THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF THE OIL AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY ON THE U.S.

ECONOMY: EMPLOYMENT, LABOR INCOME AND VALUE ADDED

Prepared for

American Petroleum Institute

September 8, 2009

National Economics & Statistics

THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF THE OIL AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY ON THE U.S. ECONOMY: EMPLOYMENT, LABOR INCOME AND VALUE ADDED

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................1 I. II. III. IV. INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................4 INDUSTRY DEFINITION............................................................................................6 TOTAL ECONOMIC IMPACT ....................................................................................9 ECONOMIC IMPACT BREAKDOWN: DIRECT, INDIRECT, AND INDUCED IMPACTS .................................................................................................................15

APPENDICES: A. B. DETAILED STATE-BY-STATE OPERATIONAL IMPACT RESULTS .................. A-1 DATA SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY ........................................................... B-1

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THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF THE OIL AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY ON THE U.S. ECONOMY: EMPLOYMENT, LABOR INCOME AND VALUE ADDED Executive Summary The oil and natural gas industry, a vital link in the nation's energy supply, makes important contributions to the U.S. economy by providing an economical energy source for transportation and the production of other goods and services. The oil and natural gas industry currently supplies more than 60% of the nation's total energy demands and more than 99% of the fuel used by Americans in their cars and trucks1, while 900 of the next 1000 U.S. power plants are projected to use natural gas.2 In addition to the important products made available by the oil and natural gas industry, the industry also makes significant economic contributions as an employer and purchaser of goods and services. The oil and natural gas industry is one of the largest employers in the country, employing millions of Americans in exploring, producing, processing, transporting, and marketing oil and natural gas. Millions of jobs in other industries are supported by the oil and natural gas industry’s purchases of intermediate inputs and capital goods from other U.S. producers. These businesses include equipment suppliers, construction services, management services, food services, and many other types of support services. These supporting businesses, in turn, purchase goods and services, spurring additional economic activities. Further, employees and business owners make personal purchases out of the additional income that is generated by this process, sending more new demands rippling through the economy. The purpose of this report is to quantify the contribution of the U.S. oil and natural gas industry to the U.S. national and state economies in terms of employment, labor income (including wages and salaries and benefits, as well as proprietors' income), and value added.3 The direct impact is measured as the jobs, labor income, and value added within the oil and natural gas industry. The indirect impact is measured as the jobs, labor income, and value added occurring within other industries that provide goods and services to the oil and natural gas industry. The induced impact is measured as the jobs, labor income, and value added resulting from household spending of income earned either directly or indirectly from the oil and natural gas industry’s spending. The combination of these three effects comprises the total contribution of the U.S. oil and natural gas industry. At the national level, this report quantifies both the industry’s operational impact (due to purchases of intermediate inputs) and capital investment impact (due to purchases of new structures and equipment). The report does not address the economic effects of the use of oil and natural gas in the economy. In 2007, the most recent year for which data are available, PricewaterhouseCoopers estimates that, combining the operational and capital investment impacts, the U.S. oil and natural gas industry's total employment contribution to the national economy amounted to 9.2 million full-time and part-time jobs, accounting for 5.2 percent of the total employment in the country (see Table E-1). The associated labor income,
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http://www.api.org/aboutoilgas/ and http://www.energy.gov/energysources/oil.htm http://www.energy.gov/energysources/naturalgas.htm 3 Value added refers to the additional value created at a particular stage of production. It is a measure of the overall importance of an industry. Value added consists of: employee compensation, proprietors' income, income to capital owners from property, and indirect business taxes (i.e., those borne by consumers rather than producers).

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including proprietors' income, was estimated to be $558 billion, or 6.3 percent of the national labor income total. The industry's total value-added contribution to the national economy was over $1 trillion, accounting for 7.5 percent of U.S. GDP in 2007. Table E-1. Total Contribution of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry to the U.S. Economy, 2007
Item Operational Impact Employment* Labor Income ($ millions)** Value Added ($ millions) Capital Investment Impact Employment* Labor Income ($ millions)** Value Added ($ millions) Total Impacts Employment* Labor Income ($ millions)** Value Added ($ millions) 9,237,381 558,260 1,037,060 5.2% 6.3% 7.5% 1,418,944 81,012 121,690 0.8% 0.9% 0.9% 7,818,437 477,249 915,370 4.4% 5.4% 6.6% Amount Percent of U.S. Total

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). Numbers may not add to total due to rounding. * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

The economic impact of the oil and natural gas industry reaches all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Due to data limitations, this study has only quantified the oil and natural gas industry's operational impact at the state level. The total number of jobs directly or indirectly attributable to the oil and natural gas industry's operations ranged from a low of 12,815 (in the District of Columbia) to more than 1.7 million (in Texas). The top 15 states, in terms of the total number of jobs directly or indirectly attributable to the oil and natural gas industry's operations in 2007 (Table E-2a) were Texas, California, Oklahoma, Louisiana, New York, Pennsylvania, Florida, Illinois, Ohio, Colorado, Michigan, Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, and New Jersey. Combined these states account for nearly 70 percent of the total jobs attributable to the U.S. oil and natural gas industry's operations.

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Table E-2a. Total Operational Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry, 2007 Top 15 States, Ranked by Total Employment Contribution
State
Texas California Oklahoma Louisiana New York Pennsylvania Florida Illinois Ohio Colorado Michigan Georgia North Carolina Virginia New Jersey

Employment* Percent of Amount State Total
1,772,335 752,614 348,627 330,053 281,267 271,250 267,277 260,001 229,438 190,408 179,495 145,806 145,779 143,479 143,342 13.1% 3.7% 16.3% 13.4% 2.6% 3.8% 2.6% 3.5% 3.4% 6.0% 3.3% 2.7% 2.7% 3.0% 2.8%

Labor Income** Percent of ($ Million) State Total
140,941 54,122 22,550 18,449 21,452 14,494 11,441 16,953 11,121 12,438 9,820 6,841 6,007 6,923 9,461 19.5% 4.6% 24.7% 16.6% 3.0% 4.1% 2.6% 4.2% 3.7% 7.7% 3.8% 2.7% 2.6% 2.7% 3.1%

Value Added Percent of ($ Million) State Total
293,760 100,958 47,839 35,986 36,347 25,772 19,946 31,323 20,201 24,099 17,711 12,032 10,623 11,968 16,853 24.2% 5.5% 31.3% 20.6% 3.3% 4.8% 2.8% 5.0% 4.5% 9.3% 4.4% 3.0% 2.9% 3.1% 3.5%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). Numbers may not add to total due to rounding. * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

The oil and natural gas industry directly and indirectly supported 4 percent or more of the total employment in 15 states in 2007 (see Table E-2b): Wyoming (18.8 percent) Oklahoma (16.3 percent), Louisiana (13.4 percent), Texas (13.1 percent), Alaska (9.8 percent), New Mexico (8.1 percent), West Virginia (6.7 percent), Kansas (6.5 percent), Colorado (6.0 percent), North Dakota (5.7 percent), Mississippi (5.5 percent), Montana (5.3 percent), Utah (4.7 percent), Arkansas (4.4 percent) and Nebraska (4.0 percent). Table E-2b. Total Operational Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry, 2007 Top 15 States, Ranked by Employment Share of State Total
State
Wyoming Oklahoma Louisiana Texas Alaska New Mexico West Virginia Kansas Colorado North Dakota Mississippi Montana Utah Arkansas Nebraska

Employment* Percent of Amount State Total
71,063 348,627 330,053 1,772,335 43,454 88,814 60,891 119,051 190,408 27,914 83,820 34,210 76,188 69,640 49,784 18.8% 16.3% 13.4% 13.1% 9.8% 8.1% 6.7% 6.5% 6.0% 5.7% 5.5% 5.3% 4.7% 4.4% 4.0%

Labor Income** Percent of ($ Million) State Total
4,060 22,550 18,449 140,941 3,143 4,307 2,740 6,738 12,438 1,346 3,609 1,584 3,960 2,884 2,743 24.3% 24.7% 16.6% 19.5% 13.5% 9.5% 7.4% 8.8% 7.7% 7.6% 6.5% 7.0% 5.9% 4.9% 5.6%

Value Added Percent of ($ Million) State Total
8,432 47,839 35,986 293,760 6,064 8,292 5,412 14,029 24,099 2,773 7,244 3,324 7,822 5,589 5,112 29.4% 31.3% 20.6% 24.2% 16.6% 12.2% 9.4% 11.4% 9.3% 9.6% 8.4% 8.9% 7.6% 6.0% 6.7%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). Numbers may not add to total due to rounding. * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

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THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF THE OIL AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY ON THE U.S. ECONOMY: EMPLOYMENT, LABOR INCOME AND VALUE ADDED I. Introduction The purpose of this report is to quantify the contribution of the U.S. oil and natural gas industry as an employer and purchaser of goods and services to the U.S. national and state economies in terms of employment, labor income (including wages and salaries and benefits, as well as proprietors' income), and value added.4 At the national level, this study quantifies both the industry's operational impact from its purchase of intermediate inputs and capital investment impact from its purchases of new structures and equipment, while at the state level, this study has only quantified the industry's operational impact due to data limitations. The economic effects of the use of oil and natural gas in the economy are beyond the scope of this analysis. In describing the economic impact of the U.S. oil and natural gas industry through its employment and purchases of goods and services, it is standard to consider three separate channels that in aggregate constitute the total economic impact of the oil and natural gas industry: direct impact, indirect impact, and induced impact.
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Direct impact is measured as the jobs, labor income, and value added within the oil and natural gas industry. Indirect impact is measured as the jobs, labor income, and value added occurring within other industries that provide goods and services to the oil and natural gas industry. Induced impact is measured as the jobs, labor income, and value added resulting from household spending of income earned either directly or indirectly from the oil and natural gas industry’s spending.

In total, these three effects result in the oil and natural gas industry having a widespread economic impact throughout all sectors of the U.S. economy and in all geographic areas. Using the IMPLAN input-output modeling system, PricewaterhouseCoopers has built customized multiplier models for the U.S. as a whole, as well as the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The models document the oil and natural gas industry’s economic contributions at the national and state level in 2007, the most recent historical year for which a consistent set of national and state level data are available from the IMPLAN modeling system.5 The input-output multiplier models trace all the backward linkages among industries in a geographic region.6 They do not capture any forward linkages (i.e., the link between an industry producing a good or service and the consumers of that good or service). The rest of this report is organized as follows. Section II defines the oil and natural gas industry for this study. Section III presents the direct impact analysis, followed by
Value added refers to the additional value created at a particular stage of production. It is a measure of the overall importance of an industry. Value added consists of: employee compensation, proprietors' income, income to capital owners from property, and indirect business taxes (i.e., those borne by consumers rather than producers). 5 The IMPLAN input-output economic modeling system is supported by the Minnesota IMPLAN Group. Its current users include academia, federal, state, and local governments, and the private sector. 6 A backward linkage is between an industry and its suppliers.
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indirect and induced impact analysis in Section IV. Detailed state-by-state operational impact results are presented in Appendix A. Data sources and methodology used in this research report are discussed in Appendix B.

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II. Industry Definition In government economic statistics, the oil and natural gas industry encompasses a number of sectors. Oil and natural gas production is included in the “mining” sector; oil refining is part of the “manufacturing” sector; pipeline operations are included in the “transportation” sector; natural gas distribution is in the “utilities” sector; and oil marketing is considered part of the “wholesale and retail trade” sector. For the economic impact analysis, PricewaterhouseCoopers has defined the oil and natural gas industry based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Table 1 shows the composition of the industry as defined by PricewaterhouseCoopers, followed by detailed NAICS descriptions. Table 1. Composition of Oil and Natural Gas Industry NAICS 211 213111 213112 2212 2212 23712 32411 324191 IMPLAN SECTOR 20 28 29 32 432* 36* 115 118 Description

Oil and gas extraction (including NGL extraction) Drilling oil and gas wells Support activities for oil and gas operations Natural gas distribution (private) Natural gas distribution (public) Oil and gas pipeline and related structures construction Petroleum refineries Petroleum lubricating oil and grease manufacturing Asphalt paving, roofing, and saturated materials 32412 116,117 manufacturing 4247 319* Petroleum and petroleum products merchant wholesalers 486 337 Pipeline transportation 44711 326 Gasoline stations with convenience stores 44719 326 Other gasoline stations 45431 331* Fuel dealers * Other activities outside the oil and natural gas industry are also included in this IMPLAN sector. NAICS 211. Oil and gas extraction. Establishments in this subsector operate and/or develop oil and gas field properties. Such activities may include exploration for crude petroleum and natural gas; drilling, completing, and equipping wells; operating separators, emulsion breakers, desilting equipment, and field gathering lines for crude petroleum and natural gas; and all other activities in the preparation of oil and gas up to the point of shipment from the producing property. This subsector includes the production of crude petroleum, the mining and extraction of oil from oil shale and oil sands, and the production of natural gas, sulfur recovery from natural gas, and recovery of hydrocarbon liquids. Establishments in this subsector include those that operate oil and gas wells on their own account or for others on a contract or fee basis. NAICS 213111. Drilling oil and gas wells. This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in drilling oil and gas wells for others on a contract or fee basis. This industry includes contractors that specialize in spudding in, drilling in, redrilling, and directional drilling.

