ith a #i#actic intentN among them, *u4io Clementi (A@?=6 an# APF=), %ttore Po44oli (AP@F 6 AO?@), &ntonio 5rombone (AOAF 6 AOO?), &ntonio Piovano (AOFP 9). *u4io Clementi ;as born in Rome, but live# in %nglan# since his youth. e ;as a famous "ianist, teacher, com"oser, an# "iano manufacturer. Joung "ianists in gra#es A9F learn several ;or<s by Clementi, such as Monatinas, #ances such as the Tarantelle, Qonferrine, ial#er, as ;ell as Xreludes and

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ebercises. Bther ;or<s (such as Monatas an# the ,tu#ies from kradus ad Xarnassum) are learnt by young "ianists in gra#es I9P. *ost of the stu#ies by %ttore Po44oli are still in the syllabi of music schoolsN for e3am"le, stu#ents in the first gra#e learn the Mtudietti elementari, stu#ents in the secon# gra#e learn the (G studies for little hands, stu#ents in the thir# gra#e learn the *\ studies of easy mechanism. 5he Mtudi a moto rapido an# Mtudi di media difficolth (,tu#ies for finger #e3terity), are learnt by stu#ents in the fourth an# fifth gra#e. 5hese stu#ies focus above all on scales an# ar"eggios, an# sho; certain similarities to the ;or<s of !ohann Ba"tist Cramer an# ,te"hen eller. 5he ;or<s of &ntonio 5rombone, such as !l primo libro per lo studio del pianoforte, an# 'a scatola armoniosa, are very "o"ular among "iano beginners. 5hese "ieces resemble those in 7er#inan# Beyer.s B". AHA. &lso the ;or<s by &ntonio Piovano (AOFP 9 ) are ;i#es"rea#N among them are !l primo libro di musica, (\ facili val#er, )\ studi facili, (\ pe##i per pianoforte, (+ studi per pianoforte, R tanghi per ialentino. Choosing these boo<s, the teacher let his8her "u"ils <no; a broa# range of stylesN tonality, atonality, polytonality, A= tone techni/ue, and modality. *any years ago 0 too ;rote some boo<s for beginners+GN 0 thin< that some "rinci"les coul# still be a""reciate#. 7irst of all, 0 thin< that chil#ren have #ifferent life e3"eriences than a#ults, as ;ell as #ifferent interests. 5herefore, 0 set value on the use of chil#9frien#ly musical materials. Pieces are very short, have titles an# ;or#s ;hich can be sung, an# #ra;ings to be "ainte# or colore#. Qusica a colori inclu#es many short "ieces ;hich the "u"il can "lay in three9 or four9han# #uo ;ith the teacher or ;ith another "u"il. &lrea#y at the en# of the first lesson the chil# can "lay ;ell9<no;n "ieces together ;ith the teacherN in this ;ay his8her self9confi#ence gro;s. 7or instance, the teacher begins to "lay in a certain tem"o, an# the chil# ;ill be le# to "lay in the same tem"o an# #ynamics, a#a"ting his8her finger movements to those "erforme# by the teacher. %ar training is reali4e# by listening to the various motifs of the "iece, ;hich are re"eate# ;ithout or ;ith variations by the teacher. 0n fact, early beginners often "lay the same note several times, but the general effect comes from the rhythms an# motifs "laye# in the meantime by the teacher. 7ollo;ing the thoughts e3"resse# by "e#agogues Pestalo44i an# *ontessori, 0 thin< that the best ;ay to succee# is to choose a 'small ste" metho#.) !ohann einrich Pestalo44i (A@IL 6 AP=@) base# his "hiloso"hy of e#ucation onN 9 relating ne; conce"ts to the chil#.s home an# environment 9 structuring the teacher9"u"il relationshi" li<e the "arent9chil# relationshi"
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&lessan#ra Pa#ula, Qusica a colori. 'apprendimento del pianoforte nella scuola elementare, PescaraN 0ni4iative, AOOL. &lessan#ra Pa#ula, Tote allegre, Pescara, Qemru#e, AOO=. F@

#evelo"ing the chil#.s self9#etermination+H *aria *ontessori (AP@H 6 AO?=) base# her "hiloso"hy of e#ucation on #evelo"ing chil#ren.s s<ills through 'small ste") subse/uent e3ercises+R. o; can ;e a""ly Pestalo44i.s first "rinci"le 'relating ne; conce"ts to the chil#.s environment) to "iano #i#acticsS 7or instance, ;e can e3"lain the gestures ;hich fingers must "erform in the staccato as Gum"s of little animals. 7or this reason, in the first "ieces of my boo< entitle# Tote allegre ( a""y notes), 0 chose the titles 'the hare,) 'the cric<et,) etc. Remembering the movements of the animal cite# in the title, the chil# can intuitively gras" the gesture ;hich shoul# be "erforme#. o; can ;e a""ly Pestalo44i.s secon# "rinci"le, 'structuring the teacher9 "u"il relationshi" li<e the "arent9chil# relationshi")S 0 thin< that, es"ecially ;ith very young "u"ils, it is im"ortant to involve "arents in the learning "rocess. 5his can be #one ;riting a boo<let for the "u"il, ;ith gra#es, "ractice ste"s, "re"aratory e3ercises, training tem"i, etc. 0n this ;ay, "arents an# teacher may really share the res"onsibility for the chil#.s success in learning. Parents can have a continuous fee#bac< on the im"rovement ma#e by their chil#, an# can coo"erate ;ith the teacher encouraging an# monitoring the chil#.s learning "rocess. o; can ;e a""ly Pestalo44i.s thir# "rinci"le, '#evelo"ing the chil#.s self9 #etermination)S 0 thin< it is im"ortant to encourage chil#ren in ma<ing variations on a <no;n "iece. 5his tas< can be "erforme# through *aria *ontessori.s 'small ste" metho#)N the "u"il can first "lay the "iece as it is ;ritten, then he8she may ma<e some variations on the "iece, an# then he8she may shift from variations to im"rovisation, loosening the contact to the "reviously "erforme# theme. 7urthermore, follo;ing o;ar# (ar#ner.s theory of multi"le intelligences, my boo<s try to involve "u"ils ;ith #ifferent cognitive characteristics, combining #ifferent a""roaches+UN besi#es the musical one, there is the visuo9 s"atial a""roach (reali4e# through #iagrams), the linguistic one (reali4e# through the verbal e3"lanation ;hich "rece#es each "iece), the logical9mathematical one (reali4e# through easy calculations), the <inesthetic one (reali4e# through the similarity ;hich can be intuitively caught bet;een bo#y movements, an# finger movements), the inter"ersonal one (reali4e# through "laying together), the naturalistic one (reali4e# through references to animals, seasons, natural events,

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!ohann einrich Pestalo44i, Momtliche Oer%e. ]ritische $usgabe, &rtur Buchenau, %#uar# ,"ranger, an# ans ,tettbacher (e#s.), Berlin 6 QmrichN (ruyter, AO=@6AOOL. +R *aria *ontessori, !l Qetodo della Xedagogia Mcientifica applicato allpeduca#ione infantile nelle Iase dei Nambini, RomaN -oescher, AOF?. +U &lessan#ra Pa#ula, 0l "ianista9bambinoN "ro"oste #i meto#ologia #i#attica, in Doriana *arin (e#.), $tti del Meminario ^idattica strumentale per bambini dai R agli U anni - aprile (SSH, Comune #i Reggio %milia an# Comune #i Castelnovo ne. *onti, AOOL, ?O9L=. FP

lan#sca"es). 5hese "rinci"les are follo;e# as ;ell in #i#actic ;or<s for other instruments+S. Conclu ion 0 thin< that in any e#ucation "rocess it is im"ortant to strengthen either in#ivi#ual or social s<ills. 0n a music e#ucation "rocess in#ivi#ual s<ills can be, for instance, musical sensitivity an# com"rehension, an# social s<ills can be the ca"abilities of e3"ressing musical thoughts in "laying, im"rovising, sharing music, an# ma<ing music together.Jet above all it is im"ortant to ma<e the e#ucation "rocess not mechani4e#, but alive, because only stimulating content an# Goyful "ractice can lea# our "u"ils to the #evelo"ment of their real attitu#es an# the enhancement of their "ersonal gro;th. -i8lio&ra"!) (ar#ner o;ar#, Vrames of Qind The Theory of Qultiple !ntelligences , Ce; Jor<N Basic Boo<s, AOPF. htt"N88eurle3.euro"a.eu8-e3Uri,erv8-e3Uri,erv.#oS urirB!N-N=HHLNFOINHHAHNHHAPNenNPD7 (retrieve# HO.AA.=HAA). htt"N88;;;.unams.it8-eggiWeWnormative8-eggi8C.?HPW=AWAOOO9=A=9H=.html (retrieve# HO.AA.=HAA). -an#ri Paolo, & 5em"orary %cli"se of Bureaucracy. 5he Circulation of ,chool &utonomy, !talian mounal of Mociology of fducation, FN F, =HHO. *arisi Rossella, Ionducting a group. 'ensemble musicale come gruppo, *mnchen 9 RavensburgN (rin, =HHO. *arisi Rossella, fight Nears, ,"oltoreN $ ne; art, =HAH. *arisi Rossella, Tandem, ,"oltoreN $ ne; art, =HHO. *arisi Rossella, nn mare di note, ,"oltoreN $ ne; art, =HHP. *istretta Pietro (e#.), 'insegnamento musicale in !talia, 7iren4eN -e *onnier, AOPL. *ontessori *aria, !l Qetodo della Xedagogia Mcientifica applicato allpeduca#ione infantile nelle Iase dei Nambini, RomaN -oescher, AOF?. Pa#ula &lessan#ra, '*usic e#ucation), in Barbara $err (e#.), fncyclopedia of kiftedness, Ireativity, and Talent, 5housan#oa<s, California (U,&)N ,&(%, =HHO. Pa#ula &lessan#ra, '*usical creativity), in Barbara $err (e#.), fncyclopedia of kiftedness, Ireativity, and Talent, 5housan#oa<s, California (U,&)N ,&(%, =HHO. Pa#ula &lessan#ra, Iomunica#ione sonora e musicoterapia, *mnchen 6 RavensburgN (rin, =HHP.
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,ee, among others, Rossella *arisi, nn mare di note, ,"oltoreN $ ne; art, =HHP. Rossella *arisi, Tandem, ,"oltoreN$ ne; art, =HHO. Rossella *arisi, fight Nears, ,"oltoreN $ ne; art, =HAH. FO

Pa#ula &lessan#ra, 0l "ianista9bambinoN "ro"oste #i meto#ologia #i#attica, in Doriana *arin (e#.), $tti del Meminario ^idattica strumentale per bambini dai R agli U anni - aprile (SSH, Comune #i Reggio %milia an# Comune #i Castelnovo ne. *onti, AOOL, ?O9L=. Pa#ula &lessan#ra, 'e chiavi della musica. Qetodologia delleduca#ione musicale nella scuola primaria, 5orinoN (iacomelli, AOOO. Pa#ula &lessan#ra, Qultilingualism !n The furopean nnion Teaching Voreign 'anguages !n The Xrimary Mchool, University of Cebras<a at Bmaha, htt"N88;;;.unomaha.e#u8esc8=HH@"a"ers.html. Pa#ula &lessan#ra, Qusica a colori. 'apprendimento del pianoforte nella scuola elementare, PescaraN 0ni4iative, AOOL. Pa#ula &lessan#ra, Qusica viva. Xroposte per listru#ione musicale nella scuola elementare, PescaraN 0ni4iative, AOOI . Pa#ula &lessan#ra, Qusicoterapia e psicomotricith. $ttivith ludiche per la scuola, 5orinoN (iacomelli, =HHH. Pa#ula &lessan#ra, Tote allegre, Pescara, Qemru#e, AOO=. Pa#ula &lessan#ra, Kbiettivo musica. Ionoscen#e e competen#e musicali dei bambini di scuola elementare, PescaraN 0ni4iative, AOO@. Pestalo44i !ohann einrich, Momtliche Oer%e. ]ritische $usgabe, &rtur Buchenau, %#uar# ,"ranger, an# ans ,tettbacher (e#s.), Berlin 6 QmrichN (ruyter, AO=@6AOOL. 2. FOR5ATION OF INTER,RETATION CO5,ETENCE OF T/E 5USICA. I5A%E AT 5USIC TEAC/ER
.ilia %raneJFaiaG\ A8 tract7 There is a growing interest in the concept of competence in various areas of education, training and professional development. Iompetences are commonly assumed to represent more than the levels of %nowledge and s%ills and to account for the effective application of available %nowledge and s%ills in a specific contebt. The article deals with one of the actual problems of musical education at university level d the formation of music teacher especially the formation of interpretative competence of musical image LI!!QF. Ae) >ord 7 interpretative analyses, competence of interpreting musical image, piano formation, artistic image, interpretative image, musical image.

Introduction 5he s"eciality 'the music teacher) is one of the most com"le3 "e#agogical s"ecialties. Pe#agogist9musician shoul# have the number of <no;le#ge, s<ills an# abilities from #ifferent areasN "e#agogy, "sychology, "hysiology, musicology, literature, history an# others.5he "roficiency of the s"ecialist in the fiel# of music e#ucation #eals ;ith t;o #irections 6 music an# "e#agogy that are very close to each other. 5hese t;o lines aren.t sim"le
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,enior -ecturer PhD, ,tate University D&lecu Russo) from granliliVmail.ru IH

B:lEi , Re"ublic of

*ol#avia, emailN

mechanical sum but an intimate symbiosis. '5he musician) an# 'the teacher) must reach the same goal 6 the formation of a noble an# s"iritual "ersonality.G( 5hus, the goal of music e#ucation is to form music culture as an in#is"ensable "art of s"iritual culture of schoolchil#ren. 5he level an# /uality of the formation of music teacher are in right "ro"ortion ;ith efficiency of e#ucational "rocess. 7or the first time the "rofessional com"etence of music teacher ;as mentione# in e#ucational music "rogramme of D.$abalevs<y (AOPH)G). 0n this "rogramme the re/uirements to;ar#s the music teacher ;ere #escribe#N the music teacher must have the abilities of #irecte# choral, instrumental an# vocal inter"retations, #ee" <no;le#ge in history an# music theory. -.&rciaGni<ova, B.&"ra3ina, D.$abalevs<y, &.Bor1, 0.(agim ;ere the first ;ho elaborate# reference frame;or< of music teacher. &t "resent, the initial formation of music teacher is #one in accor#ance ;ith the mo#ern conce"t of e#ucation9training, the "rovisions of -egislation in the fiel# of e#ucation, re/uirements of the Cational Curriculum, actual reali4ations of music "e#agogy. 5he 7aculty offers a mo#el of a s"ecialist ;ho corres"on#s e#ucational stan#ar#s an# is eager to fulfill in schools formative e#ucation centere# on "u"ils an# oriente# to "rovi#e necessary <no;le#ge a#a"table to all con#itions of mo#ern life, cultivation of s<ills an# abilities in music, cultural an# s"iritual s"heres. Re earc! #et!odolo&) 5he teacher shoul# be able to combine the fun#amental scientifically as"ect of musical an# "e#agogical com"etence ;ith those a""licable one. 5hus, as a goal of reali4ation of our obGectives, the music teacher must be com"etent in the follo;ing #irectionsN 4. T!eoretical and !i torical #u ical7 a) to <no; the music "henomenon from interior or insi#e, by its various as"ects, in all its fullness 6 from the category of 'soun#) as original element of music art, till the category of ' music #rama), in one ;or#, to <no; the science of music from elementary till its su"erior levelU b) to <no; music "henomenon from outsi#e, from the as"ect of evolution in historical an# geogra"hical areasU from the elementary forms an# genres till those su"erior, to <no; the stiles, e"ochs, national schools, com"oser.s creations, history of musical instruments etc. 2. 5u ic-"ractical7 it is "ossible "ersonally to stu#y music at the a#e/uate artistic level, to have <no;le#ge an# abilities in the fiel# of instrumental, vo;el an# con#ucting inter"retation.
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(&(0*, 0., AOOL, _tiinWa Yi arta educaWiei mu#icale, Chi1hin:uN %#itura &rc, ".F? stutvwxysz{, ].u., AOPH, |^a}^ibbi ~a bcdef_ a_a^ida`i_a fae A9F fiZZe, haZf`i

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3. 5et!odic-#u ical7 to be able to organi4e an# to con#uct "ractical music e#ucational "rocess of "u"ils, to <no; an# to a""ly #iverse ;ays, forms an# s"ecial technologies of chil#ren.s initiatives in the art of music, i.e. to be able to teach music lessons at scientifically metho#ological level. 4. %eneral and "ecial , )c!o-"eda&o&)7 to <no; an# to a""ly #i#actical "rinci"les of e#ucation an# teaching of #iverse chil#ren. =. %eneral-arti tic7 to have 'artistic) /ualities such as interior an# e3terior e3"ressiveness an# "lasticity, rich vocabulary an# e3"ressive language. :. Cultural-!u#an7 to be en#o;e# ;ith <no;le#ge in the fiel# of human culture, the history of art, national an# universal literature, to <no; another art genres, to have vast <no;le#ge about life an# ;orl#G*. Practically, in the "resent reform of university e#ucation the teaching9 learning "rocess of music teacher is base# on the obGectives ;hich have to form some "rofessional com"etences to stu#ents. 5hus, general obGectives about instrumental "re"aration of music teacher integrate a sum of <no;le#ge, s<ills an# abilities from #ifferent s"heres that are reflecte# in the curriculum at such subGect as Music instrumentNG+ $no;le#ge of such notions as genre, style, musical9"iano courseU $no;le#ge an# i#entification of musical formsU $no;le#ge of musical synta3 notions an# music languageU $no;le#ge (an# re"ro#uction in the teaching "rocess) of metho#ic9 instructive "rinci"les through music image #etermination of inter"retative "iecesU $no;le#ge an# i#entification of #i#actic9instructive re"ertoire accor#ing to the curriculum to"ics from general e#ucation an# of music school for chil#renU ,ho;ing #ifferent levels of instrumental inter"retationU Creating inter"retative re"ertoire through inter"retive various ;o<s accor#ing to genre, style etc.U Develo"ing "ractical abilities of music instrumental inter"retationU Creating s<ills an# abilities of music image "erce"tionU &nalysis of music message content from esthetic musicologist "oint of vie;U Creating "ro"er music9inter"retative thin<ing base# on inter"retative analyses of musical #iscourse in the ;or<s from #ifferent e"ochs, styles, forms, genresU Possession the authentic inter"retation s<ill of a music imageU ,ho;ing some level of inter"retations on the ;hole (in I,L,P han#s, on the ;hole, accom"animent)U *usic ;or< inter"retation in front of the au#ience at the high artistic levelU
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(&(0*, 0., AOOL, _tiinWa Yi arta educaWiei mu#icale, Chi1hin:u, %#itura &rc. 5etelea *., (raneE<aia -., (rubleac B., =HH@, InEE!In'nQ la disciplina !nstrument mu#ical Lpian), cu titlu #e manuscris, B:lEi, F= ".

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,cientific research out"ut ;ithin issues of music "sycho9"e#agogyU &;areness the im"ortance of live instrumental inter"retationU &;areness at theoretical an# "ractical levels of e#ucative function of music art in the "rocess of music e#ucationU &""lication of inter"retative re"ertoire (through a#a"tation) in thematically reali4ation of music e#ucation curriculumU 0nstrumental inter"retation of music ;or<s that ;ill be accom"anie# by music artistic verbal analysesU Reali4ation an# integration of <no;le#ge an# s<ills of music inter"retation in e3tracurricular activity. 5he fact that the notion 'music image) is a main "henomenon in curriculum structure of music e#ucation at school highlighte# the i#ea of #evelo"ing inter"retative com"etence of music image (IC5I) at the stu#ent9"e#agogue. 5he vast meaning of 'to inter"ret music image) is e3"laining the meaning an# the content of music, an# its narro; meaning is "erformance art of music (instrumental an# voice). 5he structure of inter"retative com"etence of music image ( IC5IK consists of t;o main branchesN instrumental music inter"retation an# artistic9verbal communication (see 7igure A)
INTER,RETATION CO5,ETENCE OF 5USIC I5A%E

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Fi&ure 4. Inter"retation co#"etence of #u ic i#a&e LIC5IK co#"onent

5he ;ell9<no;n "ianist9"rofessor .Ceuhaus says that 'the teacher of music shoul# be an e3"lainer an# a commenter of music) GG. 7or the necessity of 'live music inter"retation) by the teacher at the lesson of music e#ucation, sai# D.$abalevs<y, "ointing that 'live music) gives the lesson a charm ma<ing chil#ren intereste# in music art GH. ,imilar o"inion belongs to D.$abalevs<y an# it ;as about the ca"acity of artistic communication about music "ointing out that this ca"acity re"resents an element of music teacher.s ca"acity. 5he com"onent of music inter"retation of IC5I consists of the stu#ent.s ca"acity to #eco#e the content of i#eas of music image of the ;or<. 5his ;or< is ma#e by multis"ectral research of music ;or< through vision formation, artistic conce"t over the ;or< by analytical research, i.e. by creation artistic image of the ;or< that is #ivi#e# into the emotional sensations, #ifferent associations, artistic conce"ts etc. 7or music image transmission to the au#ience, the teacher
55 56

w{t, .., AOPP, gZfcZZ`_ a^_~gia g}^e, zd. ?, hcdefi, haZf`i, ".AIP stutvwxysz{, ].u., AOPO, sif ^iZZfide`i _b a bcdef_S, |^aZ`__g_, haZf`i, AOA ^. IF

shoul# ma<e the soun# system of the ;ritten ;or<. 5hus, the music9 inter"retative com"onent of IC5I finishes ;ith sonorous reali4ation of artistic image. 5his ty"e of image is #efine# as inter"retative image ;hich ;ill integrate artistic music #imensions (sensations, associations, au#itory re"resentations, artistic conce"ts) an# inter"retative artistic technical strategies (motive re"resentations, sonorous artistic intonations, technical inter"retative s<ills, etc). 0n the music inter"retation "rocess the stu#ent shoul# res"ect the follo;ing re/uirementsN 5e3t correctnessU Conformity of tem"o an# form integrationU ,tylistic conformityU 5he /uality of sonorous imitationU $no;le#ge of music synta3 (#ynamics, caesura in the groun#s, "hrases, sentences etc)U 7ree#om of inter"retation (artistic an# "sychological as"ects)U Creative an# "ersonal fetch. 5a<ing into consi#eration (.Balan.s "oint of vie;, the ';or#) means a 'barrier bet;een the listener an# music) GR, the music teacher a""ly to artistic word in the music meaning un#erstan#ing of chil#ren. 5hus, the com"onent of verbal9artistic communication is an in#is"ensable element of inter"retative com"etence of music image (C00*). 5he ability to tal< emotionally about music is the result of un#erstan#ing this art. Bnly ;ho entere# the mysterious inner music ;orl# un#erstoo# its meaning an# ;ill be able to tal< about it to others. (.Balan acce"te# the situation ;hen he sai# that in the most fre/uent cases the com"osers an# inter"rets have t;o e3tremesN ';hether they have free imagination, #eliring literally about the musical "henomenon or comes to col# Gargon of a s"ecialist, re#ucing music to a succession of structures that are "erfectly #efine# in technical terms) GU. 0n this case, to tal< about music "rofessionally, scientifically but at the same time ta<ing into account chil#ren.s age <ee"ing artistic creative /uality of music an# to coming across some e3tremes (techni/ues, "ure theory, etc.) in the structure of com"etences of music teacher. B.&safiev s"ea<ing about 'intonation analyses) of music, asserte# that one shoul# s"ea< about music in such a ;ay as to feel its real voice an# though this the initiation into the music ;orl# ;ill come GS. 5he teacher sha"es the circle of images, characters, "ro"er vie;s of this music forming in such a ;ay a vast luggage of im"ressions, associative im"ressions, an 'intonation vocabulary) to chil#ren (%.&b#ullin, &.Piliciaus<as), by the hel" of ;hose the chil#ren ;ill be able to create "ersonal artistic images.
GR GU GS

B-&C, (., AOOP, Ium sJ ascultJm mu#ica, umanitas, Bucure1ti, ".A==. 0bi#em, ".AAH tytwx, u.x., AO@A, P78945:;<5= qC>65 454 />C.-33, ya`_Zfg fab~adga^, veg}^i, ".??.

II

&t the same time, the teacher shoul# res"ect some limits in the commentary about music for avoi#ing im"osing "ro"er "oint of vie; about music image. Cot only to un#erstan# the mission, goal an# limits of music commentary but also to <no; ho; an# ;hen (at ;hat stage of the lesson) to use this commentary, is the "roblem in forming the music teacher. 0n the "rocess of verbal9artistic communication, the stu#ent shoul# <ee" in min# the follo;ing #imensions of musical ;or<N istorical as"ectU %sthetic as"ectU *usicology as"ectU &n# to res"ect the follo;ing re/uirementsN 7ree#om an# "assion of e3"ressionU &rtistic9"rofessional vocabularyU *etho#ological a""roach of stu#ie# re"ertoireU &rgumentation of music language to artistic meaningU Personal "oint of vie;. 5he abilities of artistic communication about music an# music inter"retation is in strong connection ;ith the level of un#erstan#ing an# music9 technical s<ills from the areas mentione# above in the stan#ar#s of formation music teacher. 5hus, inter"retative com"etence of music image is the mail in formation stan#ar#s. 7rom the "oint of vie; of many ;ell9<no;n researchers as R. Roegiers, 7.*. (erar#,H\ V.CabacH(, the <ey9;or#s in #efining the notion 'com"etence) areN activity (action), situation and source. 5he situation is the source an# com"etence criteria. 5he "erson can #evelo" "ro"er com"etence only in concrete situation in the #etermine# conte3t. %fficient treatment of a situation consists of evaluation criteriaN the "erson is name# in this case com"etent. 5he #ynamic character of com"etence #enotes the fact that it can be use# not only in the given situation but in the other same situations an# as a com"etence may be #evelo"e# though the ;hole life. & com"etence may be forme# in the result of stu#ying but also in the "rocess of "rofessional activity. 5his ;or< refers in ;hole to the inter"ret com"etence of music image by a "ianist9stu#ent. 0t is #evelo"e#8 forme# on #ifferent "ractical an# theoretical lessons an# at the same time it is reali4e# in #ifferent lessons. situations an# "ublic manifestations. 5he situations ;here C00* may be reali4e# areN lesson of music instrument (instrumental stu#y of music ;or<), e3ams, concerts, recitations (music9artistic reali4ation of music ;or< at "ublic evaluations), the final institution as school (artistic image reali4ation of ;or< #uring "e#agogy "ractice) ;here the stu#ent
H\

(%R&RD, 7.*., RB%(0%R,, R., AOOF, Ioncevoir et evaluer des manuels scolatres , Bru3ellesN De Boec< Unversite. H( C&B&C, V., =HH@, ToWiunea de competenWJ Zn cursul universitar "^idactica informaticii n &rta 1i %#ucaEia &rtistic:, k =(?), ".A=? 6 AF?, B:lEi

I?

sho;s his8her forme# com"etences. 5he characteristics of inter"retation com"etence of music image may be #esigne# in the follo;ing #irection, see 7igure =.
Arti ticdidactic aCi of ituation ,eda&o&) "ractice Public e(aluation In tru#enta INTER,RETATION CO5,ETENCE OF l stu#y of creation 5USIC I5A%E *usic9theoretical an# metho#ological ANOW.ED%E

0nstrumental inter"retation s<ills an# verbal communication A-I.ITIES ATITUDES 5USIC


ATTITUDES

T!e for#ation "roce Fi&ure 2. T!e c!aracteri tic of inter"retation co#"etence of #u ic i#a&e on t!e aCi of educational ituation

Conclu ion Ke strongly believe that one of the basic com"etencies to become a music teacher shoul# be the competence associated with the opening of the musical content, comprehension of the artistic sense of music. Ke shall call it competence of interpretation of the musical image. &s any "erformance8 <no;le#ge of music is a <in# of "ersonal inter"retation, the teacher must be com"etent not only in listening, analysis, or "erformance of music, but namely in the interpretation of the musical image. 0n "iano music teacher training, ;e have all the "rere/uisites an# "ossibilities to achieve this goal, since stu#ying music, stu#ents com"rehen# the #ialectical meaning, artistic an# formative nature ;or<s. 0n conclusion, it must be em"hasi4e#, the com"etence9base# a""roach, in contrast to the a""roach base# on <no;le#ge, abilities an# s<ills, involves not only mastery in the com"le3, but also in the "rocess of ac/uisition of learning abilities to fin# a ;ay of further #evelo"ment, self9"romotion on the ;ay of "rogress, an# im"lementation of com"etence9base# a""roach ;ithin the "iano training an# ;ithin the e#ucational an# cultural situation in general. -i8lio&ra"!) A. B-&C, (., AOOP, Ium sJ ascultJm mu#ica, umanitas, Bucure1ti, AF= ". =. C&B&C, V., =HH@, ToWiunea de competenWJ Zn cursul universitar "^idactica informaticii n &rta 1i %#ucaEia &rtistic:, k =(?), ".A=? 6 AF?, B:lEi F. CURR0CU-U* la #isci"lina !nstrument mu#ical Lpian), =HH@, autori 5etelea *., (raneE<aia -., (rubleac B., cu titlu #e manuscris, B:lEi, F= ".
IL

I. (&(0*, 0., _tiinWa Yi arta educaWiei mu#icale, Chi1hin:uN %#itura &rc, AOOL, ==F ". ?. (%R&RD, 7.*., RB%(0%R,, R., AOOF, Ioncevoir et evaluer des manuels scolatres, Bru3ellesN De Boec< Unversite, , FF=". L. $U$$, -.5&-5,, =HH@, Teachersr self-assessment of their professional s%ills according to the teachersr professional standard, n !ournal of 5eacher %#ucation for ,ustainability, vol. P, =HH@, "". AI9=I, 0,,CN ALOA9??FI @. K%,5%R&, K0*, =HHA, Iompetences in education a confusion of tongues, Zn "!ournal of Curriculum ,tu#ies), Volume FF, Cumber A, A !anuary =HHA , "". @?9PP(AI) P. tytwx, u.x., AO@A, P78945:;<5= qC>65 454 />C.-33, ya`_Zfg fab~adga^, veg}^i, FF? ^. O. stutvwxysz{, ].u., AOPH, |^a}^ibbi ~a bcdef_ a_a^ida`i_a fae A9F fiZZe, haZf`i, AH. stutvwxysz{, ].u., AOPO, s54 >5334589250; t-0=6 C 67894-c, |^aZ`__g_, haZf`i, AOA ^. AA. w{t, .., AOPP, u? 13473302- qC>0-/15<<CB 1v>9, zd. ?, hcdefi, haZf`i, =IH "

3.T/E /lSTOR6 OF 5USIC AND TEAC/IN% IT IN T/E UNIVERSITIES


Ra#ona ,reMaH) A8 tract 7 The solid and consistent study of the history of music helps any practitioner to understand the process of forming art and to %now the stylistic peculiarities of each period and the causes that led to its ebistence. Kptimi#ing the educaWional process in the current university teaching system, implies that the teacher has to be familiar with the epistemological characteristics of the history of music and the teaching requirements Lmethodology, projective and actual accomplishmentsF. Ae) >ord N history, music, teacher, method, didactic.

(enerally s"ea<ing, the term history means becoming8#evelo"ment, in nature, society as ;ell as in thin<ing. 0n a more limitative sense, the ;or# history signifies everything that is lin<e# to the #evelo"ment of social life (of humanity). istory is the total of events an# changes ta<ing "lace in a certain "erio# of time, in a certain fiel# of human activity, bearing a general interest. Referring to this subGect, -ucian Blaga consi#ere# that in such a "ers"ective, the history coincides with the temporal dimension of human ebistence and activityLF.
H) H*

-ecturer PhD, University of &rts from 5Mrgu 9*ure1 of Romania, emailN lectuniv=HHOVyahoo.com -. Blaga, (AOP?), Kor<s O, Trilogy of Iulture, Bucharest, ".=OL. I@

&nother meaning of the term history is of <no;le#ge or science. 7rom this "ers"ective, history is the science of the societyjs history in general, of #ifferent "eo"les (ethnicities) in "articular an# of certain fiel#s (manifestations) of society (hence the e3"ression branch historiesFLI. Kor<ing ;ith history im"lies an a#e/uate re"resentation regar#ing the e"istemological status of this science. 0t is im"ortant to un#erstan# the functions of history. ,ome theoretical e3"erts a#vocate the necessity of engaging history in su""orting the nation (see 2qcoala &r#elean:2 an# the ;hole generation of historians of APIP)HG. 0n connection ;ith this as"ect, Bctavian 5:tar consi#ers that ;e nee# to ma<e a clear #istinctionN history, as a science, must not have as an obGective an i#eological function ah initio. 5he fun#amental function of history 9 as a matter of fact9the only one, is the function of <no;le#ge. 5he "ur"ose of history is to reconstruct the "ast an# to e3"lain it in terms of historic truthHH. Regar#ing the social e#ucaEional action, history can ac/uire ;hat is normally calle# a practicai function. But it is not history itself that has this function, but resorting to history #oes. 5herefore, history is one of the social sciences 8about society, along ;ith many others (sociology, "olitics, anthro"ology, "sychology etc). &s a science of the social, its fun#amental an# only aim is to offer scientific e3"lanation regar#ing the "ast of humanity. 5he obGective of any scientific <no;le#ge 8e3"lanation is the truth, in this case, the historic truth 9 an obGective, cumulative one9an# not the absolute oneHR. istory can be #ivi#e# into historic eras, resulting in universal sub9histories (anti/ue, me#ieval, mo#ern an# contem"orary). Beyon# this general history, in s"eciali4e# universities can be stu#ie# the so calle# branch histories history of music, history of literature, history of %uro"ean integration, history of religion, history of art, history of la;, history of economics etc. 5he activity of anchorage of the branch history into the aca#emic teaching act in the universities is the result of a "roGective en#eavor, naEional as ;ell as %uro"ean. 5his en#eavor com"rises three maGor elementsN e#ucational "olicy of the stateU e3"ert abilities in university teaching an# the s"eciali4e# teacher (generically calle# the teacher). 5he mirror of the e#ucaEional "olicy is re"resente# by the teaching "lan an# the #isci"line file an# the #irect e3"ression of the e3"ertjs ability in university teaching is the history course.5he course follo;s an# s"rea#s the historical truth but being the "ro#uct of a teacher is not necessarily the historic truth. 5he course can not be the e3"ression of complete neutrality because it isN the e3"ression of a "articular learning situationU it is an instrument in teaching
H+

Cf. C. Qamfr, (AOPA), Vilosophy of history, BucharestU Puha, %lena,Cristian, (AOPO) istoric Consciousness, Bucharest HG B. 5:tar (AOOF), $bout the Iurrent Vinctions of [istory, in *o#ern *ilitary ,"irit, no.F, "". AH9AF. HH 7. Voiculescu, =HAH), Qethodological kuide to nniversity Teaching, coor#inator, &eternitas Publishing ouse, &lba 0ulia, ".IIO. HR 7. Voiculescu, =HAH), Qethodological kuide to nniversity Teaching, coor#inator, &eternitas Publishing ouse, &lba 0ulia, ".IIO. IP

an# not the ultimate an# com"lete e3"erience in scientific research in a s"ecific fiel#U it has its o;n style, #etermine# by #i#actic obGectives etc. 5herefore, ;hen #evelo"ing the #isci"line file ;e must ta<e into account the fact that the history of music must follo; the com"licate# roa# of music, since the ancient times till the "resent. IH.HHH years is the age attribute# by the archeologists to a ;all "ainting #iscovere# in a grotto in &riege. 5his "ainting is the ol#est "roof connecte# to the history of music on our "lanetHU. ,o for the last IH.HHH years, music has not cease# to live an# #evelo" in or#er to become ;hat it is to#ay. 5he aim of the course in the history of music is to sho; the stu#ents the "hases that le# to the mo#ern concert halls, the transformations un#ergone by the very noEion of music as ;ell as its main vectorsN the com"oser, the singer, the instrument "layer, the con#uctor, the e#itor or the critic, ;hich are the strange u"s an# #o;ns of this art, ;hat ;ere its obGectives bet;een the original cosmogonies an# the #o#eca"honic theories or concrete music. 5he soli# stu#y of the history of music hel"s any "ractitioner to un#erstan# the "rocess of forming art an# to <no; the style "eculiarities of each "erio# an# the causes that create# it. Referring to the history of music, Brigitte ,a""ey consi#ere# that it is a humanistic science, ;hich shoul# "romote inter#isci"linary relationshi" an# use some tools offere# by sociology, cognitive "sychology, "henomenology, semiotics etc. &t the same time, it ;oul# be normal to have references to acoustics, musical notation, e#itorial an# soun# broa#casting, "ublic evolution an# au#ition "laces, esthetic an# theoretic ;ritings, legal te3ts an# la;s or iconogra"hyHS. 0 thin< that re#ucing the history of music to theoretical analysis of a master "iece from a certain historic "erio# means to "resent the historic facts in an incom"lete an# unconvincing manner. &t the same time, it is im"ortant to "resent the "henomena of the musical art base# on a theoretic analysis. 0n or#er to reach valuable scientific conclusions, ;e shoul# ta<e into account the con#itions that resulte# in the "henomena in #iscussion (social relations, ;ay of life, ;ay of thin<ing of the res"ective civili4ation), art "eculiarities. Khen #evelo"ing the file of the history of music ;e have to ta<e into account the #ifferent artistic an# i#eological tren#s, tra#itions, artistic e3"eriences accumulate# along the ages... Bnly base# on these tra#itions ;e ;ill be able to un#erstan# ;hy some countries, un#er#evelo"e# economically, ;ere first as music #evelo"ment is concerne#... 7rance in the RV000 Century, although in a "overty state sur"asse# %nglan# (the richest %uro"ean country) from the cultural "oint of vie;R\. 5he course follo;s an# s"rea#s the historic truth but it is not "rimarily an e3"ression 8 result of the historic truth. 5he course can not be the e3"ression of total neutrality because it isN the "ro#uct of a teacherU it is the e3"ression of a
HU HS R\

Cf. !. Chailley, (lOL@), +\,\\\ wears of Qusic, *usical Publishing ouse, Bucharest. B. ,a""ey, (=HH@), [istory of Qusic in furope, (ramfoart Publishing ouse, Bucharest, ".?. (h. *eri1escu, (AOLI), [istory of nniversal Qusi%, Bucharest, 5eaching "ublishing ouse, ".?. IO

"articular learning situationU 0t is a teaching instrument an# not the ultimate, integral e3"ression of scientific research in the s"ecific fiel#U it has its o;n style, #etermine# by teaching obGectives etc. 5he oral form 9 the lecture an# the written form of the course must be #ifferentx they are t;o #ifferent intellectual "ro#uctsN the oral course follo;s the logic of the oral #iscourse, ;hile the ;ritten form follo;s the logic of the ;ritten one. 7rom the theme stan# "oint they can be almost i#entical but they can not have the same content. The lecture re"resents the oral "resentation 9 in the form of a logical chain of multi"le rationales, in an or#erly manner, systematical an# continuous 9 of a ne; or less <no;n informational material that is the obGect of a theme R(. 5he lecture can inclu#e the follo;ing ty"e of e3"lanationsN the causal e3"lanation (;hyS), stressing the causes of a historic event or "rocessU theological e3"lanation (;hat forS), in vie; of a Gustification for an action by referring to the aimU consecutive e3"lanation (;hich oneS), "resenting in or#er of events, situations etc, lea#ing to a final stateU normative e3"lanation, as an analysis, follo;ing establishe# criteria, of essential characteristics, of similarities an# #ifferences etcU the "roce#ural e3"lanation or by mechanism (ho;S), em"hasi4ing the "rinci"les gui#ing the functioning or occurring of a historic eventR). Presentations using an overhea# "roGector an# "o;er9"oint are highly recommen#e# an# it can be accom"anie# by musical e3am"les. 5he "resentation is to be conclu#e# byN #ra;ing general conclusions regar#ing the theme in #iscussionU stating some of the stu#y tas<s (o"tional) an# the "resentation of the ne3t theme ;ith the very aim of establishing a chain connection an# "erce"tive "re"arationR*. 0f ;e refer to the writtengprinted course, the current university reality confirms the fact that there are course# on the history of music that are AHH "ages long, some are FHH "ages long, although they refer to the same subGect, ;ith the same status in the teaching "lan (for e3am"le, one hour "resentation an# one hour of seminar "er ;ee<). &t the /uestion ho; many "ages shoul# a "rinte# course haveS 5he ans;er might be (accor#ing to B. 5:tar in Qethodological kuide to nniversity Teaching, regar#ing the system8theory of study credits@I. 5he volume of ;or< re/uire# from the stu#ent in or#er to ac/uire the <no;le#ge an# the abilities envisage# in the teaching "lan is e3"resse# in study credits. 5he number of cre#its allocate# to one #isci"line e3"resses the number of stu#y hours 8 time consi#ere# to be necessary in or#er to ac/uire the abilities an# com"etences s"ecific for that "articular #isci"line. Bne cre#it unit corres"on#s to FH hours of stu#y.
R( R)

0. Cerghit, D. Vl:sceanu, (AOP?), Teaching Iourse, Bucharest, ".ALL. 7. Voiculescu, (=HAH), Qethodological kuide to nniversity Teaching, &eternitas Publishing ouse, &lba 0ulia, ".ILO. R* 0. Cerghit, -. Vl:sceanu, (AOP?), Teaching Iourse, Bucharest, "".ALL9AL@. R+ B. 5:tar (=HAH), Qethodological kuide to nniversity Teaching, &eternitas Publishing ouse, &lba lulia, ".I@A. ?H

5he history of music, as a #isci"line, ;ith one hour "resentation an# one hour seminar "er ;ee< accounts for three cre#its. 5his means a volume of ;or< measure# in hours. 5herefore, a "rinte# course ;ith a""ro3. A?H "ages seems to be reasonable for such a #isci"line. 5he course is a "ersonal "ro#uct of the university "rofessor in charge of the res"ective #isci"line, an# the #rafting an# the "rinting of the courses is a teaching #uty, a matter of university "restige an# a great res"onsibility to;ar#s the stu#ents. 5he written course must follo; the techni/ue 8metho#ology of #rafting a scientific te3tN the "resentation of i#eas, inclu#ing their grammar accuracyU the #ialogue ;ith the historic sources an# bibliogra"hy (a""ro"riate critical system, critical sense, avoi#ing intellectual theft etc)U "resenting hy"othesis an# theoriesU e3"ressing controversial as"ects an# "ossible later research etc. &s a "ro#uct to be use# by stu#ents, the "rinte# course must follo; strictly the teaching rules an# regulationsN to be #rafte# in or#er to facilitate learning, to be attractive, stating the "roblems, #ialogue rhetorically an# using an inciting language. 0t nee#s to be systematic, ;ith suggestive titles, bringing for;ar# im"ortant i#eas, gui#ing to;ar#s other i#eas or sources, successive conclusions, raise issues an# "rovi#e gui#ance regar#ing su""lementary ;ays to get information (sources, bibliogra"hy etc)U it nee#s to be, finally, a mo#el of metho#ology in the history of researchRG. Meminar. 7rom the methodological point of view, the seminar is a collective debate (#iscussion) ;hich involvesN the organi4e# e3change of i#eas aroun# a stu#y to"icU the analysis of a case or the e3amination of a "roblemU clarifying of an i#ea, conce"t or theory etc. 7rom the didactical point of view, the seminar is a social form of learning, ;hich means that its aim is toN intensify inter"ersonal relations regar#ing rece"tiveness an# coo"eration in learningU accom"lish the transfer of informationU stimulate s"ontaneity an# collective creativityU #evelo" creative thin<ing an# imagination, critical sense an# #iscursive reflectionU influence "erce"tions an# stu#ents attitu#e. The seminar-debate with preestablished structure involves the follo;ing as"ectsN "rimary setting of issues a##itional to a seminar theme, e3"licitly formulate# themes corres"on#ing to a minimal but targete# bibliogra"hyU establishing com"lementary #i#actical activities9"resentation8musical "ersonality, biogra"hical s<etches, biogra"hical files etc. 0t is recommen#e# that these tas<s are assigne# to stu#ents to be solve# before the seminars. The seminar with opposing sub-groups im"lies, in "rinci"le, the follo;ing as"ectsN timely establishment of a theme an# of a subGect to be #ebate#U establishing a bibliogra"hy connecte# to the res"ective theme (it has to be inciting 8challenging, not too e3tensive, so it can be absorbe# in its entirety in a reasonable "erio# of time, it has to be easily accessible etc)U organi4ing the seminar grou" on t;o to three sub9grou"sU each grou" formulates
RG

B. 5:tar (=HAH), Qethodological kuide to nniversity Teaching, &eternitas Publishing ".IIO.

ouse, &lba 0ulia,

?A

a /uestion an# ans;ers a /uestion for 8from the other sub9grou", follo;ing an establishe# scenario set u" by the teacher at the beginning of the seminar. Regar#ing the seminar with the paperwor% the teacher establishesN the themes8to"icsU the a##itional bibliogra"hyU establishes the themes to each stu#ent an# it assigns a timetable for the "resentation of the "a"er;or<. 5he stu#ents ;ill "resent their "a"er;or< follo;ing the assigne# theme. 0t is im"ortant to #raft a seminar note boo< that shoul# com"riseN a "resentation note ;ith the seminar obGectives, e3"lanation of the theme an# seminar forms, metho#ological #irectives, organi4ational tas<s, as"ects relate# to the evaluation etcU "roGects for each seminar, theme of the seminar, organi4ation an# #evelo"ment, bibliogra"hy etc. 0f ;e ;ere to #ra; a com"arison bet;een the seminar an# the course ;e have to observe the follo;ing as"ectsN 5he seminar is not an o"tional teaching activity (neither for the stu#ents, nor for the "rofessor)U 5he seminar an# the course are both very im"ortant 9 as a timeframe an# as e#ucational finality 9 in the formation of #isci"linary com"etencesU 5he seminar an# the course must be com"lementary from the thematic "oint of vie;U 5he seminar must not be a secon# course Gust li<e the course must not be the e3tensive e3"ression of the ;hole res"ective #isci"line, robbing the seminar of ;hatever initiative it might have in this res"ect. Regar#ing the matter of the evaluation metho#ology, ;e must un#erline the critics a##resse# to the classical metho#s of evaluationRHN 9 limite# character, "unctual an# sim"le of the tas<s a##resse# to the stu#ents, referring to the ty"e of tas< as ;ell as to the content of these tas<sU 9 e3cessive focus on evaluation, a more or less artificial se"aration of evaluation vs. learningU this <in# of effect is noticeable even in case of current evaluations ;ith formative obGectivesU 9 focus on the "ro#ucts of learning (behavior, finale "erformances) an# less or not at all on the "rocess of learningU 7ormal an# often rigi# character of the frame;or< in ;hich the evaluation ta<es "lace. 0n a mo#ern university system, 0 consi#er that the evaluation must be com"le3, meaning it is necessary to be a""lie# systematically (re"eate#) several criteria for the same gra#e of the stu#ent. Khen s"ea<ing about the history of music, the evaluation envisages e/ually the "rocess an# the result of the learning "rocess, ;hich means that the stu#ent must be allo;e# to monitor along the way the /uality of the "resentations, before the final "ro#uct is evaluate# an# gra#e#. !nvestigation into the history of music can be a learning metho# as ;ell as an evaluation techni/ue. 0t involves e3"loration by the stu#ents, observation an#
RH

&. ,toica a"u#. 7. Voiculescu, (=HAH), Qethodological kuide to nniversity Teaching, &eternitas Publishing ouse, &lba 0ulia, ".FI.

