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APRIL, 2005

WASTE MINIMISATION IN PARBOILED RICE MILL UNITS BACKGROUND Parboiled Rice Milling is considered as a polluting activity because it discharges process waste water and emits particulate matter into the recipient environment. There are about 701 Parboiled Rice Mills in the State. The industry developed in the form of clusters in certain districts such as East Godawari (120), Nellore (60), West Godawari (90), Ramagundam (115) and Nalgonda (160). The A.P.Pollution Control Board has been facilitating waste minimization programmes at various Rice milling clusters to promote reduction of waste at source, reduction of pollution load, reduction of water consumption, reduction of electricity and fuel consumption, promoting by-products from waste and improving overall economic viability and sustainable growth. The detailed waste minimization study carried out in Parboiled Rice Milling units established that the water consumption can be reduced by 2500 M3 per annum, waste water generation by 2200 M3 per annum, fuel (husk) consumption by 1200 T/annum, electricity consumption by 110,000 Units per annum and there is considerable improvement in work environment.



Steaming & Initial Drying

Soaking & Steaming


Grading / Sorting

Final Drying

_________________________________________________________________________________ Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board, Cleaner Production Cell 1

KEY PROBLEM AREAS IN PARABOILED RICE MILLING CLUSTER a) At Farmer Level: Unstable production of paddy Non-existence of R&D institutions Limited access to agricultural materials Lack of optimal plant utilization Poor water management due to poor drainage High weed infestation Low adoption of HYVS (High Yield Varieties)

d) Marketing: The units are mainly dependent on FCI purchases for sale of rice, produced from their units There is no brand image for the rice in this cluster The quality of rice produced in the cluster has no demand in the international market because of the gradual self-sufficiency of the importing countries FCI has reduced the procurement quantities of rice due to unviable market prices The demand for parboiled rice is decreasing alarmingly due to nonprocurement of parboiled rice by the traditionally consuming states such as Tamil Nadu & Kerala

b) Raw Materials: State Governments insistence on MSP (Minimum Support Price) for procurement of paddy from farmers Most of the paddy produced in the region is of coarse variety Lack of scientific storage facilities for raw materials

e) Networking: Lack of networking system in the procurement of raw materials Lack of networking for technical & marketing services

c) Technology: Lack of latest paddy pre-cleaners Lack of latest hullers to ensure less brokens Lack of mechanical driers and their operation Lack of sophisticated shellers & polishers Lack of consciousness to utilize byproducts effectively Lack of latest graders Lack of latest sorters Lack of testing facilities to test the quality of rice Lack of common facilities like quality control lab, environmental laboratory, market support centre etc.

f) Environment management: Lack of ETPs to treat waste water Non-existence of pollution control equipment to control air pollution Effluents from the mills are beyond the norms set up by APPCB

g) Energy Management: Lack of consciousness in energy conservation No energy audits are conducted in any of the mills

_________________________________________________________________________________ Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board, Cleaner Production Cell 2

h) Financial Management: Lack of sufficient investment to procure paddy from farmers Lack of sufficient investment to upgrade the mills and to export the finished product Additional rice processed = 600 TPA Profits due to increased production = Rs.3.00 Lakhs / annum

MAJOR WASTE MINIMISATION OPTIONS FOR PARBOILED RICE MILLS 1. Installation of High efficiency boilers saving fuel cost & reduction of pollution load Investment in new boiler = Rs.8.00 Lakhs Savings = Rs.4.00 Lakhs per annum Pay back period = 2 years Waste water quantity of 0.2 KL per tonne of paddy will be reduced Waste water load of 25% will be reduced Reduction in air emissions due to high efficiency boilers

4. Marking soaking tanks to indicate water level for optimisation of water consumption and reduced waste water generation Investment for marking tanks = Negligible Reduction in water consumption = 1200 KL per annum Savings in water pumping costs etc. = Rs.1200 / annum

5. By product Utilization a. Installation of gasifiers to generate power from rice husk (2 Kg of rice husk to produce KWH) alternately cluster units can have a common gasifier based power project based on rice husk to meet their internal power requirements Cost of 100 KW rice husk gasifier = Rs.6.00 Lakhs (MNES Subsidy @ 50%) Rice husk requirement 145 Kg. per hr. Rice Bran: Rice bran oil, industrial grade oil and waxes, rice bran pellets (animal feed) rice bran meal, other value added products health supplements cosmetics etc.

2. Installing copper finned tubes in heat exchangers (to generate hot air) replacing MS tubes to increase heat transfer efficiency. The benefits are: Investment in copper tubes = Rs. 0.70 Lakhs Savings = Rs. 0.50 Lakhs per annum Pay Back period = 1.5 years


3. Even steam distribution in paddy soaking tanks and even hot air distribution for paddy drying reduce processing time from 10 hours to 7 hours a day. The benefits are:

_________________________________________________________________________________ Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board, Cleaner Production Cell 3

6. Energy Conservation by installation of Failsafe electrical system and Conversation to High Tension Electricity supply. 7. Replacing over capacity motors / electrical equipment with optimal capacity / power rating equipment. 8. Use of flue gas / solar energy for preheating boiler feed water 9. Improvements in insulation of steam lines With the above energy conservation measures (Thermal and electrical) suggested at 6,7,8 and 9, a minimum 15% of the total energy consumption in terms of fuel and electricity on the plant and machinery items can be saved. Steam: Reduction in steam consumption = 100 Kgs per tonne of paddy Fuel (Husk): Reduction in husk consumption = 100 Kgs per tonne of paddy Electricity: Reduction of 4 KWH per tonne of paddy

14. Installation of screw conveyor / feeder to introduce rice husk into boiler On introducing the above waste minimization options, the following overall reduction in economic indicators and environmental indicators can be assessed: A) Economic Indicators : Total Investment made (Rs.) : 15,75,000/-

Net savings accrued : per annum in (Rs.) Payback period :


10 months

B) Environmental Indicators: Electricity Consumption Water Consumption Waste Water Generation Fuel (husk) Consumption Steam Consumption Steam Consumption Fugitive Emissions : : : : : : : Reduced by 110,000 Units/annum Reduced by 2500 m3/annum Reduced by 2200 m3/annum Reduced by 1200 tons/annum Reduced by 1200 tons/annum Reduced by 22% NQ (Considerable improvement in work environment) in

10. Direct unloading of paddy into hopper at paddy unloading section 11. Preventive maintenance example alignment of separator and control of air pollution 12. Control of Air Pollution by installing dust control enclosures 13. Preventive maintenance of separator

Workshop on Waste minimization Parboiled Rice Milling Cluster:

A workshop on Waste minimisation in Parboiled Rice Milling Cluster was conducted by APPCB through M/s.APITCO, Hyderabad on 25th January, 2005 at Kakinada. During the workshop, the

_________________________________________________________________________________ Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board, Cleaner Production Cell 4

paraboiled rice mills scenario in Andhra Pradesh, need for waste minimsation in paraboiled rice mill sector, key problem areas paraboiled rice milling sector and financing

mechanism in up gradation of Technology in paraboiled rice mill sector were discussed and many units have agreed to implement the same.

For further information and assistance contact : Mr. B.Madhusudhana Rao or Mr. K.Ravi Kumar or Smt.Geeta Sapare. Cleaner Production Cell, A.P.Pollution Control Board, Paryavaran Bhavan, A-3, Industrial Estate, Sanathnagar, Hyderabad 500 018

_________________________________________________________________________________ Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board, Cleaner Production Cell 5