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Lawrence George Durrell (27 February 1912 7 November 1990) was an expatriate British novelist, poet, ramatist, an travel

l writer, thou!h he resiste a""iliation with Britain an pre"erre to be #onsi ere #osmopolitan$ %t has been posthumously su!!este that &urrell never ha British #iti'enship, thou!h more a##urately, he be#ame e"ine as a non(patrial in 19)*, ue to the amen ment to the +ommonwealth %mmi!rants ,#t 19)2$-1. /en#e, he was enie the ri!ht to enter or settle in Britain un er new laws an ha to apply "or a visa "or ea#h entry$ /is most "amous wor0 is the tetralo!y The Alexandria Quartet$ Life and work &urrell was born in 1ullun er, British %n ia, the el est son o" %n ian(born British #olonials 2ouisa an 2awren#e 3amuel &urrell$ /is "irst s#hool was 3t$ 1oseph4s +olle!e, North 5oint, &ar6eelin!$ ,t the a!e o" eleven, he was sent to 7n!lan where he brie"ly atten e 3t$ 8lave4s 9rammar 3#hool be"ore bein! sent to 3t$ 7 mun 4s 3#hool, +anterbury$ /is "ormal e u#ation was unsu##ess"ul an he "aile his university entran#e examinations, but he be!an seriously writin! poetry at the a!e o" "i"teen an his "irst #olle#tion o" poetry, Quaint Fragments, was publishe in 19:1$ 8n 22 1anuary 19:;, he marrie Nan#y %sobel <yers, the "irst o" his "our marria!es$-2. &urrell was always unhappy in 7n!lan -citation needed. an in <ar#h o" that year he persua e his new wi"e, his mother, an his siblin!s (in#lu in! brother 9eral &urrell, later to be a ma6or British wil li"e #onservationist an popular writer), to move to the 9ree0 islan o" +or"u, where they mi!ht live more e#onomi#ally an es#ape both the 7n!lish weather an stulti"yin! 7n!lish #ulture=what &urrell #alle >the 7n!lish eath$>-:.%n the same year, &urrell4s "irst novel, Pied Piper of Lovers, was publishe by +assell$ ,roun this time, he #han#e upon a #opy o" /enry <iller4s 19:? novel Tropic of Cancer, an wrote to <iller, expressin! intense a miration "or his novel$ &urrell4s letter spar0e an en urin! "rien ship an mutually #riti#al relationship that spanne ?; years$ @he two !ot on well, as they were explorin! similar sub6e#ts, an &urrell4s next novel, Panic Spring, was heavily in"luen#e by <iller4s wor0,-?. an a"ter that The Black Book aboun e with >"our(letter wor s$$$ !rotesAues,$$$ -an . its moo eAually as apo#alypti#> as @ropi#$%n +or"u, 2awren#e an Nan#y live to!ether in bohemian style$ For the "irst "ew months, the #ouple live with the rest o" the &urrell "amily in the Billa ,nemoyanni at Conto0ali$ %n early 19:), however, &urrell an Nan#y move to the Dhite /ouse, a "isherman4s #otta!e on the shore o" +or"u4s northeastern #oast at Calami, then a tiny "ishin! villa!e$ &urrell4s "rien @heo ore 3tephani es was a "reAuent !uest, an /enry <iller staye at the >Dhite /ouse> in 19:9$ @his perio o" his so6ourn on +or"u is somewhat "i#tionalise in a lyri#al a##ount in Prospero's Cell, whi#h may be instru#tively #ompare with the a##ounts o" the +or"u experien#e publishe by 9eral &urrell, notably in ! Famil! and "ther Animals an the rest o" 9eral 4s so(#alle +or"u trilo!y$ 9eral es#ribes 2awren#e as livin! permanently with his mother an siblin!s=Nan#y is not mentione at all=whereas 2awren#e4s a##ount ma0es only a "ew re"eren#es to 6ust one o" his siblin!s, 2eslie an oes not mention that his mother an other two siblin!s were also resi