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#ata collection, gathering <no;le#ge in or#er to e3"lain a certain stu#ie# "erio#. &s an activity un#er;ay, investigation is "lanne# an# con#ucte# usually, #uring =9I seminars, involving class activity ;ith the teacherjs su"ervision as ;ell as in#e"en#ent activity of the stu#ents, outsi#e the classroom. &s an alternative evaluation metho#, investigation has a series of characteristics, among ;hich C. Cuco1 mentione#RRN a strong formative characterU a "rofoun# integrative character, for the "revious learning "rocesses as ;ell as for the metho#ology of informing an# scientific research, thus being a very suggestive ;ay of evaluation, "recisely intuitive an# "re#ictableU it has a cumulative character, bringing together <no;le#ge, s<ills, abilities, #ifferent attitu#es, that are settle# #uring a longer learning "erio#. &n im"ortant as"ect in the university activity is the one relate# to the ethical norms that must be observe# by the teacher of history of music. 5he university job is, for most of us, the result of a #ialogue ;ith our o;n university e3"erience. 0n this res"ect, ;e <no; too little about ethical norms, those ;hich e3"ress the e3"ectations of the community, of the teachers8 "rofessors an# stu#ents. 5he ensemble of the norms com"rise# in the authority relation "rofessor9stu#ent re"resents the teacherps deontological code, in the usual sense of co#e of con#uct or "rofessional co#e. 5his in#icates to the teacher ;hat he must #o an# ho; he must #o in or#er to #o ;hat he has to #o regar#ing his relations ;ith the stu#ents, "ossibly ;ith his8her colleagues an# bosses. 5he teacherjs #eontological co#e, is ;or<ing, from the "rofessional "oint of vie;, bet;een obligation an# duty, bet;een restraint an# self restraint. 5he teacher of history of music ;ho converts "rofessional obligation an# restraint in #uty an# self restraint can be consi#ere# a professor with a vocation. 5he teacher, ;ho fin#s no moral satisfaction in teaching, is a "rofessional failure. 5he effects of the teacherjs behavior can be seen #irectly on the stu#ents, ;ith a maGor im"act on the teaching act. Ke nee# a moral co#e in or#er to have the university at a goo# level of functioning. &s -ucian Blaga use# to say a truly moral person is, ethically spea%ing, more demanding with him than with the othersRU. Ke nee# a moral co#e in or#er to "reserve stability an# moral continuity. The only danger to humansp spiritual life, used to say centuries ago Tudor iianu, is the loss of the feeling of moral continuity, misunderstanding or despising the past, the stupid ignoring of values acquired by people a long time ago@O. &n#rei Ple1u, the ;ell <no;n "hiloso"her, consi#ers that ;e nee# a moral co#e 2for the persons that lac% ethics& in order to help them function as well as possible. Ohen you do not love good spontaneously, you are at least as%ed to
RR

C. Cuco1, (=HHP), fvaluation Theory and Qethodology, Polirom Publishing ouse, 0a1i, ". AFP. -. Blaga, (AOI@), 5he 0slan#js %3citement, in 5he Royal 7oun#ations *aga4ine, R0V, ".F. 5. Vianu (AOP=) Mtudies of Iultural Xhilosophy, Bucharest, ".IL=. ?F

RU RS

respect it. Ohen talent does not help you to find the optimum ebpression of behavior in a certain situation, you are offered the recipe PH. 5he moral coor#inates of the teacher of the history of music can be summe# u" as follo;sU(N 9 Ne a critic of your own timex place the truth above everything, but never forget ;hat the Dominican teacher, &lbert the (reat sai#N those who believe that $ristotle was a kod must also believe that he was never wrong . But if ;e believe that he ;as human, then, un#oubte#ly, he R( could have been wrong, just li%e the rest of usP=U 9 Res"ect your "rinci"les an# be consistent in your teaching actU 9 Be self critical Be honorable an# #ignifie# 9 (et a hol# of yourself Donjt be im"ulsiveU #onjt hol# the gru#ge, #onjt be violent or moo#y Be Q%C. &s for the finality for the stu#ents in stu#ying the history of music ;e can conclu#e the follo;ingN 9 5hey ac/uire some basic <no;le#ge on the musical "henomena, chronologically an# stylisticU 9 5hey form a general vision about #ifferent "erio#s, styles, com"osers an# creations, genres an# musical formsU 9 5hey ac/uire a ca"acity to orient themselves in the re"resentative musical ;orl#, by musical recognition of universal an# national master"ieces. Referring to the main s"ecific com"etences ac/uire# by the stu#ents follo;ing the stu#y in the history of music, they can be summe# u" li<e thisN 9 they <no; an# use a""ro"riately the s"ecific termsU 9 imme#iate recognition of musical "iecesU 9 use of <no;le#ge in or#er to e3"lain "henomena, musical "rocesses in vie; of historic orientation, in style an# musical languageU *inimum stan#ar#s of "erformanceN 9 5o be able to fin# its ;ay into the chronology of the historic "erio#s, artistic tren#s an# most im"ortant musical stylesU 9 5o be able to use the <no;le#ge ac/uire# in other #isci"lines in or#er to e3"lain certain "rocesses an# "henomenaU 9 5o recogni4e in#ivi#ual com"osing styles, stu#ie# musical creations. 0n conclusion, to <no; the e"istemology of the history of music, to <no; the teaching stan#ar#s (metho#ological, "roGective an# effective accom"lishment)U
U\ U(

&. Ple1u, (AOOI), Qinima moralia, secon# e#ition, Bucharest, ". FO. 7. Voiculescu L)\(\F, Qethodological kuide to nniversity Teaching, &eternitas Publishing ouse, &lba lulia, "".I?P9I?O. U) *. Brocchieri, (AOOO), The !ntellectual, in Qedieval Qan (coor#. !/. -e (off), 0a1i, ".AOA a"u#. B. 5:tar., (=HAH), Qethodological kuide to nniversity Teaching, &eternitas Publishing ouse, &lba lulla, ".I?P. ?I

5o <no; the finality of the #isci"line means o"timi4ing the e#ucational "rocess in the current university system. -i8lio&ra"!)

Cuco1, C. Cerghit, 0., Vl:sceanu, -. *unteanu, (. Ple1u, &. ,a""ey, B. Voiculescu, 7.

=HHP AOP? =HHA AOOI =HH@ =HAH

Theory and Qethodology of fvaluation, Polirom Publishing ouse, 0a1i. Teaching Iourse, Bucharest Qusical fducation, &lmarom Publishing ouse, RMmnicu VMlcea Qinima Qoralia, secon# e#ition, Bucharest [istory of Qusic in furope, (ramfoart Publishing ouse, Bucharest Qethodological kuide to nniversity Teaching, &eternitas Publishing ouse, &lba 0ulia.

4.I5,.ICATIONS OF /E5IS,/ERICIT6 ON T/E 5USICA. FIE.D


Dorina IucDU* A8 tract 7 !dentifying the neuro-psychological aspects of music performance represents one of the biggest challenges addressed to the )(-st century researchers. The sensorial, perceptual, psycho-motrical, cognitive and socio-emotional complebity of music performance continues to impress neuroscientists who discover new information every day. The study approaches the concept of hemisphericity and discusses its implications on the professional activity of classical music performers. Ae) >ord 7 hemisphericity, music performance, neuro-psychological factors

4. Introduction During last =H years, researchers have gone a long ;ay in e3"loring the artistic fiel# an# have substantially contribute# to the uncovering of the neuro9 "sychological "rocesses associate# ;ith the musical activities. 0n this ;ay, they reveale# a more obGective an# efficient communication strategy relate# to the musical "henomenon. *usic neuro9"sychology stan#s at the intersection bet;een me#icine, "sychology an# music an# it occu"ies a gro;ing bo#y of research in
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-ecturer PhD, De"artment for 5eachers %#ucation D(eorge %nescu) University of &rts from 0asi of Romania, emailN #orinaiuscaVyahoo.com

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international "restigious Gournals such asN Nrain, The mournal of Teuroscience, Ierebral Iorteb, The mournal of Iognitive Teuroscience, Teuro!mage, TeuroEeport, Teuropsychologia, Tature. 5his stu#ies aim to i#entify the neural correlates corres"on#ing to #ifferent musical activities for instance music au#ition, vocal or instrumental music "erformance an# music com"osition. *usicians are use# to com"le3 "hysical an# "sychological actions such as translating the visually "resente# musical symbols into se/uential movements of the fingers, im"rovisation, memori4ing long musical "hrases an# i#entifying the tonality ;ithout a reference "oint. 7or e3am"le, instrumental sight9rea#ing re/uires the simultaneous integration of sensory an# motor information ;ith the fee#9bac< mechanisms use# for music "erformance monitoring. By intro#ucing the conce"t of hemis"hericity, researchers offer the o""ortunity for greater un#erstan#ing of the lin< bet;een music "erformance level an# a certain thin<ing style that ;as associate# ;ith the left or right brain hemis"heres. 5his allo;s "sychologists an# musicians to have a bigger "icture for ;hat "erformance is, by e3tra"olating the information from neuroscience into a higher "ers"ective over art an# music in "articular. *usic has al;ays been consi#ere# as being "rocesse# by the right hemis"here. 5he novelty of this stu#y consists into the revie; of recent stu#ies that "rove#, through f*R0 research, that music "rocessing, in its multi"le #imensions (melo#y, rhythm, harmony, timbre) is "rocesse# by both hemis"heres. *oreover, "rofessional musicians ten# to use "re#ominantly the left hemis"here ;hen ;or<ing ;ith musical information. Bur intention is to e3"lore the hemis"hericity of "erformers in or#er to obtain a more coherent an# com"lete "ers"ective on the neuro"sychological "rocesses relate# to music activities. 2. T!e conce"t of !e#i "!ericit) 5he conce"ts of brain #ominance an# hemis"hericity have ha#, across time, a sinuous history, as researchers, in many conte3ts, coul# not agree on ho; to #efine each of them. 5he t;o brain hemis"heres have the same internal structure (Petrovanu et al, AOOO). Because each of them controls the o""osite si#e of the bo#y an# communicate ;ith each other through cor"us callosum, they ;ere consi#ere# e/ual in functions for a long time. Bnly in the secon# half of the R0R9th century researchers starte# to un#erstan# that, #es"ite their similar configuration the brain hemis"heres are not functionally e/uivalent. Due to the #iscoveries ma#e by Pierre Paul Broca in APLI that sho;e# a connection bet;een loosing the articulate language an# an inGury of the thir# left frontal convolution (;hish ;as later name# Broca.s area), the neuroscience fiel# brought the evi#ence of not only the locali4ation of a certain mental activity to a s"ecific region in the brain, but of the une/ual contribution of the t;o hemis"heres for that "articular mental activity.

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5;elve years later, in AP@L, Carl Kernic<e ;as #escribing the sensory a"hasia ;hich reveale# that in this #isease the inGury is locate# also on the left hemis"here, but on the "osterior9su"erior si#e of the tem"oral lobe (;hich became Kernic<e.s area) an# on the a#Gacent "arietal9occi"ital corte3 (Petrovanu et al, AOOO). 5hese t;o fin#ings brought to light the i#ea of functional asymmetry of the left an# right hemis"heres an# this became a conse/uence of the s"ecific contribution of each hemis"here to the "rocessing of the mental activities. Because the loss of the language function ;as #etermine# e3clusively by lesions in the left hemis"here it receive# the name of #ominant hemis"here, an# this i#ea "ersiste# almost a century (Bote4, AOOLU Petrovanu et al, AOOO). 7unctional asymmetry ;as initially consi#ere# to be e3clusive an# reflecte# the i#ea the only the left hemis"here "artici"ates to these s"ecific human functions. Bnly at the en# of the RR9th century, ;hen it became obvious that the right hemis"here "lays an im"ortant "art into the "eo"le.s life too by "rocessing s"atial information, the conce"t of 'absolute #ominance) has been re"lace# ;ith 'relative #ominance). 5he conce"ts of hemis"heric s"eciali4ation an# brain laterali4ation follo;e# an# these are still use# to#ay ;hen ;e s"ea< about the functions of the left or right hemis"here (Bote4, AOOL). 5he most im"ortant #iscoveries relate# to functional asymmetry of the brain hemis"heres have been ma#e by Roger ,"erry. 0n AOPA he receive# 5he Cobel Pri4e in *e#icine 'for #iscoveries relate# to the functional s"eciali4ation of the brain hemis"heres) (htt"N88nobel"ri4e.org). Davi# ubel an# 5orsten Kiesel have continue# his research an# also receive# 5he Cobel Pri4e for '#iscoveries relate# to information "rocessing by the visual systems) (i#em). Bnce ne; metho#s of neuro9science investigations have been intro#uce#, the #ata relate# to hemis"here "rocessing enlarge# ra"i#ly an# significantly. & synthesis on these #iscoveries is illustrate# in table A. .eft !e#i "!ere -anguage functionU *athematical functionsU Processes relate# to logic thin<ingU &nalytic functionU Declarative memoryU Direct lin< to consciousnessU Ri&!t !e#i "!ere Con9verbal an# intuitive #ataU 5hree9#imensional "erce"tionU Con9verbal languageN intonation, intensityU Refle3ive memoryU Uncertain lin< to consciousnessU

5able A. &n overvie; of the hemis"heric functions, as they ;ere #iscovere# by ,"erry, Bogen an# (a44aniga (Petrovanu et al., AOOO)

During the last #eca#e a general controversy #evelo"e# simultaneously into the scientific ;orl# relate# to brain locali4ation of #ifferent mental functions. %ach hemis"here has s"ecific in#e"en#ent functions but the cerebral
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activity is unitary #ue to the role of inter9hemis"heric structures. 0n this ;ay the activity of the hemis"heres is rather com"lementary than se"arate. 5his is ;hy, ;hen ;e rea# a te3t, the left hemis"here reveals the verbal message, ;hile the right hemis"here is involve# in #eco#ing the visual information, in a""reciating humor, in un#erstan#ing the emotional content or the meta"horic nuances. ,tarting ;ith the pLH.s, along ;ith the enthusiasm of these fin#ings, a ne; conce"t a""eare#N hemis"hericity. 5his term ;as es"ecially use# in "o" "sychology in or#er to #escribe t;o #istinct "ersonality ty"es associate# ;ith the t;o hemis"heres. 5he conce"t has been challenge# by some researchers (Beaumont, Joung *c*anus, AOPI) ;ho argue# that the i#ea of hemis"hericity can not be scientifically "rove# because of the lo; vali#ity of research metho#s ;hich i#entifie# the t;o cognitive styles. Beaumont, Joung an# *c*anus investigate# the statistical reliability of four ty"es of tests (lateral eye movements test, electro"hysiological measurements, /uestionnaires an# cognitive tests) an# #iscovere# insufficient evi#ence for their connection ;ith the brain hemis"heres. 5hey suggeste# that the conce"t of hemis"hericity shoul# be aban#one# for not in#ucing error into the "ublic o"inion about the brain functions. Due to s"ecialists. o""osite "oints of vie; regar#ing this conce"t, the research area regar#ing hemis"hericity remaine# behin# the "ublic o"inion ;hich imme#iately embrace# the i#ea of cognitive styles relate# to brain hemis"heres. 5he "o" "sychology a#e"ts ;ere convince# that there are #ifferences in the ;ay "eo"le ten# to react in life ;hich are relate# to the "re#ominant use of the left or the right hemis"here. -ater, im"ortant names in "sychology (Bernice *cCarthy, AOOFU arol# (or#on, AOPLU Paul 5orrance, AOPPU Ce# ermann, AOOH apud -eng oo, AOO@) have re9engage# in the stu#y of hemis"hericity an# have built reliable measurements tests of hemis"hericity (+Q$T, Iognitive 'aterality Nattery, [errmann Nrain ^ominance !nstrument). 5hese tests ;ere later on "ut in goo# use by researchers (&li $or, =HH@U !agt et al, =HHF). 5able = illustrates a general #escri"tion of the t;o ty"es of hemis"hericity (%#;ar#s, AOOO apud Roco, =HHA). ,eo"le >it! left !e#i "!ericit) V%RB&- 6 uses ;or#s in or#er to #escribe or e3"lainU &C&-J50C&- 6 #iscovers information ste" by ste"U ,J*BB-0C 6 uses symbols instea# of thingsU &B,5R&C5 6 e3tracts information an# uses it to re"resent everything aroun#U
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,eo"le >it! ri&!t !e#i "!ericit) CBC9V%RB&- 6 ;or<s ;ith voice tone, emotional e3"ressionU ,JC5 %50C 6 "laces things an# facts togetherU CBCCR%5% 6 ta<es things as they areU &C&-B(0C 6 sees the connections bet;een things, un#erstan#s meta"horsU

5%*PBR&- 6 is al;ays in timeU R&50BC&- 6 #ra;s conclusions base# on facts an# reasoningU CU*%R0C 6 uses numbersU -B(0C 6 #ra;s conclusions base# on logical organi4ation of factsU -0C%&R 6 thin<s in terms of i#eas connecte# one after anotherU

&5%*PBR&- 6 has no sense of timeU CBCR&50BC&- 6 #oesn.t nee# facts an# reasoningU ,P&50&- 6 sees obGects in relation ;ith one anotherU 0C5U050V% 6 ;or<s ;ith im"ressions, hunches, imagesU (-BB&- 6 get the ;hole "icture of situations, facts, thingsU

5able =. 5he #escri"tion of right an# left hemis"hericity (%#;ar#s, AOOO)

0n general, hemis"hericity inclu#es the i#ea that "eo"le ten# to react #ifferently ;hen using one hemis"here or another. Due to the fact that the t;o hemis"heres have s"eciali4e# functions, "eo"le ;ill e3"erience reality in s"ecific ;ays by e3tracting an# ;or<ing ;ith #ifferent as"ects of the same e3"eriences. 5herefore, "eo"le ;ith left hemis"hericity ;ill a""roach a "roblem in a more logical, analytical ;ay, consi#ering all the #ata of the "roblem relate# to ;hich they ma<e an e3haustive e3amination an# use the verbal language in or#er to buil# u" the solution. Bn the o""osite "art, "eo"le ;ith right hemis"hericity ten# to see the solution intuitively, ;ithout any #etaile# analysis of the #ata, by mentally mani"ulating three9#imensional obGects in s"ace. emis"hericity refers to a certain thin<ing style relate# to information "rocessing (analytic versus holistic, verbal versus non9verbal, rational versus intuitive) ;hich #etermines behavioral #ifferences relate# to a""roaching "roblems of every #ay life. emis"hericity has often been associate# ;ith the conce"t of learning style (-eng oo, AOO@U ,aleh, =HHAU *orton, =HHFU &li $or, =HHLU 5oth, AOO@U !agt et al, =HHFU &charya, =HH=) an# both terms have fre/uently been stu#ies in e#ucational conte3ts by su""orting the i#ea that by i#entifying one.s cognitive style an# by using it more efficiently ;ill allo; "eo"le, an# stu#ents in "articular, to solve "roblems more ra"i#ly. 0n the same time, by stimulating the non9#ominant hemis"here "eo"le #evelo" a richer sense of reality an# higher a#a"tation abilities (!agt et al. =HHF). ,o far, hemis"hericity has been associate# to gen#er (Roig Ryan, AOOF apud !agt et al, =HHF) an# cultural #ifferences (*orton et al, AOOI apud !agt et al, =HHF), but these correlations coul# not be confirme# in subse/uent stu#ies (&li $or, =HH@U *orton, =HHFU !agt et al, =HHF). 3. .ate t tudie re&ardin& t!e role of !e#i "!ericit) in t!e #u ical field

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5he as"ect that has receive# the highest attention from hemis"hericity researchers is relate# to career orientation. & series of stu#ies (5oth, AOO@U !agt et al, =HHFU &li $or, =HH@U *orton, =HHFU ,aleh, =HHA) have #iscovere# significant correlations bet;een hemis"hericity an# the career choice of stu#ents. & stu#y "erforme# on II math stu#ents (&li $or, =HH@) has reveale# that the sam"le #iffer significantly in their hemis"heric "reference an# learning styles. 0n a##ition, se/uential9global an# sensing9intuitive learning styles ;ere foun# to associate significantly ;ith brain hemis"hericity. &nalysis reveale# that @A of the sam"le ;ere left9brain #ominant, ;hereas =I ;ere right right9 brain #ominant an# A ;ere ;hole9brain learners. 5his result confirms a "revious stu#y (,aleh, =HHA) "erforme# on I=O stu#ents from a big &merican university, ;hich state# that left hemis"here stu#ents chose #omains li<eN business, commerce, science an# engineers, ;hile the right hemis"here stu#ents oriente# to;ar#s arts, literature, e#ucation, Gournalism an# la;. 5he author e3"lains the results through the fact that there is a common factor bet;een these #omains an# a s"ecific ;ay in a""roaching "roblems. 5herefore, the "erformance in arts, architecture an# social sciences re/uires a s"ecific thin<ing style characteri4e# by global9s"atial a""roach. Bn the o""osite, e3act sciences re/uire rational thin<ing, verbal a""roach, se/uential an# analytical reasoning. & subse/uent e3haustive research (*orton, =HHF) has a""lie# a bio9 "hysical metho# of i#entifying hemis"hericityU+ on a sam"le of AHIP stu#ents an# "rofessors from a multiethnic a;aiian university. 5he results have sho;e# that, ;hile hemis"hericity is relatively e/ual on the left9right hemis"heres in the case entering university stu#ents (?L ;ere left brain oriente# an# II ;ere right brain oriente#), once the stu#ents become more s"eciali4e# in #ifferent fiel#s, the #istribution of hemis"hericity mo#ifies significantly. 7or e3am"le biochemists ;ere PF left brain9oriente# an# astronomers ;ere @A right brain9oriente#. 5his suggests that a entry9level "o"ulation "artially sorts itself in terms of hemis"hericity subty"e as it "rogresses on to more a#vances stu#ies. &nother im"ortant #iscovery of the same stu#y consists in the analysis of hemis"hericity #istribution among A? selecte# "rofessions. 5herefore, in#ivi#uals ;ho ;or< in e3act sciences such as bacteriology or biochemistry ;ere PL, res"ectively PF left brain9oriente#. &t the other en# of this s"ectrum of "rofessions, an enrichment of right brain9orientation ;as foun# in the more holistic "rofessions such as architecture an# astronomy. 5here, left brain9oriente# "ractitioners ;ere in minority (FF an# =O res"ectively). &lso, in both ty"es of "rofessions, the "ercentage of left brain9oriente# fiel# ;or<ers ;as com"arable to that of their faculty colleagues. 5hat is, faculty
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Ke tal< about 5he Best an# 5est that ;as create# an# vali#ate# by Bruce *orton (*orton, =HHF). 5he test as<s the subGect to mar< the centre of =H lines of #ifferent si4es, in certain conte3ts by using in turn the right an# the left han#. 5he test corres"on#s the theoretical mo#el #escribe# by ,chen<enberg, Bra#for# an# &Ga3 (AOPH apud *orton, =HHF). LH

an# "racticing engineers ;ere ?F an# ?L in their left brain "ro"ortions. &lso, faculty an# "racticing architects re"orte# similar FF an# FP left brain9 orientation. 5hese relevant fin#ings fairly su""ort the i#ea that hemis"hericity coul# be associate# ;ith career choice. &t last, a stu#y (!agt et al., =HHF) "erforme# on PO stu#ents enrolle# in an un#ergra#uate intro#uctory s"ecial e#ucation course at a #octoral level university has reveale# that most subGect "referre# left an# right (;hole brain) "rocessing. 0nterestingly, their hemis"hericity ;as associate# ;ith their "re#ominant geogra"hic area. 5herefore, urbanites "referre# right mo#e "rocessing ;hile suburbanites "referre# left mo#e "rocessing. &lso, their learning styles ;ere not associate# ;ith gen#er, ethnicity, "re#ominant geogra"hic area, laterality an# maGor. 7inally, subGect ha# #ifferent environmental "references (e.g. noise level), an# gen#er, ethnicity an# laterality affecte# these "references. 0n conclusion, the e3isting stu#ies focuse# on hemis"hericity are far from creating a com"lete neuro9"sychological "icture about this "henomenon. But, even in these con#itions, e3"loring the right 8 left hemis"hericity an# its association ;ith #ifferent factors from our life may be an im"ortant research strategy in revealing the com"le3ity of musical activities. -i8lio&ra"!) A. Petrovanu, 0., Qamfir, *., P:#uraru, D., ,tan, C. (AOOO). fmisferele cerebrale. Misteme informaionale, BucuretiN 0ntactU =. Bote4, *. (AOOL). Teuropsihologie clinicJ Yi neurologia comportamentului, Bucure1tiN *e#ical:U F. Beaumont, !.(., Joung, &.K., *c*anus, 0.C. (AOPI). emis"hericityN & Critical Revie;. Iognitive Teuropsychology, A(=), AOA9=A=U I. -eng, J.-., oo, C.5. (AOO@). %3"laining the 5hin<ing, -earning ,tyles an# Cognition Constructs. The Qathematics fducator, =(A), AAF9A=@U ?. &li, R.*., $or, -.$. (=HH@). &ssociation bet;een Brain emis"hericity, -earning ,tyles an# Confi#ence in Using (ra"hics Calculator for *athematics. furasia mournal of Qathematics, Mcience y Technology fducation, F(=), A=@9AFAU L. !agt, !.K., Ramasamy, R., !acobs, R.-., (hose C., -in#sey, !.D. (=HHF). emis"hericity *o#es, -earning ,tyles an# %nvironmental Preferences of ,tu#ents in an 0ntro#uction to ,"ecial %#ucation Course. !nternational mournal of Mpecial fducation, AP(A), =I9F?U @. %#;ar#s, B. (AOOO). ^rawing on the Eight Mide of the Nrain , Ce; Jor<N Penguin PutnamU P. Roco, *. (=HHA). Ireativitate i inteligenJ emoionalJ, 0aiN PoliromU

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O. *orton, B.%. (=HHF). -ine Bisection9Base# emis"hericity %stimates of University ,tu#ents an# ProfessionalsN %vi#ence of ,orting #uring igher %#ucation an# Career ,election. Nrain and Iognition, ?=, FAO9F=?U AH.5oth, P.%. (AOO@). Brain emis"heric Characteristics an# -ea#ershi" ,tyle of ,chool. !nternational Nrain ^ominance Eeview, A9AHU AA.&charya, C. (=HH=). ,tu#ents. -earning ,tyles an# 5heir 0m"lications for 5eachers. I^T' Nrief, ?(L), A9PU A=.Roig, *., Ryan, R. (AOOF). emis"hericity ,tyle, ,e3 an# Performance on a -etter9Detection 5as<. Xerceptual and Qotor M%ills, @@(F), PFA9PFI. AF.*orton, B.%., Rafto, ,.%. (AOOI). Cor"us Callosum ,i4e 0s -in<e# to Dichotic Deafness an# emis"hericity, Cot ,e3 or an#e#ness. Nrain and Iognition, L=, A9PU AI.,aleh, *. (=HHA). Brain emis"hericity an# &ca#emic *aGorsN & Correlation ,tu#y, Iollege Mtudent mournal, =?(=), LP?9?PO.

=.T/E CONTRI-UTION OF ART TO T/E ECO.O%ICA. -UI.DIN% U, OF T/E ,U,I.SH ,ERSONA.IT6


Viorica 1 Torii CaciucUG A8 tract 7 This wor% studies the reflection of ethical relations between the interests of human dbeings and of non-human beings in art. !t includes an artistic-pedagogical analysis of the inherent value of nature, emphasi#ed by properties li%e the aesthetic, that of being natural beings and on the same time the impact that wor%s of art have on the building up of the ecologic conscience and behaviour of the young generations. Ae) >ord 7 artistic wor%s, ecological education, environment, ecological ethics, pupils.

Cature has al;ays succee#e# to a;a<e feelings an# strong emotions in the "eo"le.s souls, be they artists or not, by means of its beauty. &rt is not only a means of rece"tion an# creation of the natural beauty, but also a means to un#erstan# the secrets an# the utility of nature. &longsi#e these functions of the e#ucation through art, even the morali4ing one must be invocate#, because by means of un#erstan#ing the ;or<s of art ;hich focus on nature, the norms an# rules of ecological behavior ;ill become more accessible, the ;or<s of art having a rich ethical meaning. 0n this res"ect, the stu#y of the #isci"lines from the curricular aria of &rtistic %#ucation by the chil#ren may assure the buil#ing
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&ssistant Doctoral Can#i#ate, De"artment for 5eachers %#ucation, DDun:rea #e !os) University from (alaEi of Romania, emailN caciucaVyahoo.com L=

u" an# the #evelo"ment of the ecological conscience an# behavior by in#icating some as"ects, facts an# concrete situations of bra<ing or res"ecting the norms of "rotection an# "reservation of nature or, most of the times, the i#entification an# the "resentation of the intrinsic value of nature. 5he inter#isci"linary a""roach of the ecological e#ucation an# of the #isci"lines concerning the curriculum of &rtistic %#ucation re"resents an efficient ;ay to accom"lish the obGectives of the ecological e#ucation at the "reschool an# ten#er school age. 5his being one of my ol#er "reoccu"ation, 0 inten# to stu#y thoroughly the inter#e"en#ences an# com"lementarities e3istent bet;een the t;o fiel#s, es"ecially of the ;ay in ;hich the intrinsic value of nature is being reflecte# an# highlighte# by means of a series of "ro"erties li<eN the aesthetic one, being a com"le3 system, being a natural obGect, etc., in the ;or<s of art stu#ie# by chil#ren in school. 5he ecological buil#ing u" of the "u"ils. "ersonality can be #one by means of <no;ing an# i#entifying these "ro"erties s"ecific for the ;or<s of art an# also by assimilating #ifferent ;or<ing techni/ues. 5his is the reason ;hy #ifferent "oints of vie; an# theories regar#ing the attitu#e to;ar#s nature an# its "roblematics must be mentione#.

The ethical premises of the ecological education %ven though it a""eare# an# #evelo"e# relatively late in the RRth century, the ecological ethics ha# a continuous evolution, becoming a sub9branch of the a""lie# ethics, Gust because of the com"le3ity an# seriousness of the environmental issues. 5he ecological crisis, as "art of the contem"orary "roblematics, no matter ho; "o;erful its s"ecificity is, cannot be analy4e# an# e3"laine# ;ithout ta<ing into consi#eration its lin<s to some other "roblems. 0n or#er to "artici"ate an# evaluate facts or situations ;hich result in #eteriorating the environment, one sees oneself force# to learn to fight against com"le3ity an# to use the inter#isci"linary measures, ta<ing into consi#eration its lin<s to other "roblems. 5he inter#isci"linary measure 'regar#s the transfer of metho#s from one #isci"line to another. 5here are three #egrees of inter#isci"linaryN a""lie#, e"istemological an# generator of ne; #isci"lines)(Cicolescu, B., =HH=). %ven though inter#isci"linarity goes beyon# the boun#aries of #isci"lines, its result is still "art of #isci"linary research. 5al<ing about the evolution of the ecological ethics as a science, olmes Rolston 000 a""reciates that 'only a fe; ethical stu#ies are so "rofoun# so as to "ass from theory to "ractice. %nvironmental ethics is both ra#ical an# revolutionary)( olmes Rolston 000, AOOP). 5hus, from &l#o -eo"ol#.s '-an# %thics) of the jLHs, ;hich ha# a consi#erable im"act on the sha"ing of environmental ethics, by means of the rights of #ifferent s"ecies to continue their e3istence in a natural environment, of the #eman# to give u" the role of ruler of the lan# an# to res"ect al living being,
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of enlarging the boun#aries of the community so as to inclu#e the soil, ;ater, "lants an# animals, or sim"ly, the entire ;orl#, in the j@Hs the ecological ethics becomes a #istinct "art of ethics. 0t has a #iverse an# com"le3 "roblematics, inclu#ing all "resent an# future human beings, animals an# the entire nature, the bios"here, "ollution, the "o"ulation control system, the use of resources, the "ro#uction an# #istribution of foo#, the "ro#uction an# consum"tion of energy, ;il#ness "reservation an# bio#iversity. (Kor<ineh $elbessa, =HH?) Kithin the mo#ern ecological ethics, one might #istinguish bet;een several a""roaches ;here #ifferent ;ays of thin<ing are foun# ;ithinN those base# on humanity, or the anthro"ocentric a""roaches, ;hich claim that only the men matter, an# those non9anthro"ocentric ones, ;hich assume that things shoul# be the subGect of a moral concern as ;ell as the goo# of human<in#. 5he "roblem that emerges is ;hat <in# of ecological ethics is to form the basis of the environmental "olicy #ecisions. 5he first im"ulse ;oul# be to say, the one focusing on humans, but ho; Gustifie# is this choice by means of the ethical commitmentS '5he conse/uence an# the avoi#ance of some arbitrary moral #istinctions su""orts the transition from the ethics focusing on humans to that focusing on the animal) (*omanu, *., =HH=) an# even to other ty"es of ecological ethics. 0n this case, one might a""eal to a series of arguments in or#er to su""ort this i#ea. 5hus animals have moral value both because they have interests, an# because they have aesthetical /ualities 6 li<e beauty. 5hese offer to them even an intrinsic value. Plants, ecosystem an# the bios"here have a moral relevance because they are consi#ere# to have interests, li<e the interest for a long life ;hich might be e3"laine# by the i#ea that they "osses a goo# as such, '#etermine# by the ty"e of being that it re"resents, the ty"e of biological or#er it "ertains an# the role it has as "art of a ;hole), an argument that, unfortunately, is not soli# enough. 5he fact that "lants an# ecosystems '#o not have a "oint of vie; by means of ;hich to e3"ress life), 'even though they have a natural "ur"ose, they #o not manifest any attitu#e on ;hat concerns this "ur"ose, an# the ste"s ta<en in or#er to reach it are not un#erstoo# an# felt), re"resents obGective arguments in or#er to ma<e an obGective #istinction bet;een the ethics focusing on humans an# that on life. Bther arguments, li<e those that refer to the /uality of being a com"le3 living thing an# that of aesthetics, similar in the case of animals, gives them an intrinsic value (%lliot, R., =HHL). 5he "ro"erty of being a com"le3 system ;hich is s"ecific to grou"s of obGects bet;een ;hich there are certain relationshi"s 6 i.e. the sno;fla<es, the "lanets that ma<e u" a solar system, the erosion te3tures on a cliff 6, gives their moral value. &nother argument in favour of attributing them moral value is 'given by certain #etails ;hich are s"ecific to the ;ay in ;hich things are functioning biologically), argument ;hich is controversial (%lliot, R., =HHL). olmes Rolston 000 argues that 'nature has in "eo"le.s min#s a long range of values) among ;hich the aesthetic one, thus trying to "rove the intrinsic value
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of nature. 0n #iscovering such an aesthetic value, it is crucial to se"arate it both from the utility an# the life su""ort an# only those ;ho ;ill recogni4e this #ifference can a""reciate the #esert or the tun#ra.) ( olmes Rolston 000, AOOP) 5he "assage to;ar#s the ecological holism is ma#e by the e3istence of some other moral features, even if they are being conteste# by the more restrictive ethics. ,uch an e3am"le ;oul# be the feature of being a natural obGect, not one that is a result of the human create# technology or of culture. &ccor#ing to it, the #estruction of roc<s 6 ;hich are natural obGects 6 by means of mining activity, is to be con#emne#. ,ome other features li<e the e3istence of a #iversity of "arts, the functional integration of "arts, the e3istence of a balance an# a self9a#Gusting system can be acce"te# as #eterminants of the moral significance of ecosystems an# bios"here. By analy4ing the natural character an# the e3istence of a #iversity of "arts, R. %lliot com"ares a natural roc< ;ith a synthetic one or an aria covere# ;ith rain forest ;ith a similar one ;hich ;as cleare# an# cultivate# to "rove the value of the natural ecosystem. 5hus, the rain forest becomes valuable because of its #iversity of flora an# fauna an# because of its beauty that ;as obtaine# 'because of the ;ay in ;hich "arts ;or< in harmony in or#er to sustain the ;hole) (%lliot, R., =HHL).5he conclusion is that the ecosystem of the natural rain forest is #efinitely su"erior to the artificial environment. '& reason for ;hich a man9ma#e forest is not as goo# as the natural one is the e3"erience# eye that can ma<e the #ifference >5hese #ifferences can be s"otte# an# they affect the value of the forest. 5he reasons for the lo; value of the fa<e forests are similar to those for the lo; "rice of a forgery)( %lliot, R., AOO?). 0n this ;ay one can "rove that the restoration "roGects can be a viable solution for the #estroye# environments an# that their value can be restore#. o;ever, R. %lliot "roves in his article that the regeneration actions '#o not al;ays bring bac< value because "art of the reason ;e cherish the environment is because it is "urely natural.) (%lliot, R., AOO?) 0n conclusion, the a""reciation of a #ecision of environmental "olicy is base# on the relationshi" bet;een the human interests an# the non9 human ones. 5a<ing into consi#eration the above mentione# arguments, one might state that a first ste" to;ar#s solving the contra#iction ;oul# be fin#ing out some alternative solutions for satisfying the human interests, es"ecially if 'the changing of ecosystems is in general against the long term human interests). (%lliot, R., =HHL) Regar#ing the #ecisions ta<en in the environmental "olitics of the contem"orary Romanian society, the em"hasis is on the human interests in "reference to the non9human ones (for e3am"le, the cases concerning the #ogs from Boto1ani or the ;il# horses from -etea). *ost often, the "olitical strategies regar#ing environmental "rotection are not elaborate# as a necessity an# an internal utility, but as a con#ition im"ose# by the %.U., by the affiliation to the stan#ar#s im"ose# by the %uro"ean strategies for environmental "rotection ;hich is a tas< far too #ifficult for our country not only because of the
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economical or financial "roblems, but es"ecially because of those regar#ing the "eo"le.s mentality an# "reoccu"ation to;ar#s the environmental "roblems. The way in which the ecological ethics reflects in childrens artistic education %ven though the ten#ency or the "reoccu"ation to assimilate the ecological e#ucation is getting bigger, the #ifference bet;een ;hat is recommen#e#, the solutions an# the stu#ies ;hich are ma#e at an international or national level an# the e#ucational "ractice is still too big. %ven though the authors of the school curricula an# "rogrammes are "lacing this "roblematics of the contem"orary ;orl# among the to"ics that shoul# be inclu#e# in the e#ucation content, the "ractice of the ecological e#ucation is still #eci#e# only by the teachers (Caciuc, V., =HHI). 0t is true that e#ucation cannot solve the environmental "roblems, but it can im"rove them, because by means of the ecological e#ucation it is easier an# more economic to "revent, than to re"air an# to im"rove the #amages brought to nature by the a#ult generations. 0n the "e#agogical literature there are four ;ays of im"lementing the ecological e#ucation in the e#ucational systemN infusional, mo#ular, #isci"linary an# trans#isci"linary (Caciuc, V., =HHI). %ven though the Romanian curriculum has create# all the "remises for tac<ling the ecological e#ucation from all these four ;ays of im"lementing, the achievement of the obGectives of this e#ucation remains still at the #ecision of the teachers. %nriching the content of the ecological e#ucation also from the "ers"ective of the i#eology "resente# in this "a"er ;oul# bring a maGor contribution to the im"rovement of the intellectualist ;ay of achieving the "resent #ay ecological e#ucation. 5he infusional "ers"ective remains the most tangible ;ay for the teachers to #o ecological e#ucation ;ithout overloa#ing the "u"ils. curriculum. 5hus, &rts contribute a great #eal, even from an early age, to the i#entification an# e3"ression of beauty in nature. 5he ;or<s of art regar#ing nature an# the living beings are most accesible to chil#ren in or#er for them to <no; their surroun#ings ;ith all their com"onent elements in or#er to un#erstan# that every living being, "lant, roc<, etc. has its o;n "lace in the ;orl# ;hich is also con#itione# by numerous factorsN the "lace ;here it lives, the foo# it eats, the ;ay in ;hich it bree#s, its conections ;ith the other elements of the ecosystem it belongs to. 5hese ;or<s of art hel" chil#ren to un#erstan# the relationshi" bet;een man an# animals8"lants an# their life environment, thus contributing to the roun#ing off of the "alet of means to reach one.s obGectives an# to stu#y all the ecological to"ics. By #oing this, a transfer of <no;le#ge ta<es "lace. &lso, the maGor contribution of the ;or<s of art is given by the fact that they ma<e the <no;le#ge of the intrinsec value of nature more accesible, favouring the living an# buil#ing u" of some "ositive feelings an# con#ucts to;ar#s nature. 5he interests an# aesthetic values of animals 6 ;hich offer them a moral value 6 are crafte#ly an# #elicately "ortraye# by the artists in their ;or<s of art.