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NAICS 213112. Support activities for oil and gas operations. This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing support activities on a contract or fee basis for oil and gas operations (except site preparation and related construction activities). Services included are exploration (except geophysical surveying and mapping); excavating slush pits and cellars, well surveying; running, cutting, and pulling casings, tubes, and rods; cementing wells, shooting wells; perforating well casings; acidizing and chemically treating wells; and cleaning out, bailing, and swabbing wells. NAICS 2212. Natural gas distribution. This subsector comprises: (1) establishments primarily engaged in operating gas distribution systems (e.g., mains, meters); (2) establishments known as gas marketers that buy gas from the well and sell it to a distribution system; (3) establishments known as gas brokers or agents that arrange the sale of gas over gas distribution systems operated by others; and (4) establishments primarily engaged in transmitting and distributing gas to final consumers. Both privately and publicly owned establishments are included in this study. NAICS 23712. Oil and gas pipeline and related structures construction. This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in the construction of oil and gas lines, mains, refineries, and storage tanks. The work performed may include new work, reconstruction, rehabilitation, and repairs. Specialty trade contractors are included in this group if they are engaged in activities primarily related to oil and gas pipeline and related structures construction. All structures (including buildings) that are integral parts of oil and gas networks (e.g., storage tanks, pumping stations, and refineries) are included in this subsector. NAICS 32411. Petroleum refineries. This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in refining crude petroleum into refined petroleum. Petroleum refining involves one or more of the following activities: (1) fractionation; (2) straight distillation of crude oil; and (3) cracking. NAICS 324191. Petroleum lubricating oil and grease manufacturing. This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in blending or compounding refined petroleum to make lubricating oils and greases and/or re-refining used petroleum lubricating oils. NAICS 32412. Asphalt paving, roofing, and saturated materials manufacturing. This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) manufacturing asphalt and tar paving mixtures and blocks and roofing cements and coatings from purchased asphaltic materials and/or (2) saturating purchased mats and felts with asphalt or tar from purchased asphaltic materials. NAICS 4247. Petroleum and petroleum products merchant wholesalers. This subsector comprises establishments with bulk liquid storage facilities primarily engaged in the merchant wholesale distribution of crude petroleum and petroleum products, including liquefied petroleum gas. NAICS 486. Pipeline transportation. Establishments in this subsector use transmission pipelines to transport products, such as crude oil, natural gas, refined petroleum products, and slurry. It also includes the storage of natural gas because the

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storage is usually done by the pipeline establishment and because a pipeline is inherently a network in which all the nodes are interdependent. NAICS 44711. Gasoline stations with convenience stores. This subsector comprises establishments engaged in retailing automotive fuels (e.g., diesel fuel, gasohol, gasoline) in combination with convenience store or food mart items. These establishments can either be in a convenience store (i.e., food mart) setting or a gasoline station setting. These establishments may also provide automotive repair services. NAICS 44719. Other gasoline stations. This subsector comprises establishments known as gasoline stations (except those with convenience stores) primarily engaged in one of the following: (1) retailing automotive fuels (e.g., diesel fuel, gasohol, gasoline) or (2) retailing these fuels in combination with activities, such as providing repair services; selling automotive oils, replacement parts, and accessories; and/or providing food services NAICS 45431. Fuel dealers. This subsector comprises establishments primarily engaged in retailing heating oil, liquefied petroleum (LP) gas, and other fuels via direct selling.

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III. Total Economic Impact This section presents the estimated total economic impact of the oil and natural gas industry on the U.S. national and state economies. As shown below, the oil and natural gas industry has a widespread economic impact throughout all sectors of the economy and across all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The total economic impact we have measured includes the direct impact (the jobs and value added within the oil and natural gas industry), the indirect impact (the jobs and value added occurring within other industries that provide goods and services to the oil and natural gas industry), and the induced impact (the jobs and value added resulting from household spending of income earned either directly or indirectly from the oil and natural gas industry’s spending). At the national level, both the industry's operational impact and capital investment impacts are included. At the state level, only the industry's operational impact is reported due to data limitations. The analysis was conducted using published government data sources and the IMPLAN input-output modeling system. A. National Impact As shown in Table 2, the total economic contribution of the oil and natural gas industry in terms of jobs, labor income (including wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income), and value added is significant. Employment PricewaterhouseCoopers estimates that at the national level, each job in the oil and natural gas industry supported more than three jobs elsewhere in the U.S. economy in 2007. In terms of operational impact, the oil and natural gas industry directly and indirectly contributed over 7.8 million full-time and part-time jobs to the national economy in 2007. Further, the oil and natural gas industry's capital investment contributed an additional 1.4 million jobs to the national economy. Combining both operational and capital investment impacts, the oil and natural gas industry's total employment contribution to the national economy amounted to 9.2 million full-time and part-time jobs in 2007, accounting for 5.2 percent of the total employment in the country. Labor Income The associated labor income (including wages and salaries and benefits, as well as proprietors' income) from the total jobs directly or indirectly supported by the oil and natural gas industry through its operational spending and capital investment was estimated to be $558 billion, or 6.3 percent of the national total labor income. Value Added Value added refers to the additional value created at a particular stage of production. Economists use the value-added method as a way to avoid double counting, i.e., the counting of the same input twice. It is a useful measure of the overall importance of an industry. The sum of value added across all industries in a country or region is, by definition, equivalent to its Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Value added consists of: employee compensation, proprietors' income, income to capital owners from property, and indirect business taxes (i.e., those borne by consumers rather than producers).

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PricewaterhouseCoopers estimates that the oil and natural gas industry’s operations directly or indirectly contributed $915 billion of value added to the U.S. economy in 2007, and its capital investment resulted in an additional $122 billion of value added. Combining both operational and capital investment impacts, the industry's total valueadded contribution to the national economy was over $1 trillion, accounting for 7.5 percent of U.S. GDP in 2007. Table 2. Total Contribution of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry to the U.S. Economy, 2007
Item Operational Impact Employment* Labor Income ($ millions)** Value Added ($ millions) Capital Investment Impact Employment* Labor Income ($ millions)** Value Added ($ millions) Total Impacts Employment* Labor Income ($ millions)** Value Added ($ millions) 9,237,381 558,260 1,037,060 5.2% 6.3% 7.5% 1,418,944 81,012 121,690 0.8% 0.9% 0.9% 7,818,437 477,249 915,370 4.4% 5.4% 6.6% Amount Percent of U.S. Total

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). Numbers may not add to total due to rounding. * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

B.

State Impact

The oil and natural gas industry’s economic impact reaches all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The impact varies from state to state, depending on factors such as each state’s industry mix, wage structure, spending and saving patterns, and connections to other economies. Table 3a shows the oil and natural gas industry's state-by-state total operational impact in terms of jobs, labor income (including wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income), and value added, where the states are shown alphabetically.

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Table 3b is the same as Table 3a, except that the states are ranked in order of the industry’s total employment contribution as a percent of each state’s total employment. The state-level results, as explained earlier, do not include the economic impact of the industry's significant capital investment.

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Table 3a. Total Operational Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry by State in 2007 (Sorted Alphabetically)
State
Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming U.S. Total

Employment* Percent of Amount State Total
94,732 43,454 96,685 69,640 752,614 190,408 62,686 15,437 12,815 267,277 145,806 18,539 24,000 260,001 127,355 63,254 119,051 87,490 330,053 29,897 78,224 112,086 179,495 113,708 83,820 122,820 34,210 49,784 43,140 26,256 143,342 88,814 281,267 145,779 27,914 229,438 348,627 60,122 271,250 16,160 68,303 19,942 114,194 1,772,335 76,188 14,159 143,479 106,616 60,891 103,821 71,063 7,818,437 3.7% 9.8% 2.9% 4.4% 3.7% 6.0% 2.9% 2.9% 1.5% 2.6% 2.7% 2.1% 2.6% 3.5% 3.5% 3.1% 6.5% 3.6% 13.4% 3.6% 2.3% 2.7% 3.3% 3.2% 5.5% 3.4% 5.3% 4.0% 2.7% 3.1% 2.8% 8.1% 2.6% 2.7% 5.7% 3.4% 16.3% 2.6% 3.8% 2.7% 2.8% 3.6% 3.1% 13.1% 4.7% 3.3% 3.0% 2.7% 6.7% 2.9% 18.8% 4.4%

Labor Income** Percent of ($ Million) State Total
4,262 3,143 4,653 2,884 54,122 12,438 4,345 916 1,157 11,441 6,841 855 928 16,953 5,907 2,295 6,738 3,653 18,449 1,051 3,920 7,242 9,820 5,351 3,609 5,253 1,584 2,743 2,088 1,218 9,461 4,307 21,452 6,007 1,346 11,121 22,550 2,590 14,494 822 2,468 763 5,048 140,941 3,960 492 6,923 5,792 2,740 4,053 4,060 477,249 3.9% 13.5% 3.0% 4.9% 4.6% 7.7% 3.1% 3.2% 1.4% 2.6% 2.7% 2.1% 2.7% 4.2% 3.8% 3.0% 8.8% 3.7% 16.6% 3.3% 2.1% 2.9% 3.8% 3.2% 6.5% 3.4% 7.0% 5.6% 2.7% 3.1% 3.1% 9.5% 3.0% 2.6% 7.6% 3.7% 24.7% 2.6% 4.1% 2.8% 2.5% 3.9% 3.1% 19.5% 5.9% 3.0% 2.7% 2.9% 7.4% 2.7% 24.3% 5.4%

Value Added Percent of ($ Million) State Total
7,836 6,064 8,278 5,589 100,958 24,099 7,492 1,707 1,777 19,946 12,032 1,533 1,700 31,323 10,992 4,069 14,029 6,712 35,986 1,948 6,688 12,197 17,711 9,271 7,244 9,115 3,324 5,112 3,839 2,181 16,853 8,292 36,347 10,623 2,773 20,201 47,839 4,494 25,772 1,456 4,292 1,459 8,750 293,760 7,822 900 11,968 10,333 5,412 6,837 8,432 915,370 4.7% 16.6% 3.4% 6.0% 5.5% 9.3% 3.5% 4.0% 1.7% 2.8% 3.0% 2.4% 3.2% 5.0% 4.5% 3.3% 11.4% 4.4% 20.6% 4.0% 2.4% 3.3% 4.4% 3.6% 8.4% 3.9% 8.9% 6.7% 3.1% 3.6% 3.5% 12.2% 3.3% 2.9% 9.6% 4.5% 31.3% 3.0% 4.8% 3.4% 2.8% 4.6% 3.5% 24.2% 7.6% 3.6% 3.1% 3.4% 9.4% 3.0% 29.4% 6.6%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). Numbers may not add to total due to rounding. * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

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Table 3b. Total Operational Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry by State in 2007 (Sorted by Employment Share of State Total)
State
Wyoming Oklahoma Louisiana Texas Alaska New Mexico West Virginia Kansas Colorado North Dakota Mississippi Montana Utah Arkansas Nebraska Pennsylvania Alabama California Kentucky South Dakota Maine Illinois Indiana Ohio Missouri Michigan Vermont Minnesota Iowa Tennessee New Hampshire Virginia Wisconsin Arizona Delaware Connecticut New Jersey South Carolina Washington North Carolina Georgia Nevada Massachusetts Rhode Island Oregon Idaho Florida New York Maryland Hawaii District of Columbia U.S. Total