ent on +or"u$ @he a##ounts o #over a "ew o" the same topi#sE "or example, both 9eral an 2awren#e es#ribe the roles playe by the +or"iot taxi river 3piro ,meri0anos an the 9ree0 o#tor, s#ientist an poet @heo ore 3tephani es in their lives on +or"u$ %n +or"u he be#ame "rien s with <arie ,spioti, with whom he #ooperate in the publi#ation o" Lear's Corfu#-;.F2)0%n ,u!ust 19:7, 2awren#e an Nan#y travelle to the Billa 3eurat ("r) in 5aris, to meet /enry <iller an ,naGs Nin$ @o!ether with ,l"re 5erles, Nin, <iller, an &urrell >be!an a #ollaboration aime at "oun in! their own literary movement$ @heir pro6e#ts in#lu e 4@he 3hame o" the <ornin!4 an the 4Booster,4 a #ountry #lub house or!an that the Billa 3eurat !roup appropriate "or their own artisti# $ $ $ en s$>-). @hey also starte the Billa 3eurat 3eries in or er to publish &urrell4s Bla#0 Boo0, <iller4s <ax an the Dhite 5ha!o#ytes, an Nin4s $inter of Artifice, with 1a#0 Cahane o" the 8belis0 5ress as publisher$&urrell4s "irst novel o" note, The Black Book% An Agon, was heavily in"luen#e by <iller an was publishe in 5aris in 19:*$ @he mil ly porno!raphi# wor0 only appeare in Britain in 197:$ %n the story, the main #hara#ter 2awren#e 2u#i"er stru!!les to es#ape the spiritual sterility o" yin! 7n!lan , an "in s 9ree#e4s warmth an "ertility$,t the outbrea0 o" the 3e#on Dorl Dar, &urrell4s mother an brothers returne to 7n!lan , while he an Nan#y remaine on +or"u$ %n 19?0, he an Nan#y ha a au!hter, 5enelope Beren!aria$ ,"ter the "all o" 9ree#e, 2awren#e an Nan#y es#ape via +rete to ,lexan ria in 7!ypt$ @he marria!e was alrea y un er strain, however, an &urrell an Nan#y separate in 19?2, with Nan#y ta0in! baby 5enelope to 1erusalem$&urin! his years on +or"u, &urrell ha ma e notes "or a boo0 about the islan , but it was only in 7!ypt towar s the en o" the war, that he was "inally able to write it$ %n the boo0, Prospero's Cell, &urrell es#ribe +or"u as >this brilliant little spe#0 o" an islan in the %onian,> with waters >li0e the heartbeat o" the worl itsel"$>&urin! Dorl Dar @wo, &urrell serve as a press atta#hH to the British 7mbassies, "irst in +airo an then ,lexan ria$ %t was in ,lexan ria that he met 7ve (Ivette) +ohen, a 1ewish woman an native ,lexan rian, who was to be#ome his mo el "or the #hara#ter 1ustine in the ,lexan ria Juartet$ %n 19?7, a"ter his ivor#e "rom Nan#y #ame throu!h, &urrell marrie 7ve +ohen an in 19;1 they ha a au!hter, 3appho 1ane, name a"ter the le!en ary ,n#ient 9ree0 poet 3appho$ (3appho &urrell #ommitte sui#i e by han!in! in 19*;$)%n <ay 19?;, &urrell obtaine a postin! to Kho es$ @he &o e#anese ha been ta0en by %taly "rom the isinte!ratin! 8ttoman 7mpire in 1912, urin! the Bal0an Dars$ Dith the %talian surren er in 19?: their erstwhile 9erman allies too0 over most o" the islan s an hel onto them as besie!e "ortresses until the war4s en $ <ainlan 9ree#e was at that time lo#0e in #ivil war, an so the &o e#anese #ame un er a temporary British military !overnment