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5he ;ay in ;hich the artists combine #ifferent means of artistic manifestation an# #ifferent artistic elements, obtain #ifferent cromatic an# acromatic e3"ressiveness, succee#s to "resent i#eas an# the feelings of animals foun# in #ifferent moments of their life, an# also to ren#er or to (re)com"ose structures from nature. 5he analysis of some "aintings ;hich ren#er in #ifferent ;ays, lan#sca"es, "lants, animals, mountains, etc., offers to chil#ren the "ossibility to see the e3"ressivity of #ifferent ty"es of lines, "oints an# color s"ots use# to re"ro#uce #ifferent structures of some natural elements or "henomena, "roce#ures of multi"lying , cramming, oversi4ing a""lie# for creating the effects an# im"ressions of #ifferent thematic artistic com"osition, the ;ay in ;hich the chromatic harmony of those s"ecific ;or<s of art is reache#. &ll of these hel" "u"ils learn, even from a "re9school age, the means of artistic e3"ression in or#er to be ca"able to see the natural beauty an# to create some artistic ;or<s in ;hich ecological feelings, attitu#es an# convictions are "resent. 7or instance, ;hen the schoolmistress e3"lains the notion of multi"lication by using a tree as an e3am"le, the "u"ils un#erstan# that it is not an obGect, but a living organism ;hich has aesthetic "ro"erties an# the interest for a long life, ;hich gives it a moral value an# thus it must be res"ecte#. 0ts main strain ramifies an# on its every branch young shoots a""ear, a structure ;hich is ren#ere# by means of a thic< line an# the branches are re"resente# as more cramme# an# thinner lines. 5he oversi4ing may create a three9#imensional effect by means of the closely situate# lines that thic<en. 5he cramming of #ots may suggest the multitu#e of the leaves of a tree an# their #is"ersion, their scattering cause# by the ;in#. 5he cramming, the multi"lication or the "rogressive #ecrease in number of the #ots may create s"atial effects. 0n the foregroun# are use# oversi4e#, #is"erse# #ots ;hich become smaller an# smaller an# more cramme# in the bac<groun#. 5he "osition an# the #imension of the lines, #ots an# also the chromatic combination of colors can ren#er a tree ;ith its moral an# aesthetic values in #ifferent conte3ts ;hich may arouse aesthetic feelings an# "ositive attitu#es to;ar#s nature an# the #esire to "rotect it. &nother e3am"le might be the situation ;hen chil#ren are alou# to "aint ;ith their fingers an# to combine #ifferent elements li<e the #ot an# the color s"ots in or#er to ren#er the beauty an# ten#erness of butterflies. &t the same time, these #esi#erata can be easily reache# #uring the e3tracurricular activities ;hich ta<e "lace both in the school environment an# outsi#e it because they allo; "u"ils to gain an# to "ractice the ca"acities to act an# relate to the concrete reality to ;hich they feel to be a "art of. &nother contribution, but of an informal nature, ;oul# be the vie;ing of cartoons. Chil#ren, es"ecially the little ones, an# the a#ults also ;atch the screenings of cartoons in ;hich the heroes, their belove# characters, "ass through all sorts of a#ventures that sho; their #esire to live. 5he inter#e"en#ent relationshi" bet;een formal an# informal can be "roven once more. 5he revaluation of the screening of cartoons #uring the #i#actic activities hel"s a lot the buil#ing u" of
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a corres"on#ing attitu#e of res"ect to;ar#s the non9human beings an# other living or non9living entities from the surroun#ing environment. 5he ren#ering an# the ca"turing of the human9 nature relationshi", the human.s ina""ro"riate intervention to;ar#s nature an# es"ecially of the #isastrous effects ;hich "rovo<e the #estruction of the forests an# ;hich bring useless suffering to animals, etc. can contribute to the buil#ing u" of a mentality an# attitu#e of an eco9centric ty"e to;ar#s everything that surroun#s chil#ren. 5he t;o "art screening of Bambi sho;s in an artistic an# "ersonifie# manner the "ain of the baby #oe ;ho remains an or"han. 5he #estiny of the young stag that seeme# to have the life of a "rince, full of the a#miration an# consi#eration of the other creatures of the forest, is change# by the #estructive intervention of a man, the hunter. ! Bentham.s famous /uestion regar#ing the animalsN 'Can they sufferS) (Bentham, !., ^eontologie ou science de la morale, Char"entier Publishing ouse, Paris, AOFI, ".=H,- a"u#. 5incu, &)9 is reflecte# in this cartoon. 5he lac< of his mother.s affection, the mistrustfulness an# the frustrations live# in the com"any of a father ;ho s"ea<s to him only of his #uties an# res"onsibilities as <ing, ma<e Bambi suffer a lot. 5he #rama an# the a#ventures of the young stag ma<e chil#ren un#erstan# the fact that animals are living beings that have rights li<e the one to fee#, to #rin< ;ater, to fin# shelter, to live an# that they have a moral consi#eration ;hich "eo"le shoul# res"ect an# ta<e them into account ;hen ta<ing #ecisions to intervene over nature. Khen men set ;oo#s on fire, the animals feel a series of negative feelings, of #es"air because they are losing their shelter, their source of foo#, their cubs or even their o;n life. 5he a#ults. sacrifice in or#er to save their cubs. life "roves once more the ;ish to live for a long "erio# of time, the fact that these living beings have an intrinsic value by means of the fact that they are the subGect of a life an# that they #isserve to have moral rights. But beyon# the facts an# the a#ventures, the "ro#ucer of the screening sho;s the lin< bet;een all living things an# the ecosystem they are a "art of. 5he ;on#erful an# even i#yllic image of the mountain scenery, of the forests ren#ers the ;il# beauty an# their aesthetic value. 5his mysterious ;orl# of the non9human beings is reveale# to us in all its beauty, sho;ing an or#er an# intensity of life similar to the congestion an# the natural ;ay of life for the humans from the urban arias an# also the thrilling effects of the humans. or of some "oachers. intervention. 5he vie;ing an# analysis of such cartoons ;ith an e#ucational ecological message can su""ort an# com"lete the scientific content of the lessons, ma<ing it more "ractical an# useful for the #aily life of chil#ren. 0t is true that one #oes not see in one.s #aily life animals li<e Bambi, but one might better un#erstan# ;hy one must res"ect the rules ;hen ma<ing a fire in the ;oo#s, ;hy one has to clean u" an# to leave ;aists only in the s"ecial create# "laces or s"aces, ;hen one goes to the "icnic or in the forest in or#er to rela3. Instead of a conclusion
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0n conclusion it is recommen#e# to ma<e u" an# to carry out some e#ucational "roGects an# some training activities ;hich shoul# /uantify all the im"lementation ste"s ta<en for the ecological e#ucation in the e#ucational "rocess. 5he elaboration of some curricular subGects ;ell organi4e#, in ;hich to value all the animal cartoon characters that transmit an ecological message, re"resents a great nee# in or#er to see this goal reache#. 5he im"act of the message ;ill have long term #uration an# the effects ;ill not manifest only at the level of the human 6 animals relationshi", but also at the level of the inter9 human relationshi"s. 5he e3am"le of the chil#ren that have the "o;ers of the (ormiti, the lor#s of nature, "roves not only their lin< an# love of nature, but the /uality of their relationshi"s of frien#shi", su""ort, courage ;hich ma<e them a team that manages to reach all the goals of their mission every single time, those of "rotecting nature. *aybe to ma<e man#atory the stu#ying an# e3amining of the ecological e#ucation at the en# of every school cycle 6 as it ha""ens in (reat Britain 6 ;oul# #etermine all the categories of human resources that are involve# in the e#ucational act to "ay a greater attention to nature an# to "rotecting it. 0n or#er to reach the %uro"ean /ualitative stan#ar#s on ;hat concerns the ecological e#ucation, it is im"ose# that in the e#ucational "ractice the em"hasis to be lai# on the attitu#inal si#e of this ne; e#ucation an# not on its intellectual one, thus valuing the casuistic an# the narrative among the e#ucational strategies focusing on the "u"il. But in or#er to buil# u" the ecological attitu#es an# "rinci"les of "u"ils it is #efinitely necessary to "re"are an# to train the future "rofessors from the "ers"ective of the "rinci"les of the ecological e#ucation. -i8lio&ra"!) A. Caciuc V., (=HHI) 9 $specte ale reali#Jrii educaWiei ecologice Zn ZnvJWJm`ntul preYcolar Yi primar n D%#ucation 7acing the Contem"orary Korl# Problems2, 0nternational Conference %#u9Korl# =HHI, Vol. 0, ".APF, Vol. 000, %#itura Universit:Eii #in Pite1ti U =. %lliot, R., (AOO?) 6 Va%ing Tature, n %lliot, R.,(e#itor) 9 fnvironmental fthics, B3for# University Press, Ce; Jor< U F. %lliot, R., (=HHL) 9 ftica ecologicJ, n ,inger, P. 9 Tratat de eticJ, Polirom Press, 0a1iU I. olmes Rolston 000 (AOOP)9 fnvironmental fthics. ^uties to and ialues in the Tatural Oorld, 5em"le University Press, Phila#el"hiaU ?. *omanu *., (=HH=)9 !ntroducere Zn teoria educaWiei, Polirom Press, 0a1iU L. Cea1cu, 0., (AOPL) 6 fducaWie Yi acWiune, %#. qtiinEific: 1i %nciclo"e#ic:, Bucure1tiU @. Cicolescu, B., (=HH=) 9 Toi, particula Yi lumea, Polirom Press, 0a1iU P. 5incu, & 6 ftica mediului, htt"N88sacri.ro8files8te3te8eticame#iului.html

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O. Kor<ineh $elbessa 9 5he Rehabilitation of 0n#igenous %nvironmental %thics in &frica, Diogenes =HH?U ?=U A@ htt"N88#io.sage"ub.com8cgi8content8abstract8?=8F8A@.

,ART III T/E FOR5ATION OF TEAC/ERS IN T/E FIE.D OF ARTISTIC EDUCATION


4.T/E WA6S OF INTE%RATION OF T/E ,ROCESS OF 5USIC TEAC/ER UNIVERSIT6 FOR5ATION
5ar&arita TeteleaUH A8 tract 7 This research studies the specific issues connected to music teacher competence formation in the current academic musical education. These problems are related to the integral vision of the process of training specialists and are based on encyclopedic dimension, that represent revaluation of all tangential areas of music and music pedagogy in music teacher training. Ae) >ord 7 music teacher, music education, musical competence, teaching music, encyclopedic dimension, session dimension.

5he "rocess of integration of local university into %uro"ean area ma<es us change the architecture of higher e#ucation for /uality, integrity an# com"etence
UH

&ssociate Professor PhD, ,tate University D&lecu Russo) from B:lEi , Re"ublic of mteteleaVyahoo.com @H

*ol#avia, emailN

a""roach. 5he "roblems mentione# above re/uire the researchers from the s"here of e#ucation, es"ecially from arts e#ucation to revise some "ositions connecting to the structure an# the content of the e#ucation system to achieve it. 0n this meaning music "e#agogy in recent #eca#es forme# its "ro"er scientific basis, covering a range of issues to investigate, #esign an# #evelo"ment of music e#ucation an# to ma<e an a""ro"riate choice of the s"ecific artistic fiel#. *usic e#ucation as a s"ecific "henomenon being centere# on mo#ern e#ucational a""roach, on music material, "ro#uces meaningful results, but its a#e/uacy to the "rinci"les of scientific #i#actics lea#s to the o""osite results of nature of music an# music e#ucation. 5his i#ea is analy4e# in recent years in more research in art e#ucation (C. Parfeni, Vl.PMslaru, K. $usaev, 0. (agim). Co;a#ays in *ol#ova the most elaborate# areas are literary an# artistic e#ucation (Vl.PMslaru) an# music e#ucation (0. (agim), in this ;ay they claiming the status of an autonomous scientific #isci"line base# on the i#ea that 2teaching9learning artistic9aesthetic #isci"lines can not com"ly #ocile teaching "rinci"les of scientific <no;le#geUR2. Conce"tuali4ation of music e#ucation as an autonomous scientific #isci"line ;as re/uire# by Dmitri $abalevs<y 9 Russian teacher9musician in the secon#9 half of the t;entieth century, by noting that 2the lac< of s"ecific metho#ologies in music e#ucation cannot be re"lace# by general "rinci"les of #i#actics. 0n the stu#y of music these "rinci"les are un#oubte#ly necessary, but they ;ill remain #ea# rules if they ;on.t be imbue# ;ith the living soul of musicUU2. 5hrough the researches of the musical scientist 0on (agim, the current music "e#agogy consistently ma<es its o;n system of scientific foun#ations, ;hich in its turn, brings about more constituent areas of music e#ucationN "e#agogy, musicology an# music "sychology, their fusion is base# on theoretico9 "ra3iological, so that 2in e#ucational "ractice they shoul# not only collaborate, but to ma<e a common bo#y 9 to ;or< as a ;hole as an artistic9e"istemological9 "e#agogical entityUS.2 0n this ;ay, the items mentione# above, there ;ere the #efining factors for #evelo"ing fun#amental conce"t of music e#ucation in *ol#ova, on to" of ;hich there is its "ur"oseN 2teaching musical culture of the stu#ents as a "art of s"iritual cultureS\.2 5he "ur"ose of music e#ucation, the formation of ;hich ;as ta<en from Dm.$abalevs<y is treate# by 0on (agim as one 2integrallist2 an# ;ho suggests the formula 2*e an# music.2 0ts com"onents are the 2music one2
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(agim 0., =HHI, 7un#amente "siho"e#agogice 1i mu4icologice ale e#ucaEiei mu4icale, Referat 1tiinEific al te4ei #e #octor habilitat, Chi1in:u. UU $abalevs<y Dm., AOPA, hcdefi, A 6 F fiZZ, |^a}^ibbi Z^_g a_a^ida`i_e fa, |^aZ`__g_, haZf`i. ($abalevs<y D., AOPA, Cl. A 6 F, Program: "entru 1colile me#ii generale, Prosve1cenie, *os<ova). US (agim 0., =HHI, 7un#amente "siho"e#agogice 1i mu4icologice ale e#ucaEiei mu4icale, Referat 1tiinEific al te4ei #e #octor habilitat, Chi1in:u. S\ Chiriac 5., Rusnac C., (agim 0., AOO?. Conce"Eia %#ucaEiei mu4icale n nv:E:mMntul "reuniversitar, *inisterul nv:E:mMntului al R.*ol#ova, Chi1in:u. @A

(music culture formation) an# 2"hiloso"hical one2 (music culture as a "art of s"iritual culture) an# they involve not only the formation of stu#ents. general s<ills (emotions, imagination, creative thin<ing, moral feelings) but also their s"iritual #evelo"ment 9 the highest level of any e#ucation. 5hus, the integral inter"retation of musical culture involves 2embe##ing the role, functions an# "ur"oses of general culture ;here the man, <no;ing an# valuing the ;orl#, <no;s an# buil#s himself as a s"iritual beingS(. 5he integral vision of the mo#ern conce"t of music e#ucation re/uires a scientific metho#ology for the e#ucational "rocess. #evelo"ment ;hich starts from the formation of musical culture an# its transfiguration into the s"iritual culture of the stu#ents. 5his vision re/uires a "ro"er a""roachU s"ecific for s"ecialist.s training in music e#ucation. &ccor#ing to this vision the 7aculty of %#ucation an# &rts from ,tate University 2&lecu Russo2 from B:lEi is a uni/ue one in *ol#ova "rofile# in music "e#agogy an# strictly #irecte# to "re"aring aca#emic staff for e#ucational an# artistic s"heres. &ccor#ing to current e#ucational stan#ar#s the 7aculty trains stu#ents 9 future "rofessionals for carrying out the e#ucation "rocess an# music training in general schools, in chil#renjs creative centers, in schools of music an# art for chil#ren, in "e#agogic an# music9teaching colleges. 0n these ty"es of e#ucational institutions our university gra#uates usually ;or<. 0n this conte3t our 7aculty stu#ies this "roblem of art e#ucation in the integral vision, the #imensions s"ecify the area an# allo; the collaboration of #ifferent arts (music, choreogra"hy, theater) an# sciences (musicology, aesthetics, "hiloso"hy, "sychology an# "hiloso"hy of art, "e#agogy etc.) in achieving an integral e#ucation act. ,ha"ing one integral system (encyclo"e#ic) music teacher training ;as mar<e# by the great teacher9conce"tual contribution Romanian musicologist (eorge Brea4ul. 5he e#ucational system #evelo"e# by (eorge Brea4ul over half century ago serves the im"ortant benchmar<s in the "rocess of connecting the current music teacher training to international stan#ar#s. is conce"t base# on the integration of musical e#ucation base# into social life by forming the musical culture of the chil# base# on fol<lore, is a real e#ucational mo#el, ;ith values of "ara#igm. Ke mention the value system of (. Brea4ul in the "rogram that it suggeste# by the musicologist in his "e#agogic teaching. &mong the most im"ortant i#eas of his "rogram, "resente# the stu#y 25he &rt music in Romanian culture,2 ;e note 2nationali4ation of Conservatories of music an# ,eminars teaching establishment that ensure the training of future music teachers at the height of re/uirementsS)2.
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(agim 0., =HHI, 7un#amente "siho"e#agogice 1i mu4icologice ale e#ucaEiei mu4icale, Referat 1tiinEific al te4ei #e #octor habilitat, Chi1in:u. S) Brea4ul, (., AO=P, &rta mu4ical: n cultura romMneasc:, n D(Mn#irea), &n V00, nr. L 6 @, Bucure1ti @=

&chieving these coor#inates (eorge Brea4ul begins ;ith the launch of his i#ea in the article 2& #e"artment of music "e#agogy at the Conservatory of Bucharest2 (AO=?), ;hich sets the benchmar<s of music teacher trainingN general notions of "e#agogy an# "sychology, aesthetics an# fol<lore music teaching metho#ology music, Romanian music history "e#agogy. 5he #iversity of these #isci"lines ;as integrate# in the 2%ncyclo"e#ia an# music "e#agogy2, ;hich aims music s<ills training of future teachers in achieving musical e#ucation that is2the <ey to "romoting culture among the "eo"le.2 &nother obGective of this "rogram ;as the metho#ological training of future teachers, in such a ;ay establishing the lin< bet;een music stu#y an# mental an# social environmentS*2. 0n this ;ay, the integral an# encyclo"e#ic character of this achieves the training obGectives of 2aesthetic culture, music, of music literature sea hori4on entering an# the integration of its content into the social an# moral lives.S+2 Pe#agogical i#eas of (. Brea4ul ;ere the basis in formulating the current conce"t of preparing the specialist for carrying out music e#ucation in *ol#ova, ;hich ;oul# mean that the future music teacher vision of "re"aration is base# on integral an# encyclo"e#ic as"ect in the its com"etences. formation. 0n a##ition to these re/uirements, this conce"t is also foun#e# on mo#ern achievements of musical "e#agogy (art), "hiloso"hy of e#ucation in the contem"orary e"och, e#ucational "sychology, "sychology of art (music), music "hiloso"hy, the theory of art, &esthetics of music, of musicology an# other fun#amental sciences aime# to "ro"ose a mo#ern vision, integrity, a""ro"riate to the times on e#ucation in general, as ;ell as on musical an# artistic e#ucation in "articularU on the a#vance# e3"erience of other universities (institutions) from the other countriesU on the e3"erience of 7aculty over about fifty years. 5herefore, future music teacher is able to combine scientific fun#amental an# encyclo"e#ic as"ects of music, artistic an# teaching com"etences ;ith that "ractical one. Bverall this vision focuses on "rinci"les that "rovi#e 2teaching an# ac/uiring music as art, as art9living "henomenon, emotional, "sychological an# #estine# to e#ucate the human being, to gro; an# s"irituali4e the human beingSG.2 0n this ;ay the s"ecialist is rea#y for the e#ucational metho#ical, scientific an# management activities, in the national general music e#ucation, es"ecially art e#ucation, an# for further "ostgra#uate stu#ies. 5he level of s"ecialists. training in cycle 0 (-icenE:) an# cycle 00 (*aster) allo;s continuing "ostgra#uate s"eciali4e# stu#ies at the #octoral an# "ost#octoral branch, "artici"ation in investigation activities in the fiel# of music "e#agogy (art) by fun#amental scientific as"ect, a""lie# metho#ological, an#

S* S+

0#em Brea4ul, (., AO=H, BbservaEii relative la nv:E:mMntul mu4ical n 1coala secun#ar:, CMm"ina. SG 5etelea *., (agim 0., *orari *., =HH@. Conce"Eia form:rii universitare a s"ecialistului in #omeniul e#ucaEiei9 instruirii mu4icale, Universitatea #e ,tat '&lecu Russo) #in B:lEi. @F

creative arts an# in managerial ;or< in e#ucational institutions an# scientific research. 5o #o this, the future teachers #uring their stu#ies must "urchase a range of <no;le#ge, s<ills an# values necessary to achieve the highest aca#emic stan#ar#s in s"ecialty, such asN 95heoretical foun#ations of musical subGects in the amount necessary for achieving musical an# e#ucational an# scientific9metho#ical in the fiel# of musical an# artistic e#ucationU 9Psycho9"e#agogical an# metho#ological foun#ations of scientific research in art e#ucationU 9Conce"tual foun#ations of music general e#ucation metho#ology (art) an# s"ecific metho#s (choreogra"hy, instrument, #irecte#, #rama)U 9Design an# content of music e#ucation curriculumU 9*etho#ology of e#ucational activities (inclu#ing Ilass Tutor in school an# relate# institutions)U 95he main #irections an# "ros"ects for #evelo"ment of national art an# music e#ucationU 9*etho#ology of scientific research in "e#agogy, "sychology, "hiloso"hy, aesthetics an# music theory. 7ollo;ing the full accom"lishment of these s<ills the s"ecialist ;ill be able to combine the fun#amental scientific as"ect of music, art an# "e#agogic com"etence, ;ith that a""licative8"ractical one, to "ossess fun#amental basis of the "rofession, to com"lete ongoing <no;le#ge, to a""ly in "ractice the "rinci"les of scientific organi4ation of ;or<, to <no; ne; technologies of teaching9learning research. 5herefore, in accor#ance ;ith the mo#ern conce"t of %#ucation8training, the -egislation in e#ucation, Cational Curriculum re/uirements an# the current achievements of musical "e#agogy, music teacher must be a "rofessional ;ho ;ill corres"on#s to e#ucational stan#ar#s, eager to reali4e a formative stu#ent9 centere# e#ucation, focuse# on "rovi#ing s<ills in music, cultural an# s"iritual s"heres necessary to a#a"tation to current con#itions in Re"ublic of *ol#ova. -i8lio&ra"!) A. Brea4ul, (., AO=P, &rta mu4ical: n cultura romMneasc:, n D(Mn#irea), &n V00, nr. L 6 @, Bucure1ti =. Brea4ul, (., AO=H, BbservaEii relative la nv:E:mMntul mu4ical n 1coala secun#ar:, CMm"ina F. Ca#rul CaEional al calific:rilor "entru nv:E:mMntul ,u"erior, =HAH, B:lEi. I. Chiriac 5., Rusnac C., (agim 0., AOO?. Conce"Eia %#ucaEiei mu4icale n nv:E:mMntul "reuniversitar, *inisterul nv:E:mMntului al R.*ol#ova, Chi1in:u. ?. (agim 0., =HHI, 7un#amente "siho"e#agogice 1i mu4icologice ale e#ucaEiei mu4icale, Referat 1tiinEific al te4ei #e #octor habilitat, Chi1in:u.
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L. $abalevs<y Dm., AOPA, hcdefi, A9F fiZZ, |^a}^ibbi Z^_g a_a^ida`i_e fa, |^aZ`__g_, haZf`i. ($abalevs<y D., AOPA, Cl. A 6 F, Program: "entru 1colile me#ii generale, *os<ova). @. 5etelea *., (agim 0., *orari *., =HH@. Conce"Eia form:rii universitare a s"ecialistului in #omeniul e#ucaEiei9instruirii mu4icale, Universitatea #e ,tat '&lecu Russo) #in B:li

2.TE/NO.O%IES FOR DEVE.O,IN% 5USIC TEAC/ERSH VOCA. CO5,ETENCES


,etr SiFur SH A8 tract 7 !n this article, the author reveals the causes of difficulties in music teachers wor%, the reasons of frequent voice illnesses and offers a new method of training such specialists. Ae) >ord 7 The increased voice loading, noise bac%ground, the chronometry, voice training, declamation-spea%ing manner of singing, intonational-speech method.

Bne of the maGor s<ills for the teacher of music is s<ill to ;or< in con#itions of the increase# voice loa#s ;hich are s"ecific to school activity. 0n the last one an# a half #eca#e there a""eare# the term 'the voice invali#). 0n this ;ay the teacher is name# ;ho has remaine# "ractically ;ithout a voice after @ 6 AH years of ;or< at a com"rehensive school. 5here are several reasons for the given "henomenon. 5hese are the reasons connecte# ;ith the insufficient organi4ation of e#ucational "rocess an# the reasons, in#icating to an insufficient en#urance of the vocal a""aratus of the teacher, his8her inability to ;or< in the system 'singing9s"eech), namelyN 9 Carrying out more than ?9L lessons at a time ;hile it is allo;e# no more than F9I lessons ;ith <ee"ing A?9minute voice rest in brea<s bet;een lessonsU
SH

&ssociate Professor , ,tate University D&lecu Russo) from B:lEi , Re"ublic of emailNoliaWnVrambler.ru

*ol#avia,

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9 5he insufficient e/ui"ment of e#ucational classrooms, the absence of necessary acoustics insi#e the rooms an# their ba# e3ternal soun# insulation (from the trans"ort noise, irrelevant conversations, etc.)U 9 Coise bac<groun# of "u"ils at the lesson, arising not only from ba# #isci"line, but also #ue to the emotional inci#ental im"ressions of a lesson, com"elling the teacher to overstrain his8her vocal a""aratus, that is to s"ea< in the raise# tones in a high tessitura in or#er to give a sufficient au#ibility to the voice in a classroomU 9 Kor< ;ith "u"ils in an unhealthy con#ition of the vocal a""aratus (,.,. (herasimova, AO@=U &.5. Riabchen<o, AO@IU B.*. $iGlaev, &.D. Butusov, AOPFU 0u.,.Vasilen<o, AOPFU V.V.%melianov, =HHH, =HHFU 0u.B.&liev, =HH?U %.*. Barvins<aia, =HHP). &ccor#ing to the chronometry #ata, the voice loa# of the music teacher at a lesson ma<es about ?H of ;or<ing hours of the active ;or< of the vocal a""aratus. 5his inclu#es singing, an e3"lanation of a teaching material, conversation, etc. *ore than FH of time is occu"ie# by the "erce"tion of singing or oral s"eech of "u"ils (their /uestions, ans;ers), etc. 5he remaining =H of ;or<ing hours coul# be name# voice rest. o;ever, accor#ing to the la; of the theory of active "erce"tion (%.C.*alGutin, V.0.&ntsysh<ina, AOF?U &.0.Prote<tor, AO@OU V.P.*oro4ov, AO@@, =HHI) 6 'to listen to a singer means to sing together ;ith him8her), 9 the vocal a""aratus involuntarily comes to the con#ition of ;or<ing rea#iness an# continues to "artici"ate "assively in the listening to another "erson.s singing, music an# even in its mental imagination. Passive voice ;or< of the teacher #oes not sto" either #uring "laying a musical instrument. &s a result vocal fol#s turn re#, character of breath changes from the high "laye# soun#s, etc. 0n turn, lac< of vocal comfort of the teacher is "asse# to the "u"ils. ,o the #irect an# return voice interrelation 2teacher9"u"il2 is carrie# out ;here the voice of the teacher is constantly involve# in ;or<. 5hese loa#s increase #uring out9of9class ;or<, es"ecially #uring "re"aration for morning concerts etc. 5he secon# most im"ortant "roblem for the teacher is his8her inability to ;or< in the mi3e# mo#es of "honation, ;hich tires the vocal a""aratus very much. But ;hen the teacher ;ill "ull together a singing an# s"eech mo#e of "honation the loa# on the vocal a""aratus #ecreases, an# conse/uently the ris< of #iseases of the teacher.s vocal a""aratus re#uces as ;ell as of the "u"ils. vocal a""aratus co"ying his8her singing. 7or this "ur"ose it is im"ortant to observe the features of ;or< of the vocal a""aratus in singing an# s"eechN in ;hat consists their #ifference an# similarityU ;hat manner of singing is closer to conversational s"eech an# in ;hat manner it is much more #ifficult to sing an# s"ea<. 0t is <no;n, that #uring singing in the aca#emic manner the soun# is sha"e# roun#e# an# covere#. 0t is necessary for the timbre leveling of a voice across the ;hole range, #uring A,? 6 = octaves. 5he roun#ing off an# covering of a soun# allo;s to smooth over the transition of the bass notes to the high notes
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or in other ;or#s, to smooth over the registers. 5hat is, in the aca#emic manner the singer cannot sing in s"eech "osition of voice organs. 5herefore, #uring transition from singing to s"eech an# from s"eech to singing, the mo#e of "honation is rearrange#. ,"ecial voice training in such mo#e of ;or< is necessary. &ll above sai# has #eman#e# the creation of an a""ro"riate "roce#ure ;hich ;oul# allo; to master all necessary vocal9s"eech s<ills in a com"le3 at a lesson of vocalism an# "artially #uring in#e"en#ent "re"aration. 5he technology ("roce#ure) offere# by us is connecte# not only ;ith the im"rovement of vocal "re"aration, but also, first of all, /ualitative, mo#erately fast #evelo"ment of the aca#emic manner of singing. &lso at a vocalism lesson, elements of #evelo"ment of s"eech voice, a #eclamation9 s"ea<ing manner of singing are traine#, an# then training of the ;or< of the vocal a""aratus in system 2singing9s"eech2 is carrie# out. 5he so9calle# intonation9s"eech metho# #evelo"e# by us is of crucial im"ortance in "rogress of such s<ills (see belo;). 0ts essence consists in the #evelo"ment of techni/ue of #eclamation9s"eech rea#ing on glissan#o singsong ;ith the ma3imal sco"e of e3treme soun#s of the bottom an# to" registers. 5he given metho# in combination ;ith tra#itional metho#s allo;s in the shortest timeframe to #evelo" ;ell an# strengthen a singing an# s"ea<ing voice, to master techni/ue of singing in various manners an#, in this ;ay, to "re"are a teacher.s voice for s"ecific con#itions of school ;or<. ,ince AOO? an# till "resent time, ;e re"eate#ly chec<e# effectiveness of the "roce#ure #evelo"e# by us in an e3"erimental ;ay. 5he basic ;or< on the "roce#ure recommen#e# by us ;as carrie# out ;ith stu#ents of the fourth year of the faculty of *usic an# *usical "e#agogics at the Balts '&.Russo) University. 5;o grou"s have been create#N e3"erimental an# control grou". ,tu#ents of control grou" con#ucte# lessons tra#itionally, stu#ents of e3"erimental grou" 6 by the "roce#ure offere# by us. 5he structure of a lesson of e3"erimental grou" has been organi4e# as follo;sN tuning of a voice (;arming u") @9AH minutes, then rea#ing of sim"le "roverbs, sayings, te3t "hrases from the ;or<s inclu#e# in semestrial re"ertoir. 5hen AH9A? minutes ;ere given to singing of more com"le3 vocal e3ercises an# vocali4ation e3ercises for #evelo"ing of a voice range, breathing techni/ue, cantilena an# voice fluency. 5he remaining time, =H9=? minutes, ;as given to ;or< on vocal "iece. 5hus, the lesson by the offere# "roce#ure <e"t ;ithin habitual I? minutes. Data about ;or< of each stu#ent of both grou"s ;ere ;ritten #o;n in s"ecially #evelo"e# assessment ma" of verifying criteria ;here the initial an# subse/uent levels of vocal an# s"eech #ata ;ere recor#e#. 5able Co. A T!e re ult of trainin& eC"eri#ent

@@

&s criteria only the most basic "arameters in control grou" (C) an# e3"erimental grou" (%) are ta<en.
&rou" ,oun#9"itch range ?9L tones C ?9L tones % C ?9L tones @9P tones % Cot clear Cot clear ,ome im"rove9 ment S"eaFin& (oice Diction 0ntonation e3"ressivity Cot clear Cot e3"ressive Cot e3"ressive Cot e3"ressive 0m"rove9 ment Sin&in& (oice ,oun#9"itch ,inging range manner 7rom A,F to A,? octaves 7rom A,= to A,? octaves 7rom A,? to A,@ 7rom A,L to A,P -ac< of singing s<ills &ca9 #emic &ca#e9 mic an# #ecla9 mation9 s"eech &ca#e9 mic &ca#e9 mic an# #ecla9 mation9 s"eech T!e Fill to >itc! #oot!l) fro# in&in& to "eec! and fro# "eec! to in&in& -ac< of s"ecial s<ills -ac< of s"ecial s<ills ter# 5he en# of the =n# 5he en# of the Ast year %lementary year of training of training level

-ac< of s<ill 5he techni/ue of t;o9;ay s;itching has im"rove#

?9@ tones C A=9A? tones %

Co im"rove9 ment Clear, #istinct

0m"rove9 ment 0m"rove9 ment

7rom A,= to A,? 7rom A,? to = octaves

-ac< of s<ill 5he techni/ue of t;o9;ay s;itching is mastere#

5able Co. = T!e &eneraliGed re ult of (ocal- "eec! "re"aration of tudent of control LCK and eC"eri#ental LEK &rou" in t!e end of t!e econd )ear of trainin&.
(ra#e by AH9gra#e system Vocal training C = I P L % A= @ A H 5he number of stu#ents ,"eech training (#evelo"ing Pre"aring for ;or< un#er the con#itions of s"eech voice) of the increase# voice charge C % C % A AA H A= F @ AH @ A A = ? AF ? = A

%3cellent (O9AH gra#es) (oo# (@9P gra#es) ,atisfactory (?9L gra#es) Ba# (I gra#es)

7rom the table Co. A given above it is visible, that initial #ata on all <ey "arameters chosen by us in control an# e3"erimental grou"s are a""ro3imately i#entical, but the en# result is #ifferent.5hus, investigations carrie# out by us have sho;n, that changes of technology of "re"aration of the future music teachers yiel# high "ositive results, ma<ing it "ossible for the future teachers to carry out ;ith enough confi#ence an in#e"en#ent "e#agogical activity. Conclu ion A. Vocal9s"eech "re"aration of the teacher shoul# inclu#e training of his8her vocal a""aratus in vocal9s"eech mo#es of "honations.

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=. 0t is im"ortant to use metho#s an# e3ercises not only for #evelo"ment, but also for strengthening of a singing an# s"eech voice #uring lessons ;ith stu#ents. F. Kith the stu#ents of the senior years, before teaching "ractice, #uring vocal lessons an# in#e"en#ent "re"aration of stu#ents it is necessary to "ractise the combine# e3ercises for training of the techni/ue of the t;o9;ay transition from singing to s"eech an# from s"eech to singing in various manners. -i8lio&ra"!) A. Barvins<aia, %.*. o; to "rotect the voice of music teacher. (sif digg }aaZ cg_ bcdefg.) 0n.N *usic at school (hcdefi ` fa_) Co. A, =HHP, ".FI9FP =. Roi4en, (.*. &bout "honation in singing an# s"eech. ( }aaZaa^ida`igg ` ~_gg g ^_g.) 0nN 5he issues of vocal "e#agogics. (xa~^aZe `afia ~_i}a}gfg.) Vol. I. h.N *u4ghi4, AOLO, ". P?9OO. F. ,i<ur, P.0. *etho#ical basics of the #evelo"ing of vocal9s"eech s<ills ;ith the stu#ents of musical9"e#agogical faculties of the teachers training universities. (h_ag_Zfg_ aZa`e a^bg^a`ig `afia9^__`e i`efa` c Zc_a` bcdefia9~_i}a}g_Zfg ifc_a` ~_i}a}g_Zfg `cda`.) Chisinau, ,. -a4o $P0, AOP@, ?H ". I. ,i<ur, P.0. 5he singing art in chil#hoo# an# "rea#ult age. (zZfcZZ`a ~_g ` _Zfab g a_Zfab `ad^iZ_.) Baltsi, =HHO, IF? ". ?. ,tarobins<yi, ,.-. &bout "e#agogical mastery. ( ~_i}a}g_Zfab biZ_^Z`_) 0nN *usic at school (hcdefi ` fa_) Co.?, =HH@, ".=@9FA 3.TEAC/ERS FOR5ATION FOR 5USICA..6 %IFTED ,U,I.S7 REA.IT6 AND DE5ANDS
Tatiana -ular&aSR
.

A8 tract7 The present article treats the essential positions of the universitys conception at formating an afficient teachers for gifted children, who need special attention with a view to achieve their individual potential. Ae) >ord N musically gifted children, gifted childrens needs, musical potential, efficient teacher.

5he gifte# an# su"er gifte# chil#ren re"resent the "rogressive "otential of the society, through the "ractical a""lication of their "otential an# having the ability to be creators of values in various #omains of art an# science an# be beginners of a#vance# i#eas. Provi#ing ina#e/uate e#ucational services to this category of "u"ils lea#s to consi#erable social losses. 5hese can be avoi#e#, to a great e3tent, #ue to s"ecial teachers. formation in this #omain, ;hich has a
SR

&ssociate Professor PhD, ,tate University D&lecu Russo) from B:lEi , Re"ublic of tatianabulargaVrambler.ru

*ol#avia, emailN

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maGor role in the efficient i#entification an# "romotion of gifte# an#8or talente# "u"ils. Base# on the e#ucational8 instructional stu#ies an# tra#itions of gifte# stu#ents e3istent in %uro"e an# &merica, the university conce"t ;hich ;e "ro"ose for e3amination in the follo;ing lines starts ;ith a vision on the "rocess of the s"ecialist.s formation, a#a"te# to the con#itions of "re9university, university an# "ost9university national e#ucation. 5he "resent university "rogram "ro"oses a se/uence of essential "ositions regar#ing the strategy of the teacher of music.s formation, com"etent in the "roblem of instruction of musically gifte# "u"ils, being at the same time fle3ible as to the com"letion ;ithN #ates ;hich refer to contents (courses, recommen#e# #isci"lines)U lagging of com"etences on levels of the s"ecialist.s formation (university, "re9university)U an# necessary au3iliary com"artments. 0t is calle# to reform the "resent9 #ay situation in the instruction8e#ucation of musically gifte# chil#ren in the general an# s"ecial e#ucation in the Re"ublic of *ol#ova. 5he conce"t of the s"ecialists. formation in the "roblem of musically gifte# "u"ils. instruction is elaborate# in such a ;ay as to go in organically ;ith the university an# "ost9university system of s"ecialists. formation in the fiel# of musical e#ucation. 5he a#a"te# variant of the conce"t (some elements of the conce"t) can be a""lie# ;ith the aim of forming an a#e/uate vision in future teachers, referring to the e#ucation of gifte# chil#ren8"u"ils by theN 7aculty of Pe#agogy an# Psychology of B,UU institutions of higher e#ucation ;hich have faculties of "e#agogy an# ;hich train s"ecialists in the fiel# of "reschool an# "rimary e#ucation, ;here *usical %#ucation constitutes one of the curriculum subGectsU teacher training colleges from the Re"ublic ;hich constitutes the "re9university level of the s"ecialist.s formation. Domain of activity of the teacher of gifted pupils. 5he s"ecialist.s activity in this "roblem is lin<e# ;ith the instruction8e#ucation of musically gifte#8su"er gifte# "u"ils in general e#ucation, ;ith curricular an# e3tracurricular e3tensions (gymnasiums, high schools), an# that s"ecial musical9 artistic (schools, stu#ies of music8art for chil#ren). 5he s"ecific of the teacher.s activity of gifte# an# su"er gifte# "u"ils consists in the necessity of trac<ing, su""ort an# stimulation of "u"ils en#o;e# ;ith su"erior abilities, "revailingly in heterogeneous grou"s. Description of the endowment phenomenon. %ach human being is born ;ith a genetic "rogram constitute# from a series of /ualities8"re#is"ositions ;hich in the course of his8her evolution, accor#ing to the con#itions of #evelo"ment8formation, can attest either a consi#erable #ynamic gro;th or a latent state, of stagnation an# of slo; #evelo"ment. 5he contem"orary school, the social institutions (society, family, cultural associations) contribute to a certain #egree to the creation of favourable con#itions for the multi#imensional manifestation of ca"acities an# abilities of chil#ren an# teenagers in many #iverse fiel#s of activity, both #uring course hours an# e3tracurricular hours.
PH

0f ;e are to s"ea< about the ;ay of manifestation of "u"ils. in#ivi#ual a"titu#es in a certain #omain of activity, ;e #etermine that the #egree8level of abilities is #ifferent from a "u"il to another, from a genre of activity to another, fact ;hich lea#s to the conclusion that each "erson is not only born ;ith a s"ecific intensity of ca"acities, but also ;ith in#ivi#ual ten#encies8 #is"ositions to reali4e himself8herself ;ith a certain strength an# #ynamism in a chosen #omain. 5he #ifferences of "u"ils. s"ecial ca"acities nee# on the teachers. "art the #ifferentiate# a""lication of metho#s of ;or< an# instructive8e#ucational obGectives for "u"ils ;hich register me#ium an# su"erior ca"acities. 5his, if ;e refer to the e3istent #ifferences in a"titu#es in classes ;ith e#ucational con#itions, offers e/ual chances to the "u"ils. ;hole s"ecimen. But there are "u"ils ;ho sho; su"erior ca"acities for their chronologic age an# classmates of the same age. 5his category of "u"ils, being a minority, forms the contingent ;ho has s"ecial abilities in a certain #omain of activity an# ;ho being in favourable con#itions sho;s consi#erable "erformance. & school teacher cannot often co"e ;ith the "rocess of #evelo"ment of su"er gifte# chil#ren. 0n this case it is necessary to enrol the res"ective "u"il8"u"ils in a system of e#ucation s"eciali4e# in this #omain. ,uch cases are, es"ecially, connecte# to the #istribution of gifte#8su"er gifte# "u"ils to institutions from the artistic #omain (music, "lastic arts, choreogra"hy, #rama etc.). 0t is ;orth mentioning that "e#agogy of all times ;as intereste# both in the #etermination of criteria accor#ing to ;hich ;oul# be "ossible to i#entify su"er gifte# chil#ren an# in the elaboration of strategies an# metho#s of ;or< ;ith this category of "u"ils. Ke can fin# some ans;ers to the first as"ect of the "roblem in the "sychological literature of yester#ay an# of recent #ate. 0t is a""ro"riate to ma<e clear that both the visions on the #efinition of en#o;ment 8 su"er en#o;ment in #iverse #omains of activity an# the criteria of i#entification of this category of chil#ren #iffers from an author to another an# from a "erio# of research to another, being con#itione# by "resent9#ay values an# nee#s of the society. Kithout having the intention to go through a #etaile# analysis of the multitu#e of #efinitions of en#o;ment registere# till this moment, ;e ;ill "oint out the generali4ing meaning of the "henomenon. Ke acce"t that the su"er gifte# chil# has ca"acities8abilities su"erior to his age an# chil#ren of the same age, ;hich allo; him to manifest himself ;ith s"ecial success in one or more #omains of activity, sho;ing high "erformance. 0n our o"inion, the #efinition launche# by ,. *arlan# is valuable from the "oint of vie; of relieving many ty"es of su"er en#o;ment or #omains of manifestation of su"er en#o;ment ;here su"er gifte# are /ualifie# the chil#ren, ;ho 'sho;ing abilities or the "otential of an ability, "rove the ca"acity of high "erformance in the intellectual, creative, aca#emic, lea#ershi", visual arts #omains an# ;ho claim services or activities that are not offere# by the or#inary school) SU. 5his #efinition enters the theories that "lea# for the e3istence of
SU

,t:nescu *.9-. 0nstruirea #iferenEiat: a elevilor su"ra#otaEi. 9 0a1iN Polirom, =HH=, ".FF PA

s"ecific en#o;ment or multi"le intelligences manifeste# in the #omains of (areas of en#o;ment8 su"er en#o;ment) music, "lastic arts, choreogra"hy, mathematics, languages etc. ere s"ecial attention #eserves the theory of . (ar#ner accor#ing to ;hich @ ty"es of intelligences are "ointe# out, ;hich are at the same time ty"es of su"er en#o;mentN linguistic intelligenceU logicalmathematical intelligenceU spatial intelligence (mani"ulation ;ith s"atial configurations)U corporal-%inaesthesia intelligenceU musical intelligenceU interpersonal intelligence (orientation to;ar#s other "eo"le)U intrapersonal intelligence (un#erstan#ing an# conce"tion of inner ;orl#). Bne of the "roGects launche# in the U,& in the ?Hs, ;ith the aim of ma<ing the most of the e3ce"tional "otential, mar<e# the #omainsN intellectual, scientific, lea#ershi", creative, artistic, "en craft, #ramatic, musical, mechanic, "hysical. 5hus, it is ma#e reference to the first #irection in gradation of the category of en#o;ment an# mainly that of ebistence of multiple types of endowmentg super endowment. 5he secon# #irection of gra#ation of the analy4e# "henomenon constitutes, in our conce"tion, the #ifferentiation of the level of en#o;ment8 su"er en#o;ment or 'su"er en#o;ment subcategories) (a"u# 7.(agn). 0n the o"inion of 7. (agn there are the follo;ing subcategoriesN asic super endowment, moderate super endowment, high super endowment, e!treme super endowment. Ke have to single out that the term 'en#o;ment) serves as essential an# initial combination in the evolution of the term 'su"er en#o;ment) ;here through the use of the "refi3 'su"er) 6 su"erior (su"er en#o;e#) is sho;n a #ifferentiation of a /uantitative character. 0n the "sychological sense, the su"er en#o;ment refers to the intellectual #omain an# is #etermine# by su"erior intelligence (<ey9criterion for the #iagnostic 6 the 0 coefficient) above the level of chronologic age. *. !igau consi#ers that the term of su"er en#o;ment has to be reserve# 'for the e3ce"tional intellectual ca"acities ;hich ma<e "ossible the high "erformance in any #omain) SS. 0n common language the notion of talent is often use# as a synonym of su"er en#o;ment. Regar#ing this as"ect 7. (agn /ualifies su"er en#o;ment as a com"etence of "ersonality, ;hile talent is characteri4e# as a "erformance both the first an# the secon# being above the average. 0n the literature of s"eciality there is the "osition accor#ing to ;hich talent is in the "i"eline only for s"ecial #omainsN music, theatre, choreogra"hy, mathematics, chemistry etc. Kithout going into the com"arative analysis of o"inions, ;e ;ill state only that ;e su""ort the "ositions of recent stu#ies a#vocates ;ho use the term of talent not only for the s"ecial #omains, "reviously #esignate#, but also for other "ossible #omains. &t the same time ;e

SS

!ig:u *. Co"iii su"ra#otaEi. Bucure1tiN ,.&. qtiinE: 1i 5ehnic:, AOOI, ". ??