Employment* Percent of Amount State Total
71,063 348,627 330,053 1,772,335 43,454 88,814 60,891 119,051 190,408 27,914 83,820 34,210 76,188 69,640 49,784 271,250 94,732 752,614 87,490 19,942 29,897 260,001 127,355 229,438 122,820 179,495 14,159 113,708 63,254 114,194 26,256 143,479 103,821 96,685 15,437 62,686 143,342 68,303 106,616 145,779 145,806 43,140 112,086 16,160 60,122 24,000 267,277 281,267 78,224 18,539 12,815 7,818,437 18.8% 16.3% 13.4% 13.1% 9.8% 8.1% 6.7% 6.5% 6.0% 5.7% 5.5% 5.3% 4.7% 4.4% 4.0% 3.8% 3.7% 3.7% 3.6% 3.6% 3.6% 3.5% 3.5% 3.4% 3.4% 3.3% 3.3% 3.2% 3.1% 3.1% 3.1% 3.0% 2.9% 2.9% 2.9% 2.9% 2.8% 2.8% 2.7% 2.7% 2.7% 2.7% 2.7% 2.7% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 2.3% 2.1% 1.5% 4.4%

Labor Income** Percent of ($ Million) State Total
4,060 22,550 18,449 140,941 3,143 4,307 2,740 6,738 12,438 1,346 3,609 1,584 3,960 2,884 2,743 14,494 4,262 54,122 3,653 763 1,051 16,953 5,907 11,121 5,253 9,820 492 5,351 2,295 5,048 1,218 6,923 4,053 4,653 916 4,345 9,461 2,468 5,792 6,007 6,841 2,088 7,242 822 2,590 928 11,441 21,452 3,920 855 1,157 477,249 24.3% 24.7% 16.6% 19.5% 13.5% 9.5% 7.4% 8.8% 7.7% 7.6% 6.5% 7.0% 5.9% 4.9% 5.6% 4.1% 3.9% 4.6% 3.7% 3.9% 3.3% 4.2% 3.8% 3.7% 3.4% 3.8% 3.0% 3.2% 3.0% 3.1% 3.1% 2.7% 2.7% 3.0% 3.2% 3.1% 3.1% 2.5% 2.9% 2.6% 2.7% 2.7% 2.9% 2.8% 2.6% 2.7% 2.6% 3.0% 2.1% 2.1% 1.4% 5.4%

Value Added Percent of ($ Million) State Total
8,432 47,839 35,986 293,760 6,064 8,292 5,412 14,029 24,099 2,773 7,244 3,324 7,822 5,589 5,112 25,772 7,836 100,958 6,712 1,459 1,948 31,323 10,992 20,201 9,115 17,711 900 9,271 4,069 8,750 2,181 11,968 6,837 8,278 1,707 7,492 16,853 4,292 10,333 10,623 12,032 3,839 12,197 1,456 4,494 1,700 19,946 36,347 6,688 1,533 1,777 915,370 29.4% 31.3% 20.6% 24.2% 16.6% 12.2% 9.4% 11.4% 9.3% 9.6% 8.4% 8.9% 7.6% 6.0% 6.7% 4.8% 4.7% 5.5% 4.4% 4.6% 4.0% 5.0% 4.5% 4.5% 3.9% 4.4% 3.6% 3.6% 3.3% 3.5% 3.6% 3.1% 3.0% 3.4% 4.0% 3.5% 3.5% 2.8% 3.4% 2.9% 3.0% 3.1% 3.3% 3.4% 3.0% 3.2% 2.8% 3.3% 2.4% 2.4% 1.7% 6.6%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). Numbers may not add to total due to rounding. * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

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Employment The total number of jobs directly or indirectly attributable to the oil and natural gas industry's operations as a percent of each state’s total employment in 2007 ranged from 1.5 percent (the District of Columbia) to nearly one in every five jobs (Wyoming). The oil and natural gas industry directly and indirectly supported more than 5 percent of the total employment in 12 states in 2007: Wyoming (18.8 percent) Oklahoma (16.3 percent), Louisiana (13.4 percent), Texas (13.1 percent), Alaska (9.8 percent), New Mexico (8.1 percent), West Virginia (6.7 percent), Kansas (6.5 percent), Colorado (6.0 percent), North Dakota (5.7 percent), Mississippi (5.5 percent) and Montana (5.3 percent). In these top 12 states, the oil and natural gas industry on average was directly or indirectly responsible for one in every nine jobs. Labor Income As a percent of each state’s total labor income (including wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income), the labor income from the total jobs directly and indirectly supported by the oil and natural gas industry's operations ranged from 1.4 percent (the District of Columbia) to one in every four dollars of labor income (Oklahoma) in 2007. The oil and natural gas industry’s total labor income contribution exceeded 5 percent of the state total in 14 states: Oklahoma (24.7 percent), Wyoming (24.3 percent), Texas (19.5 percent), Louisiana (16.6 percent), Alaska (13.5 percent), New Mexico (9.5 percent), Kansas (8.8 percent), Colorado (7.7 percent), North Dakota (7.6 percent), West Virginia (7.4 percent), Montana (7.0 percent), Mississippi (6.5 percent), Utah (5.9 percent), and Nebraska (5.6 percent). Value Added As a percent of each state’s economy, the oil and natural gas industry’s total valueadded contribution from its operations ranged from 1.7 percent (the District of Columbia) to just under one in every three dollars of value added (Oklahoma) in 2007. The oil and natural gas industry’s total value-added contribution accounted for at least 5 percent of the state total in 17 states: Oklahoma (31.3 percent), Wyoming (29.4 percent), Texas (24.2 percent), Louisiana (20.6 percent), Alaska (16.6 percent), New Mexico (12.2 percent), Kansas (11.4 percent), North Dakota (9.6 percent), West Virginia (9.4 percent), Colorado (9.3 percent), Montana (8.9 percent), Mississippi (8.4 percent), Utah (7.6 percent), Nebraska (6.7 percent), Arkansas (6.0 percent), California (5.5 percent), and Illinois (5.0 percent).

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IV. Economic Impact Breakdown: Direct, Indirect, and Induced Impacts As noted earlier, the total economic impact presented in the previous section includes the direct impact (the jobs, labor income, and value added within the oil and natural gas industry), the indirect impact (the jobs and value added occurring within other industries that provide goods and services to the oil and natural gas industry), and the induced impact (the jobs and value added resulting from household spending of income earned either directly or indirectly from the oil and natural gas industry’s spending). In this section, the three different economic impacts will be separately identified. Direct Impact Table 4 shows the direct impact of the oil and natural gas industry by NAICS subsectors for the country as a whole in terms of employment, labor income (including wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income), and value added. In 2007, the oil and natural gas industry directly provided 2.1 million jobs for American workers with approximately $200 billion in wages and salaries and fringe benefits and proprietors' income. The industry directly contributed over $450 billion to the national GDP. Table 4. Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in the U.S. Economy by Sub-sector, 2007
NAICS Sub-sector Description Employment* Amount 211 213111 213112 2212 2212 23712 32411 324191 32412 4247 486 Oil and gas extraction (including NGL extraction) Drilling oil and gas wells Support activities for oil and gas operations Natural gas distribution (private) Natural gas distribution (public) Oil and gas pipeline and related structures construction Petroleum refineries Petroleum lubricating oil and grease manufacturing Asphalt paving, roofing, and saturated materials manufacturing Petroleum and petroleum products merchant wholesalers Pipeline transportation 368,451 87,996 205,662 108,900 8,654 97,817 70,410 9,543 26,387 103,472 39,377 905,803 90,817 2,123,291 Labor Income** ($ Millons) 67,989 8,215 16,843 17,892 538 4,930 31,055 2,351 5,740 7,408 9,764 25,150 1,470 199,344 Value Added ($ Millons) 161,763 41,986 22,276 43,816 770 5,312 85,483 5,177 13,033 12,536 12,268 48,117 4,434 456,971

44711, 44719 Gasoline stations 45431 Fuel dealers Total Oil and Natural Gas Industry
Source: IMPLAN 2007 database, U.S. Census Bureau and U.S. Department of Labor.

* Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

Table 5a shows the direct employment, labor income (including wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income) and value added impacts of the oil and natural

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gas industry as a whole by state, where the states are shown alphabetically. Table 5b is the same as Table 5a, except that the states are ranked by the oil and natural gas industry's direct employment. In 2007, the ten states with the largest combined direct employment effect generated by the oil and natural gas industry were, in order: Texas, California, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Florida, New York, Illinois, and Colorado. These top ten states accounted for 54.7 percent of the oil and natural gas industry’s national direct employment, 74.0 percent of the oil and natural gas industry’s national direct labor income, and 75.3 percent of the oil and natural gas industry’s national direct value added in 2007. Indirect and induced Impacts The oil and natural gas industry purchases intermediate inputs from a variety of other U.S. industries, supporting jobs in these industries and spurring additional rounds of purchases. Meanwhile, employees and business owners make personal purchases out of the additional income that is generated by this process. The jobs, labor income (including wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income), and value added supported by this cycle of spending, or multiplier process, are referred to as the indirect and induced economic impacts. In addition, the oil and natural gas industry purchases capital goods from a variety of U.S. suppliers, which has a similar multiplier effect on the rest of the U.S. economy. Based on data from the Census Bureau and U.S. Department of Commerce, PricewaterhouseCoopers estimates that the oil and natural gas industry invested over $150 billion in new equipment and structures in 2007. PricewaterhouseCoopers quantified these indirect and induced impacts of both the oil and natural gas industry's operational and capital spending using the customized impact models PricewaterhouseCoopers has built based on the IMPLAN modeling system. Table 6 shows the oil and natural gas industry’s indirect and induced impacts by sector, separately identifying its operational and capital investment impacts. PricewaterhouseCoopers estimates that in addition to the 2.1 million direct jobs in the oil and natural gas industry, the industry’s purchase of intermediate inputs from other U.S. suppliers supported 5.7 million indirect and induced jobs in other industries across the country in 2007, while its capital investment supported an additional 1.4 million indirect and induced jobs across many sectors of the U.S. economy. Combined, the oil and natural gas industry directly or indirectly contributed more than 9.2 million jobs to the U.S. economy. The service sector received the largest number of indirect and induced jobs from the oil and natural gas industry's spending (3.4 million) in 2007, followed by wholesale and retail trade (1.2 million), finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing (0.8 million), and manufacturing (0.7 million). The estimated nationwide indirect and induced labor income (including wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income) was $359 billion and the indirect and induced value added was $580 billion in 2007.

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Table 5a. Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry by State, 2007 (Sorted Alphabetically)
State
Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming U.S. Total

Direct Employment* Percent of Amount U.S. Total
32,917 16,854 25,157 26,533 159,728 49,366 15,327 4,548 1,713 61,914 41,197 4,019 7,765 55,581 37,898 22,758 38,790 32,196 109,003 12,712 17,622 25,070 45,946 33,430 32,492 38,430 12,852 14,465 13,049 8,909 32,434 33,116 56,149 44,040 11,788 65,413 98,306 15,707 73,792 4,265 23,372 8,223 35,187 432,147 21,404 6,008 47,908 25,362 26,420 31,978 32,029 2,123,291 1.6% 0.8% 1.2% 1.2% 7.5% 2.3% 0.7% 0.2% 0.1% 2.9% 1.9% 0.2% 0.4% 2.6% 1.8% 1.1% 1.8% 1.5% 5.1% 0.6% 0.8% 1.2% 2.2% 1.6% 1.5% 1.8% 0.6% 0.7% 0.6% 0.4% 1.5% 1.6% 2.6% 2.1% 0.6% 3.1% 4.6% 0.7% 3.5% 0.2% 1.1% 0.4% 1.7% 20.4% 1.0% 0.3% 2.3% 1.2% 1.2% 1.5% 1.5% 100%

Direct Labor Income** Percent of ($ Million) U.S. Total
1,678 1,953 1,261 1,248 19,957 5,358 1,029 297 151 2,291 1,630 219 315 5,807 2,069 704 3,623 1,405 9,402 382 730 1,690 3,426 1,332 1,770 1,499 854 1,364 594 372 2,378 2,183 4,767 1,461 778 3,795 13,808 635 4,418 242 640 342 1,371 77,924 1,742 178 1,825 1,489 1,438 931 2,590 199,344 0.8% 1.0% 0.6% 0.6% 10.0% 2.7% 0.5% 0.1% 0.1% 1.1% 0.8% 0.1% 0.2% 2.9% 1.0% 0.4% 1.8% 0.7% 4.7% 0.2% 0.4% 0.8% 1.7% 0.7% 0.9% 0.8% 0.4% 0.7% 0.3% 0.2% 1.2% 1.1% 2.4% 0.7% 0.4% 1.9% 6.9% 0.3% 2.2% 0.1% 0.3% 0.2% 0.7% 39.1% 0.9% 0.1% 0.9% 0.7% 0.7% 0.5% 1.3% 100%

