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Phylum: Protozoa Class: Sarcodina


Entamoeba histolytica
Disease: Amboebiasis (amoebic dysentery) Distribution: Cosmopolitan Infective stage: Mature cyst (Tetranucleated cyst) Diagnostic stage: Trophozoite and cysts in faeces Habitat of parasite: Large intestine Mode if infection: S allo ing the mature cyst Diagnosis: Stool e!amination

Phylum: Protozoa Class: Ciliphora


Balantidium coli
Disease: "alantidiasis (balantidial dysentery) Distribution: Cosmopolitan Infective stage: cyst Diagnostic stage: Trophozoite and cyst in faeces Habitat of parasite: lumen of the large intestine Mode if infection: by s allo ing cysts Diagnosis: Stool e!amination
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Phylum: protozoa Class: Mastigophora


e.g. Leishmania e.g. Trypanosoma Leishmania donovani
Disease: #isceral leishmaniasis $ %ala&azar$ blac' sic'ness Distribution: (ndia$ )ast Africa$ parts of China Infective stage: Leptomonad forms in proboscis of sandfly (promastigote) Diagnostic stages: Leishmania form in cells (amastigote) Diagnosis: )!amination of blood (Thin and thic' smear)$ spleen$ li#er$ lymph nodes Serological methods Mode of infection: "y bite of sandfly containing promastigotes Vector: Sandfly Phlebotomus (old orld), Lutzomyia (ne orld) Reservoir: *odents

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Trypanosoma !frican"
Disease: sleeping sic'ness (trypanosomiasis) Distribution: +est and central Africa Infective stage: metacyclic trypanosome in sali#ary glands of the testse fly Diagnostic stage: Trypanosoma in blood Diagnosis: "lood e!amination (Thin and thic' smear)$ Serological methods Mode of infection: "y bite of the tsetse fly containing metacyclic trypanosome (anterior station) Vector: Tsetse fly$ Glossina palpalis Reservoir: +ild animals

Trypanosoma cruzi !merican"


Disease: American trypanosomiasis (Chagas, disease) Distribution: central and south America Infective stage: metacyclic trypanosome in feaces of bug Diagnostic stage: Trypanosoma in blood Diagnosis: "lood e!amination (Thin and thic' smear) Mode of infection: "y bite of the tsetse fly containing metacyclic trypanosome (posterior station) Vector: inged bug (*edu#id bug$ 'issing bug$ cone&nosed bug)$ Triatoma Reservoir: Armadillo$ -ogs$ Cats$ *odents
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Phylum: protozoa Class: Sporozoa


e.g. Plasmodium (vivax, falciparum, malaria, ovale)
Disease: malaria Distribution: +est and central Africa Infective stage: sporozoites in sali#ary glands of female Anopheles mos.uitoes Diagnostic stage: *ing stage and amoeboid stage (trophozoite) in */"/C/ Diagnosis: e!amination of blood film (Thin and thic' film)$ Serological tests ()L(SA) Mode of infection: bite of female Anopheles mos.uitoes containing sporozoits in sali#ary glands Vector: female Anopheles mos.uitoes (0inal host) (-efiniti#e host) Habitat: (n man$ li#er ()!oerythrocytic schizogony) "lood ()rythrocytic schizogony)
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Phylum: Platyhelminthes

Class: Trematoda #rder: -igenea


e.g.$: Fasciola hepatica Fasciola i antica
Disease: 0asciolasis (li#er rot) Distribution: cattle raising countries$ commen in )gypt Infective stage: encysted metacercaria on grass or in ater Diagnostic stage: )gg in faeces Habitat of parasite: "ile passage of man Mode of infection: ingestion of ra #egetation or ater containing encysted metacercaria %inal host: Man Intermediate host: Lymnaea cailliaudi Reservoir: 1erbi#orous animals
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e.g.&: !eterophyes heterophyes Intestinal flu'e"


Disease: 1eterophyiasis Distribution: *egion of la'es in the 2ile delta in )gypt Infective stage: encysted metacercaria in fish muscle Diagnostic stage: )gg in faeces Habitat: "et een #illi of small intestine Mode of infection: (ngestion of ra undercoo'ed or under salted fish containing encysted metacercaria %inal host: Man Intermediate host: (: Pirenella conica _: Tilapia nilotica, Mugil cephala Reservoir: -ogs and cats (fish&eating animals)
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e.g.(: "chistosoma haematobium


Disease: Schistosomiasis (urinary bilharziasis) Distribution: 2ile #alley$ Africa$ Asia Infective stage: cercaria in ater Diagnostic stage: )gg in urines (terminal spine) Habitat of parasite: #esicle and pel#ic #enous ple!us Mode of infection: by penetration of cercaria %inal host: Man Intermediate host: Bulinus truncatus

e.g.(: "chistosoma mansoni

Disease: Schistosomiasis (intestinal bilharziasis) Distribution: 2ile delta$ Africa$ South America Infective stage: cercaria in ater Diagnostic stage: )gg in faeces (lateral spine) Habitat of parasite: mesentric #enous ple!us Mode of infection: by penetration of cercaria %inal host: Man Intermediate host: Biomophalaria alexandrina
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e.g.): #lonorchis sinensis