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acce"t the "oint of vie; of 7. (agn referring to the characteri4ation of talent as high "erformance in any #omain ;hich ta<es "lace (#evelo"s) #ue to su"er en#o;ment 9ability, e3ce"tional com"etence manifeste# in the res"ective #omain8 a com"le3 of ac/uirements, abilities, e3ce"tional ca"acities in the res"ective #omain. 5he "rocess of i#entification of su"er en#o;ment in the #omain of real sciences an# humanities #oesn.t "resent any #ifficulties because there are numerous s"ecial instruments, classifie# in function of the evaluation criteria ;ith theoretical an# e3"erimental vali#ate# argumentation. Referring to the "roblems that are lin<e# ;ith the #ifferentiate# #iagnostic of chil#ren an# teenagers. musical en#o;ment, there are certain #eficiencies of in#ivi#ual, social, but also of conce"tual character. &ccor#ing to the things sai# above, ;e state that both the ac/uirements8 the teste# variables an# the a""lie# metho#s have to be im"rove# #e"en#ing on the levels of endowment (in the o"inion of 7.(agn 6subcategories of su"er en#o;ment) an# #e"en#ing on the analy4e# category 6talent or su"er en#o;ment. 5he notions of talent, su"er en#o;ment, in#ifferently of the conte3t of use, im"ly by all means the necessity to be relate# to s"ecial ca"acities, being obligatory for the effective #evelo"ment of a concrete activity in ;hich a "erson enrols. 7or e3am"le, the "resence of the follo;ing ca"acities8a"titu#es is obligatory in musical activitiesN melodic hearing, rhythmic sense, modal sense, ca"acity of feeling the music. 0n general the s"eciality literature #efines musical en#o;ment in terms of musical com"etence. -oo<ing over the scientific investigations reali4e# in this #omain, t;o someho; contra#ictory ten#encies are notice#N the stu#ies are either too s"eciali4e# or too general, ;ith some e3ce"tions. Bn the one han#, there is a series of isolate# stu#ies regar#ing the musical #isci"lines that are very s"eciali4e#. (7or e3am"le, the motor s<ills of the "iano soloist), on the other han#, many researches treat musical en#o;ment as a general feature, ;ithout trying to clearly #ifferentiate bet;een the forms of musical manifestationN com"osition, vocal inter"retation, instrumental inter"retation etc. 5he #iversity of musical activities ma<es #ifficult the establishment of some #efinitive characteristics of the musical talent. 0t is #ifficult, but not im"ossible. Des"ite the ty"e of culture (Kestern versus %astern), the musical "erce"tion or the influence of the musical stimuli starts to manifest itself before birth. 5he #ata "resente# by Blum in a recent stu#y in#icate "ositive effects that are obvious ;hen listening to music before birth. 0t affects the ulterior "erce"tive an# motor #evelo"ment. 5he musicality forms an# manifests itself very early, even in very limite# con#itions, for e3am"le at the chil#ren ;hose "arents are #eath. 0t is sur"rising that from early age the chil#renjs musical behaviour is very similar to that of a#ults, the #evelo"ment of a"titu#es an# musical s<ills is relatively ra"i# that is more than the sim"le functionality of au#itory organs.
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0t is in#is"utable that the early au#itory stimulation, the musical e3"erience from chil#hoo#, is in#is"ensable for the achievement of su"erior "erformances in the musical #omain. 0f ;e ta<e into account the fact that the number of connections is more im"ortant than the one of neurons in the #evelo"ment of the corte3 an# that these connections are forme# as a result of sensory stimulation, it is easy to un#erstan# the mechanism behin# this "henomenon. & rich au#itory stimulation at early age can facilitate the formation of neuronal nets involve# in the "rocessing of musical information. 5he richer an# more #iverse are the forme# connections, the more the arrangements can cover a larger gamut of information, res"ectively more com"le3 forms of organi4ation of this information ;hich is essential for the music "ro#uction. 0n the conce"tion of ,lobo#a the superior musical performance has t;o big com"onentsN a technical an# an e3"ressive one. The technical component refers to the mechanic as"ects of musical "ro#uction 9the s"ee# of e3ecution, the control of soun# #uration an# intensity, the synchroni4ation of movements etc. The ebpressive component refers to variations intro#uce# by the musician in the "arameters of the "erformance (rhythm, timbre, intensity etc.) ;hich are inten#e# to influence the cognitive an# aesthetic as"ects of the musical "ro#uction. 5he technical an# e3"ressive s<ills are relatively se"arable, in the sense that it is "ossible that a "erformer e3ecutes technically "erfectly a "iece of music, but ;ithout e3"ressive force an# vice9versa. 5he interaction bet;een these t;o com"onents, their reci"rocal influence become obvious if ;e thin<, for e3am"le, that the reali4ation of some e3"ressive "arameters is not "ossible ;ithout mastering the instrument from a technical "oint of vie;. 0t is <no;n that the musically gifte# chil#ren have certain in#ivi#ual characteristics ;hich all the "artici"ants of the e#ucational "rocess have to <no; an# es"ecially the teacher of musical e#ucation. &mong these characteristics ;e em"hasi4eN 9 &s a rule, these "u"ils are very active an# al;ays "reoccu"ie# by the solution of some "roblems that are connecte# to this #omain. 5hey ten# to ;or< more than others, "aying much attention to things an# "henomena ;hich #onjt al;ays correlate #irectly ;ith the obGect of stu#y. &t first sight it seems that these "u"ils #onjt "ay "regnant attention to all the school subGects. 5hey nee# s"ecial attention an# su""ort from the teacher for the continuous #evelo"ment of their a"titu#es. 9 5hey insistently reali4e their e3"ecte# aims an# through this of course bring 2"reGu#ices2 to the teacher, because these "u"ils see< to get into the essence of things an# remain com"letely satisfie# by the un#erta<en actions. 9 5hese "u"ils ;ant to be a""reciate# an# a""rove#. 9 Due to the a"titu#es that they "ossess, they "rogress more than the others in the in#ivi#ual ;o<. 5hese as"ects are es"ecially visible in the ;or< ;ith the a##itional literature, in the activities of artistic creation.
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9 5he "u"ils from this category are a"t to get into the essence of things, they are critical an# self9critical. 9 %very "henomenon causes a lot of /uestions to ;hich they insist to get e3"licit an# #efinitive ans;ers. 9 5hose course hours ;hich are mo#elle# through the a""lication of "roblematic metho#s "resent interest for them, ;hile their classmates are satisfie# ;ith the learning of the communicate# facts by the teacher. 9 5hese "u"ils are rea#y to learn in#ivi#ually. 9 Unli<e their colleagues, the musically gifte# "u"ils s<ilfully analyse, overla", an# #iscriminate the stu#ie# facts, es"ecially those that belong to musical art. 9 5he maGority of these "u"ils "ro"ose themselves maGor aims ;hich are unrealisable for their "eers. "pecific goals of the teachers formation process of gifted pupils. Before e3"osing the s"ecific goals of the teacher.s formation "rocess of gifte# "u"ils, ;hich can be also calle# ac/uirements8/ualities an# efficient com"etences in the training of en#o;e# chil#ren, it is a""ro"riate to "oint out a significant as"ect. 0n this conte3t often a""ears the /uestionN ;hat shoul# be the #egree of the teacher of music.s en#o;ment involve# in the training8e#ucation of gifte# "u"ils ;ith high "otentialS 0n connection to this as"ect ;e o"t for the "osition accor#ing to ;hich a goo# teacher mustn.t necessarily have a high #egree of musical en#o;ment8 talent for music (this constitutes only a #esirable ac/uirement), but he has to <no; to i#entify, to im"rove, to #evelo" the ability of his #isci"les, to have behavioural /ualities ;hich ;ill facilitate the achievement of e#ucational obGectives. 0t is also necessary to "oint out that the s"ecific goals ;hich ;ill follo; are generic for all the #isci"lines8courses ;ith the hel" of ;hich the teacher of musically gifte# "u"ils forms himself, being at the same time generic for #iverse levels of e#ucation ("rimary, gymnasium, high school), environment (urban, rural), the s"ecific of the grou" of "u"ils (homogenous, heterogeneous), the #egree of "rofessional formation (university, "ost9university). 5he analysis of reference stu#ies in the literature of s"eciality allo;e# us to formulate the teachers efficient competences and ac#uirements for the musically gifte# "u"ils, as follo;sN Un#er the as"ect of "rofessional com"etences the teacher of gifte# "u"ils has toN 9 be com"etent in the #omain of musical artU 9 be a facilitator of the instructive8e#ucational "rocessU the follo;ing functions8com"etences assert themselves in this conte3tN a) creation an# maintenance of a "ositive communicative atmos"here in the grou" of chil#renU b) the fle3ible use of time an# e#ucational curriculum both at the course hours an# outsi#e them, #e"en#ing on "u"ils. nee#s, interests, s"ecial a"titu#es an# general "sychological characteristics.)U 9 a#e/uately i#entify "u"ils. a"titu#esU
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9 <no; to collaborate effectively ;ith the "arents of gifte# "u"ilsU 9 be ca"able of #iagnosing an# solving the #ifficulties of a#a"tation to the e#ucational "rocess of "u"ils ;ith s"ecial musical nee#sU 9 use creatively an# in#ivi#ually the musical activities an# e#ucational technologiesU 9 have abilities of "lanning in#ivi#ual stu#y "rogrammes, centre# on the "ersonal nee#s of the musically en#o;e# "u"ilsU 9 be a;are of the s"ecial "roblems of musically gifte# "u"ils8 talente# in musicU 9 be ca"able of encouraging "u"ils in #ifficulty an# giving a#e/uate a;ar#s for success. Fro# t!e "oint of (ie> of "er onal acBuire#ent t!e teac!er of &ifted "u"il !a to7 9 be #ifferent through in#e"en#ent thin<ingU 9 be em"athic (intuition an# antici"ation)U 9 have "ersonal fle3ibilityU 9 be #emocratic, sho; res"ect to;ar#s the uni/ueness of each "u"ilU 9 be enthusiastic, creative, innovativeU 9 be "unctual, res"onsible an# "erseverant to;ar#s his activityU 9 sho; attentive, amiable, "olite an# sociable behaviour. Do#inant attitude 7 9 #iverse interests lin<e# ;ith #ifferent #omains of art, culture, scienceU 9 o"enness to;ar#s ne; ten#encies an# i#easU 9 intereste# attitu#e to;ar#s the "u"ils. "erformanceU 9 o"tion for the #evelo"ing an# formative e#ucationU 9 o"tion for #ifferentiate# instruction8e#ucationU 9 internal nee# of continuous stu#y an# "erfection. The content of teachers formation program for musically endowed pupils instruction. 5he nee# for teachers. s"ecial "re"aration for the classes ;ith musically gifte# "u"ils can be e3"laine# from the "oint of vie; of more as"ects. But ;e ;ill mention one of them ;hich is #eterminant for the ;hole system of instruction8 e#ucation of chil#ren ;ith s"ecial musical nee#s. 5hus, it ;as "rove# that the "resence of a high #egree of musical en#o;ment, though a#e/uately an# early i#entifie#, #oesn.t necessarily #etermine achievement of high musical an# artistic "erformance because often teachers, ;ho #on.t have the res"ective level of "re"aration, can.t ensure the a#e/uate e#ucational curriculum to this category of chil#ren. 5he "rogram of s"ecialists. formation in the "roblem of instruction of musically en#o;e# "u"ils at the university an# "ost9university level at the 7aculty of *usic an# *usical Pe#agogy has the aim of achieving the "reviously establishe# goals ;hich being synthesi4e# can be re#uce# toN the teacher shoul# be a;are of the structure, characteristics an# levels of musical en#o;ment 8 talent for musicU use of techni/ues of trac<ing musical a"titu#esU solution of "sycho9social situations lin<e# to the gifte#8talente# "u"ils. schoolingU
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formation of com"etences through effective instruction of this category of "u"ils. 5he "rogram assumes getting transferable cre#its in fun#amental subGects, subGects of s"eciali4ation, formation of generic abilities an# courses of /ualification8s"ecial formation in the #iscusse# "roblem. -i8lio&ra"!) A. Babii V. %ficienEa e#ucaEiei mu4ical9artistice. 6 Chi1in:uN %#itura D%lena V.0.), =HH?. =. Babii V. 5eoria 1i "ra3iologia e#ucaEiei mu4ical9artistice. 9 Chi1in:uN %#itura '%lena V.0.), =HAH. F. Bularga 5. 5raining9ul com"ortamental n formarea "rofesorului eficient "entru elevii #otaEi mu4ical88 '&bor#area "rin com"etenEe a form:rii universitareN "robleme, soluEii, "ers"ective). *aterialele ConferinEei qtiinEifice 0nternaEionale, Universitatea #e ,tat '&lecu Russo) #in B:lEi, =HAA, ". AIA9AII. I. !ig:u *. Co"iii su"ra#otaEi. Bucure1tiN ,.&. qtiinE: 1i 5ehnic:, AOOI. ?. Ro1ca &l. &"titu#inile. 6 Bucure1tiN %#itura qtiinEific:, AO@=. L. ,t:nescu *.9-. 0nstruirea #iferenEiat: a elevilor su"ra#otaEi. 9 0a1iN Polirom, =HH=. @. 5o#oran D. 0n#ivi#ualitate 1i e#ucaEie. 6 Bucure1tiN %#itura Di#actic: 1i Pe#agogic:, AO@I. Qisulescu qt. &"titu#ini 1i talente. 6 Bucure1tiN %#itura Di#actic: 1i Pe#agogic:
4. E5,AT/6 FOR 5USIC AS T/E ESSENCE OF 5USICA.

EDUCATION
5arina 5orari(\\ A8 tract $ Oe can define two levels in musical education theoretical- informative and applicative- formative. $t the theoretical- informative level accumulation of %nowledge and development of informative-reproductive abilities and s%ills ta%e. $t the applicative-formative level musical education is achieved by direct contact with wor%s of art. The two levels of implementing artistic education d theoretical- informative and applicative-formative- are in a reciprocal relationship supplementing each other. This means that instruction cannot replace but can only ensure a better interception of music. Qeanwhile proper contemplation valori#es the virtues of instruction and ensures the reali#ation of the fundamental purpose of education. The communication between the student and musical art does not depend only on the aesthetic value of music but also on the subjects creative participation in this communication. $ psychic communion between the receiver and the artwor%, between the conscious and unconscious structures of the students personality and the musical artistic message. The main aim of this dialogue is enriching the receivers ebperience and his becoming more sensitive via emotion and empathy.
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&ssociate Professor PhD, ,tate University D&lecu Russo) from B:lEi , Re"ublic of *ol#avia, emailN marinamorariVrambler.ru

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The didactic way of learning music must bear the stamp of art music specificity. $ffective empathy for music as an ebigency of musical education creates the moment of founding music. $n empathy that depends on the students cognitive ebperience, on his psychic and psychophisiological state, on the environment in which it is produced appears in the musical act Lof listeningginterpretatiogcreationF. Oe define empathy for music as a flow of states that appear during the musical act Lof listeningginterpretationgcreationF. The products of empathy for music are musical sensitivity, music perception, musical intelligence, motivation, attitudes. Iertain changes depending on the students psychic functions and forces are produced during the musical act. fducational valencies of art may be intensified in artistic %nowledge that values the empathy and thin%ing acts that copenetrate, cooperate and complete each other. !t is very important to effectively valori#e empathy for music during the educational process. $ccess to the essence of music is facilitated by the convergence of empathy and understanding, of sensitivity and mind, of relish and thin%ing. The act of musical education cannot be conceived without empathy. Ae) >ord N empathy for music, the act of empathy for music, musical %nowledge, products of the act of empathy for music.

*usical art has al;ays an# every;here been regar#e# as an influential means of cultivating a human "ersonality. 5he ol# ;itticism, accor#ing to ;hich life more an# more co"ies art (in contrast to the "rinci"le of mimesis), suggests functions of art in the e3istence of manN cognitive, e3"ressive, communicative, aesthetic, e#ucational, he#onistic, etc. ,timulating chil#renjs s"irit through art is teachers. "rimary obligation. 0t is not only the left hemis"here that shoul# be traine# but also the right one that aims at affectivity an# creative s"ontaneity. 20f there is a crisis in art, it #oes not refer to artistic creation, but rather to our rece"tivity to this "henomenon. 5he claime# 2crisis of art2 is actually a crisis of communication, a crisis of sensibility) ... 2[F, ".AII\ &ny ;or< of art contains a message that is transmitte# through its o;n language. V. 0astrebEev.s remar< is significant hereN 2... "ainting #irectly suggests the image an# thought via ;hich the feeling is to be create# in imagination. 5he ;or# of "oetry evo<es the thought via ;hich the image an# emotional feeling are create# ;hile music "rovo<es emotional e3"erience that generates the thought, imagination an#, sometimes, the image 2[FF, ". @O\. 0n this ;ay, 0. RG<in consi#ers emotivity the #ominant "henomenon of artistic creation rece"tivity. 0t is ty"ical of this message to have the "rocess of its rece"tivity reflecte# in the various 4ones of human "ersonalityN intellectual, emotional, moral, etc. [=O, ". IF\. 5he foun#ation of musical e#ucation lies Gust in the "rocess of communication bet;een the receiver an# the musical ;or<. &ccor#ing to 5. Vianu, ;hen facing art 2;e #o not e3"erience only the ;orl# as sensation but also the ;orl# revelation as sensation2. Bther;ise, ;e re#iscover the ;orl# using art, ;e see it 2for the first time2 or ;e ta<e notice of something 2e3tra2[==, ".F==\.

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R. 7iva4 #efines the action of art rece"tivity as 2cognition in the meaning of cognition that tots a multitu#e of abilities of the min# to organi4e its o;n contents2 [?,". A?A9A?F\ 5hus, the "e#agogical finality of artistic communication is #ue not only to the aesthetic value of music but also to the "erson.s creative "artici"ation in this communication. ,"eciali4e# literature #istinguishes bet;een theoretical an# "ractico9 s"iritual <no;le#ge of reality, art belonging to the latter. Khile theoretical <no;le#ge of reality means ac/uiring higher an# higher generali4ations forme# as scientific conce"ts an# la;s, artistic <no;le#ge means the reali4ation of a synthesis of the in#ivi#ual an# the general via the artistic image. 0n this conte3t, musical art is a means of learning the reality surroun#ing via the artistic way. D. ,ala# saysN '&rt res"on#s to real nee#s that any "erson feels are necessary to clarify some i#eas, to motivate certain behaviors an# groun# some attitu#es suggesting, e3"laining, an# turning to goo# or "roblemati4ing. Due to its stimulating tonic, o"timistic, etc. art urges us to love the truth, goo#ness, science an# life 2[A@, ".A@\. *usical <no;le#ge means <no;le#ge of music language, <no;le#ge that ;oul# allo; the receiver to #eco#e the significance of artistic e3"ression create# by the author to communicate a certain message. V. Bstromens<i conventionally #istinguishes several stages in the "rocess of musical <no;le#geN A. Brientative ("rimary) "enetration in the structure of musical creation #uring the rece"tion. =. 0nter"retation of the musical image in the conte3t of the listener.s artistic e3"erience an# generali4ations #ra;n from the analysis of the musical creation structure. F. ,ubGective re9creation of the artistic image as a result of <no;ing the structure of the musical creation [=@, ".AP\. 5he <no;le#ge of music can un#oubte#ly be reali4e# only #uring musical "ractices such as listening, inter"retation an# creation. 5he statement that you can un#erstan# music from boo<s is an illusionN 2Un#erstan#ing music, ;rites -. BMrlogeanu, ;as al;ays "ut un#er the sign of initiation i#eaU not being initiate#, you can not un#erstan# the mystery an# "urifying influence of music [A, " . AHI\. Pro"er contem"lation of ;or<s of art cannot be substitute# by other initiations an# training but by the ones that are "urely musical. 5here are t;o orientations in musical e#ucation #e"en#ing on the "ur"ose of relationshi" that is establishe# bet;een the listener (stu#ent) an# the ;or< of art (music)N %#ucation for art 9 aims at training the one ;ho receives 8 inter"rets for a most a""ro"riate an# "rofoun# un#erstan#ing an# assimilation of the artistic messageU contributes to the <no;le#ge of musicU %#ucation via art aims at valori4ing the e#ucational "otential of the art;or< to generally #evelo" the human "ersonality. 5he t;o #irections interact an# com"lement each other, because the listener training for creative un#erstan#ing an# assimilation of the artistic message is
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#one "rimarily but not e3clusively, via art. 0. (agim saysN 2%#ucation is al;ays #one by something that shoul# be base# on material that influences the chil#. 0n our case, this material is the art of music. But it can influence the chil# only ;hen he <no;s it, ;hen it becomes closer an# un#erstoo#. 5his re/uires stu#ying. 5his ma<es the circle full 6 e#ucation via music is not "ossible outsi#e musical e#ucation "ro"er, i.e. ;ithout training the musical ear, the entire s"ectrum of musical s<ills, ;ithout "ractical <no;le#ge an# s<ills, i.e. ;ithout musical culture in the s"ecific meaning of the term 2. [L, ". IH\. 7rom the curriculum "ers"ective, the "ur"ose of musical e#ucation is the musical culture as "art of s"iritual culture [I, ".L\. 7rom this "oint of vie;, culture must be conceive# as a "henomenon an# spiritual possibility. Bnly the s"iritual "ath of <no;le#ge an# assimilation of music (the anti"o#e of the intellectual "ath) can sha"e musical culture. Bf all the arts, music is closest to the human soul (P. Bentoiu, (. Brea4ul, D. $abalevs<i, %. Ca4ai<ins<i, Q. $olTly). 5herefore the formation of stu#ents. musical culture ;ill start ;ith the <no;le#ge of music as art to;ar#s the <no;le#ge of music as a science. &ccor#ing to -. Vgots<i, the aim of music lies in the #iscovery of the human "ersonality.s s"iritual essence. [=?\. & stu#ent.s musical culture can be assesse# in #ifferent ;aysN by the ;ay he inter"rets music, by the volume of accumulate# <no;le#ge, by the ability to #istinguish music that is goo# from that ;hich is not very goo#U by the ;ay he s"ea<s about it, etc. 5he affective em"athy for music is consi#ere# a re/uirement of musical e#ucation. 0t creates the moment ;hen music starts e3isting. 5he act of music (of listening 8 inter"retation 8 creation) gives birth to an e3"erience of the subGect 9 obGect relation, ;hich #e"en#s on the cognitive e3"erience, on the "sychological an# "sycho "hysiological state #uring the relationshi", on the environment in ;hich it occurs. [AA\ Ke can #efine t;o levels in musical e#ucationN theoretical9 informative an# a""licative9 formative. &t the theoretical9 informative level accumulation of <no;le#ge an# #evelo"ment of informative9re"ro#uctive abilities an# s<ills ta<e "lace. 5he follo;ing can be mentione# about the entirety of necessary <no;le#geN <no;le#ge of tren#s an# styles, <no;le#ge of art history, <no;le#ge of great art creators. life an# ;or<, <no;le#ge of the artistic language of music, etc. 5he main function of this <no;le#ge is the e3"lanatory oneU it facilitates the contem"lation an# un#erstan#ing of art values. 5hroughout the contact ;ith the musical ;or< an# #uring e3ercises, re"resentations, Gu#gments, abilities for artistic inter"retations are forme#, criteria for assessing values are #iscerne#, theoretical culture an# the ability to use s"ecific language an# #eco#e the artistic message are create#. Co matter ho; ;ell musical instruction an# initiation in the mysteries of music are reali4e# they cannot substitute the "ro"er contem"lation of musical creations. 5herefore it is re/uire# that at this level the teacher an# stu#ents shoul# a#vance to the a""licative9formative level, ;hich is achieve# by #irect
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contact ;ith ;or<s of art, thus ensuring the con#itions necessary to receive the sonorous message. 0n this ;ay a "sychic communion bet;een the receiver an# the ;or< of art, bet;een the conscious an# unconscious structures of the stu#ent.s "ersonality an# the musical artistic message is establishe#. 5he fun#amental aim of this #ialogue is enriching the receiver.s e3"erience an# ma<ing him sensitive by triggering the emotion an# em"athy. 5he emotion must become spiritual awa%ening 6 e3istence in 'the hori4on of mystery an# revelation,2 as -. Blaga sai#, a state-of-being-in-the -human world. C. Co4ma characteri4e# music as having 2the most nuance# language of the man ;ith subtle emotions an# his reactions from sensitive, #ee" lyrical 9"sychological states to violent outbursts, to the bol#ness of thought an# action2 [= , ".AA\. 5hus, music e3"resses an# simultaneously #etermines the ;i#est range of human em"athy. Bne cannot #evelo" the ability to me#itate on music ;ithout listening to it, no valuable a""reciation of a creation can be issue# ;ithout interce"ting itU ;e cannot "erceive the beauty in a ;or< of art ;ithout grafting sensitivity, the ability to emotionally #iscern the sonorous message. 5he thesis is also confirme# by the conce"t of the school #isci"line *usical %#ucationN 2Both the s"ecificity an# its content an# through its formative "ossibilities, *usic alongsi#e ;ith other arts shoul# re/uire not only the stu#entjs intellectual bac<groun# but the emotional one too through both its s"ecific character an# contents an# its formative "ossibilities ... 2[I, ".L\. 0. (agim statesN 2*usic is an art an# the ;ay to;ar#s it must be 'artistic too2 [L, ".AH\. 5he #i#actic ;ay of learning music must bear the stam" of art music s"ecificity. %3"erience in musical e#ucation "roves that stu#ents may stu#y music for years but remain insensitive to it [0bi#, ".AH\. 5his "henomenon is cause# by the fact that the teaching is #one only at the theoretical9informative level, by lac< of e3"erience in interce"ting the artistic creation, by lac< of necessity to contact ;ith music. Khat ;e learn from this #i#actic situation "oints to t;o as"ects that are ;orth mentioningN A. 5he t;o levels of im"lementing artistic e#ucation 6 theoretical9 informative an# a""licative9formative9 are in a reci"rocal relationshi" su""lementing each other. 5his means that instruction cannot re"lace but can only ensure a better interce"tion of music. *ean;hile "ro"er contem"lation valori4es the virtues of instruction an# ensures the reali4ation of the fun#amental "ur"ose of e#ucation. =. %3"eriencing emotion, the e3igency of musical e#ucation, of an e#ucation in the interce"tion 8 inter"retation of music is "resent at all moments of the musical actN listening 9 inter"retation 9 creation. &. ,erov saysN '0f all the facts that #erive from the human soul coul# communicate through ;or#s there ;oul# be no music in the universe2 [FH\. Khen as<e# ;hy he com"ose# music -. Beethoven re"lie#N 2Khat is fretting in my heart must fin# a ;ay out. *usic must light the fire in "eo"le.s hearts. 0t is a
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revelation higher than ;is#om an# "hiloso"hy 2[AL, ".PA\. Con#uctor %. &nsermet i#entifies music an# emotionN it leaves the im"rint of its movement on the melo#ic line, rhythm, harmony thus attributing significance to music [=I, ".F@\. 5he musical language, accor#ing to the above mentione# author, gets its right to e3istence through emotions #uring ;hich thin<ing may be missing. 5his results in the a""earance of #isagreement bet;een thin<ing that o"erates ;ith theoretical mo#els rationali4e# earlier an# the emotional state that a""eare# #uring the act of music contem"lation. &mong the #efinitions of music there is one that, ;ith slight variations, recurs in an ascertaine# ;ayN 2*usic is the art of e3"ressing feelings an# "assions ;ith the hel" of soun#s.2 5he above mentione# formula is "resent in three /uarters of the thirty formulas collecte# by mu4icogra"her 5. Ribot. &n# it is here that ;e fin# ;hat ;e are #iscussingN the "resence of em"athy #uring the musical act. Regar#ing this ;e have t;o absolutely contrary o"inionsN one #enies the "resence of in the musical act, the other asserts this [AF, ".AF=\. 5he first thesis ;as su""orte# by scientists, "hiloso"hers, aestheticians ( . elmholt4, 0. $ant, !. erbert, . -ot4er, 7. Vische etc.) an# even by some musicians (!.9!. Rousseau). Very s<illfully an# in the most remar<able ;ay this thesis ;as #evelo"e# by %. anslic< [F=\. 5he essential "art of the thesis re#uces itself to the fact that the content of music is only the soun#U it lac<s subGect matter in the meaning the to"ic is treate#. 'Bnly soun#s s"ea< in music)U it contains nothing but sonorous forms in motion, it is an arabes/ue that gets animate# by a continuous ;el#ing. 5he s"iritual meaning of com"osition lies in the "recise sonorous forms an# not in the vague e3"ression of an abstract feeling. 25he "ure form, o""ose# to feeling, is the real subGect, the real content of musicU it is music itself.2 &ccor#ing to %. anslic<, music is nothing but architecture of soun#s, sonorous combinations, original rhythms, scientific mo#ulations, ability in "rogress. 5he only concession that %. anslic< agrees to is that 2music cannot e3"ress the contents of feelings, but only their #ynamic si#e [0bi#\. & contrary thesis ;as su""orte# by several authorsN 7. ,chelling, (. egel, ,cho"enhauer &., -. Vgots<y, ,. Rubinstein, B. &safiev etc. an# most musicians. 0n their o"inion, music stirs an inner restlessnessU it stirs in the listener various emotional states, sometimes very intense. . Berlio4 e3clu#e# from among musicians 2those ;ho #on.t feel, those ;ho <ee"ing theory un#er control com"ose a resemblance to music2. R. Kagner com"are# the em"ire of soun#s to an immense ocean that stretches to infinity, ;ithout e3act limits, ;ithout net contours an# ;hose la; is harmony, that is, the abstract science of combining soun#s together. 5he sonorous message ;ith its countless sha#es of height, timbre or intensity is the a#e/uate an# natural e3"ression of countless sha#es that "ure emotion, the feeling itself can "ut on, irres"ective of the causes that e3"lain it, of the "articular circumstances that characteri4e it [=L\. 7. Cho"in sai#N 20 <no; nothing more #etestable in this ;orl# than the music that lac<s the
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i#ea subte3t [&"u#N =F, "AFF\, an# Ch. (ouno# #eclare# that he ha# 2an im"lacable aversion to the formula, to the em"ty shell an# consi#eration for the form that comes #irectly from emotion, that is its substance an# reason 2[0bi#\. 5hese com"osers. testimonies #on.t treat 2the interior states, un#er their intellectual as"ect, as i#eas or images, but as living in the s"here of feeling an# clothe# in their form2 [=F, ".AFI\. ,haring the assum"tions in the secon# thesis ;e ma<e them the basis of the stu#y that follo;s. &lthough many "a"ers have been ;ritten on this subGect, the nature, the ;ay of action an# the function of emotion remain un#iscovere# to the en#. 5he emotion, accor#ing to -arouse #ictionary, #oes not #e"en# only on the nature of the emotional agent (in our case 9 the musical art) but "articularly on the in#ivi#ual, on his "revious e3"eriences [AH, ". AAF\. -. (avriliu states that the emotion itself cannot be learne# but some situations may constitute signals to trigger the emotion as an uncon#itione# reaction (instinctual) that becomes in this ;ay con#itione# [@, ".O\. !.9P. ,artre [AP\ tries to #emonstrate that the emotion is not an acci#ent but a 2mo#e of consciousness e3istence) one of the ;ays it e3ists. *an either lives emotionally, or is a ;al<ing s<eleton. *an is liable to emotion an# therefore the emotion is an organi4e# form of human e3istence, the "rimor#ial con#ition of life. D. ,curtulescu a""reciates music as 2an im"ulse, an im"etus, a sign of a;a<ening2 through ;hich ;e become a;are of the ,elf e3istence. &t the beginning of this a;areness #uring the act of emotional em"athy the moment of music e3istence is create#. [=H, ".AHL\. 5he "erformance of our un#erstan#ing increases ;hen ;e catch a glim"se of three successive ste"s in the influence of music on consciousness offere# by Dan an# 7elicia ,curtulescu 6 the #ialectics of the act of musical em"athyN 0. Call to feelingsU 00. 0ntentional act of consciousnessU 000. Revealing the state of ,elf consciousness [0bi#, ".AHO\. ,ee also 7igure A.
3 Pure feeling Revealing the state of ,elf consciousness 2 Concentration

0ntentional act of consciousness 4 %motionality

&""eal to sentiments

7igure A. Dialectics of the act of musical em"athy (accor#ing to Dan an# 7elicia ,curtulescu)

2*usic first of all a##resses feelings ;hich mean that ;e first get a;are of their
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reaction, using the intellect that ma<es the intentionality of consciousness "recise an#, finally, allo;ing us to get a glim"se of the ,elf even if not e3actly.2 27lashingforth a "ath an# a beatific state is ;hat gives music in act2 [0bi#\. 7rom the listener.s "oint of vie;, the #ialectics of the act of musical em"athy ;ill be caught relatively e3actly in the follo;ing successionN emotionality 9 "sycho mental concentration 9 "ure feeling, ho;ever not as se"arate moments but in a mutual con#itioning that corres"on#s to the circular structure of the act. 5hus the meaning of the musical act #e#uce# by D. ,curtulescu re"resents the e3"ression of a global state of musical consciousness. Base# on a similar "ers"ective ;e #efine em"athy for music as a flo; of states that a""ear #uring the musical act (of listening, inter"reting, elementary musical creation). &ccor#ing to the 2#ialectics of the act of musical em"athy2 [=H\, rational <no;le#ge is "ut in action ;hen the emotions have been state#. %m"athy for music varies from one in#ivi#ual to another an# this "ro#uces "luralism in inter"retation. 5he emotion may have a #ual as"ectN goo# an# ba#. umanity has al;ays <no;n that e3ce"t for having strong beneficial effects music can "lay an evil role. *usic can lea# to ha""iness, but also to misfortune. 0t is ;ell <no;n that Ca4is ha# a s"ecial "assion for classical music. 5he em"athy for music to them ;as very energi4ing an# it stimulate# them in their #esire to commit crimes in concentration cam"s. *usic as such #oes not e#ucate, it triggers a floo# of strong emotions, inner feelings ;hich in their turn simultaneously constitute an im"ulse, a 2stimulus to activity), ,. Rubinstein states [=P, ".AI=\. ,chool "ractice <no;s about e3teriori4ation of em"athy ;ith musical artistic image via "lastic meansN line, color, form [O, @P\. 5he emotional e3"ression of music changes the rhythm of breathing (ma<es it faster or slo;er), accelerates the heartbeat (can cause vaso#ilatation or vasoconstriction), changes the chemical com"osition of bloo# or hormones. 0nfluencing #ifferent organs music a;a<ens associations ;ith various sensations. ,. 5arasov [FA, ". AHF\ s"ea<s about the form of the musical message full of content rebuilt by the variety of senses an# sensations initiate# in the musical act. %m"athy for music is an emotional #ynamic state, accor#ing to the value 9emotionally scale of the receiving subGect. 5he common "oint of vie; that is un#erstoo# from the above mentione# a""roaches confirms the occurrence of certain changes in the subGect.s mental functions an# forces #uring the act of em"athy for music. 0n the conte3t of our research the classification of mental "rocesses intoN a) cognitive "henomena b) affective "rocesses, c) motor reactions is of "articular interest. &ccor#ing to . Rohracher [A?\ the "syche is #ivi#e# intoN "sychic forces that activates an# #irects the behavior an# "sychic functions, those ;hich #escribe the structure an# mo#e of action. & structuring of the human "syche "henomena suggests an im"ortant lan#mar< for un#erstan#ing an# #i#actic structuring of musical activity formsN
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9 Psychic functions (cognitive "henomena)N sensations, "erce"tion, re"resentations, memory (emotional), imagination, language an# thin<ingU 9 Psychic forces (affective "rocesses)N nee#s, motivation, emotions, an# feelings. 7rom this "ers"ective, ;e can #etermine the im"lications of emotional em"athy for music in the "syche of the receiving subGect to highlight the results of this affective state of the musical actN musical sensitivity, "erce"tion of music, musical sense, musical intelligence, motivation, attitu#es. Bne may get more efficiently a;are of these "ro#ucts of em"athy for music by referring them to the #ialectics mo#el of the em"athy act (see 7igure =). 5he res"ective "sychic functions an# forces corres"on# to the act circular structureN
000. PUR% 7%%-0C( *otivation &ttitu#es

00. CBCC%C5R&50BC

0ntelligence 7eelings

P,0 B*%C5&-
0. %*B50V05J Perce"tion ,ensitivity

7igure =. 5he "ro#ucts of the em"athy for music act 9 at the first level 9 emotivity, sensitivity is cultivate# an# the s<ill of "erce"tion is #evelo"e# by a""ealing to feelingsU 9 at the secon# level 9 "sychomental concentrationU feelings are crystalli4e# an# musical intelligence is forme# via the intentional act of consciousnessU 9 at the thir# level 9 2pure2 feelingU motivation an# the subGect.s attitu#es are contoure# by revealing the state of the ,elf consciousness. 0n conclusionN %#ucational valencies of art may be intensifie# in artistic <no;le#ge that values the em"athy an# thin<ing act that co"enetrate, coo"erate an# com"lete each other. 0t is very im"ortant to effectively valori4e em"athy for music #uring the e#ucational "rocess. &ccess to the essence of music is facilitate# by the convergence of em"athy an# un#erstan#ing, of sensitivity an# min#, of relish an# thin<ing. 5he act of musical e#ucation cannot be conceive# ;ithout em"athy. 5he crystalli4ation of feeling challenges the receiver to #ocument himself multilaterally starting ;ith means of musical e3"ression an# finishing ;ith the history of the a""earance of musical creation an# the com"oser.s biogra"hy. &lso, musical e#ucation shoul# be centere# on stu#ent e3"eriences in em"athy

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for fol<, religious, aca#emic an# entertaining music. %3"eriencing the emotion, the e3igency of musical e#ucation, an e#ucation in the rece"tion 8 inter"retation of music, in the ;ay this art re/uires to reali4e them in its "ro"er meaning is "resent at all moments of the music actN listening 9 inter"retation 9 creation. *a<ing the stu#ent sensitive by triggering emotion, by em"athy for the sonorous message may contribute un#er s"ecial #i#actic9e#ucational con#itions to the efficient reali4ation of the #i#actic9formative a""roach at the lesson of musical e#ucation. 5hat is, the e3"erience of em"athy for music is the motive an# cause for the formation an# #evelo"ment of stu#entsj musical com"etences.

-i8lio&ra"!) A. BR-B(%&CU, -. (=HHA), Psiho"e#agogia artei. %#ucaEia estetic:, %#itura Polirom, 0a1i. =. CBQ*&, C., (AOOL), *eloeticul, eseu semiotic asu"ra valorilor morale ale creaEiei artistice mu4icale, %#itura !unimea, 0a1i. F. CR0q&C, &., (U U, V. (AOOO), Proiectarea curriculum9ului #e ba4:, (hi# meto#ologic, 0.,.P.P., Chi1in:u. 1. CURR0CU-U* C& 0BC&- (=HAH), %#ucaie mu4ical:N Curriculum "entru nv:E:mntul gimna4ial, clasele a V9a a V0009a8e#.N*arina *orari, &la ,tng:, %#itura -yceum, Chi1in:u. =. 70V&Q, R. (AOPL), -.or#re et la volu"t. %ssai sur la #ynami/ue esthti/ue #ans les arts les arts et #ans les sciences, Presses Polytechni/ues Roman#es, -ausanne. F. (&(0*, 0. (=HHF), Dimensiunea "sihologic: a mu4icii, %#itura 5im"ul, 0a1i. I. (&VR0-0U, -. (AOO@), 7enomenul emoEie. nN ,&R5R% !.9P., Psihologia emoEiei, %#itura 0.R.0., Bra1ov. ?. (BB-%, !. ,CB55. (=HAH), Cot Gust a matter of styleN &##ressing culturally #ifferent music.s as social "ra3es in secon#ary school music classes. &ction, Criticism, an# 5heory for *usic %#ucation O(F)N P6FI. BnlineN htt"N88act.may#aygrou".org8articles8(obleOWF."#f L. $BQR%V&, ,. (AOP@), 0maginea mu4ical: n #esenele co"iilor, %#itura -umina, Chi1in:u. @. -&RBU,,%, (AOOP), DicEionar #e "sihologie, Univers %nciclo"e#ic, Bucure1ti. P. *BR&R0, *. (=HH?), %valuarea culturii mu4icale a elevilor n "rocesul #e reali4are a curriculumului #e e#ucaEie mu4ical:88 &utoreferatul te4ei #e #octor n "e#agogie, Universitatea #e ,tat #in *ol#ova, Chi1in:u. O. *BR&R0, *. (=HAH), $specte specifice educaWiei mu#icale Zn cadrul ZnvJWJmZntului general, nN Probleme actuale ale 1tiinEelor filologice,
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"sihologice, "e#agogice 1i social9"olitice88*aterialele ConferinEei qtiinEifice 0nternaEionale 'nv:E:mntul universitar #in Re"ublica *ol#ova la PH ani), =P9 =O se"tembrie =HAH, Chi1in:uN Universitatea #e ,tat #in 5iras"ol, Vol.0, ". FOF 9 IHF AH. R0BB5, 5 . (AOOL), -ogica sentimentelor, %#itura 0.R.0., Bra1ov. AA. R0BB5, 5 . (=HHH), Psihologia "asiunilor, %#itura 0.R.0., Bucure1ti. A=. RB R&C %R, . (AOLO), Cleine Character<un#e, Urban9 ,ch;ar4enberg, Kien90nnsbuc<. AF. RB--&CD, R. (AOPF), ViaEa lui Beethoven, %#itura -iteratura artistic:, Chi1in:u. AI. ,&-&D%, D. (AOO@), Dimensiunile e#ucaEiei, %#itura #i#actic: 1i "e#agogic:, Bucure1ti. A?. ,&R5Rl, !.9P. (AOO@), Psihologia emoEiei, %#itura 0.R.0., Bra1ov. AL. ,C *0D5, P. (=HAA), *usic e#ucation in urban conte3tsN & re#ress. &ction, Criticism, an# 5heory for *usic %#ucation AH(A)N A6AI. BnlineN htt"N88act.may#aygrou".org8articles8,chmi#tAHWA."#f A@. ,CUR5U-%,CU, D., ,CUR5U-%,CU, 7. (=HHH), Calea transcen#ental: a mu4icii, %#itura &rarat, Bucure1ti. AP. , 0--05B, ,., B%,K0C$, $., B&(U-%J, (=HHP), 5he aims of art e#ucationN &n analysis of visual art in 5asmaniajs %ssential -earnings Curriculum. &n online Gournal "ublishe# by 5he &rts in %#ucation 7aculty Research (rou", &"ril ==, =HHP. 7aculty of &rts an# %#ucation, Dea<in University, Victoria, &ustralia. AO. V0&CU, 5. (=HAH). %stetica, Bucure1ti, %#itura Bri4onturi, Bucure1ti. =H. ttwx, u. (AOF?), |Zgaa}g ~_i}a}g_Zfa a_fg, zd9`a hcdefi, v_g}^i. =A. tywhw, . (AOP?), u_Z_e a bcdef_, zd9`a hcdefi, v_g}^i. ==. xysz{, v. (AOO?), |Zgaa}g gZfcZZ`i, zd9`a _gfZ, aZa` i ]ac. =F. vzwuww, t. (AOH?), gi^ xi}_^ fif ~a g beZg_, haZf`i. =I. yhwysz{, x. (AOPP), a^bg^a`ige bcdefia}a ~adig, ggi, sgg_`. =?. uzw{, y. (AOPO), Za`e a_ ~Zgaa}gg, zd9`a |_i}a}gfi, haZf`i. =L. sz, z. (AOL=), idi_g_ bcdefg g __ `adbaaZg, zd9`a |_i}a}gfi, haZf`i. =@. ywx, t. (AO?@), zd^ie_ Zig, 5ab 00, zd9`a hcd}gd, haZf`i. =P. ttyx, |. (AOO@), |^a_bi ca`a ~a^_aZg, zd9`a icfi, haZf`i. =O. |wvw, . (AOO?), _a`_f g _gfi, scc^aa}g, x_f RR, taa}g, zd9`a icfi, haZf`i.

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FH. ywu-wx, x. (AOA@), hag `aZ~abgig_ a .t.gbZfab9 sa^Zifa`_, Be~. 0, zd9`a hcdefi, |__^c^}.

=. INITIA. TRAININ% AS,ECTS OF TEAC/ER 5USIC EDUCATION


5arina Cali&a(\(
A8 tract7 The article ebplores the question about Qusic fducation wor% by a high-s%ill

schoolguniversity teacher at the pre#ent stage of higher education development. !n the contebt of systemic moderni#ation of higher education, increasing qulit# demands, complebit# of personal and professional development tas%s of students the demands on the level of pedagogical culture in the high high-s%ill school is rising, there is a need for teacher continuous education on a fundamentalyy new basis. The present state of transformation of higher education underta%es a new concept of training teaching staff, with the view to form a high-s%ill teaching professionals. fbperimental observations determined us to analy#e technologies and specific contents of this process. The article points out the notion of initial training of the teacher of music which foreseen the wholly approach of teaching activities. !t does references to following activities interpretation Ltool,directed,vocal musicFx listener-communicative Lcharacteri#ationganaly#ing of the music, music %nowledge and about musicF. Ae) >ord 7 Qusic education, initial training of teacher, process, professional, mu#icalteaching activities.