Direct Value Added Percent of ($ Million) U.S. Total
3,513 3,974 2,592 2,850 45,525 12,364 2,306 736 361 4,636 3,297 477 674 13,366 4,651 1,374 8,738 2,992 20,971 846 1,509 3,754 7,369 2,822 4,133 3,018 2,028 2,874 1,227 821 5,433 4,812 10,544 2,925 1,809 8,442 32,893 1,313 9,661 533 1,246 715 2,743 185,760 4,167 384 3,755 3,300 3,188 1,787 5,762 456,971 0.8% 0.9% 0.6% 0.6% 10.0% 2.7% 0.5% 0.2% 0.1% 1.0% 0.7% 0.1% 0.1% 2.9% 1.0% 0.3% 1.9% 0.7% 4.6% 0.2% 0.3% 0.8% 1.6% 0.6% 0.9% 0.7% 0.4% 0.6% 0.3% 0.2% 1.2% 1.1% 2.3% 0.6% 0.4% 1.8% 7.2% 0.3% 2.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.2% 0.6% 40.7% 0.9% 0.1% 0.8% 0.7% 0.7% 0.4% 1.3% 100%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). Numbers may not add to total due to rounding. * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

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Table 5b. Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry by State, 2007 (Sorted by Direct Employment)
State
Texas California Louisiana Oklahoma Pennsylvania Ohio Florida New York Illinois Colorado Virginia Michigan North Carolina Georgia Kansas Missouri Indiana Tennessee Minnesota New Mexico Alabama Mississippi New Jersey Kentucky Wyoming Wisconsin Arkansas West Virginia Washington Arizona Massachusetts South Carolina Iowa Utah Maryland Alaska Oregon Connecticut Nebraska Nevada Montana Maine North Dakota New Hampshire South Dakota Idaho Vermont Delaware Rhode Island Hawaii District of Columbia U.S. Total

Direct Employment* Percent of Amount U.S. Total
432,147 159,728 109,003 98,306 73,792 65,413 61,914 56,149 55,581 49,366 47,908 45,946 44,040 41,197 38,790 38,430 37,898 35,187 33,430 33,116 32,917 32,492 32,434 32,196 32,029 31,978 26,533 26,420 25,362 25,157 25,070 23,372 22,758 21,404 17,622 16,854 15,707 15,327 14,465 13,049 12,852 12,712 11,788 8,909 8,223 7,765 6,008 4,548 4,265 4,019 1,713 2,123,291 20.4% 7.5% 5.1% 4.6% 3.5% 3.1% 2.9% 2.6% 2.6% 2.3% 2.3% 2.2% 2.1% 1.9% 1.8% 1.8% 1.8% 1.7% 1.6% 1.6% 1.6% 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% 1.2% 1.2% 1.2% 1.2% 1.2% 1.1% 1.1% 1.0% 0.8% 0.8% 0.7% 0.7% 0.7% 0.6% 0.6% 0.6% 0.6% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 100%

Direct Labor Income** Percent of ($ Million) U.S. Total
77,924 19,957 9,402 13,808 4,418 3,795 2,291 4,767 5,807 5,358 1,825 3,426 1,461 1,630 3,623 1,499 2,069 1,371 1,332 2,183 1,678 1,770 2,378 1,405 2,590 931 1,248 1,438 1,489 1,261 1,690 640 704 1,742 730 1,953 635 1,029 1,364 594 854 382 778 372 342 315 178 297 242 219 151 199,344 39.1% 10.0% 4.7% 6.9% 2.2% 1.9% 1.1% 2.4% 2.9% 2.7% 0.9% 1.7% 0.7% 0.8% 1.8% 0.8% 1.0% 0.7% 0.7% 1.1% 0.8% 0.9% 1.2% 0.7% 1.3% 0.5% 0.6% 0.7% 0.7% 0.6% 0.8% 0.3% 0.4% 0.9% 0.4% 1.0% 0.3% 0.5% 0.7% 0.3% 0.4% 0.2% 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 100%

Direct Value Added Percent of ($ Million) U.S. Total
185,760 45,525 20,971 32,893 9,661 8,442 4,636 10,544 13,366 12,364 3,755 7,369 2,925 3,297 8,738 3,018 4,651 2,743 2,822 4,812 3,513 4,133 5,433 2,992 5,762 1,787 2,850 3,188 3,300 2,592 3,754 1,246 1,374 4,167 1,509 3,974 1,313 2,306 2,874 1,227 2,028 846 1,809 821 715 674 384 736 533 477 361 456,971 40.7% 10.0% 4.6% 7.2% 2.1% 1.8% 1.0% 2.3% 2.9% 2.7% 0.8% 1.6% 0.6% 0.7% 1.9% 0.7% 1.0% 0.6% 0.6% 1.1% 0.8% 0.9% 1.2% 0.7% 1.3% 0.4% 0.6% 0.7% 0.7% 0.6% 0.8% 0.3% 0.3% 0.9% 0.3% 0.9% 0.3% 0.5% 0.6% 0.3% 0.4% 0.2% 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 100%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). Numbers may not add to total due to rounding. * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

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Table 6. The Direct, Indirect, and Induced Impacts of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry to the U.S Economy, 2007
Sector Description Employment* Labor Income** Value Added ($ million) ($ million) 199,344 358,916 277,905 1,850 873 3,695 10,507 27,821 35,359 10,341 10,896 40,399 123,227 12,937 81,012 343 164 614 678 22,115 14,352 3,551 4,310 7,088 26,235 1,562 558,260 456,971 580,089 458,399 4,412 1,755 12,637 12,964 42,778 57,983 14,012 21,481 124,795 151,073 14,510 121,690 785 313 2,015 758 30,544 22,932 4,734 7,843 19,507 30,647 1,612 1,037,060

Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impact on Other Industries***: Operational Impact Agriculture Mining Utilities Construction Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Information Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Services Other Capital Investment Impact Agriculture Mining Utilities Construction Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Information Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Services Other Total Economic Impact

2,123,291 7,114,090 5,695,146 104,549 9,268 22,523 207,528 397,299 892,854 206,629 124,081 708,422 2,834,634 187,359 1,418,944 17,993 1,630 3,749 13,395 283,535 281,908 69,863 41,778 120,482 564,840 19,771 9,237,381

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income. *** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry.

The remainder of this section provides more detail on the operational economic impacts of the oil and natural gas industry at the state level. Due to data limitations, these statelevel impacts exclude economic impacts from capital investment in the oil and natural gas industry. Table 7a shows the sum of the oil and natural gas industry's indirect and induced effects from its operations (i.e., not including its capital investment impact) in terms of employment, value added, and labor income in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, where the states are shown alphabetically. Table 7b is the same as Table 7a except that the states are ranked in order of the indirect and induced employment effect. In 2007, the five states with the largest combined indirect and induced employment effects generated by the oil and natural gas industry were, in order: Texas, California, Oklahoma, New York, and Louisiana. These top five states accounted for 46.2 percent

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of the oil and natural gas industry’s national combined indirect and induced employment, 47.4 percent of the oil and natural gas industry’s national combined indirect and induced labor income, and 47.8 percent of the oil and natural gas industry’s national combined indirect and induced value added in 2007. Table 8a shows the direct, indirect, induced and total employment contribution of the oil and natural gas industry from its operations in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, where the states are shown alphabetically. Table 8b is the same as Table 8a except that the states are ranked in order of the industry’s total employment contribution from its operations as a percent of each state’s total employment. Using this metric, the top five states in 2007 were, in order: Wyoming (18.8 percent), Oklahoma (16.3 percent), Louisiana (13.4 percent), Texas (13.1 percent), and Alaska (9.8 percent). Table 9a shows the direct, indirect, induced and total labor income contribution of the oil and natural gas industry from its operations in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, where the states are shown alphabetically. Table 9b is the same as Table 9a except the states are ranked in order of the industry's total contribution from its operations as a percent of each state's total labor income. The top five states by this metric in 2007 were, in order: Oklahoma (24.7 percent), Wyoming (24.3 percent), Texas (19.5 percent), Louisiana (16.6 percent), and Alaska (13.5 percent). Table 10a shows the direct, indirect, induced and total value-added contribution of the oil and natural gas industry from its operations in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, where the states are shown alphabetically. Table 10b is the same as Table 10a except that the states are ranked in order of the industry's total contribution from its operations to each state's GDP. The top five states by this metric in 2007 were, in order: Oklahoma (31.3 percent), Wyoming (29.4 percent), Texas (24.2 percent), Louisiana (20.6 percent), and Alaska (16.6 percent). More detailed state-by-state operational impact results are included in Appendix A. The primary data source for the direct impact of the oil and natural gas industry is the IMPLAN 2007 database. The IMPLAN database represents a consistent set of economic data processed from various published sources (such as the Bureau of Economic Analysis’s National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) and Regional Economic Information System (REIS), the Census Bureau’s County Business Patterns (CBP), and the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Covered Employee and Wages Program (CEW) in a variety of formats and under varying disclosure restrictions. In cases where a NAICS code in our definition of the oil and natural gas industry does not have a one-to-one correspondence with an IMPLAN sector, employment data from the Department of Labor and Census Bureau for the NAICS code were used and PricewaterhouseCoopers estimated the corresponding value added and labor income using the IMPLAN database. Appendix B provides a more detailed discussion of the data sources and estimating methodology.

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Table 7a. Indirect and Induced Impacts of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry's Operations by State (Sorted Alphabetically), 2007
Employment* State
Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming U.S. Total

Labor Income** ($ Million)
2,584 1,190 3,393 1,636 34,164 7,080 3,316 619 1,006 9,150 5,210 636 612 11,146 3,838 1,591 3,115 2,248 9,047 668 3,190 5,552 6,394 4,019 1,838 3,754 730 1,379 1,494 847 7,083 2,124 16,685 4,546 569 7,326 8,742 1,955 10,075 581 1,828 422 3,676 63,017 2,218 314 5,098 4,303 1,302 3,122 1,470 277,905

Value Added ($ Million)
4,324 2,090 5,686 2,739 55,433 11,735 5,186 970 1,417 15,311 8,735 1,056 1,027 17,957 6,341 2,696 5,291 3,721 15,015 1,102 5,178 8,443 10,342 6,449 3,111 6,096 1,296 2,238 2,612 1,360 11,420 3,481 25,803 7,697 964 11,759 14,946 3,180 16,111 923 3,046 744 6,007 108,000 3,655 516 8,212 7,032 2,224 5,050 2,670 458,399

Amount
61,815 26,600 71,528 43,106 592,885 141,042 47,359 10,889 11,102 205,363 104,609 14,521 16,235 204,420 89,458 40,496 80,260 55,294 221,050 17,185 60,602 87,016 133,549 80,278 51,328 84,389 21,357 35,319 30,091 17,347 110,908 55,698 225,118 101,739 16,126 164,025 250,321 44,415 197,457 11,895 44,930 11,719 79,007 1,340,188 54,785 8,151 95,571 81,254 34,471 71,843 39,034 5,695,146

Percent of U.S. Total
1.1% 0.5% 1.3% 0.8% 10.4% 2.5% 0.8% 0.2% 0.2% 3.6% 1.8% 0.3% 0.3% 3.6% 1.6% 0.7% 1.4% 1.0% 3.9% 0.3% 1.1% 1.5% 2.3% 1.4% 0.9% 1.5% 0.4% 0.6% 0.5% 0.3% 1.9% 1.0% 4.0% 1.8% 0.3% 2.9% 4.4% 0.8% 3.5% 0.2% 0.8% 0.2% 1.4% 23.5% 1.0% 0.1% 1.7% 1.4% 0.6% 1.3% 0.7% 100.0%

Percent of U.S. Total
0.9% 0.4% 1.2% 0.6% 12.3% 2.5% 1.2% 0.2% 0.4% 3.3% 1.9% 0.2% 0.2% 4.0% 1.4% 0.6% 1.1% 0.8% 3.3% 0.2% 1.1% 2.0% 2.3% 1.4% 0.7% 1.4% 0.3% 0.5% 0.5% 0.3% 2.5% 0.8% 6.0% 1.6% 0.2% 2.6% 3.1% 0.7% 3.6% 0.2% 0.7% 0.2% 1.3% 22.7% 0.8% 0.1% 1.8% 1.5% 0.5% 1.1% 0.5% 100.0%

Percent of U.S. Total
0.9% 0.5% 1.2% 0.6% 12.1% 2.6% 1.1% 0.2% 0.3% 3.3% 1.9% 0.2% 0.2% 3.9% 1.4% 0.6% 1.2% 0.8% 3.3% 0.2% 1.1% 1.8% 2.3% 1.4% 0.7% 1.3% 0.3% 0.5% 0.6% 0.3% 2.5% 0.8% 5.6% 1.7% 0.2% 2.6% 3.3% 0.7% 3.5% 0.2% 0.7% 0.2% 1.3% 23.6% 0.8% 0.1% 1.8% 1.5% 0.5% 1.1% 0.6% 100.0%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). Numbers may not add to total due to rounding. * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

