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CENG CENG131 131 Lecture Lecture1. 1.

Introduction Introductionto toBasic BasicThermodynamic ThermodynamicConcepts Concepts(3 (3h) h) Learning Objectives: Learning Objectives: (1) (1)Relevance Relevanceto toChemical ChemicalEngineering Engineering (2) (2)Thermodynamic ThermodynamicProperties Properties (3) (3)Zeroth ZerothLaw Lawof ofThermodynamics Thermodynamics (4) (4)First FirstLaw Lawof ofThermodynamics Thermodynamics Learning LearningGuides: Guides: (1) (1)Lecture Lecturehandouts handouts (2) (2)Chapters Chapters11and and22of ofIntroduction Introductionto toChemical ChemicalEngineering Engineering Thermodynamics Thermodynamics5th 5thed. ed.(Smith, (Smith,Van VanNess, Ness,Abbott) Abbott) (3) (3)Please Pleasereview reviewyour yourPhysical PhysicalChemistry ChemistryNotes Notes

Thermodynamics
(1) Thermodynamics was developed by engineers to describe the conversion of chemical energy stored in fossil fuel into heat and useful work.

Chemical Energy

Heat

Work

With this in mind, it is not surprising to see many terms used to described Thermodynamics have practical or engineering origin. Most equations are developed for ease in their use rather than for their elegance.

Thermodynamics in Chemical Engineering


(2) Chemical Engineering involves taking natural raw materials and transforming them into useful products:

Thermodynamics in Chemical Engineering


(3) Energy is needed to (a) Transport materials

orm

ati o

distillation

Crude Oil
Ph y si

Refinery

cal

tra

n sf

(b) Physical transform materials

Smelting

Chemical transformation

Distillation

Thermodynamics in Chemical Engineering


(c) Chemically transform materials

Thermodynamics in Chemical Engineering


(4) Thermodynamics enable us to: (a) Efficiency of a process

(b) Phase equilibria

Thermodynamics in Chemical Engineering


(c) Reaction

Thermodynamics in Chemical Engineering


(d) Physical properties of materials

Conductivity

Crystal shape and size

Protein folding

Self-assembly structures

Dimensions and Units in Engineering Thermodynamics


(1) Fundamental dimensions length, mass and time Metric unit MKS: meter (m), kilogram (kg) and second (s) cgs: centimeter (cm), gram (g) and second (s) English unit foot (ft), poundmass (lbm) and second (sec) Conversions 1 m = 100 cm = 3.28 ft = 39.37 in 1 kg = 1000 g = 2.204 lbm 1 s = 1 sec (2) Derived dimensions based on primitive units (a) Force F = mass x acceleration = ma Metric unit MKS: Newton (N) English unit: poundal (lbf) cgs: dyne Conversions 1 N = 1 kg m s-2 = 105 dynes = 0.2248 lbf
http://www.chemie.fu-berlin.de/chemistry/general/units_en.html

Dimensions and Units in Engineering Thermodynamics


(b) Pressure P = force/area = F/A Metric unit MKS: Bar (bar) English unit: atmosphere (atm) cgs: Pascal (Pa) Conversions 1 bar = 105 kg m-1 s-2 = 105 N m-2 = 105 Pa = 102 kPa = 106 dyne cm-2 = 0.986 atm = 14.504 psia = 750 torr

1 torr = 1 mm Hg 1 atm = pressure exerted by the air at see level 1 atm = 760 mm Hg 1 atm = 14.7 psia 1 psia = 1 poundal per square inch absolute

http://www.chemie.fu-berlin.de/chemistry/general/units_en.html

Dimensions and Units in Engineering Thermodynamics


(c) Temperature Metric unit: Kelvin (K) English unit: Rankine (R)

Conversions T (K) = t(C) + 273 = T(R)/1.8 T (R) = t(F) + 460 t(F) = 1.8 t(C) + 32

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Dimensions and Units in Engineering Thermodynamics


(d) Energy E = force x distance = Fl Metric unit MKS: Joules (J) cgs: Erg (erg) English unit: ft-lbf and BTU