5o#ay, ;hen ;e ;itness a real e3"losion of <no;le#ge an# #iscovery in the art of music, an# generally, in all areas of activity, the attem"ts to systemati4e these #evelo"ments that ;e ;itness or ta<e "art in are in#ee# e3tremely #ifficult. Para#igm mo#ifications ;hich occur in the e#ucation system re/uire a rethin<ing of the contents, forms, technologies, an# metho#s use# #uring music e#ucation classes, from ;hich the "roblem of initial training of teaching stuff arises. 5he various as"ects of e#ucational an# artistic activities teachers are facing in university e#ucation, re/uire a resi4ing of their initial an# "ermanent training.

(\(

-ecturer, Doctoral Can#i#ate, ,tate University D&lecu Russo) from B:lEi , Re"ublic of *ol#avia, emailN caligamarinaVinbo3.ru OP

Currently, *. Calin states that a ne; ty"e of e#ucation an# human learning comes into "rominence. 5he term De#ucation) comes from the -atin De#ucatio) an# means either a "rocess of Dfee#ing) ;ith i#eas in or#er to remove someone from a lo;er state into a su"erior one 6 that is cultural, or a gro;th, that is a #evelo"ment of intelligence, affection, an# ;ill [A\. 0f the tra#itional school ;as "re"aring the "u"ils for the future ma<ing use of "ast information an# <no;le#ge, to#ay it is necessary to "ros"ect the future in or#er to train the stu#ents for the future. 5he mo#ification of classical e#ucation into a continuous one, an# the "rofessional training of teachers over the years ;as an obGective in initial training of music e#ucation teachers in 7aculties. 5he teacher 9 a factor of change an# "rogress 9 re#efines its "rofessional status to#ay . & s"ecial attention is given to the im"lementation of the training 8 #evelo"ment "rocess through an innovative activity. Bn the strength of this #iscussion, the "ast stu#ent becomes an active factor in the "rocess of e#ucation 6 he learns, he teaches the learners, in a ;or#, he forms himself as a "rofessional. 0n terms of curriculum, the "ur"ose of music e#ucation is the formation of musical culture, as "art of s"iritual culture. 5herefore the formation of stu#ents musical culture ;ill begin from u#erstan#ing the music as art to <no;ing the music as a science (Iurriculum). 5he i#ea of *usic %#ucation as a school #isci"line ;as set off by the aca#emician Dm. $abalevs<i, ;hich claimsN "the music education class must always preserve its integrity, bringing together all the components into a single concept - music, art of music, o"ening ;ith this vie; ne; "ossibilities for creative teaching activities for teachers[2,p.16],. B. Rear#on saysN D;e nee# to change on "ur"ose the stu#ent.s behavior in or#er to achieve the state of being in terms of his formation) [F, ". L@\. !oe *oran re"orts on a "ermanent self9#evelo"ment of stu#ents [I, ". ?\. & mo#ern society nee#s res"onsible, #ignifie# an# right "ersonalities, ;ith initiatives o"en to change. 0t is the Teac!erH #uty to achieve this goal, being a "rofessional himself, "erforming the e#ucational "rocess not only through #irect communication, but also in#irectlyU that is through language, gestures, attitu#es, behaviors, "ersonality (moral behaviour, intellectual strength, level of culture), o"en to the changes "ro"ose# by the society to ma<e the ;orl# better an# more tolerant. 5he stu#ent "ersonality must be in the forefront of the "remises of "ermanent training, because the training is the "otential in#icator, the #ecisive factor res"onsible for the very /uality of habit9forming attributes. Both the "rocess an# the training as a "ro#uct have a fun#amental e#ucational significance because they #o not have to belong to an elite, but to ta<e "lace #aily an# in most varie# circumstances, each in#ivi#ual having the right to affirm the strengths of his training, Gust as he has the right to e#ucation. 5his situation inclu#es the right to as"ire to self9e3"ression through "ersonal training.
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Pe#agogy must focus on the <een nee# of training, lea#ing to its transformation into a true s"irit of the time. Practical conversion of the i#eals connecte# ;ith initial training assumes the involvement in its activity of the e#ucational institutions an# of the entire e#ucational environment. 5a<ing into consi#eration the school "ractice in the Re"ublic of *ol#ova, the music e#ucation classis manifeste# in t;o as"ectsN "e#agogical as"ect (school class) artistic as"ect (classes focuse# on the musical9training activities). Bf all the arts music is closer to the human soul. ((. Balan, P. Bentoiu, (. Brea4ul, Q. $o#aly, D. $abalevs<i, %. Ca4ai<ins<i etc.). Currently, the aca#emician 0. (agim, summari4ing the achievements in the fiel# research, substantiates the scientific innovation as a theoretical value in "sycho9"e#agogical an# musical training of the conce"t of *usic %#ucation in our country as a #istinct an# autonomous e#ucational fiel# of e#ucational "ractice an# science e#ucation. 5he substantiation 8 #evelo"ment of s"ecific metho#ologies of *usic %#ucationN stimulating imagination, artistic reinter"retation of music, "oetic characteri4ation of music, music e#ucation lesson "lanning, conceive# on the strength of artistic #rama "rinci"les, the foun#ation of a musical teaching activities system of stu#ents (*-&) 9 is a theoretical mo#el of music e#ucation [?, ". O\.

5u ic Education? 5.A7
Vocal an# Choral chant $no;le#ge of music an# about music Music Education 0m"rovisation Rhythmic 6 musical movements Com"osition -istening
0nstrumental "erformance on instruments for chil#ren

Di#actic music games

Characteri 4ation of music

Fi&ure Nr. 4. T!e tructure of #u ical teac!in& acti(itie - t!e "ur"o e of 5u ic Education.

D5he mu4ical9inter"retativ training (instrumental, vocal, con#ucing) as ;ell as the general an# s"ecial "shyco"e#agogic training, the teacher of musical

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e#ucation is contronte# to the necessity of a goo# theoretico9musical formation 6 the basis of "rofessional training of esch musician) [L, ".AA=\. *usic e#ucation #isci"line "lays an im"ortant role in every human life. 5o #evelo" the musical culture it is necessary to accumulate e3"erience of music "erce"tion an# rece"tion. 5he art of music cannot e3ist outsi#e of "erce"tion. &ny form of musical9teaching activity through ;e communicate ;ith the art of music teaches us to reflect on it. -. Vogots<i #iscovers through the art of music the s"iritual essence of human "ersonality [@\. 5o #evelo" the musical culture it is necessary to accumulate e3"erience of "erceiving the soun# message. &ny form or activity through ;hich ;e communicate ;ith the music ma<es us hear, feel an# live it. 5he <ey to succes consists in research an# har# search. & s"ecial im"ortance has the activity of teacher training [P\. Pe#agogical "ractice aims at buil#ing stu#ents ca"acity to o"erate ;ith information from s"eciali4e# #isci"lines an# e#ucation sciences. Pe#agogical "ractice e3"erience confirms that the "ur"ose of *usic %#ucation #e"en#s on initial training of the teacher. 5he level of "rofessional training can be assesse# by the #egree of assimilation of the musical art e3"resse# by the nee# for music, an# the inner #esire to contact ;ith it. 0nitial training of teachers of *usic %#ucation is base# on scientific research in the fiel# an#, in "articular, on the theoretical9"ractical mo#el of *-&. & "rofessional teacher, gra#uating the University, must integrate himself into the follo;ing activitiesN "erformances at musical instruments, vocal an# choral chant, #irecte#, to have an elevate# level in the fiel#s of musicology, "sychology, "e#agogy, metho#ologyU orientation in analytical "rograms an# school te3tboo<sU coor#ination ;ith the curriculum an# the #isci"line long9term "laningU initiation in various musical teaching activitiesU the ac/uisition of some s<ills characteristic of the teacher "ersonality [O, "AAF\. 0n the conte3t of our research, a great interest is sho;n by the initial training of music e#ucation teacher through the theoretical an# "ractical mo#el *-&, integrating in music9teaching activities, that is the subGects stu#ie# at university. 5hus, another "e#agogical com"etences is #evelo"e#, an# namely the integration of music9teaching activities 0*5&.

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Music Education Pe#agogical Com"etence through 0*5&

0nter"retative ca"acities through 0*5&


Pe#agogical8musicological8"sychological8"e#agogical 8metho#ological $no;le#ge.

5eacher "ersonality s<ills

Fi&ure Nr. 27 Nualitie of 5u ic Education teac!er t!rou&! I5TA

D5he more #ee"ly the thesaurus of musical teaching training an# musical "erforming of the teacher is, the more elevate# the fee#bac< to the feelings an# aesthetic attitu#es of the stu#ents [AH, p.107\). The thesaurus 9 a "rocess of thin<ing gaine# through e3"erience. [11, p.386]. 0nitial training is an integrative "rocess, in ;hich the gaine# musical e3"erience is systemic corelate#. *. *orari, [A=, ".A=\, claims that musical e3"erience consists of feeling the music, rece"tor.s attitu#es an# can be ac/uire# in the variety of the musical actN listening, inter"retation, creation 6 ;hich are regar#e# as music "ractices. 5hus initial training of *usic %#ucation teacher is seen by the varieties of #irections for the integrative training of the teacher through the 0*5& mo#el.

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Fi&ure Nr. 37 Inte&rati(e trainin& of t!e 5u ic Education teac!er

&t the en# ;e conclu#e that initial trainig of *usic %#ucation teacher ;ill train s"ecialists8 "rofessionals in the fiel# if the integrity of scientific an# "rofile #isci"lines through 0*5& is res"ecte#N 9 5eacher 9 "erformer (instrument, singing, #irecte#, rhythmic musical movements) 9 5eacher 9 theorist (solfeggio, theoretical <no;le#ge, im"rovisation) 9 5eacher 9 e#ucator ("e#agogy, "sychology, "hiloso"hy, aesthetics, metho#s) 9 5eacher 9 actor 9 "ro#ucer (class "lanning, e3tracurricular activities) 9 5eacher of *usic %#ucation 6 a *an of &rt, because the future of the society ;ill #e"en#, to a great e3ten#, on the attitu#e to;ar#s everything that is beautiful an# goo#. -i8lio&ra"!) A. Calin, *., (AOOL), Theory of fducationN %"istemic an# metho#ological substantiation of e#ucational action, Bucharest. =. $ovalevs<y, D., (AOP@), [ow to tell children about musicS, $ Noo% for Teachers, *osco;N %#ucation. *osco;. F. Rear#on, B., (=HHA), fducation for a culture of peace in a gender perspective, UC%,CB Publishing, 5he5eacher.s -ibrary, Paris. I. *oran, !., (AOOP), The development of of an academic star systemN D0nternational !ournal of cultural stu#ies), Publishe# byN ,&(%, &"ril F.

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?. (agim, 0., (=HHI), Xsycho-pedagogical and Qusicological 7oun#ations

of Qusic fducationN & scientific re"ort, Chisinau. L. (agim, (=HH@), The musicologicical formation of the teacher of music D5heory, &rts, &esthetics, Baltsy, =HH@ @. Vygots<y, -., (AOOP), Xsychology of $rt, Phoeni3 Publishing ouseN Rostov9on9Don. P. Cucos, C., (=HHL), Xedagogy, Polirom Publishing ouse, 0asi. O. &b#ulin, %. , Ci<olaeva, %., (=HHL), Qethods of Qusic fducation, *usicN *osco;. AH.5he %ncyclo"e#ic Dictionary of Psychology, (=HHP), Polirom Publishing ouse, 0asi. AA.*orari, *., (=HH?), fevaluation of studentsp musical culture in the process of curriculum implementationN & scientific re"ort in Pe#agogy, Chisinau.

:. /OW CAN TEAC/ER EDUCATION -RIN% TO .IFE V6%OTSA6HS IDEAS ON ART AND ,S6C/O.O%6

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5i!aela 5ite cu .u"u(\) A8 tract 7 $n analysis employing iygost%yps ideas on art and psychology is presented in this paper. Ny focusing on the constraints and affordances that teacher education programs present to their participants willing to become art-teachers, possible implications for reframing teacher education are discussed.
Ae) >ord N teachers e#ucation, art an# "sychology.

V)&ot F) on Art and , )c!olo&) 1 a conce"tual fra#e>orF for under tandin& teac!er education 0n his AO=? ;or< entitle# '&rt an# Psychology), Vygots<y (AO=?) launche# into e3"loring ;hat art is an# ;hat is its relationshi" to "sychology an# manage# to "hrase syllogisms that are "ro"ose# here as a fresh starting "oint to un#erstan#ing the activity of teaching in "rograms of teacher e#ucation. &s the "e#agogical e"istemic stance materiali4e# in the "olicies, "ractices an# ethos of a "rogram of stu#y, such as the national "rogram for "re9service teacher e#ucation in Romania is, has been sho;n to be influential to the learning that ta<es "lace in the "rogram, ;or<ing on #ee"ening the un#erstan#ing of ;hat teacher e#ucation is seems one vali# an# "ossibly resourceful en#eavor for any attem"t in (re)configuring the system of activity that ta<es teacher e#ucation as its obGect. 0n his e3"loration of the "ossible meanings of art an# its relation to "sychology, Vygots<y starts off at in/uiring vie;s "ro"osing an un#erstan#ing of art as something that pinfects us ;ith emotions an# is therefore base# u"on contamination. (Vygots<y, AO=?), a vie; ;i#ely embrace# by theorists such as 5olstoy. By maintaining that art is but common emotion this theory fails to e3"lain the many #ifferences bet;een or#inary feeling an# feeling stirre# by art an# its con#ucive of un#erstan#ings of art as nothing more than a mere am"lifier or a transmitter for the infection of feeling. 0n such light art is re#uce# to its ca"acity to infect "eo"le ;ith emotions. 0n a similar manner a system of activity such as teaching coul# be vie;e# as no more than in its ca"acity to #e"ict <no;le#ge "reviously un<no;n to the learners in such a fashion that the latter are enable# to retain the <no;le#ge they.re "resente# ;ith. 0n many systems ;here the teacher e#ucation activity is being "ut in "lace such an un#erstan#ing can be foun#. 5hat is es"ecially the case in "laces ;here this "articular activity meets the larger cultural roots of Kestern an# %astern transcen#entalist a""roaches to <no;le#ge an# #evelo"ment.

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-ecturer PhD, De"artment of 5eachers %#ucation University of &rts '(eorge %nescu)from 0asi, of Romania, emailN officeWlu"umihaelaVyahoo.com 8 This wor% has bee supported by ITIM!M-nfV!MIMn, project number XT!!-En )(g)\(\.

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5his being sai#, one must notice that Vygots<y she#s light on the many res"ects in ;hich a "ers"ective on art that is limite# to a theory of contamination is faulte#. 5his invites to caution an# reflection in conce"tuali4ing teaching an# e3"loring the activity of teacher e#ucation ;hilst "aralleling it to Vygots<y.s i#eas on art an# "sychology, noting that in re#ucing teaching to an activity of contents #elivery one might commit the same error as in un#erstan#ing art as contamination. &s Vygots<y "oints out, shoul# the "ur"ose of art be to sim"ly infect "eo"le ;ith feelings, its significance ;oul# be very small, because there ;oul# be only a /uantitative e3"ansion an# no /ualitative e3"ansion beyon# an in#ivi#ual.s feelings. p5he miracle of art ;oul# then be li<e the blea< miracle of the (os"el, ;hen five barley loaves an# t;o small fish fe# thousan#s of "eo"le, all of ;hom ate an# ;ere satisfie#, an# a #o4en bas<ets ;ere fille# ;ith the remaining foo#. 5his miracle is only /uantitativeN thousan#s ;ere fe# an# ;ere satisfie#. but ;asn.t fish an# brea# their #aily #iet at home ;ithout any miracles (Vygots<y, AO=?). 0nstea#, Vygostsy sees art as remin#ing of a #ifferent <in# of miracle in the (os"el 6 the transformation of ;ater into ;ineN '0n#ee#, art.s true nature is that of transubstantiation, something that transcen#s the or#inary feelingsU for the fear, "ain, or e3citement cause# by art inclu#es something above an# beyon# its normal, conventional content. 5his psomething. overcomes feelings of fear an# "ain, changes ;ater into ;ine an# thus fulfills the most im"ortant "ur"ose of art [>\ it relates to life as ;ine relates to the gra"e) 6 meaning that 'art ta<es from life its material, but gives in return something ;hich its material #i# not contain) (i#em). &rt "roves to be in a far more com"le3 relation to the human "syche as it is ca"able of cathartic actions 9 sometimes not reflecting a #irect e3"ression of life, but an e3"ression of its antithesis 6 ;or<ing on the groun#s of subtle an# com"le3 interactions bet;een the organism an# the environment resulting in a #evious an# intricate ;ay to;ar#s an ever #esirable, nonetheless unattainable state of e/uilibrium bet;een the t;o. *uch li<e art in this res"ect, teaching coul# be mista<en for an activity relying on a "e#agogical fi3 that coul# be multi"lie# an# enhance# in a /uantitative fashion by merely transmitting one "referre# manner of acting to as many actors as "ossible ;ho are thereafter e3"ecte# to ta<e u"on the role of content #eliverers. *ost behaviorist a""roaches to teaching, learning an# teacher e#ucation assume such a "ers"ective on ;hat teaching is an#, much as in Vygots<y.s argument coul# only ho"e to ma<e a /uantitative miracle 6 that of "er"etuating the "resume# "e#agogical fi3 by means of imitation an# inculcation. o;ever visible the faults in this un#erstan#ing of teaching, many "rograms of teacher e#ucation still heavily rely on it. eavily relying on similar transcen#entalist vie;s of <no;le#ge an# learning, un#erstan#ings of linear /ualitative transformative routes are being a#vocate# in %uro"ean reforms for teacher e#ucation "romoting reformist vie;s on ;hat the
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pne; an# im"rove#. manner of teaching ought to be. Jet, along the lines of the analytical e3ercise "ro"ose# here, "aralleling un#erstan#ings of teaching an# teacher e#ucation to Vygots<y.s e3"loration of the relations bet;een art an# "sychology, one must notice that in the Russian "sychologist.s vie; art is to be un#erstoo# in a com"le3 inter"lay bet;een the "ersonal an# the social, as art is pthe social ;ithin us [>\ also e3ists ;here there is only one "erson ;ith his in#ivi#ual e3"eriences an# tribulations. (Vygots<y, AO=?). 5his is the result of a fun#amental characteristic of man, one that #istinguishes him from animals 9 that of his en#urance an# ca"acity to 'se"arate from his bo#y both the a""aratus of technology an# that of scientific <no;le#ge, ;hich then becomes "ersonal ;ithout ceasing to be social)(Vygots<y, AO=?). &ttem"ting to un#erstan# in a similar fashion the inter"lay of teaching an# learning actions, it coul# be assume# that in teacher e#ucation the subGect in the activity system as ;ell as the tools em"loye# in actions ;ithin the system are collective in nature an# cannot be re#uce# to the action of one (mainly the teacher) "erforming uni9 #irectional actions u"on another (usually the stu#ent9teacher) in an attem"t to transmit8 inculcate in the later #esirable <no;le#ge 6 feelings, ;ill, thoughts, behaviors, etc. Re#uce# to this teaching ;oul# not be more than art re#uce# to its function to into3icate or increase in an /uantitative fashion ;hat it is "resume# to alrea#y e3ist in the rece"tor of art. & more com"le3 inter"lay of actions em"loying available conce"tual an# material tools that obGectify the many meanings an# uses #evelo"e# throughout history in the social arena becomes visible as both teacher an# learner are envisione# as "o;erful agents in the system of activity. Introducin& "ecific trait of t!e Ro#anian teac!er education "ro&ra# 0n structure the Romanian initiatives for teacher e#ucation too< over the "ast =H years of "ost9communism, the sha"e of a national curriculum aiming at #evelo"ing stu#ent9teachers. cognitive abilities an# teaching s<ills in a #elivery role "lay ty"e of a""roach to learning. istorically familiar ;ith ten#encies to ultra9centrali4ation of e#ucational "olicies an# "rograms, Romania aims 9 some;hat confuse# ;hen it comes to the "rofessional stan#ar#s aime# at 6 at full %uro"ean integration ;hilst maintaining un#er strict ministerial control the actions of all e#ucational agents an# actors 6 ;ithin the s"aces of the universities or the schools. Pe#agogical innovations an# /uestioning are, ;ithin this conte3t, insular attem"ts ;ith little or no effects outsi#e the s"ace of the #isci"linary syllabuses an# time9units. 5he role "lay is for the most "art of the "rogram locate# in a conte3t outsi#e the classroom "ractice. 5he classroom base# learning e3"erience ta<es the sha"e of an insular attem"t to "rovi#e stu#ent9teachers ;ith a fragment of pmo#el. teaching. 0t can thus be state# that the "ro"ose# a""roaches to teacher e#ucation generally too< the sha"e of a""renticeshi" e3"eriences ;here the stu#ents ;ere
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intro#uce# to a minimum of the current systemic "ractices. 5ies ;ith the community of "ractice have been maintaine# in a re#uce# to a minimum form of "ractice. 0nitiatives in moving for;ar# in the #irection of increasing the strength an# #iversifying these ties have been "ro"ose#, usually in the sha"e of granting stu#ents the "ossibility to observe more than one style of teaching in a school, an# by sharing ;ith the stu#ents the res"onsibility in choosing the teacher9 mentors for the later "art of the "e#agogical "ractice, ;hen stu#ent9teachers ;ere e3"ecte# to in#e"en#ently teach a minimum of four classes. 5he obGect of activity in the Romanian system of "re9service teacher e#ucation is structure# in the sha"e of a national curriculum for ;hich *inistry of %#ucation hol#s full #ecision9ma<ing res"onsibility in curricular as"ects 6 i.e. selecting an# organi4ing #isci"linary learning contents, time9framing the teaching, learning an# assessing "rocesses an# establishing summative assessment "roce#ures 9 leaving universities an# schools a mere #elivery role of a pedagogical fib (%#;ar#s, =HH=) heavily buil#ing on a behaviorist e"istemology of teaching an# learning. 5he generative an# transformative resources entaile# in the encounter of #istinct systems of activity that school an# universities as institutions entail, are re#uce# to a minimum. Romanian authorities are "romoting ne; ;aves of reformist a""roaches to teacher e#ucation by ne; legislative measures (-a; of Cational %#ucation A8=HAA), im"osing the more recent %uro"ean fashion on u"gra#ing formal, university9base# routes for "re9service teacher e#ucation into the level of master stu#ies an# continuing it into the first t;o years of "rofessional "ractice u" to the status of p#efinitive teacher.. 0n the conte3t of the e#ucational reform "ro"ose# over the "ast t;o years, it seems at least reasonable to /uestion the relation bet;een e#ucationalists. ("ractitioners.) un#erstan#ings of teaching an# learning an# the re/uirements of the e#ucational reform "romoting visions of teaching that "lace the learner at the core of the classroom activities an# re/uire integration of ne; communication an# information technologies in classroom teaching an# learning. Bne hun#re# an# fifty beginning an# e3"erience# teachers in the Romanian secon#ary e#ucation ;ere as<e# to com"lete a /uestionnaire regar#ing their beliefs about teaching an# learning. Data ;as analy4e# in relation to as"ects of the "olicies an# "ractices in initial teacher e#ucation relevant to the current reform in the Romanian system of e#ucation. 5he instrument use# to measure teachers. beliefs about teaching an# learning ;as a /uestionnaire that follo;e# closely the factorial structure of an homonym /uestionnaire "resente# by *eirin< et al (=HHO) in %nglish an# elaborate# on the basis of a "revious stu#y in Dutch secon#ary e#ucation (Boluis Voeten, =HHI). 5hat is to say, in this stu#y the conce"t of pteachers. beliefs. entails the meaning of psu""ositions or commitments, base# on evaluation an# Gu#gment. (*eirin<

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et al, =HHO), as o""ose# to the notions of pteachers. conce"tions an# "ers"ectives. or#inarily #escribe# as pan interrelate# set of intentions, beliefs an# actions. (Pratt, =HH=). 0ts em"loyment as a conce"tual research tool in the analysis "resente# here accounts for the results an# fin#ings of "revious stu#ies (Boulton9-e;is, =HHAU Patric< Pintrich, =HHA) "ertaining that motivational constructs such as goal orientation, values, beliefs an# control beliefs are me#iators in the "rocess of conce"tual change an# for the commonly use# #istinction in the stu#y of teacher.s beliefs about teaching an# learning concerning the #ivi#e bet;een the teacher8 subGect9matter 6 oriente# beliefs an# the learner9oriente# beliefs. 5he /uestionnaire "ro"ose# for this stu#y too< after that of *eirin< et al (=HHO) an# o"erate# on the #ivi#e bet;een subGect8matter an# learner9oriente# beliefs, ;hilst confining to each of the t;o the issues "ertaining to the conce"t of pteacher learning. usually construe# in terms ac/uisition, construction or "artici"ation in the "e#agogical literature (*eirin< et al, =HHO). & #etaile# #escri"tion of the /uestionnaire.s structure an# of the reliability scores com"ute# for each of the eight scales in the structure of the "ro"ose# /uestionnaire are "resente# an# #iscusse# else;here (see *itescu -u"u, =HAA). Findin& 5he grou" of res"on#ents to the "ro"ose# /uestionnaire ;as forme# of one hun#re# an# fifty beginning an# e3"erience# teachers, LL of ;hom ;ere female "artici"ants. 5he #istribution of male an# female "artici"ants in the t;o grou"s 6 beginning an# e3"erience# teachers 6 ;as rather even, as LH of the first an# L= of the former subgrou" ;ere female "artici"ants. 5he mean age in the beginning teachers grou" ;as =I, ;hereas in the e3"erience# teachers grou" ;as IL. 7or each grou" of res"on#ents (on both the #imension of beginning 6 e3"erience# teachers an# that of the se3 variable) #escri"tive statistics ;ere consi#ere# "rior to any com"arative analysis. Com"arisons bet;een grou"s ;ere "ossible ;ith an 0n#e"en#ent 59test analysis. Pearson correlations ;here com"ute# to establish the relationshi"s bet;een #e"en#ent variables such as conce"tions of teaching an# learning an# a""roaches to stu#y ;hilst "artici"ating in a teacher e#ucation "rogram. & #etaile# "resentation an# #iscussion of a com"arison bet;een beginning an# e3"erience# teachers in this lot of "artici"ants. res"onses in relation to their teaching an# learning beliefs has been "resente# in more #etail in *itescu -u"u (=HAA). Pearson Correlations bet;een the #e"en#ent variables "resent us ;ith a #etaile# "icture of the manner in ;hich the various #imensions of res"on#ent.s beliefs of teaching an# learning an# conce"tions of stu#y relate to one another. Khen loo<ing at the factors #efining res"on#ents beliefs about teaching an# learning
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noticeable is a significant, negative correlation bet;een teachers. regar# for "e#agogical tools "romoting learning that is relying on re"ro#uction of <no;le#ge an# their a""reciations for su"erficial learning a""roaches (r r .==L, Pearson correlation significant at .H? level (t;o9taile#)). 0n#e"en#ent 59test analysis of the res"onses that "artici"ants to the stu#y in the beginning an# e3"erience# teachers grou"s sho; that ;hen consi#ering issues relate# to e3ternal affective regulation an# e3ternal cognitive regulation of learning, as ;ell as collaborative learning, significant #ifferences bet;een grou"s of "artici"ants are recor#e#. &s such, in terms of the subGect9matter centere# beliefs, the grou" of beginning teachers a""ear to vali#ate to a greater e3tent the role "laye# by e3ternal affective regulation an# e3ternal cognitive regulation in learning conte3ts than ;oul# have their more e3"erience# colleagues in "rofession. 5he values of the t test t(AI@) r F.I@P for the e3ternal affective regulation factor an# that of the t test t(AI@) r I.FOF for the e3ternal cognitive regulation factor are in#icative of me#ium correlations significant at the level of " .HA. 5his comes to sho; that in terms of teachers valuing e3ternal regulation of cognitive an# affective as"ects of learning an# teacher6centere# forms of vali#ation an# motivation for learning, beginning teachers hol# greater e3"ectations than #o more e3"erience# teachers in the Romanian system of e#ucation. Khen loo<ing at collaborative learning, #ata in this stu#y are in#icative of significant #ifferences bet;een grou"s of "artici"ants "lacing ;ith beginning teachers more "ositive beliefs in the role of collaboration in the conte3t of school base# learning, than ;ith e3"erience# teachers. 5he value of the t test t(AIP) r F.ALI is in#icative of a me#ium correlation significant at the level of " .H?. 5his sho;s that ;hen thin<ing of the e#ucational value of collaboration in the s"ace of the classroom, beginners "lace greater confi#ence an# invest higher formative e3"ectations than #o their e3"erience# "eers. 5he analysis "ro"ose# in this "a"er "arallels a stu#y "ursue# by *eirin< et al (=HHO) in the s"ace of the e#ucational reform that ta<es "lace in Cetherlan#s. 5he similarities bet;een the t;o stu#ies go as far as #efining the obGect of analysis in the s"ace of e3"loring the relations bet;een teachers. beliefs of learning an# teaching an# the current "olitical #iscourses on reforming e#ucation ta<ing "lace in the relevant national system of e#ucation ;here research ;as locate#. 5he fin#ings in the Dutch stu#y, e3amining the relation bet;een learning activities of teachers an# changes in their beliefs, in#icate that changes in teachers. beliefs in a #irection congruent ;ith the aims of recent e#ucational reforms are associate# to teachers. re"orts on e3"erimentation ;ith colleagues. teaching metho#s, ;hereas changes in teachers. beliefs in a #irection not congruent ;ith the reform are associate# to teachers. e3"erimentation ;ith alternative metho#s #ue to #iscontent ;ith the effectiveness of current metho#s.
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Di cu ion of findin& and conclu ion Vygots<y.s arguments on e3"loring ;hat art is an# ho; coul# its relationshi" to "sychology be un#erstoo# are "ro"ose# here as one term of a "arallel analysis of ho; "rograms for teacher e#ucation are configure# an# teaching an# learning are conce"tuali4e# by some of the most im"ortant actors in the "rograms for teacher e#ucation 6 the teachers9in9training. 5his "a"er "resents an o""ortunity to relate these a""arently se"arate areas of interest an# structure an argument "romoting the nee# for an e3"an#e# e"istemology of the "e#agogy enacte# in teacher e#ucation. 0n setting u" the line of argument "resente# in this stu#y, Vygots<y.s i#ea that art is more than mere "erce"tion or enhancer of e3istent emotions ;as consi#ere# ins"irational to "ro"osing an e3"loration of un#erstan#ing the teacher e#ucation activity an# the manner in ;hich "artici"ants to it "osition learning an# teaching in the conce"tual frame of teacher e#ucation enacte# in the "rogram or setting of "rofessional "ractice they are "artici"ants to. 7or Vygots<y art is Gust as much an enter"rise of the fantasy an# imagination situate# in a far more com"le3 relation ;ith the other t;o com"onents, ;ith the ;or< of art an# ;ith the human "syche. 0n the stu#y "ro"ose# here, the i#ea of teacher e#ucation as something other than mere #elivery of contents 6 in the sha"e of #esirable com"etences, traits, behaviors an# <no;le#ge configuring a "resumably transmissible "e#agogical fi3 to ne; generations of teachers 9 is being subGecte# to e3"loration against the fin#ings of a survey stu#y con#ucte# ;ith Romanian "artici"ants in =HAA, teachers registere# in either the training stages of "re9service teacher e#ucation or early stages (of the first t;o years of "rofessional "ractice) an# e3"erience# teachers (;ith more than five years of "rofessional e3"erience in teaching). Data "ro#uce# in similar stu#ies in other e#ucational systems in %uro"e (i.e Cetherlan#s, U$) have also been subGecte# to analysis an# #iscussion in this stu#y. 5he fin#ings in the Romanian survey in#icate that beginning teachers "lace greater em"hasis on issues of learning regar#ing e3ternal affective an# cognitive regulation of learning as ;ell as on collaborative learning, than #o their more e3"erience# "eers. 5he #ata "resente# in this stu#y intro#uce a contra#iction vali# for #iscussion, as t9tests are in#icative of beginning teachers hol#ing stronger beliefs on the efficiency of some;hat o""osite learning tools. 5;o of these tools 6 e3ternal affective regulation an# e3ternal cognitive regulation 6 belong to the more teacher9centere# subGect focuse# #imension of learning. 5he thir# 6 collaborative learning 6 is locate# in the stu#ent9centere# #imension. ,o, ho; coul# it be e3"laine# that all three are value# more "ositively by the ne;comers to the teaching "rofession than they are by the more e3"erience# members of this "articular community of "rofessional "racticeS

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0n a Vygots<ian sense of the conce"t, learning a""ears as more than a /uestion of the affor#ances an# constraints that the conte3t "resents learners ;ith as it is a matter for self9"ositioning an# authoring one o;ns res"onses an# initiatives in the ma<ing of the learning e3"erience. 5his very much raises the /uestion of the <in# of plearning. that the "rograms of teacher e#ucation "roGect for them an# forces reflection on ;hat coul# be #one to ste" asi#e from the /uantitative a""roach to teaching an# learning. Confining the meaning ma<ing to (all) the learners in the system of activity an# not restricting it to rea#y9ma#e behavioral ans;ers to ;hat coul# be consi#ere# pty"ical. situation in the conte3t of "ractice may "lace the system in the "osition of "romoting learning that is e3"ansive, as much as allo;ing for e3"lorations of the imagination an# fantasy that "uts into motion the ;or< of art an# allo;s its meaning to arise gives art its true "ur"ose. Data analy4e# in the same stu#y im"inges the nee# for allo;ing ;or< on #ifferent e"istemologies for learning an# teaching in the teacher e#ucation "rograms so that the sco"e of the choices learners may e3"an#. 5he %uro"ean transcen#entalist tra#ition of conce"tuali4ing <no;le#ge an# <no;ing may ma<e room, as Vygots<y.s analysis might suggest to a more hermeneutical a""roach to conce"tuali4ing an# enacting learning in "rofessional an# e#ucational settings, such as those locate# in teacher e#ucation "rograms. &s it is the case for art ;hich in Vygots<y.s un#erstan#ing is the organi4ation of our future behavior by means of prevealing itself much more subtly, by means of hi##en shoc<s, stresses an# #eformations of our constitution [>\ it reveals itself une3"ecte#ly an# in an e3traor#inary ;ay [>\ incites, e3cites an# irritates in an in#eterminate fashion not connecte# ;ith any concrete reaction, motion or action.) (Vygots<y, AO=?), teacher e#ucation a;aits regar#ing it as "roGecte# into the future rather than thro;ing its "artici"ants an# sta<ehol#ers bac< to atavism. Un#erstan#ing the learning of stu#ent teachers as an activity system ;here they are e3"ecte# to ta<e charge increasingly more informe# in configuring the learning s"ace for themselves as for their o;n stu#ents recommen#s re"lacing any obGectivist (%#;ar#s et al, =HH=) a""roach to teacher e#ucation relying on ma<e9believe /uantitative ho"efulness for miracles li<e pfee#ing them all ;ith Gust brea# an# fish.. Co ha""iness can arise from this. 5he miracle as Vygots<y has sho;n in the case of art is in transubstantiation. 0t re/uires a vision of teaching an# learning that allo;s teachers an# learners to e3"lore hori4ons of action 6 albeit mental or other;ise 6 outsi#e the sco"e of e3istent "atterns. 0t assumes the future in its un"re#ictability to that e3tent that ma<es e3"ansion "ossible. 0ncumbent of the future, this vision on teacher e#ucation assumes that although changes shoul# not be e3"ecte# to a""ear in imme#iate action they im"inge a sort of "resence in current initiatives that force subGects to strive beyon# the confines of "resent an# #eterminations of "ast into ;hat lies beyon#. -i8lio&ra"!)
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A. Vygots<y, -., The Xsychology of $rt, AO=?, transl. engl. ,chmo4e, ,cti"ta 5echnica 0nc, *05 Press, AO@A =. %ngestrm, J, %3"ansive learning at ;or<N to;ar#s an activity9theoretical reconce"tualisation, in mournal of fducation and Oor%, AI(A), AFF6A?L, =HHA F. %ngestrm, J., -earning by %3"an#ingN &n &ctivity 9 5heoretical &""roach to Develo"mental Research., AOO@, available online [#o;nloa#e# A?th Bctober =HH@\at htt"N88communication.ucs#.e#u8*C&8Pa"er8%ngestrom8e3"an#ing8ch=.htm I. %#;ar#s, &., (ilroy, P., artley, D., Eethin%ing teacher education collaborative responses to uncertainty, -on#on N Routle#ge 7almer, =HH= ?. %#;ar#s, &., (=HHL), Relational &gencyN learning to be a resourceful "ractitioner, in !nternational mournal of fducational Eesearch , IF (=HH?), "".ALP9AP=U

,ART IV INTERCU.TURA. DI5ENSIONS OF ARTISTIC EDUCATION


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4.C/ORA. SIN%IN% 1 A 5EANS OF INTERCU.TURA. CO55UNICATION


S(etlana ,o tolac!i(\* A8 tract7 Qusic is communication through art, representing a means of rendering ebperiences and feelings, of sewerage of ideas to the others. The desire to communicate, to ebchange views and opinions motivates students to wor% in a choral group. !ntercultural communication involves intercultural ebchanges focused on the contact with personalities from the sphere of arts conductors, composers, musical performing . These contacts are able to enrich the repertoire of choral groups, which are designed to enhance the artistic factor. Ihoral singing is the connection between the art and social life and ta%es a shape in relation with social and emotional dimensions. Ae) >ord 7 communication, choral singing, education.

*usic is communication through art an# is effectively re"resente# as a means of channeling i#eas to one another. istory of music is reflecte# in the ;estern . 5he (ree<s ;ere the first theorists in the area of &rt. 0n the conte3t of a musical culture the "hiloso"hers Plato an# &ristotle have #is"laye# a real "rofessionalism. 5hey ;ere those for ;hom music meant the most com"lete form of "hiloso"hical e3"ression. 5he (ree< music ;as transmitte# to me#ieval times, no;a#ays it is <no;n the follo;ing statementN 2rhythm an# harmony have the "o;er to "enetrate into the soul, ma<ing it subGect to <no; beauty an# its s"ell2(\+ . Platon "laces e#ucation on the to" of music arts e#ucation system. By art e#ucation the man increases his <no;le#ge, ac/uires the meanings an# gro;s his soul. Being close to general history of music, choral music, this art form is allo;e# to access a critical role in e#ucation. Va"ori4ation of human "otential can be achieve# by ;or<ing in activities such as singing soul vocal an# choral music coral. 5al<ing ;ith great taste of a large number of young9coming musicians an# teachers of art e#ucation, ;e believe that interest in choral music is great. -i<ing an# "racticing of singing choral strengthens vocal9harmony soul. 25o sing is to love,2 says (eorge %nescu(\G. 2&rt a""eals to ;hat is the #ee"est, most secret an# most sacre# in human being. 0t gives us the "erce"tion of insensitivity. 5he &rt rece"tion of art in itself lea#s to #ee"er, to fin#ing yourself, ;hat is calle# self9<no;le#ge an# self9 un#erstan#ing, the latter being the su"reme <no;le#ge (as"iration of all thoughts of all time). Ultimately, the su"reme goal of art is the sublimation of human beings(\H.2 *usic is the ultimate meeting of all ty"es of art. 5his fact it #escribe# in (iorgio (ra4io4i.s boo< 2'pinterpreta#ione musical2 the "art is 2an
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,enior -ecturer , ,tate University D&lecu Russo) from B:lEi , Re"ublic of *ol#avia, emailN #einegononaVyahoo.com (\+ Platon,AOP@, -a re"ubl/ue, %#.7lammarion, Paris. (\G %nescu (,AOO?,5ratat #e logic:, Bucureti (\H (agim.0,=HH?,%#ucaia 1i arta n era subiectivismului, *aterialele ConferinEei internaEionale) %#ucaEia artistic9s"iritual: n conte3tul nv:E:mntului contem"oran)".=@,B:lEi,*ol#ova AAI

abstract entity an# "otential, notes, ;or#s, signs that shoul# be re#uce# an# inter"rete# in song, in music. 5he art in "ainting is a "icture, music art is not the "age, but ;hat is in the "age(\R 2. 5he la;s of receiving unit of artistic images in various fiel#s of art can be #emonstrate# by an e3am"leN Basil $an#ins<i, a "ainter, an illustrator, a re"resentative of value of the fine arts of the t;entieth century, he stu#ie# music an# #ra;ing, "laying the "iano an# violoncello in his chil#hoo#. 5he great role in his life ;as ;atching 'oJngrin the ;or< by R. Kagner, by hearing music in the artist.s consciousness the musical arrangements turne# into the colours. 5his milestone change# his life an# artistic activity into the "ainting. Ke shoul# note that 2music coul# attract attention since ancient times on its main role as a factor of affective an# significant communication(\U.2 By the notion of musical communication ;e un#erstan# the fact that music is a ;ay of communication bet;een "eo"le of #ifferent nations, interests, ;ho share #ifferent values, #ifferent ages, even #ifferent eras, or "eo"le of one e"och that communicate by music messages ;ith "eo"le of the other e"och. 7or e3am"le, no;a#ays ;e can communicate ;ith Bach, *o4art, Beethoven by their music, s"ecifically through the content insi#e that they have inclu#e# in their music).(\S Different means of communication sciences #iffers from verbal an# nonverbal communication. *usic is a uni/ue form of non9verbal communication. Communication through coral singing is an ongoing "rocess of issuing, receiving an# #eco#ing the message inclu#es transmitting musical emotion from the author to the listener. 0n the "rocess of communication is highlighte# an# the authorjs "ersonality as ;ell as the listener.s. Coral creation is a "art of the "rocess of communication. 5he most im"ortant thing in the choral singing is that this "rocess the inter"reters9singers is gui#e# by the <a"ellmeister, ;hich "lays an interme#iate lin< in the chain of communication bet;een creator an# inter"reter of the artistic values of the art "ieces. 5he role of those t;o (the com"oser9 the singer) ;ill be use# by the listenerjs a""reciation. Choral music ;ith its emotional valence is a factor of culture an# sociali4ation an# hel"s the youth. 5he ;ish to communicate, to e3change the vie;s motivates stu#ents to ;or< in a choral grou". 2Bne of the great things that ha""en in choir grou"s is that "eo"le of all <in#s an# #ifferent bac<groun#s an# s<ills can reach a real sense of being together, sharing the same things, #oing something together. 0n coral conte3t, this ;or< can ma<e to reali4e the things that ;oul#n.t be #one((\ 2. &naly4ing "ersonal e3"erience in choral singing 0 can say that the emotional "art of communication situations reflects the collective relations bet;een "artici"ants in the "rocess of this communication. ,ho;ing
(\R (\U

(ra4iosi (,AOL@, -.inter"reta4ione mu4icale,%#.%inau#,5orino. ,ulieanu (,AOPH,Psihologia folclorului mu4ical,%#.&ca#emia Re"ublicii ,ocialiste RomMnia,Bucure ti. (\S (agim 0.,=HHL,ntr#ucere n mu4icologie,U.,.)&. Russo),B:li. ((\ (leen C.,AOOA,n uest of &ns;ersN 0ntervie;s ;ith &merican Choral Con#uctors Cha"el ill, insha; *usic.