21

Table 7b. Indirect and Induced Impacts of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry's Operations by State (Sorted by Employment Impact), 2007
Employment* State Texas California Oklahoma New York Louisiana Florida Illinois Pennsylvania Ohio Colorado Michigan New Jersey Georgia North Carolina Virginia Indiana Massachusetts Missouri Washington Minnesota Kansas Tennessee Wisconsin Arizona Alabama Maryland New Mexico Kentucky Utah Mississippi Connecticut South Carolina Oregon Arkansas Iowa Wyoming Nebraska West Virginia Nevada Alaska Montana New Hampshire Maine Idaho North Dakota Hawaii Rhode Island South Dakota District of Columbia Delaware Vermont U.S. Total Amount 1,340,188 592,885 250,321 225,118 221,050 205,363 204,420 197,457 164,025 141,042 133,549 110,908 104,609 101,739 95,571 89,458 87,016 84,389 81,254 80,278 80,260 79,007 71,843 71,528 61,815 60,602 55,698 55,294 54,785 51,328 47,359 44,930 44,415 43,106 40,496 39,034 35,319 34,471 30,091 26,600 21,357 17,347 17,185 16,235 16,126 14,521 11,895 11,719 11,102 10,889 8,151 5,695,146 Percent of U.S. Total 23.5% 10.4% 4.4% 4.0% 3.9% 3.6% 3.6% 3.5% 2.9% 2.5% 2.3% 1.9% 1.8% 1.8% 1.7% 1.6% 1.5% 1.5% 1.4% 1.4% 1.4% 1.4% 1.3% 1.3% 1.1% 1.1% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 0.9% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.7% 0.7% 0.6% 0.6% 0.5% 0.5% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 100.0% Labor Income** ($ Million) 63,017 34,164 8,742 16,685 9,047 9,150 11,146 10,075 7,326 7,080 6,394 7,083 5,210 4,546 5,098 3,838 5,552 3,754 4,303 4,019 3,115 3,676 3,122 3,393 2,584 3,190 2,124 2,248 2,218 1,838 3,316 1,828 1,955 1,636 1,591 1,470 1,379 1,302 1,494 1,190 730 847 668 612 569 636 581 422 1,006 619 314 277,905 Percent of U.S. Total 22.7% 12.3% 3.1% 6.0% 3.3% 3.3% 4.0% 3.6% 2.6% 2.5% 2.3% 2.5% 1.9% 1.6% 1.8% 1.4% 2.0% 1.4% 1.5% 1.4% 1.1% 1.3% 1.1% 1.2% 0.9% 1.1% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.7% 1.2% 0.7% 0.7% 0.6% 0.6% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 0.2% 0.1% 100.0% Value Added ($ Million) 108,000 55,433 14,946 25,803 15,015 15,311 17,957 16,111 11,759 11,735 10,342 11,420 8,735 7,697 8,212 6,341 8,443 6,096 7,032 6,449 5,291 6,007 5,050 5,686 4,324 5,178 3,481 3,721 3,655 3,111 5,186 3,046 3,180 2,739 2,696 2,670 2,238 2,224 2,612 2,090 1,296 1,360 1,102 1,027 964 1,056 923 744 1,417 970 516 458,399 Percent of U.S. Total 23.6% 12.1% 3.3% 5.6% 3.3% 3.3% 3.9% 3.5% 2.6% 2.6% 2.3% 2.5% 1.9% 1.7% 1.8% 1.4% 1.8% 1.3% 1.5% 1.4% 1.2% 1.3% 1.1% 1.2% 0.9% 1.1% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.7% 1.1% 0.7% 0.7% 0.6% 0.6% 0.6% 0.5% 0.5% 0.6% 0.5% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 100.0%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). Numbers may not add to total due to rounding. * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

22

Table 8a. Employment Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry's Operations by State (Sorted Alphabetically), 2007
State
Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming U.S. Total

Direct Indirect Induced Total Total Contribution as a % Employment Employment Employment Contribution of State Total Employment
32,917 16,854 25,157 26,533 159,728 49,366 15,327 4,548 1,713 61,914 41,197 4,019 7,765 55,581 37,898 22,758 38,790 32,196 109,003 12,712 17,622 25,070 45,946 33,430 32,492 38,430 12,852 14,465 13,049 8,909 32,434 33,116 56,149 44,040 11,788 65,413 98,306 15,707 73,792 4,265 23,372 8,223 35,187 432,147 21,404 6,008 47,908 25,362 26,420 31,978 32,029 2,123,291 17,834 10,010 19,158 14,493 163,781 46,439 11,841 3,096 2,614 52,765 25,632 3,406 4,192 51,421 26,315 10,834 21,713 16,503 84,767 4,170 14,057 20,819 35,768 22,734 17,480 24,602 7,974 8,606 8,254 4,489 29,900 20,961 49,962 25,416 6,599 45,629 82,368 11,536 55,084 2,714 11,368 3,224 22,045 421,747 17,713 2,120 25,182 21,724 14,085 19,065 16,929 1,661,138 43,981 16,590 52,370 28,613 429,105 94,603 35,518 7,793 8,488 152,598 78,977 11,114 12,043 152,999 63,142 29,662 58,548 38,791 136,283 13,015 46,545 66,197 97,781 57,544 33,847 59,787 13,383 26,712 21,837 12,858 81,008 34,737 175,155 76,323 9,527 118,397 167,953 32,879 142,374 9,181 33,562 8,495 56,962 918,441 37,072 6,031 70,388 59,531 20,386 52,778 22,105 4,034,007 94,732 43,454 96,685 69,640 752,614 190,408 62,686 15,437 12,815 267,277 145,806 18,539 24,000 260,001 127,355 63,254 119,051 87,490 330,053 29,897 78,224 112,086 179,495 113,708 83,820 122,820 34,210 49,784 43,140 26,256 143,342 88,814 281,267 145,779 27,914 229,438 348,627 60,122 271,250 16,160 68,303 19,942 114,194 1,772,335 76,188 14,159 143,479 106,616 60,891 103,821 71,063 7,818,437 3.7% 9.8% 2.9% 4.4% 3.7% 6.0% 2.9% 2.9% 1.5% 2.6% 2.7% 2.1% 2.6% 3.5% 3.5% 3.1% 6.5% 3.6% 13.4% 3.6% 2.3% 2.7% 3.3% 3.2% 5.5% 3.4% 5.3% 4.0% 2.7% 3.1% 2.8% 8.1% 2.6% 2.7% 5.7% 3.4% 16.3% 2.6% 3.8% 2.7% 2.8% 3.6% 3.1% 13.1% 4.7% 3.3% 3.0% 2.7% 6.7% 2.9% 18.8% 4.4%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). Numbers may not add to total due to rounding. Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs.

23

Table 8b. Employment Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry's Operations by State (Sorted by Employment Share of State Total), 2007
State
Wyoming Oklahoma Louisiana Texas Alaska New Mexico West Virginia Kansas Colorado North Dakota Mississippi Montana Utah Arkansas Nebraska Pennsylvania Alabama California Kentucky South Dakota Maine Illinois Indiana Ohio Missouri Michigan Vermont Minnesota Iowa Tennessee New Hampshire Virginia Wisconsin Arizona Delaware Connecticut New Jersey South Carolina Washington North Carolina Georgia Nevada Massachusetts Rhode Island Oregon Idaho Florida New York Maryland Hawaii District of Columbia U.S. Total

Direct Indirect Induced Total Total Contribution as a % Employment Employment Employment Contribution of State Total Employment
32,029 98,306 109,003 432,147 16,854 33,116 26,420 38,790 49,366 11,788 32,492 12,852 21,404 26,533 14,465 73,792 32,917 159,728 32,196 8,223 12,712 55,581 37,898 65,413 38,430 45,946 6,008 33,430 22,758 35,187 8,909 47,908 31,978 25,157 4,548 15,327 32,434 23,372 25,362 44,040 41,197 13,049 25,070 4,265 15,707 7,765 61,914 56,149 17,622 4,019 1,713 2,123,291 16,929 82,368 84,767 421,747 10,010 20,961 14,085 21,713 46,439 6,599 17,480 7,974 17,713 14,493 8,606 55,084 17,834 163,781 16,503 3,224 4,170 51,421 26,315 45,629 24,602 35,768 2,120 22,734 10,834 22,045 4,489 25,182 19,065 19,158 3,096 11,841 29,900 11,368 21,724 25,416 25,632 8,254 20,819 2,714 11,536 4,192 52,765 49,962 14,057 3,406 2,614 1,661,138 22,105 167,953 136,283 918,441 16,590 34,737 20,386 58,548 94,603 9,527 33,847 13,383 37,072 28,613 26,712 142,374 43,981 429,105 38,791 8,495 13,015 152,999 63,142 118,397 59,787 97,781 6,031 57,544 29,662 56,962 12,858 70,388 52,778 52,370 7,793 35,518 81,008 33,562 59,531 76,323 78,977 21,837 66,197 9,181 32,879 12,043 152,598 175,155 46,545 11,114 8,488 4,034,007 71,063 348,627 330,053 1,772,335 43,454 88,814 60,891 119,051 190,408 27,914 83,820 34,210 76,188 69,640 49,784 271,250 94,732 752,614 87,490 19,942 29,897 260,001 127,355 229,438 122,820 179,495 14,159 113,708 63,254 114,194 26,256 143,479 103,821 96,685 15,437 62,686 143,342 68,303 106,616 145,779 145,806 43,140 112,086 16,160 60,122 24,000 267,277 281,267 78,224 18,539 12,815 7,818,437 18.8% 16.3% 13.4% 13.1% 9.8% 8.1% 6.7% 6.5% 6.0% 5.7% 5.5% 5.3% 4.7% 4.4% 4.0% 3.8% 3.7% 3.7% 3.6% 3.6% 3.6% 3.5% 3.5% 3.4% 3.4% 3.3% 3.3% 3.2% 3.1% 3.1% 3.1% 3.0% 2.9% 2.9% 2.9% 2.9% 2.8% 2.8% 2.7% 2.7% 2.7% 2.7% 2.7% 2.7% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 2.3% 2.1% 1.5% 4.4%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). Numbers may not add to total due to rounding. Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs.

24

Table 9a. Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry's Operations on Labor Income by State (Sorted Alphabetically), 2007 ($ Million)
State
Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming U.S. Total

Direct Labor Indirect Induced Total Total Contribution as a % of Income Labor Income Labor Income Contribution State Total Labor Income
1,678 1,953 1,261 1,248 19,957 5,358 1,029 297 151 2,291 1,630 219 315 5,807 2,069 704 3,623 1,405 9,402 382 730 1,690 3,426 1,332 1,770 1,499 854 1,364 594 372 2,378 2,183 4,767 1,461 778 3,795 13,808 635 4,418 242 640 342 1,371 77,924 1,742 178 1,825 1,489 1,438 931 2,590 199,344 879 525 1,067 635 11,423 2,875 1,036 207 293 2,808 1,546 178 194 3,609 1,374 512 1,036 791 4,079 190 917 1,671 2,162 1,425 711 1,343 311 416 505 267 2,349 930 4,795 1,384 266 2,552 3,390 619 3,502 167 558 135 1,184 24,742 843 94 1,697 1,379 613 1,026 734 97,947 1,705 665 2,326 1,001 22,741 4,205 2,280 411 713 6,343 3,664 458 418 7,537 2,464 1,079 2,079 1,457 4,968 479 2,274 3,881 4,232 2,594 1,127 2,411 419 963 989 580 4,734 1,194 11,890 3,162 303 4,774 5,352 1,335 6,573 414 1,270 286 2,492 38,276 1,375 220 3,400 2,924 688 2,097 736 179,958 4,262 3,143 4,653 2,884 54,122 12,438 4,345 916 1,157 11,441 6,841 855 928 16,953 5,907 2,295 6,738 3,653 18,449 1,051 3,920 7,242 9,820 5,351 3,609 5,253 1,584 2,743 2,088 1,218 9,461 4,307 21,452 6,007 1,346 11,121 22,550 2,590 14,494 822 2,468 763 5,048 140,941 3,960 492 6,923 5,792 2,740 4,053 4,060 477,249 3.9% 13.5% 3.0% 4.9% 4.6% 7.7% 3.1% 3.2% 1.4% 2.6% 2.7% 2.1% 2.7% 4.2% 3.8% 3.0% 8.8% 3.7% 16.6% 3.3% 2.1% 2.9% 3.8% 3.2% 6.5% 3.4% 7.0% 5.6% 2.7% 3.1% 3.1% 9.5% 3.0% 2.6% 7.6% 3.7% 24.7% 2.6% 4.1% 2.8% 2.5% 3.9% 3.1% 19.5% 5.9% 3.0% 2.7% 2.9% 7.4% 2.7% 24.3% 5.4%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). Numbers may not add to total due to rounding. Labor income includes wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

