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UNIT 1 Q 1. Describe the construction and working of PMMC instrument.

Derive the equation for deflection if the instrument is spring controlled. Q 2. Explain the working of (i) attraction type and (ii) repulsion type of moving iron instruments with the help of neat diagrams. Q 3. Write the application of measurement of current, voltage, single phase power and single phase energy. Q 4. Explain testing and calibration of single phase energy meter by phantom loading method. Q 5. Describe the constructional details and working of electrodynamometer type instruments. Also Explain why an electrodynamometer type of instruments can be used both on AC and DC

UNIT 2 Q 1. Explain Blondel Theorem for n-phase, p-wire system. Q 2. Explain One wattmeter and Two wattmeter method for the measurement of power and reactive kVA in three phase balanced and unbalanced system Write advantages of two wattmeter method over one wattmeter method for power measurement Q 3. Explain construction and working of Three phase induction type energy meter Q 4. Describe how high currents and voltages are measured with the help of instrument transformers Q 5. Define the following terms as used for instrument transformers 1. Transformation Ratio 2. Turns Ratio 3. Burden On CT 4. 5. Nominal Ratio Ratio Correction Factor

UNIT 3

Q 1. Describe the basic principle of operation of a d.c. potentiometer. Explain why a potentiometer does not load the voltage source whose voltage is being determined. Q 2. What is a volt-ratio box ? Explain its construction, working and applications. Q 3. Draw the circuit diagram of a Cromptons potentiometer and explain its working. Explain how true zero is obtained in a Cromptons Potentiometer. Q 4. Describe with the help of suitable diagrams, how a d.c. potentiometer can be used for : (i) Calibration of a voltmeter (ii) calibration of an ammeter determination of an unknown resistance. (iii)

Q 5. Describe the construction and working of a co-ordinate type a.c. potentiometer. How is it standardized ? UNIT 4 Q 1. (a) Classify the resistances from the point of view of measurements. (b) Describe in brief the different methods used for measurement of medium resistances. Q 2. Describe the ammeter-voltmeter method of measurement of resistances. Q 3. Describe the substitution method of measurement of medium resistances. List the factors on which the accuracy of the methods depends. Q 4. Draw the circuit of a Wheatstone bridge and derive the conditions of balance. Q 5. Draw the circuit of a Kelvins Double Bridge used for measurement of low resistances. Derive the condition for balance.

UNIT 5 Q 1. Derive the general equations for balance for an a.c. bridge. Prove that two conditions i.e., for magnitude and phase have to be satisfied if an a.c. bridge is to be balanced unlike a d.c. bridge wherein only the magnitude condition is to be satisfied. Q 2. Describe the sources and the null detectors that are used for a.c. bridges.

Q 3. Derive the equations for balance in the case of Maxwells inductance capacitance bridge. Draw the phasor diagram for balance conditions Q 4. Describe the working of Hays bridge for measurement inductance. Why is this bridge suited for measurement of inductance of high Q coils ? Q 5. Explain the function and working of Wagner Earth Devices.