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these coral emotions may influence not only on social communication but also on other a#a"tation functionsN such as in#ivi#ual an# social #evelo"ment as ;ell as formation of inter"ersonal an# intercultural attitu#es. 0ntercultural communication involves the e3change of e3"erience focuse# on the contact ;ith "ersonalities from the s"here of artsN the con#uctors, the com"osers, etc. 5hese contacts enrich the re"ertoire of choral grou"s that are #esigne# to enhance the artistic "otential factor. 5he im"ortance of the artistic "otential can be achieve# by "artici"ation in various activities such as choral com"etitions, national an# international com"etitions. Com"etitions "artici"ations stimulate the interest in choral music that is so rich an# original in terms of the stylistic "oint of vie;. 5he "rogrammes #uring the com"etitions bring a range of styles an# a""roaches, conveying the com"oserjs intention an# at the same time emotional flo; that animates the art creation. Coral singing re"resents the means of intercultural communication through choral ;or<s "erforme# by the communicator (chorus) for;ar# ;ith s"ecific artistic means. Coral singing is the connection bet;een art an# social life an# lin<s to relationshi" ;ith social an# emotional #imensions. -i8lio&ra"!) A.&bric !ean9Clau#e,=HH= ,Psihologia comunic:rii, %#.Polirom, 0a1i. =.Balan (,AOOP, R:s"unsurile mu4icii,%#.Univers, Bucure1ti. F.Belous V.,AOO?, Ba4ele "erformanEei umane,%#.Performantica, 0a1i. I.Berger R.,AO@L, &rt: 1i comunicare, %#.*eri#iane,Bucure1ti. ?.Burlui &.,AOOL, ntro#ucere n arta cMntului, %#.&""olinea, 0a1i. L.%nescu (.,AOO?, 5ratat #e logic:, Bucure1ti. @.(agim 0.,=HH?,)%#ucaEia 1i arta n era subiectivismului, *aterialele ConferinEei 0nternaEionale %#ucaEia artistic9s"iritual: n conte3tul nv:E:mMntului contem"oran), B:lEi. P.(agim 0.,=HHL, ntro#ucere n mu4icologie, U.,.&.Russo, B:lEi. O.(leen C.,AOOA, uest of &ns;ersN0ntervie;s ;ith &merican Choral Con#uctors Cha"el ill, insha; *usic. AH. (ra4iosi (,AOL@, -.inter"reta4ione mu4icale, %#.%inau#,5orino. AA.*oles &.,AOP@, CreaEia artistic: 1i mecanismele s"irituale, %#.*inerva,iBucure1ti. A=. Platon,AOP@, -a re"ubli/ue, %#.7lammarion, Paris. AF.Roco *.,=HHA, Creativitate 1i intelegenE: emoEional:, Bucure1ti. AI. ,uliEeanu (,AOPH, Psihologia folclorului musical ,%#. &ca#emiei Re"ublicii ,ocialiste RomMnia, Bucure1ti 2. ARTISTIC AND CU.TURA. SENSITIOATION IN ADU.T EDUCATION

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Van&eli Aarafillidi

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A8 tract.7 $dult fducation has become one of the most prominent fields of the educational programs all over the world. Mecond Ihance Mchools constitute the predominant applied effort of many governments for supporting 'ifelong 'earning. $dults tend to have different necessities and heterogeneous capabilities in learning. Qodern societies require continuously enriched and adaptive training, as well as multidimensional and broadly-based %nowledge. 'ifelong 'earning enhances adults personal development, social inclusion and employability. $rtistic and Iultural Mensiti#ation plays an important role in $dult fducation. This article tries to demonstrate the applied approaches in adult education on artistic and cultural sensiti#ation as well as present the qualitative results and enhancements on adults personalities. Ae) >ord 7 'ifelong 'earningx $dult fducationx Mecond Ihance Mchoolx Iulturex $rtx $estheticsx $esthetics fducationx $rtistic Mensiti#ationx Iultural Mensiti#ation.

Introduction *o#ern societies #o not remain constant. 5hey evolve ra"i#ly an# change #rastically. &ctually, a "erio# of Gust a cou"le of years is long enough for these changes to become observable. ,ociety is a very im"ortant "art of our environment. ,ince, a) this environment changes an# b) ;e interact continuously ;ith it, ;e shoul# al;ays a#a"t to it in or#er to attain social inclusion, "rofessional #evelo"ment an# "ersonal integration. During the last #eca#es, the conventional norm of our lives has change#. 0n contra#iction to the "ast, no;a#ays the mo#el of stu#ying until ==9=? years an# then ;or<ing (;ithout rene;ing an# im"roving our <no;le#ge) has been "rove# to be ina""ro"riate for an# incom"atible ;ith mo#ern society nee#s. 5his conte3t has generate# the necessity of -ifelong -earning an# thereby the nee# of &#ult %#ucational Programs. ,econ# Chance ,chools constitute a re"resentative an# effective materiali4ation of &#ult %#ucational Programs in many countries. *any a#ults atten# lessons in this "rogram, since it is really attractive for them. 5he basic reasons areN A) &#ults have virtually no free time. 5herefore, conventional e#ucation "rograms cannot be effective on them. %#ucation at ,econ# Chance ,chools is base# on 'learning in the class), facilitating in this ;ay their stu#ies. =) &#ults have in#ivi#ual nee#s that "remise a fle3ible e#ucational a""roach. ,econ# Chance ,chools offer this fle3ibility, increasing in this ;ay a#ults. interest an# enhancing their efficiency on learning.
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Pianist, Piano Di"loma, *ace#onian Conservatory, Com"oser, Com"osition Di"loma, *usic College, Physicist, Physics Degree, D&ristotle) University, Piano 5eacher, ,tate igh *usic ,chool from 5hessaloni< of (reece, e9mailN v<arafilVyahoo.com

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F) ,econ# Chance ,chools encourage a#ults to im"rove themselves. 7or this "rogram it.s not only their obGective "erformance that matters, but a##itionally an# e/ually their "rogress an# #evelo"ment. 0n this ;ay, a#ults im"rove themselves far more than atten#ing conventional e#ucation "rograms. ,econ# Chance ,chools. curriculum inclu#es the necessary lessons for a#ult #evelo"ment. Courses ty"ically inclu#e the follo;ing subGectsN a) native language training, b) %nglish language training, c) mathematics, #) science an# technology, e) sociology, f) environmental a;areness, g) 0nformation an# Communication 5echnologies (com"uters), h) aesthetics e#ucation an# i) Gob orientation. Tri&&erin& Adult intere t in Art and Culture &esthetics e#ucation "lays an im"ortant role at ,econ# Chance ,chools. *any a#ults ;ho enter this "rogram ten# to ignore the im"ortance of art an# culture in our lives. 5his is, most of the time, a si#e effect of the %lementary ,chool a""roach, ;hich might have given them the ;rong im"ression that culture an# art are some <in# of secon# class entities of our societies. &##itionally, sometimes their in#ivi#ual environmental norms might have un#erestimate# an# un#ervalue# both culture an# art. 5he e#ucator can trigger a#ult interest in art an# culture #iscussing ;ith them aboutN a) Con9linguistic ty"es of e3"ression as a form of communication. 7or e3am"le, bo#y language, facial e3"ression an# voice color carry information that cannot be re"lace# ;ith ;or#s. 5hus, non9linguistic communication is very im"ortant. b) Culture an# art as a form of e3"ression. %ven "eo"le ;ho are not s<ille# artists many times ma<e more or less com"le3 #ra;ings on a "iece of "a"erU they #ance, sing, etc. 5his means that the nee# for artistic9li<e e3"ression is carrie# in our nature an# cannot be negate# or re"lace# ;ith ;or#s. c) Culture an# society. &ll societies (even the "rimitive ones) re/uire a minimal level of cultural a#a"tation of their members in or#er to become acce"table. Bur choices of #ress, hair#ressing style, a""earance, music taste, etc. "lay an im"ortant role for our social inclusion. & "erson ;ith e3treme choices might not be acce"te# by other "eo"le. #) Culture, art an# "ersonal #evelo"ment. 0n a##ition to social inclusion, cultural an# artistic sensiti4ation su""orts un#erstan#ing our social environment. &ctually, this is the first ste" for our "ersonal #evelo"ment. e) ,ocial environment in#ivi#ualities an# "ersonality formation. Different "eo"le coming from #ifferent societies (from the historical, geogra"hical or cultural "ers"ective) have #ifferent "ersonalities an# ten# to e3"ress themselves in #ifferent ;ays. f) Professional artistic creation. 5he artist is actually a "erson ;ho, in a##ition to his8her inherent nee# for e3"ression, has some more characteristicsN i) he8she gre; u" in the a""ro"riate environment for #evelo"ing his8her artistic s<illsU ii) he8she is e#ucate# an# most li<ely he8she has atten#e# organi4e# courses on his8her s"eciali4ationU iii) his8her life e3"eriences su""lemente# his8her stu#ies an# therefore integrate# his8her <no;le#ge an#
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s<illsU iv) his8her "otential of e3"ressing himself8herself artistically is mainly gui#e# by his8her talent. Because of all the above reasons, the artist can achieve a high level of (artistic) e3"ression an# creation. g) 7un#amental level a""roach on culture an# art. 5ra#itional music an# #ances, "o"ular songs, home #ecoration, etc. constitute some of the elementary artistic a""roaches for all "eo"le. *oreover, virtually all "eo"le, after having atten#e# the a""ro"riate courses, are ca"able of #evelo"ing their artistic an# cultural sensitivity, a""roaching in this ;ay more com"le3 forms of artistic e3"ression. h) Culture an# art evolution. Culture an# art #o not remain staticU they al;ays evolve. 7or e3am"le, a fe; years ago ;e use# to have #ifferent house #ecoration style, listen to #ifferent ty"es of songs, etc. A""lied le on on ae t!etic education &fter triggering a#ult interest in culture an# art, the e#ucator can #iscuss ;ith his8her grou" of "u"ils an# #eci#e in common ;hich subGects are going to be "resente# an# analy4e# in the class. ere t;o a""lie# series of lessons are going to be "resente#N a) classical music an# b) "ainting an# "ainters. Cla ical #u ic *ost "eo"le ten# to have the im"ression that classical music is 'ol#9 fashione#), 'boring) or 'strange). *ost li<ely they have forme# this o"inion because they can.t e3"ress themselves through this music genre. 5his is mostly a si#e effect of ;rong a""roaching ;hich can be analy4e# into the follo;ing factorsN a) Krong ;ay of listening to classical music. 5his music genre re/uires concentration on an# #e#ication to it. 0t.s almost im"ossible to enGoy classical music an# at the same time s"ea< ;ith our frien#s. b) Krong e3"ectations from listening to classical music. *ost "eo"le ten# to listen to music in or#er to have fun, #ance, sing, etc. 5his means that ;hat they e3"ect from music is an accom"animent or su""lement to some other activity. -istening to classical music is a com"letely #ifferent e3"erience. 0t.s mainly a voyage of our imagination an# emotions. c) -ac< of s"eciali4e# an# technical <no;le#ge on classical music. 5his negatively affects our "reference on classical music, but it.s im"ossible to obtain this <no;le#ge in the conte3t of aesthetics e#ucation course at a ,econ# Chance ,chool. &fter e3"laining these factors to the grou", the e#ucator shoul# use the a""ro"riate tools for su""orting the grou" to 'feel) an# 'imagine) ;hile listening to classical music. e8she shoul# al;ays have in min# that insisting on many technical #etails is #angerousU the less he8she uses technical #etails, the more imme#iate his8her a""roach becomes. Co;a#ays o"tical stimuli have been "rove# to be the best a""roach for many <in#s of information. Un#er this "ers"ective, Disney.s Vantasia is an e3cellent toolU it inclu#es some of the most "o"ular classical music "ieces, the music "erformances are of great /uality an# the stories that are unfol#ing in this
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"ro#uction are really attractive. ,o, the grou" can ;atch the movie an# at the same time listen to music. 5he 'story) that they ;atch carries all the information nee#e# for triggering their imagination an# emotions. 5he e#ucator shoul# e3"lain that the stories ;ere ins"ire# from the music an# actually each one of them is ;hat the Disney artists imagine# ;hen they listene# to it. *oreover, each one of us might imagine a #ifferent story ;hile listening to the same music. &fter ;atching some in#ivi#ual stories of this movie, the e#ucator can as< the a#ults to e3"ress the feelings that the story triggere# to them. 5he a#ults have re"orte# a variety of emotions. 5hey foun# highly im"ressive the emotional alterations that ma#e them travel insi#e a #ifferent an# un"rece#ente# 'cosmos). &t the en# of this series of lessons, the a#ults listene# to a classical music "iece ;ithout an o"tical stimulus. 0n our e3am"le, the motet Muper Vlumina Nabylonis by Palestrina ;as selecte#. 5he e#ucator s;itche# off the lights in the classroom in or#er to ma<e the a#ults concentrate on the music an# use their imagination. 0t.s highly remar<able that most of them, although having virtually no "revious e3"eriences of listening to classical music, imagine# that they ;ere atten#ing mass at church. ,aintin& and "ainter Painting in a#ult e#ucation can be a""roache# in t;o ;ays. 0f the e#ucator is a traine# "ainter himself8herself, he8she can teach the basic techni/ues to his8her "u"ils an# as< them to ma<e their o;n "aintings or #ra;ings un#er his8her gui#ing an# su"ervision. 0f the e#ucator is not a "ainter, he8she can a""roach "ainting as a form of artistic e3"ression. 0n our e3am"le, the a#ult grou" has ;atche# a #ocumentary about Vincent van (ogh an# #iscusse# it ;ith the e#ucator. Vincent van (ogh ;as selecte# because his "aintings have realistic as ;ell as both im"ressionistic an# e3"ressionistic elements. 5he e#ucator, having as a motive this #ocumentary, can #iscuss ;ith the grou" the follo;ing to"icsN a) Painting as an art is no more an effort for re"resenting faithfully the reality. Photogra"hy has sur"asse# the accuracy even of the best "ainter. b) Painters are ins"ire# sometimes by reality, but ;hat they "aint is their "ersonal "ers"ective on the selecte# subGect. 5heir "ers"ective carries an# inclu#es their emotions, feelings, symbolisms an# generally "ersonal intentions an# style of e3"ression. c) 5he "ainter.s ;ay of e3"ression (style, theme selection, etc) has much to #o ;ith his8her environment, i.e. "ersonal e3"eriences, stu#ies, "rofessional correlations, character, etc. #) Painting at the en# is a combination of lines, sha"es an# colors. &fter this series of lessons the grou" visite# a "ainting e3hibition. 5he a#ults foun# very interesting ;atching the "aintings, 'inventing) their o;n stories about each one of the them, e3"ressing their feelings an# as<ing the "ainter about the factors that ma#e him choose the s"ecific subGects or even about generating his o;n style of e3"ression.
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5he a#ult grou" re"orte# that, before atten#ing this course, a "ainting e3hibition ;as unfamiliar to them, but no; not only #i# it become familiar, but, even more im"ortantly, they foun# it interesting if not e3citing. Conclu ion &rtistic an# cultural sensiti4ation "laye# an im"ortant role in a#ult #evelo"ment. 0t ma#e the a#ult stu#ents interact ;ith ne; <no;le#ge an# e3"eriences an# it resulte# in their mental ;i#ening. Kithout actually using technical #etails, this sim"lifie# a""roach ha# remar<able results in a#ults. "rogress on aesthetics com"rehension.

3. ATTRI-UTIONA. ST6.E OF STUDENTS FRO5 RO5ANIAN 5I%RANT FA5I.IES


Nicoleta .aura ,o"a%%&
(()

-ecturer PhD, Post#octoral n"o"aV"sih.uaic.ro

7ello; Romanian &ca#emy from 0a1i Branch of Romania,emailN

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A8 tract7 The present study focuses on ebplanatory style among students affected by parental or family migration. The sample includes ninety-two Eomanian high-school students left behind by migrant parents, seventy-sib migrant students schooled abroad and eighty-two from families with no migration history. The central variable of our study was investigated with an adapted version of $ttributional Mtyle zuestionnaire L$MzF, and findings indicate some significant effects of parental or family migration on students attributions about school success and failure. Eesults and their implications are discussed against the available literature. Ae) >ord 7 attributional style, migration, students left behind, migrant students.

4. Introduction %3"lanatory or attributional style is a conce"t covering causal attributions ma#e by in#ivi#uals for "ositive an# negative events, an# is consi#ere# "art of the metacognitive <no;le#ge chil#ren have about themselves as "roblem9 solvers (Corman#eau an# (obeil, AOOP). 0t is generally agree# among researchers that chil#ren.s causal attributions e3ert some influence on their aca#emic "erformances, although subGect9s"ecific effects are still to be uncovere# (Boe<aerts et al., =HHF). ,tu#ents. beliefs about their com"etence in school9relate# situations are influence# by both age an# gen#er (Batool, =HAH). &ging an# a#vancements in schooling #etermines a shift in e3"laining aca#emic success an# failureN early research on the issue suggeste# that younger stu#ents ten# to ma<e e3ternal an# uncontrollable attributions for their failures, ;hile ol#er stu#ents internali4e both failure an# success ($no"", AOP=). *oreover, evi#ence from cognitive research sho;s that chil#ren ten# to be less fatalistic in e3"laining school9relate# events along ;ith their "sychological an# social #evelo"ment ((reen an# Bir#, AOPL). (irls ten# to em"hasi4e effort in e3"laining their "erformance, ;hereas boys orient their attribution to;ar#s ability or luc< (-ightbo#y et al., AOOL). &ccor#ing to other research9base# conclusions ;hen referring to internal causes, girls often mention o;n ability (Rosenbaum et al., AOOO). Boys usually e3"lain failure by unstable e3ternal causes, enabling them to #evelo" more a#a"tive behaviors an# to enhance their self9image (,mith et al., =HH=). Cole et al. (2007) reported in their literature revie !everal !tudie! indi"atin# that individual! ho attri$ute the ne#ative event! to internal, !ta$le, and #lo$al "au!e! $e"o%e helple!! and depre!!ed, an per!on! ho attri$ute !u"h event! to e&ternal, un!ta$le, or !pe"i'i" "au!e! are li(el) to %aintain e''ort, en#a#e in pro$le% and re!i!t ne#ative a''e"t. *he) "on"lude that lon#itudinal !upport 'or thi! diathe!i!+!tre!! %odel in "hildhood and adole!"en"e i! hi#hl) availa$le, althou#h other !tudie! !u##e!t that diathe!i! $) !tre!! intera"tion e%er#e! onl) in %iddle "hildhood. *he re!ear"h out"o%e! reported $) Cole et al. (2007) $a!ed on their o n

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approa"he! !upport! the develop%ental ori#in! o' depre!!ive e&planator) !t)le in "hildren. ,&planator) !t)le in a"ade%i" !ituation! i! al!o an i%portant varia$le in e&plainin# depre!!ive !)%pto%! in !"hool-a#e "hildren and adole!"ent!. *hu!, a !tud) "ondu"ted $) .ell et al. (200/) "on"luded that !"hool-related attri$ution! in !tudent! i! %ore "lo!el) related to depre!!ion than #eneral attri$ution!, e&pre!!ed 'or non-a"ade%i" li'e event!. 5he #ata re"orte# in the present study are "arts of a larger research "roGect an# focuses on one of the variables investigate# ;ithin the larger frame;or< of effects of "arental or family migration on stu#ents. aca#emic achievement an# school9relate# constructs. 5he stu#y #eals ;ith #imensions of e3"lanatory style among Romanian a#olescents from migrant families, attem"ting to uncover "otential effects of "arental or family migration on high9school stu#ents. causal attributions for success an# failure in e#ucational situations8events. ,everal research9base# conclusions in#icate mi3e# e#ucational an# social "rofiles of Romanian chil#ren affecte# by "arental migrationN overall, life con#itions of chil#ren left behin# by their migrant "arents are im"rove# if com"are# ;ith those of non9migrant families (5oth et al., =HH@), but are these stu#ents e3"erience "sychological an# e#ucational har#shi"s, such as increase# inci#ence of #e"ressive sym"toms (Robila, =HAA), lo;er self9esteem ((hergut, =HH@), the ten#ency to internali4e their "sychological "roblems, increasing "otential ris<s (e.g., an3iety, #e"ression an# a lo;er level of self9esteem) for their "sychological health (,ava, =HAH), an# 6 eventually 6 a higher ris< to e3"erience aca#emic failures an#8or school #ro"out. %merging concerns about Romanian stu#ents schoole# in #ifferent %uro"ean e#ucational systems are still to be e3"laine# through systematic a""roaches, as limite# information about their current e#ucational an# social #ifficulties is available. 5herefore, our research efforts ;ere oriente# to;ar#s stu#ying effects of "arental or family migration on stu#ents. causal attributions for school9relate# events among Romanian chil#ren left behin# by migrant "arents an# migrant chil#ren schoole# abroa#, by com"arison ;ith stu#ents from non9migrant families. 2. 5et!od &.%. 'articipants 5he sam"le inclu#e# =?H Romanian high9school stu#entsN P= from families ;ith no migration history, O= left behin# by migrant "arents, an# @L schoole# abroa# (in 0taly an# ,"ain). Partici"ants. age ranges bet;een A? an# AP years, AO@ are girls an# ?F boys. ,tu#ents enrolle# in Romanian schools inclu#e# in the sam"le atten# regular "rograms in e#ucational institutions from t;o Corth9 %astern counties, an# those enrolle# in 0talian an# ,"anish schools atten# an elective course in Romanian language, culture an# civili4ation coor#inate# by
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the 0nstitute for Romanian -anguage, an# su""orte# by the Romanian *inistry of %#ucation, Research, Jouth an# ,"orts in several countries ;ith large communities of Romanian migrants. &ll stu#ents schoole# abroa# atten#e# Romanian schools before families. migration. &.&. Instrument $ttributional Mtyle zuestionnaire ($Mz, Peterson et al., AOP=) ;ith "ositive an# negative events ;as a""lie# for investigating e3"lanatory "atterns among "artici"ants. 5he /uestionnaire as<s res"on#ents to ma<e causal inter"retations for t;elve hy"othetical situations that might ha""en to a stu#ent. 5here are si3 affiliation events involving relationshi"s ;ith other "eo"le (e3am"leN '0 ha# an argument ;ith my best frien# in the class)) an# si3 achievement events (e3am"leN '0 got a ba# gra#e in one subGect)). alf of each subset is "ositive in outcome an# half is negative. 0n#ivi#ual res"on#ents are as<e# to imagine the outcome if it ;ere to ha""en to them. 5hey in#icate their "erce"tion of the maGor cause for the event on @9"oint scales re"resenting locus (from Artotally #ue to other "eo"le or circumstances to @rtotally #ue to me), stability (from Ar;ill never again be "resent to @r;ill al;ays be "resent), an# "erceive# globality of the cause (Ar influences only this area of my life to @r influences also other areas of my life). Bverall reliability (Cronbachjs &l"ha) of the version a""lie# ;ithin this stu#y is satisfactory ({r .@@). &ttributional style involves t;o as"ects of an eventN the valence (the outcome of a life situation is e3"erience# as "ositive or negative) an# the relationshi" to other circumstances (the event involves in#ivi#ual achievement or affiliation). 5he "erceive# cause of the event is a function of the e3tent to ;hich the in#ivi#ual believes that the causes of the event are internal or e3ternal, res"ectively stable or variable. 7our attributional "atterns can be #istinguishe#N self-effacing (e3ternal attributions for goo# events an# internal attributions for negative events)U ebternal (e3ternal attributions for goo# events an# ba# events)U self-enhancing (e3ternal attributions for negative events an# internal attributions for "ositive events)U internal (internal attributions for goo# an# ba# events). Base# on "artici"ants. ans;ers several scores can be com"ute#, corres"on#ing to features of attributional styleN locus for events (average of internality ratings for all events)U differential locus, the ten#ency to "erceive the causes of "ositive events as more internal than the causes of negative events (#ifference of mean locus ratings for "ositive an# negative events)U stability of causes (average of stability ratings for all events)U differential stability (#ifference of mean stability ratings for "ositive an# negative events)U an# perceived globality (average of globality ratings for all events). Positive #ifferential locus scores in#icate a self9enhancing "attern, ;hereas a negative score in#icates a self9effacing "attern. & "ositive score on #ifferential stability in#icates that goo# events are attribute# to more stable causes than ba# events

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(o"timism), ;hereas a negative score suggests that goo# events are attribute# to more variable causes than ba# events ("essimism). &.(. 'rocedure uestionnaires ;ere self9a#ministere# in collective sessions in a larger "ac<age of research measures, an# similar #ata collection "roce#ures ;ere a""lie# for Romanian stu#ents schoole# in 0taly or ,"ain. 5he contact ;ith Romanian migrant stu#ents has been facilitate# by the 0nstitute for Romanian -anguage an# teachers involve# in the "reviously mentione# "rogram. &.). Data analysis Consi#ering "revious evi#ences about gen#er effects on chil#ren.s attributional style, univariate analyses of variance consi#ering gen#er an# family migration history has been con#ucte# for all e3"lanatory #imensions. *ain effects of family migration history an# gen#er have been further e3"lore# through one9;ay analysis of variance ($TKi$) an# t tests. 3. Re ult Results in#icate significant interaction effects of family migration history an# gen#er on overall locus of control [V(?, =II)r ?.AAU pr .HH\, [V(?, =II)r ?.AAU pr .HH\, locus of control for "ositive school events [V(?, =II)r AF.PIU pr .HH\, #ifferential locus of control [V(?, =II)r A?.I?U pr .HH\, an# globality of attributions [V(?, =II)r ?.OPU pr .HH\. o;ever, "arental or family migration ;iel#s a significant main effect on the stability of causal attributions re"orte# by stu#ents for "ositive school events [V(=, =I@)r O.OHU pr .HH\, an# #ifferential stability [V(=, =I@)r AH.APU pr .HH\ 6 see also 5able A for means ( Q) an# stan#ar# #eviations (M^). 5he main effect of "arental or family migration is e3"laine# by significant #ifferences bet;een migrant chil#ren an# chil#ren left behin# by migrant "arents, in terms of both stability for "ositive school events [t(ALL)r F.HFU pr .HH\ an# #ifferential stability [t(ALL)r F.?FU pr .HH\, as ;ell as bet;een stu#ents from non9migrant families an# stu#ents left behin#, t(A@=)r I.AAU pr .HH for stability of attributions in "ositive school events, an# t(A@=)r I.APU pr .HH for #ifferential stability. Ta8le 4. 5ean LMK and tandard de(iation L"DK for ta8ilit) and differential ta8ilit) 8) family migration history
Fa#il) #i&ration !i tor) ,tability of attributions for "ositive events Differential stability Chil#ren from non9migrant families Chil#ren left behin# *igrant stu#ents Chil#ren from non9migrant families Chil#ren left behin# *igrant stu#ents * P= O= @L P= O= @L M ?.?A I.OF ?.FL A.F? .?? A.AP "D .PL .O@ .PA A.FO A.AA A.A@

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& main effect of gen#er ;as #e"icte# for stu#ents. overall locus of causal attributions, t(=IP)r =.FIU pr .H=U locus of control for "ositive events (girls e3"lain successes base# on internal reasons, ;hile boys are rather e3ternalists), t(=IP)r F.OHU pr .HHU #ifferential locus of control (boys e3ternali4e more the causes of negative school events), t(=IP)r I.=LU pr .HHU overall stability, t(=IP)r F.=FU pr .HHAU stability in e3"laining "ositive events (girls "ro#uce more stable causal e3"lanations for school successes than boys), t(=IP)r L.A= pr .HHU #ifferential stability (boys "erceive causes of failures almost as stable as for successes, an# #is"lay "essimistic attributions), t(=IP)r ?.?AU pr .HHU an# globality (girls mention more global causal attributions for both successes an# failures in e#ucational settings), t(=IP)r =.@=U pr .HH@ 6 see also 5able = for means (Q) an# stan#ar# #eviations (M^). Ta8le 4. 5ean LMK and tandard de(iation L"DK for eC"lanator) di#en ion i&nificantl) different 8) gender
EC"lanator) di#en ion ? %ender Bverall -ocus of control (irls Boys -ocus of control in "ositive school events (irls Boys Differential locus of control (irls Boys Bverall ,tability (irls Boys ,tability in "ositive school events (irls Boys EC"lanator) di#en ion ? %ender Differential stability (irls Boys Bverall (lobality (irls Boys * AO@ ?F AO@ ?F AO@ ?F AO@ ?F AO@ ?F * AO@ ?F AO@ ?F M I.PA I.?F ?.HF I.FI .I? 9.FO I.PA I.?A ?.I= I.LA M A.== .AO I.AL F.PA "D .@? .@F A.HO A.FF A.AP A.?O .?O .LL .P= .OO "D A.HO A.?L .PH .OA

4. Di cu ion and conclu ion 0nteraction effects of family migration history an# gen#er reveals the fact that girls left behin# are generally more e3"ose# to less a#a"tive e3"lanatory style of success an# failures in e#ucational settingsU they re"ort more internal, stable an# global causal attributions. o;ever, boys left behin# manifest a self9effacing e3"lanatory "attern ;hereas girls e3"eriencing "arents. absence obtaine# scores corres"on#ing to self9enhancing attributional "attern. Bverall, boys ten# to e3ternali4e an# to assume instability for causes of negative school eventsU these research outcomes are in line ;ith "revious fin#ings, suggesting similar e3"lanatory "atterns (-ightbo#y et al., AOOLU Rosenbaum et al., AOOO). &lthough none of the grou"s #etermine# by "arental or family migration re"orte# "essimistic e3"lanatory "atterns (reveale# by a negative score for #ifferential stability), stu#ents left behin# by their migrant "arents re"orte# less
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o"timism, an# in#icate# more stable causal attributions for negative school9 relate# situations, an# less stable e3"lanations for "ositive events. 0n other ;or#s, girls left behin# ;oul# e3"ect negative circumstances to be re"etitive, ;hile "ositive events to occur less often. Bverall, results in#icate more internal res"onsibility beliefs among chil#ren ;ith migrant "arents left in the home9 country, es"ecially in the case of "ositive events, although scores for negative situations are also lo;er an# in#icate more internal orientations in e3"laining failure. Romanian migrant chil#ren an# chil#ren from non9migrant families #o not #iffer significantly in their e3"lanations for successes an# failures, ;hich may lea# to a s"eculative e3"lanation to be further verifie# by subse/uent a""roachesN migration itself #i# not #etermine serious effects at in#ivi#ual stu#ent level in terms of e3"laining school9relate# events, es"ecially because migrant stu#ents inclu#e# in the sam"le are schoole# in %uro"ean school systems, an# cultural #ifferences may have been overcame easily an# ra"i#ly, regar#less researchers. "otential biases. *oreover, "arents. absence seems to have more serious effects than family migration, in terms of crystalli4ing an a#a"tive e3"lanatory style (characteri4e# by self9enhancement an# o"timism), ;hich may su""ort better overall social a#Gustment. 5his conclusion is su""orte# by causal attributions re"orte# by chil#ren left behin# inclu#e# in our sam"le. %3"lanatory style of "artici"ants affecte# by "arental migration can be #escribe# as rather #e"ressive an# "essimistic, as chil#ren internali4e causes of aca#emic success an# failure. 5hese results are consistent ;ith stu#ies re"orting #e"ressive thoughts among this grou" of chil#ren (,ava, =HAHU Robila, =HAA). 7uture stu#ies shoul# also consi#er measuring #e"ressive ten#encies in stu#ents affecte# by "arental or family migration, in or#er to uncover "otential connections bet;een "essimistic attributional styles, #e"ressive sym"toms an# e#ucational or social #ifficulties, e3"erience# es"ecially by chil#ren left behin#. 0n a##ition, cross9regional or even national stu#ies ;oul# be a real asset in "rovi#ing a more realistic "icture of issues associate# in Romanian stu#ents ;ith "arental or family migration. ACANOW.ED%E5ENTS 5his "a"er is su""orte# by the ,ectoral B"erational Programme uman Resources Develo"ment (,BP RD), finance# from the %uro"ean ,ocial 7un# an# by the Romanian (overnment un#er the contract number PB,DRU PO8A.?8,8?LPA? [$no;le#ge base# societyN research, #ebates, "ers"ectives\. -i8lio&ra"!) 9 Batool, ,., &rif, *. 7., Caseer, *., (=HAH), (en#er #ifferences in "erformance attributions of mainstream an# religious school stu#ents, in !nternational mournal of $cademic Eesearch, =(L), I?I9I?P.
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9 Bell, ,. *., *cCallum, R. ,., Doucette, !. &., (=HHI), Relationshi" of ,chool9 Base# &ttributions to De"ression, in mournal of Xsychoeducational $ssessment, ==(=), AHL9A=F. 9 Boe<aerts, *., Btten, R., Voeten, R., (=HHF). %3amination "erformanceN &re stu#entjs causal attributions school9subGect s"ecificS, in $nbiety, Mtress and Ioping, AL(F), FFA9FI=. 9 Cole, D.&., Karren, D. %., Dallaire, D. ., -agrange, B., 5ravis, R., Ciesla, !. &., (=HH@), %arly Pre#ictors of el"less 5houghts an# Behaviors in Chil#renN Develo"mental Precursors to De"ressive Cognitions, in Ilinical Ihild Xsychology and XsychiatryU A=(=), =O?9FA=. 9 (hergut, &., (=HH@), Chil#ren having "arents at #istance 9 Conse/uences concerning their self9esteem, in +nalele ,niversitatii -+le!andru Ioan .u/a0 din Iasi. "eria "tiintele 1ducatiei+ (ol. PI+ 433-44Q. 9 (reen, $. %., Bir#, %. (AOPL), 5he structure of chil#ren.s beliefs about health an# illness, in mournal of Mchool [ealth, GH, F=?9F=P. 9 $no"", C. B., (AOP=), &ntece#ents of self9regulationN & #evelo"mental "ers"ective, in ^evelopmental Xsychology, AP(=), AOO9=AI. 9 -ightbo#y, P., ,iann, (., ,toc<s, R., Kalsh, D., (AOOL), *otivation an# attribution at secon#ary schoolN the role of gen#er, in fducational Mtudies, ==, AF9=?. 9 Corman#eau, ,., (obeil, &. (AOOP), & Develo"mental Pers"ective on Chil#ren.s Un#erstan#ing of Causal &ttributions in &chievement9relate# ,ituations, in !nternational mournal of Nehavioral ^evelopment, ==(F), LAA9LF=. 9 Peterson, C., ,emmel, &., von Baeyer, C., &bramson, -., *etals<y, ,eligman, *., (AOP=), 5he &ttributional ,tyle uestionnaire, in Iognitive Therapy and Eesearch, L, =P@9FHH. 9 Robila, *., (=HAA), Parental *igration an# Chil#ren.s Butcomes in Romania, in mournal of Ihild Vamily Mtudies, =H(F), F=L6FFF. 9 Rosenbaum, !. %., De-uca, ,., *iller, R., (AOOO), Path;ays to ;or<N short an# long9term effect of "ersonal an# institutional ties, in Mociology of fducation, @=, A@O9AOL. 9 ,ava, 7., (=HAH), Timisoaraps adolescents left at home. $ cross-sectional survey on the !IT role toward a better social inclusion , UR-N htt"N88;;;."eo"leshareit.eu8sites8"eo"leshareit.eu8files8Rob=Hvan =H$ranenburg8timisWresearchW."#f. 9 ,mith, -., ,inclair, $. %., Cha"man, %. ,., (=HH=), ,tu#ents. goals, self9efficacy, self9han#ica""ing an# negative affective res"onsesN an &ustralian senior school stu#ent stu#y, in Iontemporary fducational Xsychology, =@, I@A9IP?. 9 *oth, 0., *oth, 1., 2oi"u, 3., 4te'5ne!"u, 6. (2007), The Effects of Migration: Children Left Behind , 7oro! 8oundation 9o%ania, :9;< http<==tdh-"hildprote"tion.or#= "o%ponent=option,"o%>do"li$=ta!(,!ho do"=do"id,7/1= . 9
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,ART V ART AS A 5EANS FOR 5EDIATION AND CO55UNIT6 ACTIONS


4. ,RE5ISES OF DEVE.O,IN% ,U,I.S 5USIC CU.TURE IN T/E CONDITIONS OF I5,ROVIN% EPTRACURRICU.AR 5USIC ENVIRON5ENT
5arina Co u#o(((* A8 tract7 The content of education in postmodernist society is a strategic resource of the human continuous development, in a space and time determined from the historical, cultural, social and economic points of view. The educational reform, based on curricular approach, involves radical reforms inclusively in the field of art education, being an indispensable premise of forming an educated personality, with high moral and spiritual aspirations jThe Ioncept of Qusic fducationl. The conceptual improvement of music ebtracurricular environment will promote the concern for the field of music education in order to assure an efficient continuity by pursuing an evolution and succession of the independent affirmation process from teleological perspective in self-correlation with the music environment ebisting everywhere. Ae) >ord N continuous music education, ebtracurricular music environment, music contebt, independent music cognition.

5he current reforms concerning e#ucational systems from all the countries #enote an a#Gustment of #ifferent levels an# ty"es of e#ucation as ;ell as a continuous accom"lishment in time an# s"ace trying to transform the terminal "oints of e#ucation in o"enings to lifelong learning an# to self9e#ucation. 5he Romanian "sychologist *. qtefan assertsN ,,&ll e#ucation #erives from the e3"erience of chil# social situation) [L, ". LF\ ((+, e#ucational environment re"resenting all the con#itions un#er ;hich the e#ucational action #evelo"s. 0n the theory of "sychological functions #evelo"ment, the great Russian teacher -. Vgots<ii noticesN ,,> any function in the chil#.s culture #evelo"ment manifests its #ouble a""earance, initially 6 in the social s"here, then in the "sychological oneU first 6 in the society as an inter"sychological factor, later 6 insi#e the chil# as an intra"sychological category) . 0n the fiel# of "e#agogy, this configuration of the factors e3isting in the #evelo"ment of an e#ucational act is e#ucational (e#ucative, "e#agogical) environment. 5he conce"t ;as #efine# by the Romanian researcher D. 5o#oran as ,,a structural an# functional com"le3 of forces (,,subGective) an# ,,obGective)) ;hich #etermines the human s"iritual gro;th an# #evelo"ment) [P, ". AA=\((G. ,ince the society is in a "ermanent change, generating ne; re/uirements to;ar#s the e#ucation, it means that the
((*

Doctoral Can#i#ate, ,tate University D&lecu Russo) from B:lEi , Re"ublic of *ol#avia, emailN vicacrisciucVrambler.ru ((+ (uEu V. *anagementul schimb:rii n ca#rul e#ucaEional. Chi1in:uN C.%.P. U,*, =HH?. AII ". ((G Cicolescu *. *o#elul uman 1i i#ealul e#ucativN &ntologie #e te3te. Bucure1tiN %#. Di#actic: 1i Pe#agogic:, AOO?. A=I ".

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man at his turn must be continuously as a rece"tor of the e#ucational action, es"ecially in relation to musical "henomenon ;hich is e#ucational by itself, but its s"here of coverage e3ten#s to the entire life. 5he content of e#ucation has a larger s"here than the contents of the e#ucational "rocess, the last one being re"resente# only by the suggeste# an# organi4e# by school values. 5he e#ucation inclu#es values ;hich "u"ils assimilate by metho#s an# means less systemi4e# than the e#ucational ones, outsi#e the school. 5he u"9to9#ate vision on %uro"ean e#ucation treats the notion of artistic (musical) e#ucation as an in#ivi#ual continuous "rocess of "ersonality s"iritual self9reali4ation by multi"le forms of contact ;ith the fine arts these being ;ays of reflecting the universe in ;hich the "erson is retrieve# as a com"onent, musical culture re"resenting the core of "ersonality culture in general. ,chool curriculum in music e#ucation is an a#Gusting #ocument, ;ith a "ur"ose to circumscribe the se/uence of musical9e#ucational stan#ar#s, musical com"etencies as ;ell as other ;ays of their integration in every#ay situations to ;hich structure the school as"ires by all its e#ucational9musical ste"s.5hus, music educationgby music, as a su"remely form of moral, aesthetic, s"iritual etc. e#ucation e3ten#s e3"ressly over school areas creating the conte3t of a continuous music education. 0n the classification ma#e by UC%,CB, the e#ucation a""ears in three fun#amental as"ectsN formal music e#ucation, non9 formal music e#ucation an# informal music e#ucation. 2ormal music education is a "erio# of intensive musical activity "ursuing "re"on#erantly the #evelo"ment of "u"ils. musical culture. 5his ty"e of music e#ucation inclu#es the totality of musical9e#ucational actions "erforme# consciously an# organi4e# in schools of an organi4e# e#ucational system. 5he obGectives an# the content of formal music education are sti"ulate# in school #ocuments sche#ule# on general9semestral to"ics, levels an# years of stu#y, fact that facilitates the conscious gui#ing of a vast musical culture #evelo"ment in a metho#ical organi4e# conte3t (curriculum, gui#eboo<s, te3tboo<s, technical ai#s, s"ecific music e#ucation strategies etc.), accor#ing to the re/uirements of the i#eal music e#ucation in school. Vormal music education is a "rocess ;hich limits e3clusively to school years an# ;hich is more than an intro#uction to musical culture fiel# an# an initial training for a music e#ucation that ;ill e3ten# over the entire life. *on-formal music education #esignates a reality less formali4e#, but ;hich also has forming effects. &s it results from the content analysis, ;ays an# forms of organi4ation (active forms 6 general school choir, orchestra of musical instruments for chil#ren etc.U passive forms 6 musical meetings ;ith inter"reters an# com"osers, musical e3cursions etc.), the relation bet;een non9formal music e#ucation an# formal music e#ucation is #efine# as a com"lementary one. Tonformal music education su""oses the totality of e3tracurricular musical9 e#ucational actions ;hich #evelo"s un#er organi4e# s"ecial con#itions. 5heir mission is to com"lete an# fill formal music e#ucation by forms s"ecial
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establishe# in or#er to enrich the musical culture level, to "ractice an# to im"rove #ifferent availabilities an# in#ivi#ual musical com"etencies. 5he main institutions ;here is achieve# this ty"e of music e#ucation, are the houses of culture, theatres, clubs, community centres, "ublic libraries etc. By its nature an# s"ecific, non9formal music e#ucation certifies its "ro"erties among ;hich are the great variety of musical forms an# contents, #ifferentiation of music activities, forms of organi4ation etc. 0t is about #oing music e#ucation un#er better an# more varying con#itions, through the same formative influences, but from the "ers"ective of "luri9 an# inter#isci"linarity ta<ing into account the #isci"lines. interference of the artistic fiel#. Ke ;ant to mention that both formal music e#ucation as ;ell as the non9formal one are forms of systematic school activities that #evelo" in a "lanne# an# organi4e# ;ay being gui#e# by a "rofessional staff in this fiel#. Besi#es these t;o forms of school music e#ucation, it is re/uire# the thir# one 6 informal music education. 5his form, com"are# ;ith the first t;o 6 formal an# non9formal 6 is less a#vantageous. 0t occurs because of its /uality #ifference. Bet;een music in the classroom an# music outsi#e it, bet;een musical environment #evelo"e# in the conte3t of music e#ucation lesson an# the e3tracurricular one, there are almost contra#ictory. 5hese factors are a reason for ;hich informal music e#ucation can not be the substance an# the fun#amental basis of music e#ucation, but ;ithout ignoring the value of its content as ;ell as the e3tension over the limits of formal e#ucation, certifie# by its e3istence all lifelong. 5hus, informal music e#ucation e3"resses the s"ontaneous an# continuous character of e#ucation, ;hich means com"letely free of any formali4ation. 0t re"resents in#ivi#ual in#e"en#ent musical e3"eriences, e3"eriences ac/uire# in a casual ;ay. 0nformal e#ucation signifies the vital environment an# the social ambience in ;hich the in#ivi#ual is. 0n this hy"ostasis he ac/uires information, internali4es mo#els of moral behaviour, a#o"ts attitu#es, res"on#s to #ifferent re/uests an# enriches his s"iritual hori4on.Pu"il.s music culture ;ill be #efine# only by a close correlation of school music environment an# the e3tracurricular one, its level being #irectly "ro"ortional to the /uality of integrity an# achievement in a continuous s"irit of these t;o "arts (Vigure ()N Qusic culture
C

B Vigure (. Ionvergence LIF Mchool music activities L$F d ebtracurricular music activities LNF

&

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Pursuing the s"ecific of these t;o ty"es of activities, ;e conclu#eN 9 both school an# e3tracurricular activities are aime# at the harmonious #evelo"ment of the "ersonalityU 9 school activities give "riority to those e3tracurricular because the "ersonality initiation in social environment is voluntary an# its ten#ency to self9 reali4ation is e3"resse# more efficiently. 5hus, the aim of music e#ucation re/uires moment an# perspective musical training of subGects, re"ort of music e#ucation to the conte3t in ;hich they #evelo", being its basic con#ition. *usical activity an# musical environment are t;o inse"arable "arts. *usical environment8conte3t facilitates the #evelo"ment of music culture an# vice versa, music culture as a com"onent "art of s"iritual culture ;ill e3cee# school limits an# ;ill confirm the necessity of foun#ation of musical9cultural conte3t. %3tracurricular music conte3t highlights the e3istence of three #imensions of "u"ils. in#e"en#ent music activitiesN 9 #econte3tuali4ation an# a#Gustment of music e3"erience to e3tracurricular con#itionsU 9 augmentation of the in#e"en#ent musical activities com"le3ity in or#er to im"lement #iverse music com"etenciesU 9 estimation of their o;n "erformances an#8or #ifficulties in in#e"en#ent music cognition. 5he basic form of school instructive9e#ucative ;or< is music education lesson. But time for this activity is limite# re"resenting a ratio of A to =F of the =I hours of the #ay. Besi#es it, the interval that se"arates music e#ucation lessons #oes not al;ays allo; to maintain the continuity bet;een them. 0f ;e ma<e a com"arative analysis, the e3tension of music stu#ie# #uring music e#ucation lesson an# music coe3isting outsi#e it, ;e ;ill notice that the secon# one is ;i#er an# more #iverse, both being in agreement, in #isagreement an# even sometimes in contra#iction. 0n the fiel# of music e#ucation the main "roblem is 9 the effects an# the conse/uences of musical environment ;here "u"ils live in, "roblem that can be solve# only if the lesson left in chil#.s soul unforgettable im"ressions, traces that can not be easily erase#. Qusic education lesson is central focus of creating those stimulants. o;ever, outsi#e the school ;alls, "u"ils "lunge into a controversial music #imension ;hich they are oblige# to <no; in#e"en#ently, ;ithout a#viser consuming mostly lo; /uality music, a music that influence in an ina#e/uate ;ay the consciousness an# the musical li<ing. *usic e#ucation is focuse# on #evelo"ing creative "ersonality of "u"ils. 7rom the "e#agogical "oint of vie;, it #oes not mean to force the chil# to be a ,,little genius), but to #evelo" his creative "ersonality in the conte3t of his integration in social life. Pu"il.s initiation in the meanings of universal music re/uires effort. Being #irecte# from e#ucational as"ect, the effort is transfigure# into enGoyment, "leasure, "ositive e3"erience ;hich argues for a ;ay of "u"ils. self9e#ucation in terms of his lively, active an# original "artici"ation to his o;n
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#evelo"ment8training. Unli<e the lesson, ;here the connection ;ith music is ,,gui#e#), aesthetic e#ucation situations by the in#e"en#ent, in#ivi#ual action (in#ivi#ual stu#y, #oing home;or< etc.) "enetrates #ee"ly each "u"il.s interior not only at an accompanying life level, but also as an indispensable component of life. -istening to the music that surroun#s him #aily, the chil# ;ill ,,search) to #iscover , in#ivi#ually, those things that ;ere #iscusse# #uring the lesson. 5herefore, #uring the lesson, chil#ren ;ill #istinguish the close organic correlation of stu#ie# music ;ith life. 0t im"lies ;or<, #aily e3ercise, an evolution e/uivalent to that ;hich forms musicians. By music e3isting outsi#e the music e#ucation lesson, at any age, in any circumstances "u"ils ;ill feel emotions, many ne; meanings of life values as ;ell as the values of their o;n. *usic e#ucation lesson must o"en to susce"tible musical contents in or#er to be assimilate# by "u"ils, inclusively outsi#e it, forming com"etencies at "u"ils an# establishing clear criteria of "ursuance, selection an# e3"erience of e3tracurricular music values (Vigure ))N
EC"erienc e of #u ic (alue

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,ur uance of #u ic (alue

5u ic culture

Selection of #u ic (alue

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Vigure ). Mtages of music culture manifestation

0n#e"en#ent an# in#ivi#ual feeling of music outsi#e music e#ucation lesson that com"letes, fills an# #evelo"s general music culture, is #esigne# to buil# u" a ne; "u"il.s attitu#e for ;hich the relation ;ith music ;ill not be an occasional one, but ;ill achieve the statute of in#is"ensable "u"il.s s"iritual culture "ractices. 5he e3tension of stu#entjs autonomy in the acoustic environment outsi#e the lesson is e3"resse# by the gro;th of its in#e"en#ence to "erceive the music. 5eaching stu#ents to #eco#e the acoustic message of the universe means to buil#9u" <no;le#ge, com"etences, ac/uirements an# techni/ues s<ills an# musical creativity (abilities), associate# ;ith inherent reasons d of necessity and ebistence by music. 7or that "ur"ose, 7ilimon 5urcu mentions that 'the necessities cause #ifferent human emotional states, an# only #ue to these activities they can be "erceive# as a necessity) [=, ". A=L\. V. ,. *erlin "oints out that 'the necessity 6 gets the motivator nature unless it in#uces to action).