25

Table 9b. Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry's Operations on Labor Income by State (Sorted by Labor Income Share of State Total), 2007 ($ Million)
State
Oklahoma Wyoming Texas Louisiana Alaska New Mexico Kansas Colorado North Dakota West Virginia Montana Mississippi Utah Nebraska Arkansas California Illinois Pennsylvania Alabama South Dakota Michigan Indiana Ohio Kentucky Missouri Maine Minnesota Delaware Tennessee New Jersey New Hampshire Connecticut Vermont Arizona Iowa New York Massachusetts Washington Rhode Island Nevada Wisconsin Idaho Virginia Georgia Oregon North Carolina Florida South Carolina Hawaii Maryland District of Columbia U.S. Total

Direct Labor Indirect Induced Total Total Contribution as a % of Income Labor Income Labor Income Contribution State Total Labor Income
13,808 2,590 77,924 9,402 1,953 2,183 3,623 5,358 778 1,438 854 1,770 1,742 1,364 1,248 19,957 5,807 4,418 1,678 342 3,426 2,069 3,795 1,405 1,499 382 1,332 297 1,371 2,378 372 1,029 178 1,261 704 4,767 1,690 1,489 242 594 931 315 1,825 1,630 635 1,461 2,291 640 219 730 151 199,344 3,390 734 24,742 4,079 525 930 1,036 2,875 266 613 311 711 843 416 635 11,423 3,609 3,502 879 135 2,162 1,374 2,552 791 1,343 190 1,425 207 1,184 2,349 267 1,036 94 1,067 512 4,795 1,671 1,379 167 505 1,026 194 1,697 1,546 619 1,384 2,808 558 178 917 293 97,947 5,352 736 38,276 4,968 665 1,194 2,079 4,205 303 688 419 1,127 1,375 963 1,001 22,741 7,537 6,573 1,705 286 4,232 2,464 4,774 1,457 2,411 479 2,594 411 2,492 4,734 580 2,280 220 2,326 1,079 11,890 3,881 2,924 414 989 2,097 418 3,400 3,664 1,335 3,162 6,343 1,270 458 2,274 713 179,958 22,550 4,060 140,941 18,449 3,143 4,307 6,738 12,438 1,346 2,740 1,584 3,609 3,960 2,743 2,884 54,122 16,953 14,494 4,262 763 9,820 5,907 11,121 3,653 5,253 1,051 5,351 916 5,048 9,461 1,218 4,345 492 4,653 2,295 21,452 7,242 5,792 822 2,088 4,053 928 6,923 6,841 2,590 6,007 11,441 2,468 855 3,920 1,157 477,249 24.7% 24.3% 19.5% 16.6% 13.5% 9.5% 8.8% 7.7% 7.6% 7.4% 7.0% 6.5% 5.9% 5.6% 4.9% 4.6% 4.2% 4.1% 3.9% 3.9% 3.8% 3.8% 3.7% 3.7% 3.4% 3.3% 3.2% 3.2% 3.1% 3.1% 3.1% 3.1% 3.0% 3.0% 3.0% 3.0% 2.9% 2.9% 2.8% 2.7% 2.7% 2.7% 2.7% 2.7% 2.6% 2.6% 2.6% 2.5% 2.1% 2.1% 1.4% 5.4%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). Numbers may not add to total due to rounding. Labor income includes wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

26

Table 10a. Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry's Operations on Value Added by State (Sorted Alphabetically), 2007 ($ Million)
State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming U.S. Total Direct Indirect Induced Total Total Contribution as a Value Added Value Added Value Added Contribution % of State GDP 3,513 3,974 2,592 2,850 45,525 12,364 2,306 736 361 4,636 3,297 477 674 13,366 4,651 1,374 8,738 2,992 20,971 846 1,509 3,754 7,369 2,822 4,133 3,018 2,028 2,874 1,227 821 5,433 4,812 10,544 2,925 1,809 8,442 32,893 1,313 9,661 533 1,246 715 2,743 185,760 4,167 384 3,755 3,300 3,188 1,787 5,762 456,971 1,458 945 1,742 1,068 17,719 4,648 1,567 320 407 4,552 2,489 289 319 5,635 2,264 861 1,774 1,294 6,760 315 1,432 2,454 3,367 2,220 1,215 2,129 557 662 859 422 3,635 1,501 7,161 2,251 450 4,013 5,932 984 5,470 264 928 243 1,927 42,108 1,383 157 2,570 2,178 1,067 1,625 1,349 158,934 2,866 1,145 3,944 1,672 37,714 7,087 3,619 651 1,009 10,758 6,246 767 708 12,322 4,077 1,834 3,517 2,426 8,255 787 3,746 5,989 6,975 4,228 1,897 3,968 740 1,576 1,753 939 7,785 1,980 18,642 5,447 514 7,746 9,015 2,196 10,641 660 2,118 501 4,081 65,893 2,272 360 5,642 4,854 1,157 3,425 1,321 299,464 7,836 6,064 8,278 5,589 100,958 24,099 7,492 1,707 1,777 19,946 12,032 1,533 1,700 31,323 10,992 4,069 14,029 6,712 35,986 1,948 6,688 12,197 17,711 9,271 7,244 9,115 3,324 5,112 3,839 2,181 16,853 8,292 36,347 10,623 2,773 20,201 47,839 4,494 25,772 1,456 4,292 1,459 8,750 293,760 7,822 900 11,968 10,333 5,412 6,837 8,432 915,370 4.7% 16.6% 3.4% 6.0% 5.5% 9.3% 3.5% 4.0% 1.7% 2.8% 3.0% 2.4% 3.2% 5.0% 4.5% 3.3% 11.4% 4.4% 20.6% 4.0% 2.4% 3.3% 4.4% 3.6% 8.4% 3.9% 8.9% 6.7% 3.1% 3.6% 3.5% 12.2% 3.3% 2.9% 9.6% 4.5% 31.3% 3.0% 4.8% 3.4% 2.8% 4.6% 3.5% 24.2% 7.6% 3.6% 3.1% 3.4% 9.4% 3.0% 29.4% 6.6%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). Numbers may not add to total due to rounding.

27

Table 10b. Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry's Operations on Value Added by State (Sorted by Value Added Share of State Total), 2007 ($ Million)
State Oklahoma Wyoming Texas Louisiana Alaska New Mexico Kansas North Dakota West Virginia Colorado Montana Mississippi Utah Nebraska Arkansas California Illinois Pennsylvania Alabama South Dakota Indiana Ohio Michigan Kentucky Maine Delaware Missouri Vermont Minnesota New Hampshire New Jersey Tennessee Connecticut Arizona Rhode Island Washington Massachusetts Iowa New York Idaho Nevada Virginia Oregon Wisconsin Georgia North Carolina South Carolina Florida Hawaii Maryland District of Columbia U.S. Total Direct Indirect Induced Total Total Contribution as a Value Added Value Added Value Added Contribution % of State GDP 32,893 5,762 185,760 20,971 3,974 4,812 8,738 1,809 3,188 12,364 2,028 4,133 4,167 2,874 2,850 45,525 13,366 9,661 3,513 715 4,651 8,442 7,369 2,992 846 736 3,018 384 2,822 821 5,433 2,743 2,306 2,592 533 3,300 3,754 1,374 10,544 674 1,227 3,755 1,313 1,787 3,297 2,925 1,246 4,636 477 1,509 361 456,971 5,932 1,349 42,108 6,760 945 1,501 1,774 450 1,067 4,648 557 1,215 1,383 662 1,068 17,719 5,635 5,470 1,458 243 2,264 4,013 3,367 1,294 315 320 2,129 157 2,220 422 3,635 1,927 1,567 1,742 264 2,178 2,454 861 7,161 319 859 2,570 984 1,625 2,489 2,251 928 4,552 289 1,432 407 158,934 9,015 1,321 65,893 8,255 1,145 1,980 3,517 514 1,157 7,087 740 1,897 2,272 1,576 1,672 37,714 12,322 10,641 2,866 501 4,077 7,746 6,975 2,426 787 651 3,968 360 4,228 939 7,785 4,081 3,619 3,944 660 4,854 5,989 1,834 18,642 708 1,753 5,642 2,196 3,425 6,246 5,447 2,118 10,758 767 3,746 1,009 299,464 47,839 8,432 293,760 35,986 6,064 8,292 14,029 2,773 5,412 24,099 3,324 7,244 7,822 5,112 5,589 100,958 31,323 25,772 7,836 1,459 10,992 20,201 17,711 6,712 1,948 1,707 9,115 900 9,271 2,181 16,853 8,750 7,492 8,278 1,456 10,333 12,197 4,069 36,347 1,700 3,839 11,968 4,494 6,837 12,032 10,623 4,292 19,946 1,533 6,688 1,777 915,370 31.3% 29.4% 24.2% 20.6% 16.6% 12.2% 11.4% 9.6% 9.4% 9.3% 8.9% 8.4% 7.6% 6.7% 6.0% 5.5% 5.0% 4.8% 4.7% 4.6% 4.5% 4.5% 4.4% 4.4% 4.0% 4.0% 3.9% 3.6% 3.6% 3.6% 3.5% 3.5% 3.5% 3.4% 3.4% 3.4% 3.3% 3.3% 3.3% 3.2% 3.1% 3.1% 3.0% 3.0% 3.0% 2.9% 2.8% 2.8% 2.4% 2.4% 1.7% 6.6%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). Numbers may not add to total due to rounding.

28

Appendix A: Detailed State-by-State Operational Impact Results

A-1

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Alabama, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Transportation and warehousing Construction Agriculture Information Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 32,917

Direct
32,917

Indirect Induced

Total
32,917

As a % of State Total
1.3% 2.4%

17,834

43,981

61,815 29,069 8,782 7,566 6,619 2,448 1,992 1,371 1,058 382 226 2,302 94,732

7,712 1,104 3,196 1,993 972 1,581 154 346 150 155 472
17,834

21,357 7,678 4,370 4,626 1,477 410 1,218 712 232 71 1,830
43,981

3.7%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Utilities Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 3,513

Direct
3,513

Indirect Induced

Total
3,513

As a % of State Total
2.1% 2.6%

1,458 381 328 331 92 55 56 42 80 8 32 53
1,458

2,866 843 746 358 406 92 87 84 20 62 15 154
2,866

4,324 1,224 1,075 689 498 146 143 126 100 70 47 207 7,836

4.7%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 1,678

Direct
1,678

Indirect Induced

Total
1,678

As a % of State Total
1.5% 2.4%

879 324 207 55 93 41 65 19 15 5 18 37
879

1,705 698 250 252 201 63 16 37 26 32 8 121
1,705

2,584 1,022 457 307 294 104 81 56 41 37 26 159 4,262

3.9%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-2

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Alaska, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Construction Transportation and warehousing Agriculture Manufacturing Information Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 16,854

Direct
16,854

Indirect Induced

Total
16,854

As a % of State Total
3.8% 6.0%

10,010

16,590

26,600 13,444 3,792 3,300 1,520 1,000 675 659 586 200 134 1,292 43,454

4,708 723 1,602 1,397 468 151 150 279 117 100 313
10,010

8,736 3,069 1,697 123 531 524 509 307 83 34 978
16,590

9.8%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Construction Information Utilities Transportation and warehousing Mining Manufacturing Agriculture Other Total Impact 3,974

Direct
3,974

Indirect Induced

Total
3,974

As a % of State Total
10.9% 5.7%

945 283 283 53 117 43 48 37 31 14 6 31
945

1,145 393 307 165 10 47 32 42 11 27 20 92
1,145

2,090 677 589 218 127 90 80 79 42 41 25 123 6,064

16.6%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Construction Transportation and warehousing Information Manufacturing Utilities Mining Agriculture Other Total Impact 1,953

Direct
1,953

Indirect Induced

Total
1,953

As a % of State Total
8.4% 5.1%

525 221 71 32 94 27 16 9 14 10 2 27
525

665 312 73 103 8 31 18 23 9 3 8 77
665

1,190 533 145 135 103 58 34 33 23 13 10 103 3,143

13.5%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-3

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Arizona, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Agriculture Mining Utilities Other Total Impact 25,157

