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Constructivism:AHolisticApproach toTeachingandLearning

JanetGiesen
FacultyDevelopmentand InstructionalDesignCenter
NorthernIllinoisUniversity

Introductions
Yourname Yourdepartmentorunit Yourexperiencesorknowledgeof constructivism Whyhaveyoujoinedustoday?

Overview
Learningcycle Constructivism
Learningtheory Process Instructionalstrategy

Classroomapplications Instructorandstudentroles

LearningCycleor5Es
Engage

Extend

Evaluate

Explore

Explain

Howwouldyoudefineconstructivism?

Adefinitionofconstructivism
Fundamentally,constructivismsaysthat peopleconstructtheirownunderstandingand knowledgeoftheworldthroughexperiencing thingsandreflectingonthoseexperiences.

Source:ThirteenEdOnline(2004)

Constructivismisalearningtheory
Learningisanactiveprocess Knowledgeisconstructedfrom(andshaped by)experience Learningisapersonalinterpretationofthe world

Sources:Christie(2005);Kruse(n.d.)

Constructivismisalearningtheory
Emphasizesproblemsolvingand understanding Usesauthentictasks,experiences,settings, assessments Contentpresentedholistically notin separatesmallerparts

Sources:Christie(2005);

Constructivismisaprocess theinstructor
Adaptcurriculumtoaddressstudents suppositions Helpnegotiategoalsandobjectiveswithlearners Poseproblemsofemergingrelevancetostudents Emphasizehandson,realworldexperiences Seekandvaluestudentspointsofview Socialcontextofcontent
Sources:Christie(2005);Honebein(1996)

Constructivismisaprocess theinstructor
Providemultiplemodesofrepresentations/ perspectivesoncontent Createnewunderstandingsviacoaching, moderating,suggesting Testingshouldbeintegratedwiththetaskand notaseparateactivity Useerrorstoinformstudentsofprogressto understandingandchangesinideas
Sources:Christie(2005);Honebein(1996)

Constructivismisaprocess thestudent
Helpdevelopowngoalsandassessments Createnewunderstandings(viacoaching, moderating,suggesting) Controllearning(reflecting)

Source:GrennonBrooks&Brooks,1999

Constructivismisaprocess thestudent
Memberofcommunityoflearners Collaborateamongfellowstudents Learninasocialexperience appreciate differentperspectives Takeownershipandvoiceinlearningprocess

TraditionalClassroom
Beginswithpartsofthewhole emphasizes basicskills Strict adherenceto fixedcurriculum Textbooksandworkbooks Instructorgives / studentsreceive Instructorassumesdirective, authoritativerole Assessment viatesting/ correctanswers Knowledge isinert Studentsworkindividually

Constructivist Classroom
Beginswiththewhole expandingtoparts Pursuitofstudent questions/interests Primarysources/manipulativematerials Learningisinteractionbuilding onwhatstudentsalready know Instructor interacts/ negotiateswithstudents Assessmentviastudent works,observations, pointsofview,tests.Processisasimportant asproduct Knowledgeisdynamic/changes with experiences Studentsworkin groups
Thirteen Ed Online (2004).

Constructivismisan instructionalstrategy
Involvescollaborationbetweeninstructors, studentsandothers(communitymembers) Tailoredtoneedsandpurposesofindividual learners Featuresactive,challenging,authenticand multidisciplinarylearning

Source:Christie(2005)

Constructivismisan instructionalstrategy
Constructivismcanhelpstudents
Pursuepersonalinterestsandpurposes Useanddevelophisorherabilities Buildonhisorherpriorknowledgeand experiences Developlifelonglearning

Source:Christie(2005)

Constructivismisan instructionalstrategy
Constructivismencouragesinstructorsto provideforeachstudents
Preferredlearningstyle Rateoflearning Personalinteractionswithotherlearners

Source:Christie(2005)

Applyingconstructivismintheclassroom
Poseproblemsthatareorwillberelevantto students Structurelearningaroundessentialconcepts Beawarethatstudentspointsofvieware windowsintotheirreasoning

Source:ThirteenEdOnline,2004

Applyingconstructivismintheclassroom
Adaptteachingtoaddressstudents suppositionsanddevelopment Assessstudentlearningincontextof teaching

Source:ThirteenEdOnline,2004

Implementingconstructivism inanonlinesetting
Individualityandchoiceinpracticaltasks; negotiatedreporttitles PracticaltasksuseInternettocreateWeb pages,conceptmaps,etc. Videosreplace(some)lectures Examsreplacedbyreportsonissueor researchonInternetresources Workinpairs,groups Blackboardsupported
Source:http://www.keele.ac.uk/depts/aa/landt/lt/talwt/materials/examplesofconstructivism.pdf

Studentcenteredvs.instructordominatedlearningenvironment Instructor
Facilitatorofknowledge Colearner/collaborator Developerofinstruction Reflectiveinstructor Discovery facilitator Negotiatorofknowledge Teammember Informationreceiver Coach/facilitator

Student
Adaptivelearner Collaborator/colearner Codeveloperofgoalsandobjectives Knowledgeseeker Knowledgecreator Reflective learner Learningthroughdiscovery Negotiator ofknowledge Teammember Activelearner Responsiblelearner Mediateownlearning

Constructivismsummary
Shiftsemphasisfromteachingtolearning Individualizesandcontextualizesstudentslearningexperiences Helpsstudentsdevelopprocesses,skillsandattitudes Considersstudentslearningstyles Focusesonknowledgeconstruction,notreproduction Usesauthentictaskstoengagelearners Providesformeaningful,problembasedthinking Requiresnegotiationofmeaning Requiresreflectionofpriorandnewknowledge Extendsstudentsbeyondcontentpresentedtothem

Sources:Christie(2005);Clarkson&Brook(n.d.);MurphycitingJonassen,1994

TakeWorkshopQuiz

Selectedresources
Christie, A. (2005). Constructivism and its implications for educators. http://alicechristie.com/edtech/learning/constructivism/index.htm Clarkson, B., & Brook, C. (n.d.). I cant understand why I didnt pass: Scaffolding student activities. http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/perth04/procs/pdf/clarkson.pdf Grabowski, B. (2004). Generative learning contributions to the design of instruction and learning. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (3rd ed.), pp. 719-743. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Grennon Brooks, J., & Brooks, M. G. (1999). In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Honebein, Peter. C. (1996). Seven goals for the design of constructivist learning environments. In Wilson, Brent. G. (Ed.). (1996) Constructivist learning environments: case studies in instructional design. Educational Technology Publications Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey Lorsbach, A. (n.d.). The learning cycle as a tool for planning science instruction. http://www.coe.ilstu.edu/scienceed/lorsbach/257lrcy.htm Murphy, E. (1997). Thirteen Ed Online (2004). Constructivism as a paradigm for teaching and learning. http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index.html

Workshoprelatedlinks
ConstructivistChecklist(Howconstructivistconceptsmightbe
operationalizedinaninstructionalsetting)

http://www.cdli.ca/~elmurphy/emurphy/cle4.html DataAnalysisandProbability(simulations) http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/category_g_4_t_5.html VirtualFrogDissection(simulation) http://froggy.lbl.gov/cgibin/dissect VisualConstructivisminDistanceLearning(Insightintothepromise


constructivismoffersforachievementofqualityindistancelearning)

http://www.usdla.org/html/journal/JAN02_Issue/article03.html