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Ke get a list of ;ell9<no;n names from s"ecialty sources, ;hich #efines the orientation, the initiation an# the a#Gustment of the musical activities as a system of reasons that interacts an# coo"erates, further it is manifeste# in ten#encies, interests, aims etc. (0. (agim, (. B:lan, &. *otora90onescu, V. Vasile etc). 5hus, %mil ,tan reflects in his ;or<s, the subGective an# "ersonal "erce"tion of the obGective surroun#ing reality, generating a certain meaning to the "ersonal image. 0t results thatN '5he meaning, the attitu#e, the "osition come to light not #irectly from the content8a""earance, but from the relation bet;een the action motivation an# its #irect result>.5he motivations, the necessities, the a;areness "ur"ose, >.the humanity s"ecific /ualities are forme# #uring the entire life) 5he motivation "roblem in the "e#agogical musical s"here ;as treate# for the first time by the e#ucationalist D. B. Peric, by the en# of pLH [?, ". A=P\. e valori4es the in#is"ensability of "sychological necessities in or#er to accom"lish #ifferent musical activities, as ;ell as the im"ortance of the musical "henomenon as a first9line factor in creation 8 #evelo"ment of an u";ar# s"iritual culture. &t its turn 6 the necessity ;hich a""ears as a reason of a stan#ing contact ;ith the music re/uires #ifferent forms an# means of "sychological satisfaction through music. 0t can be musical listening, concerts, meetings ;ith favorite singers, "artici"ation in organi4ation of #ifferent musical events etc. Pu"il.s e3tracurricular music activity is the assimilating activity of the musical cultural values, ;hich are consi#ere# by the school the efficient ones in human high esthetic culture forming. 5he "ur"ose of these efforts focuses on the insurance of the functional stability of these t;o "erio#s. Pu"il.s musical e3"erience, regar#ing motivation structures as "ersonality units, subor#inates the selection an# integration "rocess of the e3isting musical values. 5he e/uilibration an# a#a"tation "rocess of "u"il to the musical an# cultural e3ternal influences ;ill gra#ually become a function8necessity of these motivation states. 5he "rinci"les that substantiate the "rocess of e#ucational lea#ing through the "ers"ective of musical9artistically reasons to "u"ils are the follo;ingN a. the a;areness of the musical environment , ;here the "u"il lives8;ill liveU b. the #evelo"ment of the basic musical activities in schoolU c. the achievement of the musical culture values an# stan#ar#s in the school "erio#. 5he conse/uences of a""lying these "rinci"les (in analy4ing the stu#ent "erce"tion of the musical environment) are #ecisive as metho#ological value. 5he e3tracurricular music motivation activity turns the "u"il from a sim"le receiver8customer of e3ternal music influences into an active an# selecte# subGect, ;ith an o;n interior #eterminism in choosing an# releasing a#e/uate music attitu#es.

AFI

aving an o;n motivation structure, the "u"il ;ill establish a double relation to;ar#s the musical environmentN one of independence, ;hich consists of his ca"acity of react8"erceive only the high /uality music, the e#ucative one an# the other, of dependence, ;hich consists in satisfying "sycho9s"iritual state of necessity for musical "henomenon. 0n this conte3t, the teacher of music %#ucation is the main factor ;ho ;ill "ursue the "rogressive #ynamics in forming8 #evelo"ing "u"il.s music culture an# ;ill gui#e in this #irection, the music e#ucation #evelo"ment in e3tracurricular con#itions as ;ell as "u"il.s training for a continuous music e#ucation. -i8lio&ra"!) A. Chi1 V. ,trategii #e "re#are 1i nv:Eare. Bucure1tiN %#. qtiinEific:, AOO=. =L= ". =. Cosmovici &. nv:Earea 1colar:. n carteaN Psiho"e#agogie. 0a1iN ,"iru aret, AOOI.".A=A 6 A?L. F. Curriculum 1colar. Chi1in:uN Prut 0nternaEional, AOOP. I@I ". I. Dave R. 7un#amentele e#ucaEiei "ermanente. Bucure1tiN umanitas, AOOA. =FA ". ?. (agim 0. Dimensiunea "sihologic: a mu4icii. 0a1iN 5im"ul, =HHF. =PH ". L. (uEu V. *anagementul schimb:rii n ca#rul e#ucaEional. Chi1in:uN C.%.P. U,*, =HH?. AII ". @. !oiEa %. Pe#agogiaN 1tiinEa integrativ: a e#ucaEiei. 0a1iN Polirom, AOOO. APO ". P. Cicolescu *. *o#elul uman 1i i#ealul e#ucativN &ntologie #e te3te. Bucure1tiN %#. Di#actic: 1i Pe#agogic:, AOO?. A=I ". O. B<on K. nv:E:mMntul "roblemati4at n 1coala contem"oran:. Bucure1tiN %#. Di#actic: 1i Pe#agogic:, AO@P. FHH ". AH. Roco *. Creativitate 1i inteligenE: emoEional:. Bucure1ti, =HHA. =AL ". AA. ,tan %. Pe#agogie "ostmo#ern:. 0a1iN 5im"ul, =HHI. A=P " A=. Vasile V. *eto#ica e#ucaEiei mu4icale. Bucure1tiN %#.*u4ical:, =HHI. I=F ".

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2. TEAC/ERS WIT/ ARTISTIC S,ECIA.IOATIONS -ETWEEN CU.TURA. 5EDIATION AND INTERCU.TURA. EDUCATION
Eu&enia 5aria ,a*ca((H A8 tract7 Iultural mediation is a process that aims to restore the lin%s between society and culture, between art and the public, between culture and populations. The role for cultural mediation is to create the conditions of a meeting, of an open dialogue. Iultural mediation represents the staging of the triad made of the public, the wor% and the mediator. The objectives of cultural mediation, the principles of cultural mediation, the profession of cultural mediator, are just a few of the, until now, undefined aspects by public policy, both educational and cultural, in Eomania. Ohat the teacher with artistic speciali#ations needs to %now and to accomplish in school, and from what perspective he can have a favourable and efficient intervention in the educational and communal space, these are some issues that we intend to analy#e. !n this sense it is necessary to adapt the content of the artistic university curriculum, because the educational and cultural policies of the nation must find ways to remain open to change of values in the contebt of a furopean integrated mar%et and, at the same time, to sustain the wealth, the vitality and the diversity of ones own culture. The crisis of the Eomanian educational system is obvious and, although it proposes a real intercultural education in an intercultural school by initiatives and programs, it fails to be effective. Ae) >ord 7 cultural mediation, public policy, intercultural school.

Introduction 5he mission of art universities in Romania is to sha"e an# cultivate talents, characters an# #evelo"ing "ersonalities, to form ;ell9traine# s"ecialists, able to "rovi#e the general "ublic a /ualitative cultural act, together ;ith a sustaine# creative artistic activity an# "e#agogical training re/uire# of those ;ishing for a teaching career in the aesthetic9artistic e#ucation (music, theatre, visual arts, choreogra"hy). 0n this res"ect, there shoul# be an #Gustment of the artistic university curriculum, because national e#ucational an# cultural "olicies must fin# the right means to remain o"en to the e3change of values in the conte3t of the integrate# %uro"ean mar<et an# at the same time, to su""ort the ;ealth, vitality an# #iversity of one.s o;n cultures. 5he crisis of the e#ucational system in Romania is obvious an# although it "ro"oses a real intercultural e#ucation in an intercultural school through initiatives an# "rograms, it fails to be effective.&ccor#ing to the ne; occu"ational stan#ar#s, revise# than<s to the PB,DRU9DBC0, "roGect, there ;ere not inclu#e# cultural an# intercultural me#iation s<ills, although in the contem"orary conte3t, the e#ucational system is facing multi"le challenges. But for a correct reasoning there must be un#erstoo# the hi##en as"ects of cultural an# intercultural me#iation in the "rocess of artistic e#ucation.
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&ssociate Profesor PhD, De"artment for 5eachers %#ucation, '(eorge %nescu) University of &rts from 0a1i of Romania, emailN eugeniaWmariaW"ascaVyahoo.com 8 eugenia.maria."ascaVgmail.com

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Ar&u#ent 5he cultural me#iation is a "rocess aime# at restoring ties bet;een society an# culture, bet;een art an# the "ublic, bet;een culture an# "o"ulations. 5he role of the cultural me#iation is to create con#itions for a meeting, of an o"en #ialogue. Cultural me#iation means staging the tria# ma#e of the "ublic, the ;or<s an# the me#iator. 5he obGectives of cultural me#iation, the "rinci"les of cultural me#iation, the "rofession of cultural me#iator, are Gust a fe; of the, until no;, un#efine# as"ects by "ublic "olicy, both e#ucational an# cultural, in Romania. Khat the teacher ;ith artistic s"eciali4ations nee#s to <no; an# to accom"lish in school, an# from ;hat "ers"ective he can have a favourable an# efficient intervention in the e#ucational an# communal s"ace, these are some issues that ;e inten# to analy4e. 5he obGectives of cultural me#iation consist inN the #emocrati4ation of culture so that art shoul# become accessible to "u"ils, the #o;n;ar# #irection, (from "rofessionals ;ho serve in the fiel#, to school), the intro#uction of art an# culture in the contem"orary reality by fin#ing ne; ;ays for the stu#ents to meet art an# "romoting lin<s bet;een the various means of artistic e3"ression, "lacing the teacher an# the stu#ents in the centre of the cultural artistic action. 5he "rinci"les of cultural me#iation areN an e/ual #ialogue bet;een cultural an# "ublic me#iator an# the cultural me#iation ;hich stimulates the imagination by offering ne; i#eas for inter"retation, is a##resse# to all categories of "ublic an# allo;s the e3"ression of one.s o;n culture. 0t shoul# be state# that in the "ublic system, in many %uro"ean an# e3tra %uro"ean countries, there is also the "rofession of cultural me#iator. 5hese are s"eciali4e# in communicating an# establishing relations bet;een all forms of art, culture, heritage an# "o"ulation an# inclu#e many other s<ills s"ecific to other "rofessions such asN organi4er of "erformances (agent), "romoter of boo<s an# events for the munici"ality, cultural a#viser, curator. Khat all these #ifferent Gobs have in common is facilitating the meeting bet;een the cultural event an# its au#ience. 5his ;or< ;ill consist ofN organi4ing e3hibitions, "romoting "erformances, creating cultural events, collecting fun#s, elaborating financing files, organi4ing tours, meeting ;ith artists at various festivals an# cultural events, coor#inating cultural "roGects. 5he Romanian e#ucational system is not organi4e# enough or effectively to meet the s"ecific training nee#s of chil#ren, young "eo"le an# a#ults accor#ing to their interests, cognitive ca"abilities an# their natural abilities.5he #ifferentiation of the e#ucational offer nee#s to be elaborate# #e"en#ing on their s"ecific s<ills an# the s"ecial nee#s, es"ecially those of a#a"ting to another culture or another set of cultural values. Findin&

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0n a unanimous sense, culture is &|the entire compleb of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional elements that characteri#es a society or a social group.Iulture includes not only arts and literature, but also ways of life, fundamental human rights, systems of values, traditions and beliefs.) AA@ 2Culture is a factor for social an# community #evelo"ment in the conte3t of sustainable #evelo"ment an# has multi"le functions an# im"lications. Culture is a factor of the /uality of lifeU any assessment of the stan#ar#s of /uality of one.s life , of the community an# of society must ta<e into account this in#icator. Culture shoul# be regar#e# as a ;ay of life of in#ivi#uals an# communities9 an element that #ifferentiate them. 0t is the e3"ression of the i#entity (in#ivi#ual, grou", regional, national) an# the sta<e of #iversity an# #ifference, essential values to be un#erta<en an# su""orte# by "ro9active a""roaches an# "rograms. Culture contributes to sha"ing society an# human "ersonality. 0t also has an im"ortant role in achieving social integration an# in reGecting any form of e3clusion an# #iscrimination. Culture is a force of social cohesion, it is a com"onent of the social system ;hich #etermines all the other com"onents (economic, #emogra"hic, "olitical, "sychosocial ) an# is #etermine# in its turn by them. &s a system, it facilitates the assessment of cultural facts an# actions in terms of in"ut, out"ut an# fee#bac< an# im"licitly #etermines the efficacy of cultural action. 0t has become the most #ynamic com"onent of our civili4ation. 5his #ynamism, this search for ne; forms an# ;ays of e3"ression, is at the same time the result an# engine of the 2informational society2, of the 2society base# on <no;le#ge2. &ny analytical a""roach of the cultural "olicies an# cultural e#ucational strategies of a %uro"ean country must start from the ac<no;le#gement an# evaluation of all the "olitical, social an# economic changes brought by the en# of the secon# millennium N globali4ation an# %uro"ean integration. %lo8aliGation, this com"le3 system an# in ra"i# #evelo"ment of integrate# mar<ets, international tra#e, international investment, large multinational cor"orations, convergence of technologies offer unsus"ecte# o""ortunities for culture. But there are numerous "oints of vie; accor#ing to ;hich it re"resents a ris< factor for national cultures an# national, local an# communal i#entities 5he im"act globali4ation has on culture can be analy4e# from the vie;"oint of contem"orary theories "romote# in various scientific fiel#s an# #ebate# by the intergovernmental organi4ationsN 9globali4ation as cultural heterogeneousness (that rise in variety an# #iversity of cultural "ro#ucts)U 9globali4ation as cultural homogeni#ation mi3ing cultural (threat of local cultures by Kestern 8&merican mo#els 6the "henomenon of *cDonal#9i4ation)U 9globali4ation as cultural hybridi#ation (the mi3ture of cultures has as result a global 2mlange2).
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The Oorld Ionference Eeport Eegarding the Iultural Xolitics , organi4e# in AOP= by UC%,CB in *e3ico City AFP

5he Euro"ean inte&ration "roce raise#, in turn, a series of "roblems. *embershi" in the %uro"ean cultural s"ace an# the construction of ;hat ;e call %uro"ean cultural i#entity re/uires an inter9sectorial a""roach to harmoni4e economic, commercial, social goals ;ith the cultural ones. 5he "an9%uro"ean s"ace, thus sha"e#, the #iversity of cultural "ractices an# tra#itions of %uro"ean countries must be "erceive# as ;ealth an# not as a source of #ivision an# conflicts..AAP 5he "rocess of %uro"ean integration re/uires a balance bet;een values an# "rinci"les unanimously acce"te#, on the one han#, an# national an# local s"ecificity, on the other han#. %%3 0n this res"ect, national cultural "olicies must fin# the means to remain o"en to the e3change of values in the conte3t of the %uro"ean integrate# mar<et an#, at the same time, to su""ort the ;ealth, vitality an# #iversity of one.s o;n cultures. 0n the ne; conte3t, Romania shoul# #efine its o;n ans;ers to all these "roblems an# to e3"ress its o;n choices an#, conse/uently, its o;n cultural an# e#ucational "olicies. !ust the same ;ay culture in its broa# sense influences all as"ects of social life, cultural rights illustrate in#ivisibility, inter#e"en#ence an# inter9connection of fun#amental rights. & consensus on a universally acce"te# #efinition of cultural rights has "rove# im"ossible on the one han#, because of the various "erce"tions an# #efinitions of 2culture2 an#, on the other han#, because of the com"le3ity of the inter9relationshi"s bet;een the cultural rights an# other fun#amental rights.5his is the reason ;hy the Korl# Commission for Culture an# Develo"ment "ro"ose# in its international agen#a, ma<ing an inventory of cultural rights ;hich have not been recogni4e# yet. 5he com"arison of all the sti"ulations containe# in legal international #ocumentsA=Hsho;s that any analysis of cultural rights must start from the basic rights, ;hich are the same time in#ivi#ual rights an# collective rightsN the right of access an# the right to "artici"ate in the cultural life. Solution 0t is clear that the cultural rights ac<no;le#ge an# "rotect not only the cultural i#entity, but also the cultural #iversity an#, at the same time, they confirm their soli# connection ;ith the economic an# social #evelo"ment. Cultural rights are not only in#e"en#ent fun#amental rights, but also an in#ivisible "art of civil, "olitical, social an# economic rights. 7rom this
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DThe Oorld Ionference Eeport Eegarding the Iultural Xolitics , organi4e# in AOP= by UC%,CB in *e3ico City ((S ) 5he Resolution Regar#ing the Culture.s Role in the %uro"ean Union, the =Lth of Covember =HHA session (the %uro"ean Council has a#o"te# this resolution, ;hich ta<es many from the DRuffolo Re"ort).s "oints an# invites the member states Dto consi#er the culture as an essential element of the %uro"ean integration, es"ecially in the conte3t of the Union e3tension)) ()\ 5he Universal Declaration of uman Rights, the 0nternational Pact on %conomic ,ocial an# Cultural Rights, the %uro"ean Convention on Protection of uman Rights an# 7un#amental 7ree#oms, Charter of 7un#amental Rights of the %uro"ean Union

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"ers"ective, at an international level have been formulate# a series of "rinci"les, ;hich must be reflecte# in the cultural an# e#ucational "olicies of each country an# ;hich must fin# ans;ers to essential /uestionsN Ohat is the place of the pro-active measures in protecting and promoting cultural diversity and pluralismc [ow can one achieve balance between the trends resulting from changes occurring worldwide and at furopean levelc [ow can one achieve the unprecedented opening to the centre of new information, ideas, ideals, forms of ebpression ensuring, at the same time a favourable climate to maintaining, developing and supporting its own specificity, traditions and cultural, moral and social valuesc [ow can culture become an essential factor for social cohesion, contributing to solving social conflicts and social inclusionc [ow can be a cultural climate materiali#ed so as to promote communication between communities, acceptance and support of the differences and diversity of cultural ebpressions and practicesc Ohich are the strategies that resituate culture, placing it from the outs%irts at the centre of public policies, the essential element of sustainable developmentc &s "ublic "olicy, cultural "olicy shoul# focus on creating con#itions for free e3ercise for the t;o basic cultural rightsN the right of access to culture an# right to "artici"ate in cultural life. &ccess to cultural "ractices an# e3"eriences for all citi4ens, regar#less of nationality, race, se3, age, enriches cultural i#entity an# offers the feeling of belonging to a grou", to a Community, of each in#ivi#ual or community, thus su""orting social integration an# inclusion. Partici"ation to culture means guaranteeing concrete con#itions for free e3"ression, unfol#ing creative activities in a multitu#e of forms an# ;ays, both in#ivi#ually an# in the community. 5he right of "artici"ation must be un#erstoo# as the right to "artici"ate in the "lanning an# im"lementing cultural "olicies. 5he si4e of the cultural rights. "artici"ation is an essential "art of the e3ercise of fun#amental rights as a ;hole. Cultural #iversity is a central element of "olitics an# cultural strategies. 5he conce"t of cultural #iversity has several meanings, ;hich must be ta<en into accountN 9the racial #iversity (the #iversity of communities an# minorities), the linguistic #iversity, the generational variety, the #iversity of some 2communities of interests2. 0n a##ition to common elements, each of these grou"s an# communities has its o;n cultural i#entity. 5hose t;o conce"ts of identit) an# cultural di(er it)+ can be i#entifies both nationally (interculturality multiculturality) an# internationally. Res"ect an# guarantee of these are essential not only from the "ers"ective of social cohesion, but also as a means to fight e3clusion an#, therefore, re"resents an im"ortant element of the entire "rocess of #emocrati4ation of society. 5he social #imension of cultural "ro#ucts is in#e"en#ent of their "ublic or "rivate nature an# culture, on the ;hole is an essential com"onent of social services that every #emocratic state has the #uty to "rovi#e its citi4ens. 5he state.s involvement in "rovi#ing this social service has
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multi"le forms, an# is sha"e# by unavoi#able factors, such asN "olitical gui#elines an# "rogrammes, economic level, the institutional system, the socio9 cultural tra#itions an# mentalities. 5he com"le3ity of the factors ;hich com"ete in the configuration of the favourable climate to the cultural #evelo"ment re/uires a ne; outloo< on the ;ay in ;hich the cultural9e#ucational "olicies are formulate# an# a ne; a""roach to the "rocess of elaborating "olicies, strategies an# "rogrammes. 5herefore, the viability of cultural "olicies is #etermine# essentially by a holistic a""roach, inter9sectorial, in ;hich s"ecific "olicies ;eave ;ith economic, financial fiscal, social an# e#ucational "olicies, achieving thus integrate# an# coherent #evelo"ment "olicies. 5hatjs ;hy it re/uires that in #evelo"ing its cultural9e#ucational "olicy, Romania must harmoni4e its "rinci"les an# obGectives as those un#erta<en at international level. A=A 5he main obGectives of cultural e#ucational "olicies in Romania are setting the strategic gui#elines, creating the structures an# "rovi#ing the resources necessary for achieving the con#itions that ;ill enable an# facilitate human #evelo"ment an# cultural re/uirements of the in#ivi#ual an# the communities. &t the same time, they must ta<e into account all the elements that sha"e the cultural life cultural life 6contem"orary creation, cultural "atrimony an# #issemination of culture an# balance an# ma<e them com"atible ;ith the "rinci"les an# the obGectives i#entifie# internationally, but also ;ith the re/uirements an# national tra#itions. 5he socio9historical con#itions, the #emogra"hic mobility, the emigration, the e3change of e3"erience, the mutual su""ort, the membershi" to the %uro"ean Union, the %uro9&tlantic community re/uires necessarily an acce"tance of multicultural an# intercultural reality. ,tu#ying an# com"rehen#ing the ethnic9cultural #iversity must be a "riority in e#ucation because ;e live in a ;orl# ;hich becomes more an# more inter#e"en#ent an# in goo# mutual un#erstan#ing at global level ;hich must re"resent a com"ulsory #emeanour of e#ucation. 7or an a""ro"riate com"rehension of the term interculturalit) ;e "ro"ose, first of all, to com"rehen# the conce"t of culture in the "ara#igm of cultural anthro"ology cultural as a #efine# by Ral"h -inton an# Chambart of -au;e. 0n Ral"h -inton.s vie;, culture is a configuration of learne# behaviours an# their outcomes , share# an# sent by the members of a certain society. ()) enry Chombart of -au;e classifies the cultural a""roaches such asN culture as the #evelo"ment of the "erson in society, the societies. o;n cultures an# the issue of a universal culture. R 0t is clear that from the three a""roaches, the secon# is relevant to our targets.
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?5hese ? obGectives have been i#entifie# in the B"erative Plan a#o"te# at the 0ntergovernamental Conference on the Cultural Policies for Develo"ment, ,toc<holm, AOOP ()) L-inton, Ral"h ' 5he Cultural 7un#ament of Personality), Bucharest, 5he ,cientific Publishing ouse, AOLP @Chombart #e -au;e, '5he 0mage of Culture), Paris, Payot, AO@H

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,chool has a maGor res"onsibility for cultural, intercultural an# multicultural e#ucation of youth 5he o"enings to;ar#s fostering cultural #ialogue are "artially offere# by the curriculum. essential obGective of e#ucation is a#a"ting an# integrating the young "eo"le in the "luralist, multicultural society. 5he e#ucational "rocess involves the #issemination of <no;le#ge an# these information must hel" the man live an# interact ;ith others. 0n the vie; of Constantin Cuco , intercultural communication is the valuable transaction accom"anie# by the un#erstan#ing of the a#Gacent significations among in#ivi#uals or grou"s that are "art of #ifferent cultures. 5he overall aim of e#ucation an# cultural me#iation consists of favouring an# #evelo"ing the s<ills of fostering mutual relations bet;een #ifferent sociocultural categories, in minority or maGority, ;ith a #istinct ethnic, national structure. 5he #evelo"ment of the culture of communication is one of the "ossible ;ays of im"roving interethnic relations. &##ressing interculturality in e#ucation starts from the i#ea that a better un#erstan#ing among "eo"le is "ossible. 0ntercultural e#ucation is outline# in all school subGects, "romoting tolerance, res"ect for human rights an# urging to me#itate u"on the contem"orary issues relate# to #aily events. 0ntercultural e#ucation assumes a ne; a""roach of the hori4on of values, o"ens ne; ;ays of manifesting the #iversity an# #ifferences an# gro;s attitu#es of res"ect an# o"enness to #iversity. 0t is also a s"ecific, "e#agogic res"onse at the attem"t to #eal ;ith the socio9cultural conse/uences im"ose# by the "ro"ortion of migratory conse/uences, it is a ;ay to "revent an# mitigate the conflicts, it involves social civic e#ucation an# learning of human rights, "re"aration an# "artici"ation in social life, training of trainers from the "ers"ective of cultural interaction, cultural e#ucation an# #evelo"ment of immigrants in a multicultural society. Conclu ion 5he intercultural school has the obGective of "reserving an# safeguar#ing cultural #iversity of "eo"le an# "reserve unity in the school, it carries out a "rocess of integration by ta<ing over "rior cultural ac/uisitions stu#ents "ossess, invites the teachers to un#erstan# an# use the cultural "otential of stu#ents, it assumes a ne; ;ay of #esign an# im"lementation of school curricula an# a ne; relational attitu#e among teachers, stu#ents, "arents. 0ntegration lies in assimilating a stu#ent in mass e#ucation, ;here he a#a"ts (or not) to "olicies, "ractices an# the curriculum e3isting in school. 0nclusion means the a#a"tation of school to offer s"ecial e#ucational services, to meet the learning an# "artici"ation of all stu#ents in all activities. 0nclusion is measure# by increasing the #egree of "artici"ation an# re#ucing the e3clusion in ;hatever form it might occur. 5eachers ;ith artistic s"eciali4ations, have to offer stu#ents the o""ortunity to get familiari4e# to the artistic "henomenon an#

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creation, to involve them in artistic events, ;ith a ne; conce"tion an# non #iscriminatory attitu#e to;ar#s the cultural "ro#uctions of minorities. Ke must be a;are of all the o""ortunities a;aiting to be use# in the e#ucational an# out9of9school activities, even if in the occu"ational stan#ar#s, the tas<s of cultural an# intercultural me#iation are not inclu#e# yet. 0n a subliminal form, a real cultural an# intercultural "olicy is that carrie# out at the musical e#ucation, "lastic e#ucation classes, in the artistic e3tracurricular activities an# in the social s"ace, by ;atching "erformances, in the museums, thematic tri"s. -i8lio&ra"!) A. CoGocaru, Constantin, ,evciuc, Catalia, jj ,chool an# 0nterethnic Communication), in Di#actica Pro, Co. I9?, Chiin:u, Bctober =HHF =. Chombart #e -au;e, '5he 0mage of Culture), Paris, Payot, AO@H F. Cuco1 Constantin, '%#ucation. Cultural an# 0ntercultural Dimensions) 0a1i, Polirom,=HHH I. 5he Universal Declaration of uman Rights, the 0nternational Pact on %conomic ,ocial an# Cultural Rights, the %uro"ean Convention on Protection of uman Rights an# 7un#amental 7ree#oms, Charter of 7un#amental Rights of the %uro"ean Union ?. -inton, Ral"h ' 5he Cultural 7un#ament of Personality), Bucharest, 5he ,cientific Publishing ouse, AOLP L. 5he B"erative Plan a#o"te# at the 0ntergovernamental Conference on the Cultural Policies for Develo"ment, ,toc<holm, AOOP @. ' Ruffolo Re"ort) 9Unity of Diversities9 Cultural Co9B"eration in the %uro"ean Union, =HHA P. 5he Resolution Regar#ing the Culture.s Role in the %uro"ean Union, ;hich ta<es many from the D Ruffolo Re"ort) .s "oints =HHA O. 5he Korl# Conference Re"ort Regar#ing the Cultural Politics, organi4e# in AOP= by UC%,CB in *e3ico City.

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3. ANCIENT %REEA TRA%ED6 AND 5U.TIDI5ENSIONA. SOCIET6 1 FRA%5ENTS OF T/E .AST FIVE DECADES
Ioana ,etcu%&( A8 tract7 [ow much influence, what poignancy and who much visibility is ancient kree% tragedy has in an era of advanced technologies, globali#ation and various forms of crisisc To what ebtent can be justifiable received in the confusing }} and }}! centuries the first playwrights whose name sounds li%e so farc $nd finally, if it ebists, what is the place of an $eschylus, Mophocles or furipides in the mental performance of the multicultural society in which find ourselvesc The many different approaches to ancient tebts, traditional and ebperimental ali%e, from H\s until now, have shown that the worlds that seems to be at a great distance are close and vary alive still. !mportant names of Eomanian or international directors brought in public attention, either probing the social area of ma%ing use of identity conflicts, tebts from fifth and fourth century NI more or less complete, adding a personal feeling on these interpretations. Ae) >ord 7 interference, interculturality, education, utilitarianism, tragedy, antiquity.

Khen (eorge ,teiner asserte# in AOLA that the s"irit of trage#y ha# #ie#, he ;as #efinitely tal<ing from the ;riter.s "ers"ective, an# es"ecially from the theologian.s"ers"ective, but ;atching the stage of the ;orl#, ;e have reasons to contra#ict the 7rench9&ngle9&merican author.s "essimism. 5he fate of the (ree< trage#y has been une/ual along the centuries. 0ts success from the ? th an# Ith centuries B.C. ;as "artly blurre# es"ecially by ,eneca.s -atin re"hrases from the Ast century &.D. Being a remote source of ins"iration for the me#ieval an# Renaissance #rama, the (ree< trage#y an# the ancient fervor fin# themselves rene;e# in a ne; living light in the 7rench Classicism, in ;hose eye 6 nonetheless 6 a fe; changes must be ma#e as regar#s the verisimilitu#e an# the natural flo; of events. 5he faces of the ancient heroes glo; or become clou#e# in a com"letely #ifferent ;ay un#er Corneille or Racine.s "en an# ne; "ers"ectives re"lenish the moral an# the to"ic of &eschylus, ,o"hocles or %uri"i#es in the times of absolute monarchies. 5a<ing another ste" in time, ;e can see that the Romantics #i# not hesitate for a moment either to mirror their ;ishes, beliefs, in#ignation or me#itations in the to"ics offere# to them by their ancestors from the am"hitheatres. Ke have testimonies in Percy Bysshe ,helley.s Xrometheus nnbound (AP=H) or Kedipus the ]ing (AP=H), or !phigenia in Taurida (the first version ;as "erforme# in A@@O) by !ohann Kolfgang von (oethe. 5hen from the symbolist9vanguar#ist ugo von ofmannsthal, ;ho com"ose# the libretto flectra in AOHO, to the revisions from the mo#ern #rama of the =Hth century 6 Bertolt Brecht (,o"hocles. $ntigone), &n#r (i#e (Kedipus), !ean9Paul ,artre (The Vlies), (erhart au"tmann (The Trilogy of the $treids), !ean (irau#ou3 ($mphitryon *U, The Trojan Oar Oill Tot Ta%e Xlace, flectra), !ean Cocteau ($ntigone, Krpheus, Kedipus the ]ing,
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&ssistant PhD, '(eorge %nescu) University of &rts from 0a1i of Romania,emailN gheranit4aVgmail.com

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!nfernal Qachine, Nacchus), !ean &nouilh ($ntigone, Kedipus), %ugene B.Ceill (Qourning Necomes flectra) or, closer to the "resent, *argueritte Jourcenar (flectra or The ^ropping of the Qas%s) 6 ;e can clearly see ho; the archety"es an# myths of the ancient times recover #ifferent sha"es in the imagination of the "re9 an# "ost9;ar society. (oing from literature to #irecting, from te3t to "erformance, ancient trage#y is "resent /uantitatively as ;ell as /ualitatively in the re"ertoires of the current institutions an# artists, an# as %#ith all mentione# in the "reface to ^ionysus since HS()+ it is a communication bri#ge bet;een art an# history, a cu"el in ;hich the "luri9i#entity society can invert its image, conce"tion, #ogmas, tra#itions, <no;ing that it ;ill fin# a corres"on#ent in the en# "ro#uct that comes out of the cu"el li<e va"our. 5he agitate# ;orl# in ;hich many times the go#s turn their bac<s to the mortals, in ;hich ;ar #evastates cities an# "eo"le, in ;hich the in#ivi#uals seem often #amne# to unha""iness, in ;hich solitary characters aboun#, in ;hich t;o brothers fight each other for illusory "o;er, or in ;hich a sister alienates herself an# re"u#iates the other sister, is our ;orl#, ;here ;e are living in the =H th an# =Ast centuries, but ;hose echo reflects itself bac< in time, reaching the ancient "atterns. 5he t;o ;orl# ;ars, the Vietnam conflicts, the se"aration of %uro"e by means of the 0ron Curtain are re"licas from a familiar reality of the 'fabulous) ha""enings from the ancient myths. 5he research carrie# out in the =H th century in the area of ethnology, ritualism, an# mythology "ro#uce# innovative i#eas for an# "re"are# the ne; e3"loitations of staging. &n e3am"le is the ;ell9<no;n staging by $laus *ichael (rmber an# Peter ,tein of the $ntiquity Xroject (AO@F), ;hich ha# starte# from the observations relate# to the sacrifices ma#e by Kalter Bur<ert in the boo< [omo Tecans a year earlier, in AO@=. %/ually, a thesis such as the one state# by Ren (irar# in 'a violence et le sacre g iiolence and the Macred, along ;ith (roto;s<i.s ten#encies in vogue in the p@Hs re"resente# for a long time the gol#en formula for some stage creators. & genuine #irectorial "henomenon too< "lace starting the pLHs, ;hen trage#y 6 either by re"ro#ucing the ancient inter"retation as faithfully as "ossible, or by transforming it an# even mutilating it 6 coul# serve as an e#ucational "roGect through the reconstitution of the scenic mo#alities from the times before Christ, or coul# convey the message of a mo#ern age haunte# by "olitical #emons, by the "sycho9analysis ;hims, or by the nations. crisis. 7rom Richar# ,chechner.s staging after %uri"i#es. Nacchae, title# ^ionysus in HS in his bol# variant, carrie# out ;ith Performance (rou" 5heatre, ;hich 6 though it remaine# in the e3"erimental area 6 still ;rote a "age in the mo#ern #irection history, to Peter ,ellars. militant trans"ositions ;ith The
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*ore (ree< trage#y has been "erforme# in the last thirty years than at any "oint of history since (reco9 Roman anti/uity. 5ranslate#, a#a"te#, stage#, sung, #ance#, "aro#ie#, filme#, enacted, (ree< trage#y has "rove# magnetic to ;riters an# #irectors searching for ne; ;ays in ;h,ich to "ose /uestions to contem"orary society an# to "ush bac< the boun#aries of theatre. %#ith all, Xreface to ^ionysus since HS, %#ith all, 7iona *acintosh, &man#a Krigley (coor#.), =n# e#ition, B3for# University Press, =HH@, ". =

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[eraclids, the #ust9covere# bo#y of the stories bet;een the go#s an# "eo"le has al;ays remaine# o"ene# on the surgery table, so that the in#ecent or scru"ulous eye of artists shoul# loo< forever #ee"er. ^ionysus in HS reflecte# the mentality an# the ten#encies of an &merican society in ;hich "olitics an# se3ual revolution governe# the in#ivi#ual.s e3"ression. Joung ,chechner built a /uite strange "erformance, #efinitely a "erformance for an e3clusive au#ience, using %uri"i#es. trage#y as a basis, but inclu#ing moments in ;hich the characters move asi#e, allo;ing the actors manifest themselves. &ctually, the characters are merely a very slim surface that can brea< or can be recom"ose#, u" to the en#, ;hen the e3it from 5hebes means at the same time the e3it from the character an# the e3it from the #rama. ,chechner accom"lishes a "erformance in the mi##le of the au#ience, involving the au#ience even in the most intimate actions. 5his ;ay, the orgy ta<es "lace on the stage an# both actors an# "artici"ants from the au#ience are merge# in the in#efinite bo#y of caresses, in ;hich ;e cannot tell if something is simulate# or the Dionysiac confusion is actually felt. ,urely these barriers that the #irector an# his team inten# to remove #o nothing else but #eform the ancient s"irit of the te3t an#, if ;e ;ere to a## the comic su""lements inter"ose# here an# there, ;e ;oul# easily reali4e that in fact the "erformance sta<e, the gui#ing i#ea that the #irector inten#e# is com"letely #ifferent from the i#ea of the tragic fate of Pentheus an# his entire family. 5he general frame;or< remin#e# to a certain e3tent of the concert of The ^oors ban#, ;hose vocalist !im *orrison claime# to be the variant of the vine #ivinity of the p@Hs. 5he scene of the 5heban <ing.s sacrifice is im"ressive, but ;hy must everything become #erisory, an# Dionysus turn into an &merican into a suit, ;ho s"ea<s on the micro"hone, is carrie# on arms, seems to be brought #o;n from a 5V sho; set ;here he ran for "resi#ent. 5he final image of a Killiam 7inley ;ho shouts on the street, in a noisy grou" of "eo"le, that he is the only one ;ho "romises absolute free#om to human<in# is ,chechner.s ;ay of #emonstrating that #rama is only one ste" a;ay from real life> at least in AOPL, ;hen the "remiere too< "lace. Khat #oes thisN '0 give you com"lete free#om) <ee" from the original ;or#s of the go# that soun# li<e thisN '0f only you ha# follo;e# ;is#om instea# of failing it, then by the grace of $roni.s son you ;oul# have reGoice#.)()G &n# is a ;riting such as Nacchae a""ro"riate for such a stri<ing messageS Bbviously, ;ith its /ualities an# fla;s, the staging from Ce; Jor< o"ene# a rather clear line regar#ing a#a"tations or translations of the ancient te3ts in mo#ern formulas. Ke shoul# not omit that even &frican or &sian "eo"les foun# common elements in these te3ts. 0n this regar#, Kole ,oyin<a or Ble Rotimi.s ;or< as a translator an# #irector is ;ell <no;n, an# 5a#achi ,u4u<i.s a""roaches of the ancient #rama are as famous. Kearing long ;hite clothes contrasting ;ith their blac< faces or ;earing ma<e9u" an# "erforming moves such as the n theatre
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%uri"i#es, Nacchae, in Iomplete ^rama Oor%s, translation, "reface an# comments by &le3an#ru *iran, Chisinau, (univas9&rc Publishing ouse, =HH?, ". APO AIL

moves, the characters of the (ree< myths seem remote ans;ers that can be given in the fight for human rights or echoes of the Ci""on incantations. By staging flectra in AOLL on &frican groun#, in &lgeria, &ntoine Vite4 obtaine# the success of the theatre that is an instrument for the recognition of reality, of the in#ivi#ual as a mere s"ectator in scenic fiction. By means of the system of co#es accom"lishe# by Vite4, the t;o universes 6 the referential one an# the fictional one 6 manage# to meet an# connect. &fter his #ebut ;ith his ne; vision on ,o"hocles. te3t, Vite4 ;oul# e3claimN '5he miracle of Babel ;as accom"lishe#. 5he ;hole au#ience has recogni4e# in the %lectra their nation humiliate# for =? years, subGecte# to colonial rule, restore# to life ;hen ho"e seeme# lost).()H &cting regar#ing the co#e from the te3t, transforming it an# reaching a ne; co#e that maintains only remains more or less visible from the ;riting, Peter ,ellars has been sho;ing at least from the pOHs that ancient trage#y can be an instrument of #ialogue bet;een the stage an# the "eo"le outsi#e it. Being a tireless searcher of a "ath that ma<e "ossible <no;le#ge, communication an# involvement of the Bther 6 namely both the acting "artner an# the ;atcher from the "erformance hall 6 the &merican sto"s half ;ay bet;een e3"eriment an# meta"hor, trying to su""ort his activist i#eas on the "atterns of &nti/uity. 0n consonance ;ith the ol#er o"inion accor#ing to ;hich 'the theatre is a social "ro#uct)()R, the Professor from the University of California sees theatre as a means of i#entifying an# hel"ing the BtherN ',o the /uestion in the arts is ho; you brea< through this ;all that ;e all have, this me#iatise# ;all that "revents most of us from engaging in our real environment an# changing it, entering it #irectly, e3"eriencing it totally, not through a membrane but actually touching). 0n AOPL, ,ellars sto""e# at ,o"hocles. te3t $jab an# stage# it in &merican Cational 5heatre. Benefiting from scanty setting ;ith military obGects, from suites s"ecific to the &merican &rmy, referring #irectly to the "olitical #is"utes bet;een the Unite# ,tates of &merica an# ,outhern &merica, Peter ,ellars. accom"lishment ;as controversial at that time. 0t is remar<able that, #es"ite the fact that he #re; a;ay from the te3t as a sha"e, the message an# ancient la;s ha# been <e"t rather faithfully. onour, the "o;er of sacrifice, an# the a;areness of one.s limits are states of min#, sensations an# messages conveye# by the acting "rocess. 5he go#s have the entire authority, &thens charms the hero an# ma<es him sin. 5he butchere# cattle #o not a""ear on the stageU but the im"ression of an e3tremely serious fact is no; ren#ere# through a symbolic sceneN on the stage, a large hole caves in, ;here the #irt is mi3e# ;ith bloo# an# ;here &Ga3 is s;am"e# in an# his eyes are terrifie# before the bane. 5he "rotagonist is inter"rete# by a #eaf actor ( o;ie ,eago), ;hose lines, ;hich are
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&ntoine Vite4, refer to %#ith all, 7iona *acintosh, &man#a Krigley (coor#.), ^ionysus since HS, /uote# "ublishing house, ". =FF ()R &nne Ubersfel#, ]ey Terms of Theatre, translation by (eorgeta -oghin, 0a1i, 0nstitutul %uro"ean Publishing ouse, AOOO, ". AP AI@