Direct
25,157

Indirect Induced

Total
25,157

As a % of State Total
0.8% 2.1%

19,158

52,370

71,528 36,550 11,034 9,789 4,117 2,325 2,058 1,534 750 407 311 2,654 96,685

9,483 2,957 985 1,822 825 1,541 481 79 281 110 593
19,158

27,067 8,077 8,803 2,295 1,500 517 1,052 671 126 201 2,062
52,370

2.9%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Utilities Mining Agriculture Other Total Impact 2,592

Direct
2,592

Indirect Induced

Total
2,592

As a % of State Total
1.1% 2.3%

1,742 590 462 100 180 62 57 108 38 71 5 68
1,742

3,944 1,330 1,221 579 217 132 106 34 72 32 38 184
3,944

5,686 1,920 1,683 679 397 194 162 142 110 103 43 252 8,278

3.4%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Mining Utilities Agriculture Other Total Impact 1,261

Direct
1,261

Indirect Induced

Total
1,261

As a % of State Total
0.8% 2.2%

1,067 488 149 60 116 42 88 30 26 11 3 55
1,067

2,326 1,072 373 352 158 78 28 64 12 21 21 150
2,326

3,393 1,560 521 411 274 120 115 94 38 32 24 205 4,653

3.0%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-4

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Arkansas, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Transportation and warehousing Construction Agriculture Information Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 26,533

Direct
26,533

Indirect Induced

Total
26,533

As a % of State Total
1.7% 2.7%

14,493

28,613

43,106 19,704 6,042 4,898 4,384 2,328 1,806 1,429 778 261 90 1,386 69,640

6,077 1,115 2,111 1,652 1,003 1,560 197 298 127 65 288
14,493

13,628 4,927 2,787 2,732 1,325 245 1,231 480 134 25 1,099
28,613

4.4%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Information Transportation and warehousing Utilities Agriculture Construction Mining Other Total Impact 2,850

Direct
2,850

Indirect Induced

Total
2,850

As a % of State Total
3.1% 2.9%

1,068 301 223 184 83 71 58 42 11 65 8 23
1,068

1,672 494 368 192 235 113 77 42 65 10 3 73
1,672

2,739 794 591 376 318 184 135 83 76 75 11 96 5,589

6.0%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 1,248

Direct
1,248

Indirect Induced

Total
1,248

As a % of State Total
2.1% 2.8%

635 250 112 50 59 42 28 53 5 12 4 21
635

1,001 410 134 147 95 56 44 8 30 12 2 64
1,001

1,636 659 246 197 154 98 72 61 36 24 6 84 2,884

4.9%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-5

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in California, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 159,728

Direct
159,728

Indirect Induced

Total
159,728

As a % of State Total
0.8% 2.9%

163,781

429,105

592,885 300,785 90,905 76,871 40,319 19,465 17,246 15,989 9,746 1,234 248 20,079 752,614

80,907 14,087 20,698 16,158 7,487 5,304 12,974 995 536 170 4,464
163,781

219,878 76,818 56,172 24,162 11,977 11,942 3,015 8,751 697 78 15,614
429,105

3.7%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 45,525

Direct
45,525

Indirect Induced

Total
45,525

As a % of State Total
2.5% 3.0%

17,719 6,371 4,093 1,540 1,929 1,189 556 1,133 389 69 23 426
17,719

37,714 12,431 11,001 5,513 2,626 2,601 902 255 470 541 11 1,364
37,714

55,433 18,801 15,094 7,053 4,555 3,790 1,458 1,388 859 610 33 1,790 100,958

5.5%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Construction Transportation and warehousing Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 19,957

Direct
19,957

Indirect Induced

Total
19,957

As a % of State Total
1.7% 2.9%

11,423 5,284 1,419 918 1,261 637 919 415 39 112 14 404
11,423

22,741 10,087 3,459 3,390 1,882 1,375 207 674 303 141 6 1,218
22,741

34,164 15,371 4,878 4,308 3,144 2,012 1,126 1,090 342 253 20 1,622 54,122

4.6%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-6

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Colorado, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Construction Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Information Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 49,366

Direct
49,366

Indirect Induced

Total
49,366

As a % of State Total
1.6% 4.4%

46,439

94,603

141,042 70,026 22,859 19,744 7,212 6,266 4,458 3,113 1,739 596 346 4,684 190,408

21,104 3,889 7,140 6,438 2,971 1,921 1,154 306 309 261 947
46,439

48,923 18,970 12,604 774 3,295 2,537 1,959 1,433 286 85 3,737
94,603

6.0%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Information Manufacturing Construction Transportation and warehousing Utilities Mining Agriculture Other Total Impact 12,364

Direct
12,364

Indirect Induced

Total
12,364

As a % of State Total
4.8% 4.5%

4,648 1,615 1,172 368 325 319 418 125 131 85 15 76
4,648

7,087 2,363 2,022 1,122 542 330 50 166 115 28 68 281
7,087

11,735 3,978 3,194 1,490 867 649 468 291 246 112 83 357 24,099

9.3%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Information Manufacturing Construction Transportation and warehousing Utilities Mining Agriculture Other Total Impact 5,358

Direct
5,358

Indirect Induced

Total
5,358

As a % of State Total
3.3% 4.4%

2,875 1,339 358 220 174 204 339 92 38 36 5 71
2,875

4,205 1,899 627 688 289 226 40 122 34 12 23 246
4,205

7,080 3,237 984 908 463 431 379 214 71 48 28 317 12,438

7.7%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-7

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Connecticut, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 15,327

Direct
15,327

Indirect Induced

Total
15,327

As a % of State Total
0.7% 2.2%

11,841

35,518

47,359 24,214 7,205 5,970 4,705 1,518 1,248 771 206 158 31 1,334 62,686

5,448 1,745 510 2,300 566 358 512 25 56 21 301
11,841

18,766 5,460 5,461 2,406 951 890 259 181 102 10 1,032
35,518

2.9%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Services Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Information Transportation and warehousing Utilities Construction Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 2,306

Direct
2,306

Indirect Induced

Total
2,306

As a % of State Total
1.1% 2.4%

1,567 427 535 320 70 72 40 32 41 1 4 26
1,567

3,619 1,238 1,127 405 434 172 68 62 19 8 2 85
3,619

5,186 1,665 1,662 725 504 243 108 94 59 9 6 111 7,492

3.5%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 1,029

Direct
1,029

Indirect Induced

Total
1,029

As a % of State Total
0.7% 2.3%

1,036 434 216 208 41 38 30 33 9 1 3 25
1,036

2,280 924 594 252 256 89 51 15 18 4 1 77
2,280

3,316 1,358 810 459 296 127 80 48 27 4 4 101 4,345

3.1%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-8

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Delaware, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 4,548

Direct
4,548

Indirect Induced

Total
4,548

As a % of State Total
0.9% 2.0%

3,096

7,793

10,889 5,485 1,761 1,468 736 466 268 203 80 75 6 339 15,437

1,550 434 240 256 238 196 58 9 42 4 69
3,096

3,935 1,327 1,229 480 228 72 145 72 33 2 270
7,793

2.9%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Utilities Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 736

Direct
736

Indirect Induced

Total
736

As a % of State Total
1.7% 2.2%

320 117 82 25 36 17 14 7 13 1 0 6
320

651 215 229 75 55 13 14 18 4 6 0 22
651

970 333 312 100 91 30 28 25 17 6 1 28 1,707

4.0%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 297

Direct
297

Indirect Induced

Total
297

As a % of State Total
1.0% 2.2%

207 98 36 22 15 10 4 11 5 1 0 5
207

411 179 98 38 46 10 10 4 4 4 0 18
411

619 277 134 61 61 20 14 14 8 5 0 23 916

3.2%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-9

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in the District of Columba, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Information Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Construction Manufacturing Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 1,713

Direct
1,713

Indirect Induced

Total
1,713

As a % of District Total
0.2% 1.3%

2,614

8,488

11,102 7,831 960 653 337 127 105 43 32 1 0 1,013 12,815

1,846 253 171 43 44 81 17 12 0 0 148
2,614

5,985 707 482 293 83 24 26 20 1 0 865
8,488

1.5%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Information Wholesale and retail trade Utilities Transportation and warehousing Construction Manufacturing Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 361

Direct
361

Indirect Induced

Total
361

As a % of District Total
0.3% 1.4%

407 254 80 37 6 4 3 6 2 0 0 13
407

1,009 539 222 99 22 8 7 2 4 0 0 106
1,009

1,417 793 302 137 28 13 10 8 7 0 0 119 1,777

1.7%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Information Wholesale and retail trade Construction Transportation and warehousing Manufacturing Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 151

Direct
151

Indirect Induced

Total
151

As a % of District Total
0.2% 1.2%

293 210 33 21 4 5 2 2 1 0 0 15
293

713 454 78 55 13 1 4 2 2 0 0 102
713

1,006 664 111 76 17 7 6 4 4 0 0 118 1,157

1.4%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-10

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Florida, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 61,914

Direct
61,914

Indirect Induced

Total
61,914

As a % of State Total
0.6% 2.0%

52,765

152,598

205,363 109,231 31,480 27,737 9,341 7,292 6,098 5,200 3,044 699 143 5,098 267,277

26,874 8,400 2,998 4,196 2,430 4,692 1,562 320 285 97 911
52,765

82,357 23,080 24,739 5,145 4,862 1,406 3,639 2,724 413 46 4,187
152,598

2.6%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 4,636

Direct
4,636

Indirect Induced

Total
4,636

As a % of State Total
0.7% 2.2%

4,552 1,748 1,263 280 376 219 138 298 110 15 20 85
4,552

10,758 3,941 3,309 1,515 501 494 284 84 160 117 10 344
10,758

15,311 5,689 4,572 1,796 877 713 422 382 270 132 30 429 19,946

2.8%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Construction Transportation and warehousing Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 2,291

Direct
2,291

Indirect Induced

Total
2,291

As a % of State Total
0.5% 2.0%

2,808 1,408 404 167 248 110 241 100 31 8 12 79
2,808

6,343 3,135 1,021 926 327 244 68 207 47 58 5 305
6,343

9,150 4,543 1,425 1,092 575 354 309 307 78 66 17 384 11,441

2.6%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-11

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Georgia, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 41,197

Direct
41,197

Indirect Induced

Total
41,197

As a % of State Total
0.8% 2.0%

25,632

78,977

104,609 50,793 15,054 13,173 10,259 4,559 3,350 2,044 1,475 550 219 3,132 145,806

12,248 1,489 3,344 3,753 1,418 960 1,370 149 196 148 558
25,632

38,545 13,564 9,830 6,506 3,141 2,390 674 1,327 355 70 2,574
78,977

2.7%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Information Transportation and warehousing Utilities Construction Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 3,297

Direct
3,297

Indirect Induced

Total
3,297

As a % of State Total
0.8% 2.2%

2,489 821 579 366 161 218 108 78 83 11 21 44
2,489

6,246 1,796 1,642 676 872 524 249 164 37 83 10 192
6,246

8,735 2,617 2,220 1,042 1,033 743 358 242 120 93 31 236 12,032

3.0%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 1,630

Direct
1,630

Indirect Induced

Total
1,630

As a % of State Total
0.6% 2.0%

1,546 683 201 229 95 109 80 67 22 6 12 43
1,546

3,664 1,472 523 399 531 257 184 30 47 44 6 171
3,664

5,210 2,154 724 628 626 366 264 97 69 49 18 213 6,841

2.7%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-12

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Hawaii, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Manufacturing Information Construction Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 4,019

Direct
4,019

Indirect Induced

Total
4,019

As a % of State Total
0.5% 1.7%

3,406

11,114

14,521 7,950 1,841 1,839 676 397 337 329 240 82 9 821 18,539

1,826 497 229 207 117 102 241 25 36 6 120
3,406

6,124 1,344 1,610 469 280 235 87 214 46 3 701
11,114

2.1%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Information Transportation and warehousing Manufacturing Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 477

Direct
477

Indirect Induced

Total
477

As a % of State Total
0.8% 1.7%

289 109 74 17 14 13 14 21 11 1 2 13
289

767 303 199 84 31 30 20 7 15 7 1 70
767

1,056 412 273 101 44 43 34 28 27 8 2 83 1,533

2.4%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Manufacturing Construction Information Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 219

Direct
219

Indirect Induced

Total
219

As a % of State Total
0.5% 1.6%

178 89 20 10 9 9 17 6 3 1 1 12
178

458 233 50 52 21 14 6 14 4 4 0 59
458

636 321 70 63 31 24 23 21 7 5 1 71 855

2.1%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-13

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Idaho, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Agriculture Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Mining Utilities Other Total Impact 7,765

