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Apparatu s Introduc tion Theory Aim

Certificat e Conclusi on Acknowledg ement Bibliogr aphy

To determine the faradays law of electromagnetic induction using a copper wire wound over an iron rod and a strong magnet

This is to certify that the PHYSICS project titled ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION has been successfully completed by KARTHIK PREMANAND of Class XII ROSE in partial fulfillment of curriculum of CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION (CBSE) leadin to the a!ard of annual e"amination of the year #$%#&#$%'(





First and foremost I thank my teacher Mrs. VEMURI who has assigned me this term paper to bring out my creative capabilities. I e press my gratitude to my parents for being a continuous source of encouragement for all their financial aid.
I would like to acknowledge the assistance provided to me by the library staff of !"# !$"R"%I &U!#I' ('$))#.

My heartfelt gratitude to my classmates and for helping me to complete my work in time.

Karthik Premanand

Insulated copper wire A iron rod A strong magnet and A light emitting diode (LED)






araday's law of induction is a basic law

of electromagnetism that predicts how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force E!F"# It is the fundamental

operating principle of transformers$ inductors$ and many types of electrical motors and generators#

Electromagnetic induction was discovered independently by !ichael Faraday and %oseph &enry in '()'* however$ Faraday was the first to publish the results of his e+periments# Faraday e+plained electromagnetic induction using a concept he
called lines of force# These e,uations for electromagnetics are e+tremely important since they provide a means to precisely describe how many natural physical phenomena in our universe arise and behave# The ability to ,uantitatively describe physical phenomena not only allows us to gain a better understanding of our universe$ but it also ma-es possible a host of technological innovations that define modern society# .nderstanding Faradays

/aw of Electromagnetic Induction can be beneficial since so many aspects of our daily life function because of the principles behind Faradays /aw# From natural phenomena such as the light we receive from the sun$ to technologies that improve our ,uality of life such as electric power generation$ Faradays /aw has a great impact on many aspects of our lives#

Faradays /aw is the result of the e+periments of the English chemist and physicist !ichael Faraday # The concept of electromagnetic induction was actually discovered simultaneously in '()' by Faraday in /ondon and %oseph &enry$ an American scientist wor-ing in 0ew 1or- $ but Faraday is credited for the law since he published his wor- first # An important aspect of the e,uation that ,uantifies Faradays /aw comes from the wor- of

&einrich /en2$ a Russian physicist who made his contribution to

Faradays /aw$ now -nown as /en2s /aw$ in '()3 Institute of Chemistry"#

Faradays law describes electromagnetic induction$ whereby an electric field is induced$ or generated$ by a changing magnetic field# 4efore e+panding upon this description$ it is necessary to develop an understanding of the concept of fields$ as well as the related concept of potentials#

Faraday's first e+perimental demonstration of electromagnetic induction August 56$ '()'"$ he wrapped two wires around opposite sides of an iron ring or 7torus7 an arrangement similar to a modern toroidal transformer" to induce current

Figure 1 Faraday's First Experiment

8ome physicists have remar-ed that Faraday's law is a single e,uation describing two different phenomena9 the motional E!F generated by a magnetic force on a moving wire see /orent2 force"$ and the transformer E!F generated by an electric force due to a changing magnetic field due to the !a+well:Faraday e,uation"# %ames Cler- !a+well drew attention to this fact in his '(;' paper <n =hysical /ines of Force# In the latter half of part II of that paper$ !a+well gives a separate physical e+planation for each of the two phenomena# A reference

to these two aspects of electromagnetic induction is made in some modern te+tboo-s#

!agnetic flu+9

The magnetic flu+ often denoted > or >4" through a surface is the component of the 4 field passing through that surface#
The 8I unit of magnetic flu+ is the weber ?b" in derived units9 volt@seconds"$ and the CA8 unit is the ma+well# !agnetic flu+ is usually measured with a flu+meter$ which contains measuring

coils and electronics that evaluates the change of voltage in the measuring coils to calculate the magnetic flu+# If the magnetic field is constant$ the magnetic flu+ passing through a surface of vector area 8 is

where 4 is the magnitude of the magnetic field the magnetic flu+ density" having the unit of ?bBm the normal perpendicular" to 8# For a varying magnetic field$ we first consider the magnetic flu+ through an infinitesimal area element d8$ where we may consider the field to be constant 9 From the definition of the magnetic vector potential A and the fundamental theorem of the curl the magnetic flu+ may also be defined as9

Tesla"$ 8 is the area of the

surface$ and C is the angle between the magnetic field lines and

where the line integral is ta-en over the boundary of the surface 8$ which is denoted D8#

The most widespread version of Faraday's law states9 The induced electromoti.e force in any closed circuit is e/ual to the ne ati.e of the time rate of chan e of the ma netic flu" throu h the circuit( This version of Faraday's law strictly holds only when the closed circuit is a loop of infinitely thin wire$ and is invalid in other circumstances as discussed below# A different version$ the !a+well:Faraday e,uation discussed below"$ is valid in all circumstances#

?hen the flu+ changesEbecause 4 changes$ or because the wire loop is moved or deformed$ or bothEFaraday's law of induction says that the wire loop ac,uires an E!F $ defined as the energy available per unit charge that travels once around the wire loop the unit of E!F is the volt"# E,uivalently$ it is the voltage that would be measured by cutting the wire to create an open circuit$ and attaching a voltmeter to the leads#

According to the /orent2 force law in 8I units"$

the E!F on a wire loop is9

where E is the electric field$ 4 is the magnetic field a-a magnetic flu+ density$ magnetic induction"$ d is an infinitesimal arc length along the wire$ and the line integral is evaluated along the wire along the curve the conincident with the shape of the wire"#

The !a+well:Faraday e,uation states that a time@varying magnetic field is always accompanied by a spatially@ varying$ non@

conservative electric field$ and vice@versa# The !a+well: Faraday e,uation is


is the curl operator and again E r$ t" is the electric

field and 4 r$ t" is the magnetic field# These fields can generally be functions of position r and time t#

The four !a+well's e,uations including the !a+well:Faraday e,uation"$ along with the /orent2 force law$ are a sufficient foundation to derive everything inclassical electromagnetism# Therefore it is possible to 7prove7 Faraday's law starting with these e,uations# Faraday's law could be ta-en as the starting point and used to 7prove7 the !a+well:Faraday e,uation andBor other laws#"