Disease: Clonorchiasis Distribution: China$ South %orea 3apan$ 2orth 4ietnam Infective stage: )ncysted metacercaria in fish muscles Diagnostic stage: )gg in faeces Habitat of parasite: Li#er$ common bile duct and gall bladder Mode of infection: (ngestion of undercoo'ed or smo'ed fish containing encysted metacercaria %inal host: Man Intermediate host: (: Parafossarulus manchauricus snail _: fish and crustacea Reservoir: 0ish&eating animals (-ogs$ cats$ pigs$ rodents)
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Phylum: Platyhelminthes Class: Cestoda


e.g.$: Taenia sa inata, Taenia solium
tape *orm" Disease: Taeniasis Distribution: Cosmopolitan Infective stage: Cysticercus bo#is (T. saginata) scole! ithout hoo's Cysticercus cellulosae (T. solium) scole! ith hoo's Diagnostic stage: )gg and gra#id segment in faeces Habitat of parasite: 5pper part of small intestine of man Mode of infection: $+ (ngestion of undercoo'ed beef (T. saginata) 6& (ngestion of undercoo'ed pro' (T. solium) (ngestion of eggs (cyticercosis) (T. solium) %inal host: Man Intermediate host: cattle (T. saginata)$ pig (T. solium)

e.g.&: Echinococcus ranulosus


Disease: )chinococcosis$ hydatidosis Distribution: Cosmopolitan

Infective stage: )gg in faeces of carni#ores Diagnostic stage: 1ydatid cyst in #iscera Habitat: adult orm in the small intestine of dogs Mode of infection: (ngestion of hydatid cyst %inal host: carni#ores Intermediate host: Man and herbi#ores
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e.g.(: !ymenolepis nana


Disease: 1ymenolopiasis Distribution: Cosmopolitan Infective stage: Cysticercoid in body ca#ity of fleas and mature eggs Diagnostic stage: )gg in feaces Habitat: Small intestine of man and rodents Mode of infection: S allo ing eggs in food$ drin' "y autoinfection %inal host: Man

e.g.): $ipylidium caninum


Disease: -ipylidiasis Distribution: Cosmopolitan Infective stage: Cysticercoid in body ca#ity of insects Diagnostic stage: )gg capsule in feaces Habitat: Small intestine of dogs$ cats and occasionally man Mode of infection: (ngestion of insects (such as fleas) containing the cysticercoid lar#a
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Phylum: Aschelminthes (2ematohelminthes) Class: 2ematoda


e.g.$: %scaris lumbricoides
Disease: Ascariasis Distribution: cosmopolitan Infective stage: embryonated egg Diagnostic stage: fertilized egg in feaces Mode of infection: s allo ing ater or ra #egetables polluted ith embryonated eggs containing the infecti#e lar#a or through contaminated hands by polluted soil Habitat: small intestine of man Diagnosis: 0aecal e!amination e.g.&: Enterobius vermicularis pin*orm or seat *orm" Disease: )nterobiasis$ o!yuriasis

Distribution: cosmopolitan Infective stage: embryonated egg Diagnostic stage: egg on perianal region Mode of infection: by s allo ing eggs by one of the ays: 7&Autoinfection 6&(n food or drin' 8&1andling contaminated clothing or bedding 9& (nhalation of air borne eggs in dust :& *etroinfection: eggs hatch in the perianal region and lar#ae migrate bac' through the anus to the large intestine Habitat: large intestine of man Diagnosis: Stool e!amination
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e.g.(: %ncylostoma duodenale

hoo' *orm"

Disease: Ancylostomiasis Distribution: tropical and subtropical regions Infective stage: filariform lar#a Diagnostic stage: egg in feaces (embryonated) Mode of infection: s'in penetration by the filariform lar#ae (L8&stage Habitat: small intestine of man Diagnosis: Stool (0aecal e!amination)

,issue nematodes
e.g.$: Trichinella spiralis
Disease: Trichinosis$ trichiniasis$ trichinelliasis Distribution: Temperate regions here por' is eaten Infective stage: )ncysted lar#ae in pig muscle Diagnostic stages: )ncysted lar#ae in pig muscle Mode of infection: - 1uman infection by ingestion of ra or undercoo'ed por' containing infecti#e lar#ae - Pig infection by eating infected flesh from other pigs or ingestion of infected dead pigs and rats Reservoir: pigs and rats Habitat: Small intestine of man and pigs
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e.g.&: &uchereria bancrofti


Disease: "ancroftian filariasis$ elephantiasis$ uchereriasis Distribution: Tropical and subtropical countries Infective stage: (nfecti#e lar#ae in labium of mos.uitoes ( ulex pipiens) Diagnostic stages: Microfilaria in blood (Thic' and thin smear) Mode of infection: "y bite of mos.uitoes containing infecti#e lar#ae in

their labium %inal host: Man Intermediate host and Vector: Mos.uitoes ( ulex pipiens ) Habitat: Adults li#e in lymphatics and lymph nodes of man