not very many, are uttere# by a cory"haeus. 7or this reason, the actor concentrates his entire attention his face e3"ression an# bo#y. Diveste# of the mystery that #ominates ,o"hocles. "lay, the "erformance is the result of a #etache# thin<ing that turns the Gustice act into the "illar of the entire conce"tion. Kith The Xersians, ,ellar goes to;ar#s &eschylus, ;hich is im"ro"erly sai#, as he actually #ra;s a;ay from 'the father of trage#y). 0n AOOF, militating against the (olf Kar, he "ro"ose# a mo#ern version of &eschylus. te3t, by overla""ing the image of the &merican trou"es on the (ree<s. an# the 0ra/i trou"es. image on the Persians.. Cevertheless the analogy is force# an# it only lea#s to confusion. ,ellars. interesting theory accor#ing to ;hich this staging shoul# re"resent an inverte# "ers"ective, through ;hich the ;inners are seen through the eyes of the #efeate# 6 e3tra"olating, as &mericans are seen from the 0ra/is. "ers"ective 6 #oes not match the "ractical result. 5he "erformance combines several styles that fail to fin# a common "oint, ;hich is ;hy the general im"ression is that of a "erformance ;ith no bin#er. 5he only remar<able inter"retation is o;ie ,eago.s, "laying the "art of Darius. sha#o;, ;hich is no; lac<ing in ;or#s, but all the more tragic so as he uses only am"le an# ;ell9"re"are# moves. Conetheless, this "resence #oes not save an entire "erformance that, though it follo;s the line of trans"osing the ol# co#es into ne; co#es a#a"te# to the mo#ern society, fails half ;ay. ,ellar #oes not give u" the i#ea of social involvement, an# ;ith The [eraclids he manages to achieve in =HH= a vast "roGect in ;hich theatre becomes only a "art of a bigger #iscussion on the status of refugees. 5he barrier bet;een the au#ience an# the stage is again remove#, "eo"le being invite# to tal< at a roun# table both about the "erformance an# about the maGor to"ic of the attitu#e that ;e have or that ;e have create# regar#ing the Bther, the stranger. Conse/uently, the theatre becomes an instrument in a rather com"licate# mechanism, by means of ;hich the artist inten#s 6 among other things 6 to give an ans;er to the causes that "rovo<e# the events from ,e"tember AAth from Ce; Jor<, "recisely through the "ers"ective of the confrontation ;ith the strangers. 0f ;e are to a## the current #esi#erates from the &merican Re"ertory 5heatre, accor#ing to ;hich art must also "lay an e#ucational or integrating role, ;e ;ill see that, beyon# the benefic "ro"osals of the artists an# managers of cultural institutions, the outcomes ;ill loo< li<e a mi3 of ten#encies "ossibly lac<ing in the essential. 0n ,ellars, for instance, the great ris< is that %uri"i#es ;as forgotten among the common obGects of the =Ast century. Using the Brechtian theories, his staging from the &merican Re"ertory 5heatre brings t;enty9seven chil#ren an# teenagers, un"rofessional actors, &frican refugees 6 the su""liants 6 in a hy"er9mo#ern setting, as the hall is fille# ;ith "roGection screens, micro"hones, an# the altar turns into a frame illuminate# from un#erneath, seeming a miraculous "lace. %ven if %uri"i#es #isa""ears in a bo3 of the curtainless stage in ;hich the actors. entrances from an# e3its to the bac<stage can be seen, ,ellars <ne; ho; to <ee" the accents of the trage#y, managing to im"ress the au#ience ;ith highly
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sensitive moments. 5he #eath of *acaria, ;hose ;hite shirt is re#9staine#, thus sho;ing the theatrical mechanisms un#isguise#, has the "o;er, #es"ite any #etachment effects, of moving the s"ectator. &ttractive at first sight, the &merican #irector.s conce"tion falls into the tra" of force# u"#ates. %ven if it is not his first staging in Brachtian style ;ith certain messages of "olitical #rama, he Gustifies the gui#ing i#ea of the stagingN '5he /uestions associate# to refugees are eternal. 5he (ree<s use# #rama to raise them, because #rama ta<es you much #ee"er than "olitics. 0jm trying to #o the same thing).()U (ree< trage#y #i# not #ie in our century, either in literature or on the stage, ;e can assert this confi#ently. 0n the Romanian theatre, loo<ing only into the "ast t;o #eca#es, ;e have no less than t;enty "erformances after &eschylus, ,o"hocles an# %uri"i#es. te3ts. 5he traveling Danai#es of ,ilviu Purc:rete from AOO? at the Cational 5heatre of Craiova, the unboun# Bacchae an# the mani"ulate# Bacchae 6 the t;o variants of *ihai *:niuEiu 6 at the Cational 5heatre from Bucharest an# at 'Ra#u ,tanca) 5heatre from ,ibiu, or the moving sha#o; of Prometheus from the choreogra"hic "erformance of $atona (abor at the ungarian 5heatre from 5imi1oara are only a fe; Romanian staging e3am"les from the "ast t;o #eca#es. 0t is true that the e3"erimental area a""roaches ty"es of te3ts other than ancient trage#y, but even so the attem"ts of bringing ol# forms closer to the "erce"tion of the current au#ience are various an# "ro"agate# in #ifferent ;ays. Bn this line, ;e fin# remar<able, courageous an# at the same time shattering Cristian Ce#ea.s vision on [ecuba by %uri"i#es, a "erformance hoste# by the Cational 5heatre from CluG in =HHO. Due to the unconventional settlement, the relation bet;een "ro#uction an# s"ectator changes un#er many as"ects. 5he chosen s"ace is outsi#e the theatre, the story of the unha""y 5roGan /ueen ;hose life is falling a"art un#er the siege# city ta<es "lace ;ithin the unfinishe# construction of the (ree<9Catholic Cathe#ral from Ci"ariu ,/uare. Ce#ea "ictures a universe of alienation. 0t is a continuous search of the self bet;een the unfinishe# ;alls carrie# out by the characters an# in#uce# to the au#ience as ;ell, beyon# the cla##ing heaving absur#ly to the s<y 6 a human sha"e crushe# by the misty height. 0magine# as an ancient am"hitheatre, the austere "remises of the cathe#ral #elineate the outline of a circle re"resenting both the im"ossibility to esca"e an# the infinity of the ;orl# beyon#. Butsi#e the ;alls, there are cro;#e# avenues, illuminate# buil#ings, small an# noisy streetsU outsi#e the ;alls solitary trees gro;. %uri"i#es. settings change# into the semi9urban grey, in the roun# s"ace at the conGunction bet;een sacre# an# "rofane. 5he s"ectators can feel the #istance bet;een here an# there as an enormous #istance create# bet;een sacre# an# "rofane, they can feel the solitu#e an# greatness of the tragic an# they e3"eriment, maybe unconsciously, varie# states of min#, as the ancient s"ectator sitting on the stone stairs of the am"hitheatre felt com"assion, an3iety, loo<e# at the gloomy faces of the actors
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Refer to !ames 5. ,ven#sen, furipides The Ihildren of [era%les in DDi#as<alia Revie;), volume V0, no. A, =HHI AIO

in the torchlight. Detache# from the #aily life, "rivilege# in a s"ecial location of the "erformance, the vie;ers of [ecuba in =HHO are given the illusion of a meeting ;ith anti/uity right in the mi##le of an a#vance# century an# in the mi##le of an agitate# city. *ihai *:niuEiu, the #irector forever in love ;ith the ancient te3ts, also establishes a #ialogue bet;een the stage an# the au#ience. ,ome;hat ins"ire# by Peter Broo<.s mo#el of se"arating the s"ectator from the stage by means of a ;all of bars, ;hich ;as use# by the British creator in QaratgMade in AOLO, *:niuEiu "ut on stage Nacchae in the 5heatre from 5Mrgovi1te, using a net fence bet;een the limelight an# the hall. -oo<ing strictly from the "ers"ective of the scenogra"hic #evice, ;e can say that the #irector conceive# the "erformance li<e an enclave in reality, the reality being re"resente# by the s"ectators "erceive# in their "hysical as"ect. &ctually, the 'barrier) "lays t;o rolesN on the one si#e, ma<es the s"ectator un#erstan# the effect of the theatrical illusion that alienates very clearly here from thereU on the other si#e, it #etermines the e3tension of the "erformance to the au#ience hall, as the au#ience is given the role of "rivilege# vie;er into the 'cage full of characters), of ;itness, an# 6 ;hy not 6 Gu#ge of the action going on beyon# the net fence. By trying to maintain balance bet;een %uri"i#es an# his receivers from the =H th century, the #irector resorts to transcribing the te3t to a mo#ern co#e easy to recogni4e by an au#ience that once more ha# to notice ho; close the essence of the current society 6 of mani"ulators an# mani"ulate# 6 is to the society of orators from the agora. & continuous sur"rising game is achieve# bet;een the ;or# an# the ;orl# in ;hich the ;or#s are uttere#, consi#ere# in its outer a""earance. 5he ;or# re"resents at least t;o facesN one face in its neutral hy"ostasis 6 of s"ea<ing in "rose, of narrating, an# the other in the hy"ostasis of the ;or# full of "oetry, of "o;erful e3"ressiveness, of the lines of sacrificial incantations. 5he characters are characteri4e# by ;hat they say an# by the ;ay in ;hich they s"ea<. Dionysus is no longer an effeminate young man, as %uri"i#es imagine# him. Co;, he is a versatile ol# man (inter"rete# by actor Corneliu !i"a), a /uite strange "resence, hi##en an# yet full of life, but ;ho gives the im"ression of having a malefic character. e brings everyone to "er#ition, he s"ea<s on the micro"hone in or#er to organi4e the celebrating cortegeU eventually, he is the mani"ulator. e is the voice that, even if it is hear# very lo;, is felt some;here above everyone, infiltrate# in the heart of each character. Besi#es him there is a me#iator 6 5iresias, a har#ly secon#ary character on the stage, even if originally he seeme# so in ancient trage#y. 5he scenic #evice of the net fence, of the enclave9stage, came to characteri4e *ihai *:niuEiu, since not only in The Nacchae #i# he use it. 5he staging of the same te3t from =HAH, at the *unici"al 5heatre from 0stanbul, unfortunately brought a #ecrease in the #ramatic value. Using the same ;ire net, *aniuEiu gambles this time on the im"act factor (even ;ith commercial accents). Dionysus is no; young, ;ith an athletic bo#y that he

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e3"oses e3cessively. e sings an# #ictates to the maena#s ;hat they shoul# #o on the micro"hone again, but his voice has so little cre#ibility no; > 0f ancient trage#y still e3ists to#ay, if the memory of the theatre has not forgotten it, on the contrary, it has rather em"hasi4e# it in a ne; manner, then this ;oul# be the result of the favourable meeting of the centuries on the lan# of the general notions of the human thin<ing. 5he connections that can be foun# bet;een times an# geogra"hies are manners in ;hich creators come to fulfill their "ur"oseN communicating to the community an# involving the community in the eternal relation establishe# bet;een the reality of the s"ectator an# the reality of the stage, ;hich eventually lea#s to the ;ell <no;n e3"ression accor#ing to ;hich #rama is the mirror of society. -i<e an immeasurably9si4e# brain, current human<in# receives an# gives information, selects, sto"s in itself or "asses stages, events, an# faces into oblivionU the fact that the stage goes bac< to its beginnings more or less faithfully re"resents "recisely a manner of not ignoring, an# re"resents an attem"t of ma<ing un#erstoo# meanings that the centuries have re"hrase#. -i8lio&ra"!) VB-U*%, 7oley, elene P., (=HHA), Vemale $cts in kree% Tragedy, 0 e#ition, Princeton University Press, Ce; !ersey (regory9Kinston, !uatina (coor#.), (=HH?), $ Iompanion to kree% Tragedy, 0 e#ition, Kiley9Blac<;ell, *assachusetts all, %#ith, *acintosh, 7iona, Krigley, &man#a (coor#.), (=HH@), ^ionysus since HS, 00n# e#ition, B3for# University Press, B3for# all, %#ith, arro", ,te"he, (=HAH), Theorising Xerformance kree% Tragedy, Iultural [istory and Iritical Xractice, 0 e#ition, B3for# University Press, B3for# (ol#hill, ,imon, (=HH@), [ow to Mtage kree% Tragedy Today, 0 e#ition, University Bf Chicago Press, Chicago Rehm, Rush, (=HH=), The Xlay of Mpace Mpatial Transformation in kree% Tragedy, 0 e#ition, Princeton University Press, Ce; !ersay Ketmore, $evin !. !r., (=HH=), The $thenian Mun in a $frican M%y, 0 e#ition, *ac7arlan# Com"any, Corth Carolina Kiles, Davi#, (=HH@), Qas% and Xerformance in kree% Tragedy. Vrom $ncient Vestival to Qodern fbperimentation, 0 e#ition, Cambri#ge University Press, Cambri#ge Qeitlin, 7roma 0., (AOOL), Xlaying the Kther. kender and Mociety in Ilassical kree% 'iterature, 0 e#ition, University of Chicago Press, Chicago Qimmer, Bernar#, (AOLP), $daptations du the`tre antique, 0re #ition, -es Belles -ettres, Paris

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P%R0BD0C&-, &n#ronescu, *inoca, (=HAH), I`nd ^ionysos se dJ de trei ori peste cap..., in 'Joric<), no. =O, !une Constantinescu, *ariana, (=HHI), Vurioasele, in 'RomMnia literar:), no. I, 7ebruary Pecican, Bvi#iu, (=HHO), [ecuba, nrsu and Iristian Tedea, in '&rt&ct *aga4in), no. =A, !une ,ven#sen, !ames 5., (=HHI), furipides The Ihildren of [era%les in 'Di#as<alia Revie;), volume V0, nr. A, Ran#ol"h College uculescu, Ra#u, (=HH?), ^ionysos Yi flubberul sJu cel alb... in 'Bbservator cultural), no. =?I9=??, !anuary

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I. /OW TO READ T/E .OUISE -OUR%EOISH WORA FRO5 T/E

,ERFOR5ATIVIT6R
E(a Santo SSnc!eG-%uG#Sn()S A8 tract7 Xerformances by 'ouise Nourgeois are scarce yet, the story of her life related through her wor%s and the relationship of the two, as described in the tebts, will allow us an overview of her career as a highly subjective performing action. Through her wor% she gives names to her fears and traumas so to describe her wor% as autobiographical is to fall short of the meaning her creation. This approach would suppose a reflection through the ebample of 'ouise Nourgeois on the question !s it the subjectivity of the artist which comes out or is represented in the performance or does the performance contribute to shape the artists subjectivityc. This ! will do through commentary of four wor%s-actions. 'es Xersonages, which followed her from one place to another until finally going on show in the Tew wor% Xeridot kallery in (S+S and G\, are a reflection of her abandoning the family home and creating thereby what the psychoanalyst ^onald Oinnicott called, transitional objects pain order to develop her migratory grief. The ^estruction of the Vather, may be seen as a cathartic installation in which the self debates in a search for the psychic spaces in which to place her father Lshe would do the same with her mother in later wor%sF, a search for the structures which can house him, and entering transitional spaces where new objects are recreated and symbolic %illings are played out, with the recognition of her self in her wor% ! have no ego, ! am my wor%. !t is a symbolic %illing of the enemy, for which she will later have to perform a ceremony of ebpiation and purification in the style of the rites laid out by Vreud in Totem and taboo. Oe are tal%ing here of the performance Nanquetg$ fashion show of Nody Xarts, in (SRU, where faced with a similar scenario to that of The ^estruction of the Vather she invites a series of art critics to try on a lateb suit of many bosems, thus moc%ing the patriarchal society. There are two possible readings of the great phallic wor% Villette L(SHU-SSF a criticism of phallocentrism or a representation of the failure of a mothers power in the relationship with her father. $ failure which she does not wish to repeat and so she dominates it by staging it. Ohen the photographer Qapplethorpe proposes ta%ing her portrait she ta%es her penis with her , so converting herself into a phallic mother. Nourgeoiss wor% consciously poses the relationship of the self with the world, a world which goes beyond the world, a world which ebtends to the reflection of compleb human relationships which finally structure our subjectivity. Ae) >ord 7 performance, subjectivity, transitional objects, fetishist

Ke are subGects the moment ;e cease to be omni"otent, the moment ;e conceive that the ;orl# is not Gust us. But before this ;e have a name ;hich i#entifies us, an# a se3 an# some features ;hich #istinguish us from the rest 6 our "syche 6 an# ;ith it our subGectivity. 5his ;e ;ill form bit by bit if ;e have a 'goo# enough) atmos"here to ;elcome us. 5he #ifferent ;ays ;e choose ;ill become the Gourney that mar<s our life, the ;ar" that sustains it, an# so is our subGectivity #efine#. 0t is a subGectivity that in the en# is he ;hole of our "erce"tions an# feelings, our memories an# ;ishes, the <no;le#ge ;hich hel"s
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Professor, University from *urcia of ,"ain, emailN evasantoVum.es

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us to achieve a "osition in the ;orl# an# to gain a vie; of the ;orl#. Ke can allo; ourselves to be ma#e by others or ;ee can ma<e ourselves in collaboration ;ith the other. ence, the nee# to create is a nee# to buil# ourselves, to ma<e each moment #ifferent, thus contributing to the formation of our i#entity as much or more than the outsi#e ;orl#. Psyche an# society are inse"arable. 5he "syche is sociali4e# by the incor"oration of imaginary social meanings, as society itself survives. 7or the "hiloso"her an# "sychoanalyst, Cornelius Castoria#is, there e3ists a refle3ive subGect an# an autonomous one, ;hich although consciously alienate# /uestions such social imaginary meanings an# incor"orates ne; meanings. 0n such a ;ay can ;e un#erstan# the sco"e of the ;or< of -ouise Bourgeois. er ;or< goes further than an# nearer to the autobiogra"hical. 7urther, insofar as it illustrates the slogan ';hat is "ersonal is "olitical) collaborating in creating ne; meanings of ;hat is feminine. 5his ;as seen by the feminist movements of the si3ties into ;hich she ;as receive# an# invite# to various e3hibitions an# roun# tables ;ith other artists ;ho ;ere revin#icating ne; inter"retations of gen#er. 5he ;or< of -ouise Bourgeois relates her con#ition of ;oman. 7or *ara *ilagros Rivera (arretas there are t;o great ;ays for ;omen to ma<e theory an# "olitics, 'in the struggle to free themselves from an e3"erience un#erstoo# as a historical an# contem"orary con#ition of social an# symbolic subor#ination "asse# on to the #aughter by her very mother,)(*\ (=HH=U =A) ;hich is ;here ;e "lace her ;or<s. 0n#ee#, Bourgeois affirms that 'it is in the bosom of the family ;here the #rama of se3ual o""ression is most cru#ely "laye# out) (*ayayo, =HH=). ers is but one more e3am"le. &n# nearer because it also illustrates her o;n ;or#sN '0 have no life, 0 am my ;or<). 5hus, she has not hesitate# to a""roach art as an active ;ay of combating #e"ression an# emotional #e"en#ence (Bourgeois, =HH=U OL) as a ;ay of accessing the unconscious. '0t is a fantastic "rivilege to have access to the unconscious. 0 ha# to be ;orthy of this "rivilege, an# to e3ercise it. 0t ;as also to be able to sublimate. & lot of "eo"le cannot sublimate. 5hey have no access to their unconscious. 5here is something very s"ecial in being able to sublimate your unconscious, an# something very "ainful in the access to it) (Bourgeois, =HH=U A=F) -i<e the chil# "sychologist Kinnicott, she un#erstan#s that creation is "erha"s more im"ortant than ;hat is create#. 0t is a creation that is in#is"ensable for the healthy #evelo"ment of the min# an# than<s to ;hich life becomes ;orth living, a creation that charges our e3istence ;ith meanings. 5he first nee# to be combate# arose the moment she ;as born. ,he ;as born on December =?th AOAA, so s"oiling a #octor.s Christmas Day, an# #uring a "erio# in ;hich her "arents ;ere fighting li<e cats an# #ogs, an# in a year in
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5he other 'lays em"hasis on the sayability of the e3"erience an# the feminine e3"erience an# ;ish in society, un#erstan#ing these as "laces in ;hich free#om is "ossible). (Rivera, =HH=U =A)

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;hich her country ;as "re"aring for ;ar an# her sister ha# Gust #ie#. ,he ;as the thir# of four chil#ren an# for her father, ;ho ;ishe# for another son, another girl ;as a #isa""ointment. er se3, therefore, ;as a cause for her to be reGecte# by her father. &s she recounts, she fortunately loo<e# li<e her father an# *a#ame Bourgeois chose to call her -ouise the feminine form of her father.s name, in an attem"t to soften the blo; an# so be forgiven. But it ;as not to be. Ceither se3, nor "hysical a""earance, nor name hel"e# in buil#ing her i#entity, ;hich she began to ;eave from her very first tas<s in her "arents. car"et restoration ;or<sho" to ;hich she ;oul# go in an attem"t to gain her father.s affection. er father signe# u" in the army in the 7irst Korl# Kar an# her mother, in an attem"t to <ee" close to him, ;oul# change house to ;herever he ;as "oste#. ,he s"ent her first years ;ithout her father. &fter his return her mother fell ill an# she too< on the tas< of loo<ing after her until her #eath in AOF=, a year she ;oul# never forget. During that "erio# she s<etche# all of her houses, she continue# her Gourney an# she continue# her s<etches. ,i3 years later she ;oul# marry the &merican art historian Robert (ol#;ater, an# she move# to Ce; Jor<. 5here she ha# to overcome the "ain of migration an# that of being left alone each morning. 5he #evelo"ment of the human being is fille# ;ith a series of migrations an# "rogressive loss of obGects, an# the move from one country to another su""oses in itself overcoming a ty"e of suffering. Varying abilities to a#a"t, to generate introGections an# "roGections in the formation of one.s i#entity or in the resolution of such sufferings mean that each in#ivi#ual ;ill e3"erience migration in a #ifferent ;ay. 0t is a "rocess ;hich ;ill serve to ac/uire a normal internal balance, in a ne; environment, an# for ;hich it is in#is"ensable to control an# van/uish homesic<ness. 5his analogy forms the base on ;hich to un#erstan# the ;or< she carrie# out bet;een AOIL an# AO?A, Personages. 0 ;ill e3amine it by intro#ucing Donal# Kinnicott.s conce"t of transitional obGect. e "oints out that in each in#ivi#ual there e3ists an interme#iate area of e3"erience ;hich se"arates his internal reality an# the outsi#e ;orl# an# to ;hich both contribute. 0t is the interme#iate area bet;een ;hat is subGective an# ;hat is "erceive# obGectively. 0t is the area in ;hich the so calle# transitional "henomena of the #evelo"ment of the baby.s min# occur. 0n this area, the baby lin<s its "rimary creativity to the obGective "erce"tion ;hich arises out of reality. 0t is here that the baby can overcome the e3"erience of being se"arate# from its mother.s breast or thumb an# can turn to its first creation of a subGective obGect, i.e. its te##y bear or any e3ternal obGect, an# so overcome the "ain of the loss. 5he transitional obGect is, therefore, a symbolic obGect create# bet;een creation an# fin#ing. 5he baby creates an# #estroys transitional obGects in the first games, games that besto; on it the ability to symboli4e, to come into contact ;ith the ;orl#, to create nee#s, to be a;are of them an# to see< solutions (Kinnicot, AO@=)
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Kinnicott "oints out that the ca"acity to be alone is one of the most im"ortant features of gro;ing u". 0t im"lies the fusion of aggressive an# erotic im"ulses, the toleration of the ambivalence of feelings an# i#entification ;ith each "arent. 7inally, for the "rocess to continue through to a#ulthoo#, it ;ill be necessary to im"lant goo# obGects in the "sychic reality of the in#ivi#ual. 5his ca"acity is also fun#amental in a#a"ting the migratory "rocess since the confi#ence that these obGects "ro#uces an# their integration is the basis for su""orting se"arations an# the absence of ;ell <no;n e3ternal obGects. -ouise Bourgeois buil#s her transitional obGects, ;hich hel" her to #evelo" her migratory suffering an# overcome the solitu#e of each #ay. Khen *atisse an# Ducham", visit the e3hibition she e3"lains to them that they are 'sim"ly a manifestation of homesic<ness), (Colomina, =HHHU FO) an# re"eats to the critics that they are figures that come out of the roof (the s"ace use# as the stu#io) li<e the "lants or li<e s<yscra"ers, an# that they reconstruct the family she left behin# in 7rance. ,he recognises feeling very alone in Ce; Jor< an# is sur"rise# at this nee# that inva#es her to reconstruct all those "eo"le aroun# her, those "eo"le from ;hom she ha# fle# an# ;hom she no; misses. er creation becomes an action that is retransmitte# in her ;or<. 5he characters s"ea< to us of human relationshi"s an# their com"le3ity, an# this is the main theme in all her ;or<. '5he "roblems ;hich interest me are #irecte# more to;ar#s other "eo"le ;ho ma<e i#eas or obGects. 0n fact, the final achievement lies in establishing communication ;ith a "erson) (Bourgeois, =HH=U @F) 0t is an action ;hich is mainly seen in her nee# to ta<e them ;ith her from one "lace to another so that they can accom"any her in her solitu#e. ,imilarly, she has her "ortrait #one ;ith them. %ven in the Eetrato de I.w. she "ortrays an aban#onment (a female guest ;ho ;as not much a""reciate# by her) an# then she #rove nails into the "lace ;here the mouth ;oul# be. 5hese figures are more than FH long, thin batons ma#e from use#, recycle# ;oo#, create# therefore from a #iscovery an# transforme# into obGects that arise bet;een creativity an# fin#ing. Jet these first constructions of ;oo# ;ere "ainte# so has to hi#e the "oor /uality of the materials use# in a "erio# in ;hich she believe# that a ;oman shoul# not s"en# the money her husban# earne# but save it. 5he figures nee#e# a s"ace in ;hich the relationshi"s ;oul# be "ossible, an# they ;ere a s"aceN 7igure ka#ing at a [ouse, Vigures leaning $gainst a ^oor, Vigure Oho fnters a [ouse>5hey too< the s"ace of the Ce; Jor< Peri#ot (allery, ;here they finally ;ent on sho; in AOIO an# AO?H, as "art of the room, as the "lace ;here the members of a family an# frien#s relate to each other. 5here is a s"ace among the figures that e3"lores their relationshi"s, they hel" each other, they su""ort themselves, they #istance themselves an# they isolate themselves. '5he figures are "resences ;hich nee#e# the room, the si3 si#es of the cube. 5he "rivilege# s"ace has certain characteristics. 0t is close# an# e3actly #efine# an# belongs to the "erformer for a certain number of minutes. 5he s"ectator is
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no longer merely a vie;er if he is able to move from the stage of vie;ing to the stage of collaborating)(*(. 0t ;as a "erio# in ;hich it ;as still not fre/uent to fin# e3hibitions ;ithin the conce"t of the installation, so the s"ectator becomes "art of the "erformance, is inclu#e# in the relationshi"s of the characters in a #ifferent e3"erience, in ;hich he may go from "erce"tion to the relational action Bourgeois "ro"oses. 7or it is certain that not;ithstan#ing their abstraction, some of the figures ;ill thro; us bac< to our o;n losses. 5he #eman# of the gallery to a## feet to "rotect the floor ;oul# annoy Bourgeois because she ;as going through a "hase in ;hich she felt herself to be ;ithout feet, ;hen things seeme# to be unsustainable an# her "ieces ha# to e3"ress that uncertainty an# fragility so that the slightest "ush ;oul# have sent them falling, as ;oul# have occurre# to her o;n "ersonality (Colomina, =HHHU IA) 5hus they stri<e me as obGects of a frustrate# action. er characters are not the first transitional obGects she uses in her stagings. er first obGect ;as mo#elle# on the #inner table, from a chun< of ;hite brea# mi3e# ;ith saliva. 0t ;as the figure of her father ;ho in the same scene re"eate# over an# over again ho; ;on#erful he ;as. Bnce the figure ha# been mo#elle#, she too< a <nife an# am"utate# the members of the figure. 5his cathartic action ;as an im"ortant e3"erience for her an# hel"e# her at the time (Colomina, =HHHU FA) '0t is basically a table, the a;ful, terrifying family #inner table hea#e# by the father ;ho sis an# gloats. &n# the others, the ;ife, the chil#ren, ;hat can they #oS 5hey sit there, in silence. 5he mother of course tries to satisfy the tyrant, her husban#. 5he chil#ren full of e3as"eration, ;e ;ere three chil#renN my brother, my sister, an# my9self> *y father ;oul# get nervous loo<ing at us, an# he ;oul# e3"lain to all of us ;hat a great man he ;as. ,o, in e3as"eration, ;e grabbe# the man, thre; him on the table, #ismembere# him, an# "rocee#e# to #evour him.)(*) ,he recalls the anguish her father.s "resence "ro#uce# in her, his sho;s of strength, his anger. er mother ;oul# "ut the "lates near him so that he coul# brea< them in his anger, an# not hit the chil#ren. ,he highlights the im"ortance for her at that time of the creative "rocess. 0n the AOOF #ocumentary ma#e by Cigel 7inch for &rena 7ilms in -on#on, she brea<s a china vase on the floor an# then stam"s on the bro<en "ieces, so recalling some of the moments of anguish in her chil#hoo# relationshi" ;ith her father an# "ointing out to us the resentment ;hich has been ;ith her ever since. Jet it may be that by #ramati4ing it she gains consolation. 5he #inner table is stage# in AO@I, an# here she situates those e3"eriences in The ^estruction of the Vather. 5his ;as after the #eath of her husban#, an# she "uts ;hat ;ere ;or#s into images. 5he scene
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0n Bourgeois Kritings "" APF9A=O. Cite# by &le3 Potes in his article -ouise BourgeoisN ,cul"tural Confrontations. -ouise Bourgeois. B3for# &rt !ournal. Volumen ==. C =. Publishe# by B3for# University. AOOO. ". II (*) Bourgeois /uote# in !ean 7remon, "reface, -ouise Bourgeois. '5he 5igers %ye). Vol. A. n @. *arch A?. AOIO. " PO. Cite# by %ating Kor#s in *ignon Ci3on. B3for# &rt !ournal. Volumen ==. C =. Publisher by B3for# University. AOOO. ". ?? A?@

is "re"are# to bear the ambivalence of the feelings, it is "re"are# for the e3orcism of fear through "urification. Khile she #oes not ;ish to hear the ;or# thera"eutic, she #oes recogni4e that after the e3hibition of this ;or< she felt a #ifferent "erson (Bourgeois, =HH=U PI) 0t is a visceral setting in ;hich the "resence of the bo#y a""ears as loa#e# ;ith ambiguity. 5he table is "lace# in a ty"e of "rimitive cave. 0t is all covere# by bulbous stalactite or stalagmite forms that suggest an atem"oral s"ace. 5he table is lai# for the father to be #evoure#, for the sacrifice to be consummate#. 0t is a manifestation of #estructiveness ;ith ;hich the chil#, boy or girl, faces u" to the lac< of a 'sufficiently goo#) atmos"here that Kinnicott #efen#s. 0n other ;or#s, this lac< of atmos"here may lea# to various orientations in the subGect, among them a #estructive one. 5hrough the #estructive tren# is the surroun#ing stability sought that can bear the tension "rovo<e# by im"ulsive behaviour. 5he limit itself is sought, but it is the limit ;hich allo;s the obGect create# ;ith illusion to be refoun# an# to be given a use. 0f her transitional Xersonages ta<es us bac< to the legen#s #escribe# by 7reu# in 5otem an# 5aboo, not only on account of the totemic form but also her interest to clarify the feelings of social relationshi"s or relationshi"s bet;een members of the family or the same tribe, The ^estruction of the Vather is "resente# as the annihilation of the totem. 5he father is an untouchable figure, li<e a totem, a figure to be accom"anie#, venerate#, ;hose ;hims must be satisfie# an# ;hose su"eriority must be recogni4e#. &n# it is forbi##en to <ill him or to eat him. 5he tribe e3"ects "rotection from an# res"ect for its totem. But 'on those occasions on ;hich they are force# to <ill the totem animal, they #o so observing a ritual of e3cuse an# ceremonies of e3"iation) (7reu#, AO@HU AFP). Jet, #o these breast forms not seem to have been re"ro#uce# obsessivelyS o; can they be relate# to the fatherS Beyon# the #es"otic attitu#e that the father e3ercises over his family, Bourgeois <no;s of his "romiscuity, an# she #iscovers that the reason the %nglish governess lives ;ith them is not for her classes but because she, ,a#ie, is her father.s mistress. 5he anger into ;hich this scene of betrayal is channelle# is the #riving force behin# her creation. ,a#ie is ta<en as a "art of the house, as Gust another "iece of furniture, li<e one of those ol# chairs hanging from the ceiling in her father.s collection. 5he emotional aggression thus "ro#uce# is the theme of The ^estruction of the father, a mur#er or a bloo#9staine# e3"losion as a symbol of the intensity of the feelings at sta<e. 0n any case, let us stic< to the trac< that gives the ;or< its title an# let us continue the account by as<ing ourselves ;hat ha""ens after the #estruction of the father. ,o it is that in $ Nanquetg$ Vashion Mhow of Nody Xarts she "re"ares us for the ceremony of "urification of the evil "ro#uce#. Khen the author of the massacre is conscious of the act committe#, he ;ill enter the love9hate ambiguity, a feeling ;hich may "erha"s have its outcome in a feeling of guilt. Ke coul# rea# this action, this ban/uet8"ara#e as a shifting of
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this guilt. 0n any case for a feeling of guilt to e3ist, the la; has to be interiori4e# an# there has to be an a;areness of social norms, ;hich are, on the other han#, so cruel for the ;oman an# the artist. 0n families of "atriarchal structure, as hers is, the father is the authority in the #iscourse. Bourgeois challenges this norm, sublimating it in the mur#er of the sovereign. 5his obsessive act is, in the conscience, an act of #efence against this ill e3ercise# "o;er, but in the unconscious it is an act of "unishment an# revenge for his being grante# an# recogni4e# this "o;er(**. 0n other ;or#s, she "roGects her most traumatic #estinies onto him an# <ills the "ro#ucer of her evils, yet she "unishes herself for having "lace# him in such a "osition of su"eriority, for having allo;e# him to become the cause of it all. 5hrough this action she ta<es u" the scene of the crime in the Ce; Jor< amilton (allery of Contem"orary &rt in AO@P. 5he table is lai#, ;ith her soft breasts, an# the guests are "resent. 5he scenery is not no; the bac<#ro" for a #estruction but for a fashion sho; to ;hich the #ea# are invite# an# are accommo#ate# vertically in ;hite, rigi#, coffin9li<e bo3es. 5otems "resent at the ceremony of e3"iring. 0t is not in vain that this installation is calle# Ionfrontation. 5he sho; begins, the s"ectators are invite# to occu"y the bo3es, an# some of them 6 art critics an# historians ;ill ;ear late3 suits covere# ;ith breasts. 5his action, sometimes inter"rete# as a feminist criticism of fashion sho;s, cannot be analyse# ;ithout the "hotogra"h in ;hich Bourgeois "oses outsi#e her Ce; Jor< house in one of these suits. 0n Totem and Taboo 7reu# illustrates thatN 0n many im"ortant circumstances the clan member see<s to em"hasi4e his relationshi" to the totem by ma<ing himself "hysically similar, i.e. by covering himself ;ith the s<ins of animals or by tattooing his bo#y ;ith images of the totem, etc. 7or certain magical an# religious aims there are #ances in ;hich all the members of the tribe cover themselves in the s<in of their totem an# they imitate its characteristic a#emanes. &n# there are ceremonies in ;hich the animal is solemnly sacrifice#. (7reu#, AO@HU AFO) 0f -ouise Bourgeois ;as born as the image of her father, here she clearly "resents herself as a mother, shifting the totemic character that may have been attribute# to her father to;ar#s herself. 0 remar<e# above that in The ^estruction of the father there may have been some unconscious "unishment for having grante# him the totemic "osition. ere the suffering is cure# by shifting the totem onto her mother, so that she becomes the totem figure. -ater, all the members of the tribe, i.e. of society, an# in "articular those on ;hom the tribe has besto;e# certain "o;er, cover themselves in the s<in of this fecun# totem. ence, the ceremony of e3"iation of guilt for having <ille# the totem is not only the rea#Gustment of the assignation of "o;er but also the invitation for this re"air to reach the social structures. &n# this is ho; the meaning of the
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7reu# states that this is ;hat ha""ens in obsessive neurosis an# he e3"lains it through the assimilation of the totemic creation. A?O

"erformance, the meaning of the "resence of the members of that structure is the meaning of the ritual ceremony of -ouise Bourgeois.s subGectivity. 5his symbolic ambiguity bet;een the se3es to ;hich the author accustoms us ;hen ;e enter her ;or< is "resente# in Villette L Mweeter versionF (AOLP9OO). 0t is a huge late3 "enis, LH centimetres long, an# very lifeli<e. &t times ;e see it hanging, li<e a torn off member, li<e a 'nasty obGect) of (iacometti, all 7oster ;oul# say, li<e 'an obGect of hateU a chun< of castrate# flesh) (=HHLU ?HA) But this vie; is inverte# ;hen the "hotogra"her *a""lethor" ;ishes to ta<e her "ortrait. Bf all her creations she chooses her #aughter to accom"any her, because, she says, "hotogra"hers nee# to be given i#eas for their "ortraits. ,o this "hotogra"h is finally an action, another ritual act. 0s her #aughter a fetishS &ccor#ing to the Diccionario #e la Real &ca#emia, fetish comes from the 7rench fetiche an# is an '0#ol or cult obGect to ;hich su"ernatural "o;ers are attribute#, es"ecially amongst "rimitive "eo"les). &ccor#ing to the *anual #e Diagnnstico #e los 5rastornos *entales (D,*90V), fetishism is a "ara"hilia, a se3ual #isor#er. 0t is #efine# as 2highly e3citing, recurring se3ual fantasies, se3ual im"ulses or behaviours relate# to the use of obGects or animals over a "erio# of not less than si3 months. 5hese se3ual fantasies an# im"ulses cause significant clinical ba# health an# "rovo<e a #eterioration in the social, "rofessional or other areas of the in#ivi#ual.s activity). Donal# $us"it in his article The Qodern Vetish (=HHF) cites the house9 ;omen of Bourgeois among these fetishes but ;hat fetishist "o;er is there in having her "hotogra"h ta<en ;ith VilletteS Perha"s this ;or< of long creation is a cult obGect in ;hich the su"ernatural "o;ers are really "sychological "o;ers through ;hich a solution is sought to the se3ual conflictN the ambiguity of #iscovering the lac< of a maternal "hallus an# the #esire to have it. &s 7oster remin#s us, for 7reu# ;omen can ma<e an association bet;een "enis an# baby in or#er to com"ensate the lac< of the former an# Bourgeois not only calls it #aughter, but she also stro<es it gently an# cra#les it. Because she recogni4es that it is onto the "hallus that she "roGects her ten#erness, since it is a vulnerable "art of the bo#y an# one ;hich has to be "rotecte#, as she has confirme# by living ;ith her husban# an# chil#ren, her ne; family in ;hich she "lays the "rotecting role. But she is also afrai# of the "hallus (Bourgeois, =HH=U A=F) Ke might thin< though that Bourgeois illustrates 7reu#ian theories literally, as he himself "ro"oses. 0n these the fetishist man returns to the fantasy that the mother has a "hallus, an# buil#s it an# sho;s it to us. 5he fetish acts as a substitute "hallus ;hich elaborates the conflict ;hich arises from the #iscovery of the lac< of a "hallus in the ;oman an# the #esire to have one. Jet ;e must remember that for 7reu# fetishism is only "ossible for men, an# so if it ;ere merely a sim"le illustration it ;oul# become a feminist critic, going bac< along the Gourney from the "ersonal to the "olitical. 5hus she relates to us her ;ay of un#erstan#ing the social structure, her criticism of it, her subGectivity.
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5he fetishist action is confirme# in the ;oman also ;hen Chasseguet9 ,mirgel argues that both the #aughter an# the son e3"erience an3ieties about the #iscovery of the lac< of the mother.s "enis. 5he "enis is a symbolic emblem of safety an# "o;er in both men an# ;omen. Bn the other han#, fetishism im"lies not only the "ossession of the obGect but also a ritual in ;hich is #evelo"e# is the act of i#entification or the symboli4ing of the inanimate obGect in a se3ual obGect an# this act is "erha"s "erforme# to a large e3tent in the game the artist "lays in front of *a""lethor"e.s camera. 5he an3iety that this fetish satisfies is that of the se"aration from the mother, ;hich is more "otent than the se3ual one. (0n this sense, her ,"i#ers also serve as fetishes). 0t is thus that ;e fin# ourselves before a symbol 6 the "o;er that -ouise Bourgeois ;ishes to grant to the mother. 0t is the re"resentation of the "o;er failure of her mother in the relationshi" ;ith her father. 0t is a failure that she #oes not ;ish to re"eat an# so she escenifica it, an# #ominates it. &n# although her mother ha# un#erstoo# ;hat her role in the family ;as, an# ha# assume# it, she ;as afrai# of the #eman#s, an# it ;as a fear that -ouise Bourgeois share#. '&n#, ;hat #oes one #o ;hen one is so afrai#S) (Bourgeois, =HH=U A=F) ,he ta<es this "enis as the symbol of the "hallus or "erha"s of the vagina as "o;er, an# has her "hotogra"h ta<en ;ith it as if it ;ere a "art of her bo#y. 7or Chasseguet9,mirgel, the mo#ern artist creates fetishes an# so e3"eriences the "o;er of creation, but the artist also e3"eriences a search for immortality, since the fetish ;or<s as a bo#ily #ismembering ;hich is at the same time introGecte#. 0t is thus in#estructible an# al;ays a su""lement that com"letes the bo#ily image, changing it from ca#uceus to evergreen, ma<ing it immortal. 0n 7illette the artist she#s light on a ne; obGect, the "o;er of ;oman. 5he fetishist creation is not envy of the "enis but i#entification ;ith the light she##ing. 7or Chasseguet9,mirgel, the fetish re"resents the fantasy of 'an anal "hallus ;hich see<s to e3clu#e the genital "enis from the se3ual encounter) ($us"it, =HHFU AOF). ere -ouise Bourgeois moc<s the "otency of the masculine genital "hallus. 5he very title accentuates the fragility of that organ an# "resents the 'effeminate character of the virile boast, as ;ell as the "hallic character of the feminine being (5errisse, =HHHU ?F)). 5hus, the fetish "ossesses a #ual nature 9 i#eali4ing an# #estructive. Bf its #uality (reenacre comments '5he fetish is clearly a bise3ual symbol an# it also serves as a bri#ge ;hich ;oul# #eny an# affirm the se3ual #ifferences) ($us"it, =HHFU =HA) By ta<ing the "enis Bourgeois becomes a "hallic mother. ,he offers, as she #i# by #ressing herself in breasts, the "o;er to the mother or she invests herself ;ith the "o;er assigne# to the man in the "atriarchal society, so besto;ing ne; rea#ings to the symbols of femininity an# fecun#ity. Conclu ion 0t is thus that the ;or< of -ouise Bourgeois reflects the earlier i#ea of subGectivity, a game bet;een memory an# ;ishes, bet;een "erce"tions an# feelings. 0t is a non autonomous subGectivity ;hich is built bet;een the "syche
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an# society. Plastic ;or<s together ;ith her action an# her ;or# not only un#erline the "osition she has ta<en in the ;orl# an# the vision that she has forme# of it, but also her intention to #enounce an# to change the com"le3 social relationshi"s in ;hich ;e fin# ourselves. -i8lio&ra"!) Bourgeois, -ouise. (=HH=) ^estrucci~n del padregreconstrucci~n del padre. *a#ri#N %#itorial ,ntesis. Coll %s"inosa. 7rancisco (Coor#ina#or) (=HHL). $rteterapia. Universi#a# #e *urcia. Colomina, B. (Coviembre AOOO87ebrero =HHH) -a ar/uitectura #el trauma. 0n CatTlogo. 'ouise Nourgeois Qemoria y arquitectura *useo Centro Cacional #e &rte Reina ,ofa. *a#ri#. 7oster, all. (=HHL). -a e3"osicinn '%ccentric &bstraction) (&bstraccinn e3cntrica) se inaugura en Cueva Cor<N la obra #e -ouise Bourgeois, %va esse y Jayoi $usama, entre otras, a"unta alternativa e3"resiva al lenguaGe escultnrico #el *inimalismo. 0n $rte desde (S\\. 7oster, $rauss, Bois an# Buchloh. -on#res N&<al 7reu#. ,igmun#. (AO@H) T~tem y tab. *a#ri#N &lian4a %#itorial (I e#) 7reu#, ,igmun# (=HHH) fl malestar de la cultura. *a#ri#N &lian4a %#itorial.)Biblioteca #e autor). = im"resinn. $us"it, Donal#. (=HHF) Mignos de psique en el arte moderno y postmoderno. *a#ri#N &<al. *ayayo, Patricia. (=HH=) .'ouise Nourgeois. (ui"4coaN Cerea. Rivera (arretas, * *ilagros. (=HHF) Tombrar el mundo en femenino. *a#ri#N 0caria (A e#icinn AOOI) 5errisse, C. (Coviembre AOOO87ebrero =HHH) -ouise BourgeoisN Una muGer en accinn. 0n CatTlogo. 'ouise Nourgeois Qemoria y arquitectura *useo Centro Cacional #e &rte Reina ,ofa. *a#ri#. VV&&. (=HHI) .Cat. -ouise Bourgeois. 5eGien#o el tiem"o. *Tlaga N C&C*&-&(&.. VV&&. (=HHF) .'ouise Nourgeois. -on#onN Phai#on. VV&&. (AOOO) B3for# &rt !ournal. Volumen ==. C =. Publisher by B3for# University. Kinnicot. D. K. (AOP=) Eealidad y juego. Buenos &iresN (e#isa. Potes, &le3 (AOOO) -ouise BourgeoisN ,cul"tural Confrontations. 0n 'ouise Nourgeois. B3for# &rt !ournal. ==, =. Publishe# by B3for# University.

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