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Safety In Design Designing Safer Buildings & Structures : An Australian perspective Mike Straughton, July 2008 Introduction • Why the Move to Safety In Design? • The Regulatory Push Towards Safety in Design • Duties for Designers of Buildings or Structures • Definitions • Who is a Designer? • What are the Designer’s Responsibilities When Preparing a Design? Introduction • Safety In Design • An Example of a Risk Management Approach • Benefits of Safety In Design • Practicable Examples of Safety in Design • Benefits of Safety in Design Why the Move to Safety In Design? • Safe engineering design integrates risk management principles into the design by • Involving designers, users, and other relevant parties in considering the most appropriate design at each stage in the design process • Systematically identifying hazards, and eliminating/mitigating associated risks • Communicating to the users, and other relevant parties, residual risks associated with the design The Regulatory Push Towards Safety in Design • United Kingdom • Construction (Design & Management) Regulations 2007 • Australia • Federal • National Standard for Construction Work • States/Territories • As with other OH&S legislation, various states/territories have “variations (to a greater or lesser extent) on the same theme” Legislative Framework: Commonwealth: National Construction Standard NT: No specific duties Northern Territory Queensland Western Australia South Australia QLD: WH&S Act 1995: s30B WA: OS&H Act 1984: s23 SA: OHS & W Act 1986: s23A New South Wales ACT Victoria NSW: No specific duties ACT: No specific duties VIC: OHS Act 2004: s28 Tasmania TAS: WH&S Act 1995: s14 Duties for designers of buildings or structures • Depending on the jurisdiction, the duty applies to designers of: • buildings /structures to be used as workplaces • buildings/structures that are occasional workplaces • parts of the building/structure including fixtures integral to its use as a workplace • temporary structures • the design of the construction and demolition phases of a building/ structure’s lifecycle (not all jurisdictions) • Roads and footpaths (not all jurisdictions) • The duty doesn’t apply to • Residential dwellings not intended as workplaces Duties for designers of buildings or structures • Commonwealth: National Construction Standard (section 7) requires that designers must • Ensure that hazards associated with the construction work (includes construction, repair, cleaning, maintenance, demolition) required by the design are identified before commencement of that work • Ensure to the extent that they have control over the design that health & safety risks resulting from the design are eliminated or minimised • Provide a written report to the client on the health & safety aspects of the design Duties for Designers of Buildings or Structures • Queensland: section 30B of the WH&S Act 1995 states • Section 30B (Obligations of Designers of Structures) • Designer of a structure has an obligation to ensure the design of the structure does not affect the WH&S of persons • During construction of the structure • When the structure has been constructed and is being used for the purpose it was originally designed for • A designer is considered to have met their obligation under section 30B if persons are not exposed to risks to their H&S arising out of the design This places an absolute duty on the designer Definitions Used in Queensland • Workplace • Any place where work is, or is to be, performed by a worker or a person conducting a business or undertaking • Building or Structure • Structure: definition is very broad and includes a building, underground works, roads, footpaths, railway lines, water storages/supply systems, formwork, falsework, scaffold or other construction designed for use during construction work • As Far as Reasonably Practicable needs to take in to account • General OH&S duties are not qualified by the term “reasonably practicable” – the defendant has the onus of proof that an offence was not committed Who is a designer? • Designers can include: • Persons who undertake the design on behalf of a client, including: • • • • Architects Building designers Draftspersons Client (e.g. if they specify a certain design) Pre-Design: Siting, Feasibility Study Conceptual & Schematic Design Design Development Construction Documentation Construction, Refurbishment or Modification • Persons who design parts of the building/structure integral to its use as a workplace, including: • • • • Engineers Interior designers Industrial designers Contractors • Persons who make changes to building/structure design during the construction phase have a safety in design duty What are the designer’s responsibilities when preparing a design? • To Understand • the range of work activities associated with intended use of building/structure as a workplace • any maintenance, repair, service and cleaning activities for building / structure when in use (also demolition in some jurisdictions) • To Identify, and Control • hazards and risks associated with the above activities • To Communicate: • inform the client of any high risks in the client’s design requirements • recommend design alternatives that will eliminate/reduce risks arising from original design Who else has responsibilities? • Basically, anyone who has input into the design, construction and use of the building/structure as a workplace e.g. • Clients • Construction contractors building the workplace • Designers, manufacturers & suppliers of plant to be used in the workplace • Controller of the workplace • Employees who will be using the workplace • Persons installing, erecting, commissioning, maintaining plant at the workplace Who else has responsibilities? • Queensland’s WH&S Act safety in design obligations are more detailed than other jurisdictions, with specific responsibilities detailed in • Section 23 (Obligations for Workplace Health & Safety) • Section 30A (Obligations of Clients) • Section 30B (Obligations of Designers of Structures) • Section 30C (Obligations of Project Managers) • Section 31 (Obligations of Principal Contractors) Queensland WH&S Act • Section 23 (Obligations for Workplace Health & Safety) • Designers of structures have an obligation to ensure workplace health & safety for construction work and makes reference to amended section 30B • Defines a number of other parties that have obligations to ensure workplace H&S Queensland WH&S Act • Section 30A (Obligations of Clients) • Client has an obligation to consult with • Designer • Project Manager for construction work • Principal Contractor for construction work • Aim of consultation is to • Ensure the construction work can be planned and managed so as to prevent or minimise all risk s to health and safety • Inform the Designer, Project Manager, or Principal Contractor of any hazards or risks that the client is aware of relating to the site where construction is to occur Queensland WH&S Act • Section 30C (Obligations of Project Managers) • Project Manager of a structure has an obligation to ensure construction work is planned and managed to prevent or minimise risk to the the WH&S of all persons • Undertaking the construction work • Person at or near the workplace during the construction work Queensland WH&S Act • Section 31 (Obligations of Principal Contractors) • Principal Contractor has an obligation to ensure the the WH&S of all persons arising from a hazard at the workplace for which no other person has an H&S obligation • Principal Contractor must manage construction work so as to prevent or minimise risk • Principal Contractor must consult with following parties re construction work risk management • The Designer • The Project Manager • Other relevant persons Safety in Design – lifecycle approach Operation Construction Safety In Design Maintenance and Repair Demolition/ Refurbishment Risk management approach Review Options No Identify Control Measures • Mitigation • Management • Control Is Residual Risk Acceptable ? Identify Hazards What could go wrong? Assess Risks • Quantify • Rank Yes RISK REGISTER Implement Control Measures Monitor Update risk register Safety in Design Reviews • Brainstorm ideas at review with fellow design team members • Identify hazards and risks • May require completion of full or partial risk management • Then evaluate them: • What can be avoided, reduced or controlled • Record your decisions • Communicate to client Safety in Design Reviews Key outcomes • List any required actions that may be required as part of future design phases • Ensure all relevant information is captured and recorded • Communicate the findings of the review to all relevant parties, including the client • Any review report developed should include • review methodology used • details regarding any significant risks identified during the review • Follow-up actions generated from review Practicable Examples of Safety in Design Bulk sulphur shed • Use of front-end loader has several potential hazards • Stockpile collapse on to loader • Generation of dust due to crushing of product • Operator exposure to dust • Potentially explosive air/dust mixture • Loader is a potential ignition source • Sparking from bucket striking concrete floor • Friction between loader tyres and floor • Sparking from Loader engine • Use of Auto-reclaim system eliminates/minimises above hazards Practicable Examples of Safety in Design Building atrium • Significant amount of internal glass to be cleaned, including internal skylight at approx 12 metres above floor level • Initial access solution did not involve building maintenance contractor • Complicated and impracticable • Ultimate access solution provided primarily by maintenance contractor • Simple and practicable Practicable Examples of Safety in Design Building atrium Practicable Examples of Safety in Design Initial access solution Fall Arrest Rigging to Full Body Harness System Ladder Intermediate Support Portable Ladde Practicable Examples of Safety in Design Building atrium • Ultimate access solution Practicable Examples of Safety in Design Residential precinct road design • Uninterrupted street lengths restricted to minimise risk of traffic travelling at speed, with controls including • Roundabouts • Road closures • Reorientation of streets • Stagger of streets Practicable Examples of Safety in Design • Elimination of working at height during maintenance of light fittings Practicable Examples of Safety in Design • Working from fixed platform during maintenance of light fittings Practicable Examples of Safety in Design • 100m high (yellow) support towers require aircraft warning lights • Each tower has two lights in parallel – when one fails, second is switched on – adequate coverage for original life expectancy for structure Practicable Examples of Safety in Design • 40m high mast on top of 203m tower requires aircraft warning light • Eyebolts as part of height access solution impracticable – periodic testing of eyebolts would be required • Solution – approved light fitting that can be raised/lowered up centre of mast (mast centered on 500mm dia. Steel tube) Safety in Design – it’s not just about permanent works! Prevention of fall in to pile during construction ~ 1.2 m of temporary steel casing above ground ~ 0.6 – 1.5 m diameter pile Temporary steel casing used to support ground at top of pile during construction Safety in Design – it’s not just about permanent works! Safety in Design – it’s not just about permanent works! Benefits of Safety in Design Lifecycle Phase Design Health and Safety Benefit • Risks identified • Risks reduced/controlled Project Benefit • Reduced re-design or retrofitting • Reduced lifecycle OHS costs • Informed contractor reduces risk contingency • Increased time and cost certainty • Reduced costs (absence & claims) • Company image • Reduced civil claims Construction • Communication of residual risks to contractor • Reduced likelihood of accidents Operation • Occupant health and safety • Public health and safety Maintenance and Repair • Safe access for maintenance and repair strategies • Reduced likelihood of accidents • Informed contractor reduces risk contingency • Reduction in maintenance costs • Reduction in repair costs Demolition/ Refurbishment • Communication of residual risks to contractor • Reduced likelihood of unplanned events • Informed contractor reduces risk contingency • Increased time and cost certainty