pen in! soverei!nty bein! han e over to 9ree#e in 19?7, as war reparations "rom %taly$&urrell set up house in the little !ate0eeper4s lo !e o" an ol @ur0ish #emetery, 6ust a#ross the roa "rom the buil in! use by the British , ministration (to ay the +asino in Kho es new town), where his #o(habitation with 7ve +ohen #oul be is#reetly i!nore by his employer, while remainin! #lose enou!h to be within the perimeter se#urity 'one o" the main buil in!$ From this perio #omes his boo0 >Ke"le#tions on a <arine Benus$> a lyri#al #elebration o" the islan , in whi#h, &urrell ten s to avoi more than a passin! mention o" the trouble times$%n 19?7, &urrell was appointe ire#tor o" the British +oun#il %nstitute in +Lr oba, ,r!entina, where "or the next ei!hteen months he !ave le#tures on #ultural topi#s$-7. /e returne to 2on on with 7ve in the summer o" 19?*, aroun the time that <arshal 1osip Bro' @ito o" Iu!oslavia bro0e ties with 1oseph 3talin4s +8<%NF8K<, an &urrell was poste to Bel!ra e, Iu!oslavia-*. where he was to remain until 19;2$ @his so6ourn !ave him material "or his boo0 $hite &agles over Ser'ia (19;7)$%n 19;2, 7ve ha a brea0 own an was hospitalise in 7n!lan $ &urrell move to +yprus with 3appho 1ane, buyin! a house an ta0in! a position tea#hin! 7n!lish literature at the 5an#yprian 9ymnasium to support his writin!, "ollowe by publi# relations wor0 "or the British !overnment there urin! a!itation "or union with 9ree#e$ /e wrote about his time in +yprus in Bitter Lemons, whi#h won the &u"" +ooper 5ri'e in 19;7$ %n 19;?, he be#ame a Fellow o" the Koyal 3o#iety o" 2iterature$ &urrell le"t +yprus in ,u!ust 19;), a"ter problems on the islan an his British !overnment position le to him bein! ma e a tar!et o" assassination attempts$-;.F27%n 19;7, he publishe (ustine, the "irst part o" what was to be#ome his most "amous wor0, the Alexandria Quartet$ (ustine, Baltha)ar (19;*), ountolive (19;*) an Clea (19)0), eal with events be"ore an urin! the 3e#on Dorl Dar in the 7!yptian #ity o" ,lexan ria$ @he "irst three boo0s tell essentially the same story but "rom i""erent perspe#tives, a te#hniAue &urrell es#ribe in his intro u#tory note in Baltha)ar as >relativisti#$> 8nly in the "inal part, Clea, oes the story a van#e in time an rea#h a #on#lusion$The Quartet impresse #riti#s by the ri#hness o" its style, the variety an vivi ness o" its #hara#ters, its movement between the personal an the politi#al, an its exoti# lo#ations in an aroun the #ity whi#h &urrell portrays as the #hie" prota!onistF >@he #ity whi#h use us as its "lora= pre#ipitate in us #on"li#ts whi#h were hers an whi#h we mistoo0 "or our ownF belove ,lexan riaM> The Times Literar! Supplement review o" the Quartet state F >%" ever a wor0 bore an instantly re#o!ni'able si!nature on every senten#e, this is it$> %n 2012, the Nobel Ke#or s were opene a"ter ;0 years an it was reveale that &urrell was amon! a shortlist o" authors #onsi ere "or the 19)2 Nobel 5ri'e in 2iterature, alon! with 1ohn 3teinbe#0 (winner), Kobert 9raves, 1ean ,nouilh an Caren Blixen$-9. %t was e#i e that >&urrell was not to be !iven pre"eren#e this year> probably be#ause >they i not thin0 that The Alexandria Quartet was enou!h, so they e#i e to 0eep him un er observation "or the "uture>$-9. ,lso a #an i ate in 19)1, &urrell ha in the previous year been rule out be#ause he >!ives a ubious a"tertaste N be#ause o" -his. monomania#al preo##upation with eroti# #ompli#ations>$-9.9iven the #omplexity o" the wor0, it was probably inevitable that 9eor!e +u0or4s 19)9 attempt to "ilm the Quartet ((ustine) simpli"ie the story to the point o" melo rama, an was poorly re#eive $&urrell separate "rom 7ve +ohen in 19;;, an was marrie a!ain in 19)1, to another ,lexan rian 1ewish woman, +lau e(<arie Bin#en on, whom he met on +yprus$ &urrell was evastate when +lau e(<arie ie o" #an#er in 19)7$ /is "ourth an "inal marria!e was in 197:, to a Fren#h woman, 9hislaine e Boysson, whom he ivor#e in 1979$&urrell settle in 3ommiOres, a small villa!e in 2an!ue o#, Fran#e, where he pur#hase a lar!e house stan in! se#lu e in its own extensive walle !roun s on the e !e o" the villa!e$ /ere he wrote The *evolt of Aphrodite, #omprisin! Tunc (19)*) an +un,uam (1970), an The Avignon Quintet, whi#h attempte to repli#ate the su##ess o" the Alexandria Quartet an revisite many o" the same moti"s an styles to be "oun in the earlier wor0$ ,lthou!h it is "reAuently es#ribe as a Auintet, &urrell himsel" re"erre to it as a >Auin#unx$> @he mi le boo0 o" the Auin#unx, Constance- or Solitar! Practices, whi#h portrays Fran#e un er the 9erman o##upation, was nominate "or the Boo0er 5ri'e in 19*2, an the openin! novel, onsieur- or the Prince of .arkness, re#eive the 197? 1ames @ait Bla#0 <emorial 5ri'e$ %n 197?, &urrell was the ,n rew <ellon Bisitin! 5ro"essor o" /umanities at the +ali"ornia %nstitute o" @e#hnolo!y$-10. &urrell wrote the 5re"a#eF A'out &duardo Sanguinetti (19*2) to 3an!uinettiPs 5oetry an 5hilosophi#al 7ssay Alter &go (19*)) $ &urrell sai in the 5re"a#eF This is /hat the /ork of Sanguinetti sho/s us- in the form of a mirror image# "r- to put it in less philosophical terms- &duardo Sanguinetti- like almost an! other creator- has little understanding of /hat he is going to do and onl! partiall! understands /hat he has done# Sanguinetti in a /a! of contemplating the /orld and all his /ork- /hatever the medium- reveals this particular /a!# Sanguinetti is a st!le# 0e is an extraordinaril! coherent statement of a /a! of 'eing in the /orld# -11.-12. 8ther wor0s "rom this perio are >3i#ilian +arousel,> a #elebration o" that islan , >@he 9ree0 %slan s,> an >+aesar4s Bast 9host,> whi#h is mainly about 5roven#e, Fran#e$ &urrell su""ere "rom emphysema "or many years$ /e ie o" a stro0e at his house in 3ommiOres in November 1990$ /is li"elon! "rien ,lan 9$ @homas onate a #olle#tion o" boo0s an perio i#als asso#iate with &urrell to the British 2ibrary, whi#h is maintaine as the istin#t 2awren#e &urrell +olle#tion$ ,lan @homas also a#te as e itor "or an antholo!y o" a itional writin!s, letters an poetry, >3pirit 8" 5la#e,> whi#h #ontains mu#h that supplements &urrell4s own boo0s$

Poetry &urrell4s poetry has been oversha owe by his novels$ 5eter 5orter, in his intro u#tion to a 3ele#te 5oems,-1:. writes o" &urrell as a poetF >8ne o" the best o" the past hun re years$ ,n one o" the most en6oyable$> /e !oes on to es#ribe &urrell4s poetry as >,lways beauti"ul as soun an syntax$ %ts innovation lies in its re"usal to be more hi!h(min e than the thin!s it re#or s, to!ether with its han lin! o" the whole lexi#on o" lan!ua!e$>-1?. Work with the British government &urrell also spent several years in the servi#e o" the Forei!n 8""i#e$ /e was senior press o""i#er to the British 7mbassies in ,thens an +airo, press atta#he in ,lexan ria an Bel!ra e, ire#tor o" the British %nstitutes in Calamata, 9ree#e, an +Lr oba, ,r!entina$ /e was also ire#tor o" 5ubli# Kelations in the &o e#anese %slan s an on +yprus$ &urrell later re"use a +omman er o" the 8r er o" 3t$ <i#hael an 3t$ 9eor!e, be#ause he "elt his >#onservative, rea#tionary, an ri!ht(win!