Conversions 1 J = 1 kg m-2 s-2 = 1 N m = 10 cm3 bar = 107 dyne cm = 107 erg = 0.239 cal = 0.7376 ft-lbf = 9.478 x 10-4 BTU Types of Energies: Stored Energies: Internal energy (energy stored in molecules) Potential energy (configurational energy) Kinetic energy (motion) macroscopic

Transient Energies: Work (mechanical work) Heat

Mechanical Energies
(1) Kinetic Energy energy stored in moving objects Ek = 1/2 mu2

Mechanical Energies
(2) Potential Energy energy stored in objects due to their relative position or configuration. Gravitational potential energy: Ep = mgz

Elastic potential energy: Ep = 1/2kx2

Example 1. Calculate the kinetic and potential energies of 1 kg of water located 50 m at the top of the Hoover dam, and when it reaches the bottom. How much mechanical work could be extracted from this kilogram of water if the turbine is 100 % efficient?

Example 2. A toy designer wanted to produce a new spring loaded toy gun that shoots colored bubbles along with a 1 gram pellet to a height of 100 ft. If the maximum deflection allowed in the gun design is 3 cm, please calculate the spring constant needed for its operation.

100 ft

50 m

spring

Internal Energy
energy stored within the molecule as translational, rotational and vibrational energies. Change in the internal energy is usually manifested by a change in the temperature. U = f(T)

Example 3. A liter thermos of water at 50C was dropped by a construction worker from a height 150 m. Calculate the initial and final potential, kinetic and internal energies of the water.

translational

rotational

vibrational

Example 4. A car weighing 4000 kg decelerates from 200 kph to a full stop at around 15 s. About 60 percent of the initial kinetic energy is dissipated as heat at the brake pad and the rest absorbed by the tire.

Work and Heat


Energy transfer between system and surrounding occurs either in the form of work or heat Work (W) refers to mechanical work W = Fdl

Infrared picture of the braking car Heat (Q) refers to energy transferred from a hot to a cold object. Tire volume 10 liters Initial tire pressure 30 psia heat capacity of air 1 J/Kg Tire bursting pressure 80 psia

First Law of Thermodynamics


Law of conservation of energy the total quantity of energy is constant and when energy disappears in one form it appears simultaneously in another form. For a closed system: U + Ek + Ep = W + Q

Important Definitions
Reversibility reversible: if the process happens slow enough to be reversed. irreversible: if the process cannot be reversed (like most processes)

Energy stored in the system

Energy transfer to and from the system from and to the surrounding

Work

U + Ek + Ep SYSTEM

Heat

Reversible system allows more efficient conversion to useful work Rapid processes are usually irreversible and most energy are dissipated by viscous mixing into internal energy. Generally less amount of useful work can be gained from a irreversible system.

SURROUNDING isolated systems: no exchange of matter or energy closed systems: no exchange of matter but some exchange of energy open systems: exchange of both matter and energy
http://www.cchem.berkeley.edu/~chem130a/sauer/outline/firstlaw.html

www.planemath.com/.../propulsion/ propulsion3.html

Reversibility

Reversibility

First Law of Thermodynamics


For a steady-state open system: W
(PV)out

(PV)in

min Uin

mout Uout

Q U + Ek + Ep = WT + Q

W - PV

U >> Ek + Ep U + PV = W + Q H =W+Q

work related to fluid expansion as it moved through the pipe work

Enthalpy and Heat

Homework 1
February 11, 2002 Problem 1. A gas is contained in two cylinders A and B connected by a piston of two different diameters, as shown in the figure below. The mass of the piston is 10 kg and the gas pressure inside cylinder A is 200 kPa. Calculate the pressure in cylinder B in kPa, bar, psi and inches of water.

d = 100 mm

Air P = 100 kPa

d = 25 mm

Problem 2. Nitrogen flows at steady-state through a horizontal, insulated pipe with inside diameter of 1.5 inch. A pressure drop results from flow through a partially opened valve. Just upstream from the valve the pressure is 100 psia, the temperature is 120F, and the velocity is 20 ft/s. If the pressure just downstream from the valve is 20 psia, what is the temperature? Assume for nitrogen that PV/T is constant, Cv = 2.5R and Cp = 7.5R. If a thermometer is use for measuring the temperature, what is the temperature reading.