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A project is defined as a combination of inter related activities that must be

executed in a certain order before the entire task can be completed. The
activities are inter related in a logical sequence in the way that some activities
cannot start until other are competed. An activity in a project is usually viewed
as a job requiring time and recourses for its competition.

Project management has evolved as a new field with the development of two
analytic techniques for planning scheduling and controlling of projects. These
are the critical path method (CPM) and the project evaluation and review
technique (PERT).
PERT and CPM are basically time anointed methods in the sense that they
both lead to determination of a time schedule. Both techniques are usually
referred as “Project scheduling” techniques.
Project scheduling by PERT-CPM consist of three phases.
B Planning
C Scheduling
D Controlling
A. PLANNING: The planning phase is by breaking down the project into
distinct Activities. The time extras for the another are then determined and a
network (Or arrow) diagram is constructed with each of in ARCS (arrows) re-
presenting of the interdependencies between the activities of the project. The
construction of the arrow diagram in a planning phase has the advantage of
studying the different jobs in details. Perhaps suggesting improvement before
the project is actually executed.
B. SCHEDULING: The ultimate objective of the scheduling phase is to
construct a time Chart showing the start and finish times for each activity as
well as its relationship to other activities in the project. In addition, the
schedule must pin-point the Critical Activities which require special attention
if the project is to be completed on time. For the non-critical activities the
schedule must show the amount of slack or float time Which can be used.
ACTIVITY: The head of the arrow indicated where task ends and the tail
where task ends and the tail where the task begin.
EVENTS: An event represent a point in time that signifies the completion of
some Activities and the beginning of new ones. E.g. wall built, foundations
dug etc.
DUMMY ACTIVITIES: It is an activity which does not consume time or
NETWORKS: This is the combination of activities, dummy activities and
CRITICAL PATH: It gives shortest time in which the whole project can be
1. The construction of a building or a highway.
2. Planning and launching a new project.
3. Installing and debugging a computer system.


1. CPM is activity oriented i.e. CPM network is built on the basis of

activities. Also result Of carious calculation are considered in terms of
activities of the project. On the other hand, PERT is event oriented.
2. CPM is a deterministic model i.e. it dose not take into account the
uncertainties Involved in the estimation of time for execution of a job or
an activity. It completely Ignores the probabilistic element of the
problem. PERT however is a probabilistic Model. It uses three estimates
of the activity time- optimistic, pessimistic and most Likely with a view
to take into account time uncertainty. This the expected duration of Each
activity is probabilistic indicates that there is fifty percent probability of
getting The job done within the time.
3 CPM place dual emphasis on time and cost and evaluate the trade off
between project cost and project time. By deploying allows the project
manager to manipulate project duration within certain limits so that project
duration can be shortened to an optimal cost. On the other hand : PERT is
primanly concerned with time. It helps the manager to schedule and co-
ordinate various activities so that the project can be completed on schedule
FLOAT: Float is the flexibility available in any activity which can be
absorbed either by delaying that activity or by enlarging its duration.
There is no difference between float and slack. FLOAT refers to an
activity and SLACK refers to an event.
1. TOTAL FLOAT: The total float of an activity represents the amount of
time by which activity can be delayed without delaying the project
completion date.
Total float = LF-EF
2. FREE FLOAT: Free float is that portion of the total float within an activity
can be manipulated without affecting the float of subsequent activities.
Free float = Total float – Head slack
3. INDEPENDENCE FLOAT: This is the amount of time an activities are
completed as Late as possible and all succeeding activities are completed
as late possible and all succeeding activities started as early as possible.
Independence float = Free float – Tail slack
4. INTERFERING FLOAT: Interfering float is that part of the total float
which causes a reduction in the float of the successor activities.
Interfering float = LF – ES+1 Where +1 indicates succeeding activity