> politi#al views mi!ht be a #ause "or embarrassment$-;.F1*; &urrell4s wor0s o" humour &sprit de Corps an Stiff 1pper Lip are about li"e in the iplomati# #orps, parti#ularly 3erbia$ /e #laime to have isli0e both 7!ypt an ,r!entina,-1;. althou!h nowhere near as mu#h as he isli0e Iu!oslavia$ Major works Novels Pied Piper of Lovers ( !"#$ Panic Spring% under the &seudonym 'harles Norden ( !"($ The Black Book (19:*E republishe in the QC on 1 1anuary 1977 by Faber an Faber) Cefalu (19?7E republishe as The .ark La'!rinth in 19;*) $hite &agles "ver Ser'ia (19;7) The Alexandria Quartet (19)2) F(ustine (19;7)Baltha)ar (19;*) ountolive (19;*)Clea (19)0) The *evolt of Aphrodite (197?) FTunc (19)*)+un,uam (1970) The Avignon Quintet (1992) F onsieur% or- The Prince of .arkness (197?)Livia% or- Buried Alive (197*)Constance% or- Solitar! Practices (19*2)Se'astian% or- *uling Passions (19*:)Quinx% or- The *ipper's Tale (udith (2012, written 19)2(#$ 19))) )ravel Prospero's Cell% A guide to the landscape and manners of the island of Corc!ra 2Corfu3 (19?;E republishe 2000) (*+BN ,-#( -., /#-.) *eflections on a arine 4enus (19;:) Bitter Lemons (19;7E republishe as Bitter Lemons of C!prus 2001)Blue Thirst (197;) Sicilian Carousel (1977) The 5reek 6slands (197*) Caesar's 4ast 5host (1990) Poetry0uaint 1ragments2 5oems Dritten between the ,!es o" 3ixteen an Nineteen (19:1)ETen Poems (19:2)ETransition% Poems (19:?)EA Private Countr! (19?:)ECities- Plains and People (19?)) "n Seeming to Presume (19?*)EThe Poetr! of La/rence .urrell (19)2)ESelected Poems% 789:;78<: 7 ite by ,lan Koss (19)?)EThe 6kons (19)))EThe Suchness of the "ld Bo! (1972)ECollected Poems% 78:7;78=> 7 ite by 1ames ,$ Bri!ham (19*0)ESelected Poems of La/rence .urrell 7 ite by 5eter 5orter (200)) Drama Bromo Bombastes, un er the pseu onym 9a""er 5eesla0e (19::) 3apphoF , 5lay in Berse (19;0)E,n %rish FaustusF , <orality in Nine 3#enes (19):)EActe (19)?) 3umour 7sprit e +orps (19;7)EStiff 1pper Lip (19;*)ESauve Qui Peut (19)))EAntro'us Complete (19*;), a #olle#tion o" short stories, previously publishe in various ma!a'ines, about li"e in the di&lomatic #orps$ Letters and essays A ?e! to odern British Poetr! (19;2) La/rence .urrell and 0enr! iller% A Private Correspondence (19)2) e ite by 9eor!e Di#0es Spirit of Place% Letters and &ssa!s on Travel (19)9) e ite by ,lan 9$ @homas Literar! Lifelines% The *ichard Aldington@La/rence .urrell Correspondence (19*1) e ite by %an 3$ <a#Niven an /arry @$ <oore A Smile in the ind's &!e (19*0) Preface- a'out &duardo Sanguinetti o" 3an!uinettiPs 5oetry an 5hilosophi#al 7ssay Alter &go (19*)), e ite by @he 5entlan (7 inbur!h)$ >2etters to @$ 3$ 7liot> (19*7) T/entieth Centur! Literature Bol$ ::, No$ : pp$ :?*:;*$ The .urrellA iller Letters% 78:9;BC (19**), e ite by %an 3$ <a#Niven Letters to (ean Fanchette (19**), e ite by 1ean Fan#hette 4diting and translating $ords/orthD Selected '! La/rence .urrell (197:), e ite by &urrell +e/ Poems 78<:% A P#&#+# Antholog! of Contemporar! Poetr! (19):), e ite by &urrell The Best of 0enr! iller (19)0), e ite by &urrell The Curious 0istor! of Pope (oan (19;?), by 7mmanuel KoR es an translate by &urrell The ?ing of Asine and "ther Poems (19?*), by 9eor!e 3e"eris an translate by &urrell, Bernar 3pen#er, an Nanos Balaoritis Six Poems From the 5reek of SikelianEs and SefFris (19?)), translate by &urrell

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