Direct
7,765

Indirect Induced

Total
7,765

As a % of State Total
0.8% 1.8%

4,192

12,043

16,235 7,759 2,256 2,035 1,340 846 628 474 367 96 41 394 24,000

1,920 235 600 532 83 236 334 112 66 13 62
4,192

5,839 2,021 1,435 808 763 393 140 255 30 28 333
12,043

2.6%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Agriculture Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Mining Utilities Other Total Impact 674

Direct
674

Indirect Induced

Total
674

As a % of State Total
1.3% 1.9%

319 114 75 18 42 7 13 10 18 13 5 5
319

708 228 171 107 59 54 21 22 7 6 10 22
708

1,027 342 246 126 102 61 34 32 25 19 15 26 1,700

3.2%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Transportation and warehousing Agriculture Construction Information Mining Utilities Other Total Impact 315

Direct
315

Indirect Induced

Total
315

As a % of State Total
0.9% 1.8%

194 93 11 28 21 9 3 15 5 5 1 4
194

418 186 65 44 48 15 19 6 10 2 3 19
418

612 279 76 72 69 24 22 20 15 7 4 23 928

2.7%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-14

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Illinois, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 55,581

Direct
55,581

Indirect Induced

Total
55,581

As a % of State Total
0.7% 2.7%

51,421

152,999

204,420 102,815 31,366 25,424 18,082 8,338 5,774 4,028 1,995 738 274 5,585 260,001

22,823 3,751 6,179 8,676 2,553 4,735 1,147 182 299 188 888
51,421

79,993 27,615 19,245 9,406 5,785 1,039 2,880 1,814 439 87 4,697
152,999

3.5%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 13,366

Direct
13,366

Indirect Induced

Total
13,366

As a % of State Total
2.1% 2.9%

5,635 1,991 1,265 393 1,003 193 172 354 149 11 30 76
5,635

12,322 4,153 3,722 1,787 1,029 467 401 75 225 90 14 358
12,322

17,957 6,144 4,987 2,180 2,032 660 573 429 374 100 43 434 31,323

5.0%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 5,807

Direct
5,807

Indirect Induced

Total
5,807

As a % of State Total
1.4% 2.8%

3,609 1,633 466 630 234 125 287 97 42 3 16 75
3,609

7,537 3,414 1,325 697 1,088 294 61 232 64 24 8 330
7,537

11,146 5,047 1,792 1,327 1,323 419 348 329 106 27 24 405 16,953

4.2%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-15

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Indiana, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 37,898

Direct
37,898

Indirect Induced

Total
37,898

As a % of State Total
1.0% 2.4%

26,315

63,142

89,458 40,742 13,343 13,027 9,302 4,223 2,629 1,543 1,511 479 219 2,441 127,355

10,075 1,966 6,315 2,708 1,631 2,126 500 148 211 150 485
26,315

30,667 11,377 6,712 6,594 2,591 503 1,043 1,363 268 69 1,955
63,142

3.5%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Utilities Information Construction Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 4,651

Direct
4,651

Indirect Induced

Total
4,651

As a % of State Total
1.9% 2.6%

2,264 524 747 396 159 97 81 57 126 8 30 39
2,264

4,077 1,238 716 940 579 156 100 116 29 63 14 127
4,077

6,341 1,762 1,463 1,336 738 253 180 173 154 71 44 167 10,992

4.5%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Utilities Mining Agriculture Other Total Impact 2,069

Direct
2,069

Indirect Induced

Total
2,069

As a % of State Total
1.3% 2.4%

1,374 431 456 95 114 70 102 26 23 17 2 37
1,374

2,464 1,011 477 355 261 114 23 53 29 8 18 115
2,464

3,838 1,442 933 450 375 184 125 79 53 25 20 152 5,907

3.8%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-16

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Iowa, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Agriculture Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 22,758

Direct
22,758

Indirect Induced

Total
22,758

As a % of State Total
1.1% 2.0%

10,834

29,662

40,496 17,784 5,681 4,944 4,889 1,967 1,782 1,030 1,027 200 70 1,124 63,254

4,242 696 1,401 2,171 189 637 803 330 81 47 237
10,834

13,541 4,985 3,543 2,718 1,778 1,144 227 698 119 22 887
29,662

3.1%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Services Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Agriculture Transportation and warehousing Information Utilities Construction Mining Other Total Impact 1,374

Direct
1,374

Indirect Induced

Total
1,374

As a % of State Total
1.1% 2.2%

861 207 199 218 54 16 36 33 28 44 7 20
861

1,834 489 482 234 247 130 66 67 44 12 3 60
1,834

2,696 696 681 452 301 147 102 100 72 55 10 79 4,069

3.3%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 704

Direct
704

Indirect Induced

Total
704

As a % of State Total
0.9% 2.1%

512 164 129 75 32 26 17 35 5 8 3 18
512

1,079 392 161 178 150 48 34 9 38 13 2 53
1,079

1,591 556 290 253 183 74 51 45 43 21 5 71 2,295

3.0%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-17

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Kansas, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Construction Transportation and warehousing Agriculture Information Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 38,790

Direct
38,790

Indirect Induced

Total
38,790

As a % of State Total
2.1% 4.4%

21,713

58,548

80,260 37,397 14,317 9,535 5,533 3,596 2,974 1,955 1,698 446 48 2,761 119,051

8,551 2,186 3,055 2,136 3,189 1,115 197 598 222 33 431
21,713

28,846 12,131 6,481 3,397 406 1,860 1,758 1,100 225 15 2,330
58,548

6.5%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 8,738

Direct
8,738

Indirect Induced

Total
8,738

As a % of State Total
7.1% 4.3%

1,774 479 422 170 206 125 71 165 85 10 5 35
1,774

3,517 1,081 860 595 292 226 120 21 86 81 2 154
3,517

5,291 1,560 1,283 765 498 351 192 186 170 91 7 189 14,029

11.4%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Construction Information Transportation and warehousing Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 3,623

Direct
3,623

Indirect Induced

Total
3,623

As a % of State Total
4.7% 4.1%

1,036 397 102 113 131 133 49 50 24 3 3 30
1,036

2,079 884 370 240 219 17 88 85 24 21 1 130
2,079

3,115 1,281 473 353 350 150 137 135 48 24 4 161 6,738

8.8%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-18

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Kentucky, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Agriculture Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Mining Utilities Other Total Impact 32,196

Direct
32,196

Indirect Induced

Total
32,196

As a % of State Total
1.3% 2.3%

16,503

38,791

55,294 25,006 7,843 6,246 5,712 2,435 2,427 1,934 1,089 670 232 1,700 87,490

6,653 1,188 2,860 1,788 311 807 1,624 374 459 106 335
16,503

18,354 6,655 3,386 3,924 2,125 1,620 310 715 211 126 1,365
38,791

3.6%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Information Mining Construction Utilities Agriculture Other Total Impact 2,992

Direct
2,992

Indirect Induced

Total
2,992

As a % of State Total
2.0% 2.4%

1,294 357 254 278 96 55 37 70 77 32 7 33
1,294

2,426 733 535 395 341 113 69 32 14 38 47 109
2,426

3,721 1,091 789 673 437 168 106 102 91 69 54 142 6,712

4.4%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Transportation and warehousing Construction Mining Information Agriculture Utilities Other Total Impact 1,405

Direct
1,405

Indirect Induced

Total
1,405

As a % of State Total
1.4% 2.3%

791 283 176 57 77 40 62 38 17 5 9 26
791

1,457 594 215 212 162 83 12 18 32 30 11 89
1,457

2,248 878 391 269 239 122 74 56 50 35 20 114 3,653

3.7%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-19

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Louisiana, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Construction Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Information Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 109,003

Direct
109,003

Indirect Induced

Total
109,003

As a % of State Total
4.4% 9.0%

84,767

136,283

221,050 116,789 36,855 25,737 11,888 8,207 5,485 3,715 3,201 1,300 75 7,797 330,053

42,171 8,625 11,083 10,768 4,641 2,786 1,715 789 733 57 1,399
84,767

74,617 28,230 14,654 1,120 3,567 2,700 2,000 2,412 567 18 6,398
136,283

13.4%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Construction Utilities Information Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 20,971

Direct
20,971

Indirect Induced

Total
20,971

As a % of State Total
12.0% 8.6%

6,760 2,357 1,603 665 494 347 612 337 196 33 11 106
6,760

8,255 3,002 2,162 1,393 329 337 63 216 228 103 4 417
8,255

15,015 5,359 3,765 2,059 823 684 675 553 424 136 15 523 35,986

20.6%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Transportation and warehousing Construction Manufacturing Information Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 9,402

Direct
9,402

Indirect Induced

Total
9,402

As a % of State Total
8.5% 8.1%

4,079 1,830 402 450 288 495 307 96 97 14 6 94
4,079

4,968 2,380 878 583 279 51 217 111 66 44 2 357
4,968

9,047 4,210 1,280 1,033 567 547 523 207 163 58 8 452 18,449

16.6%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-20

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Maine, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Agriculture Information Construction Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 12,712

Direct
12,712

Indirect Induced

Total
12,712

As a % of State Total
1.5% 2.1%

4,170

13,015

17,185 8,584 2,448 1,926 1,533 672 513 422 345 72 7 665 29,897

1,867 246 559 610 305 54 133 215 32 5 143
4,170

6,716 2,202 1,366 922 368 458 289 130 40 2 522
13,015

3.6%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Information Transportation and warehousing Agriculture Utilities Construction Mining Other Total Impact 846

Direct
846

Indirect Induced

Total
846

As a % of State Total
1.8% 2.3%

315 91 81 58 20 12 15 4 12 10 0 12
315

787 264 190 83 117 26 19 28 15 5 0 41
787

1,102 355 271 141 137 38 34 31 26 15 1 53 1,948

4.0%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 382

Direct
382

Indirect Induced

Total
382

As a % of State Total
1.2% 2.1%

190 74 38 24 12 11 6 8 1 3 0 11
190

479 217 57 56 67 14 13 4 9 4 0 37
479

668 291 95 81 79 25 19 12 10 8 0 48 1,051

3.3%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-21

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Maryland, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 17,622

Direct
17,622

Indirect Induced

Total
17,622

As a % of State Total
0.5% 1.8%

14,057

46,545

60,602 33,445 8,072 8,012 3,035 2,328 1,609 1,342 412 243 53 2,051 78,224

7,529 1,921 712 1,264 807 445 896 43 84 36 320
14,057

25,916 6,151 7,299 1,771 1,521 1,164 446 369 159 17 1,731
46,545

2.3%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Utilities Transportation and warehousing Construction Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 1,509

Direct
1,509

Indirect Induced

Total
1,509

As a % of State Total
0.5% 1.9%

1,432 550 355 75 153 81 65 44 72 3 5 30
1,432

3,746 1,345 1,093 448 197 202 148 85 32 19 3 174
3,746

5,178 1,895 1,448 523 350 283 213 129 104 22 8 203 6,688

2.4%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 730

Direct
730

Indirect Induced

Total
730

As a % of State Total
0.4% 1.7%

917 472 121 45 96 42 33 58 18 1 3 28
917

2,274 1,125 338 276 133 103 64 26 43 7 1 157
2,274

3,190 1,596 459 321 230 145 97 84 61 8 5 185 3,920

2.1%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-22

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Massachusetts, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 25,070

Direct
25,070

Indirect Induced

Total
25,070

As a % of State Total
0.6% 2.1%

20,819

66,197

87,016 48,057 10,804 10,789 6,489 2,555 2,462 1,693 409 229 48 3,481 112,086

10,590 2,589 1,004 2,851 703 832 1,221 38 86 33 872
20,819

37,467 8,214 9,785 3,638 1,852 1,631 472 371 143 15 2,609
66,197

2.7%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Transportation and warehousing Utilities Construction Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 3,754

Direct
3,754

Indirect Induced

Total
3,754

As a % of State Total
1.0% 2.3%

2,454 957 646 126 353 132 50 45 92 3 4 45
2,454

5,989 2,222 1,918 707 409 335 100 82 33 23 2 157
5,989

8,443 3,179 2,564 833 762 467 150 127 126 26 7 201 12,197

3.3%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 1,690

Direct
1,690

Indirect Induced

Total
1,690

As a % of State Total
0.7% 2.2%

1,671 813 290 230 74 69 37 75 13 1 3 67
1,671

3,881 1,866 800 298 424 171 74 27 24 11 1 186
3,881

5,552 2,679 1,089 528 498 239 111 102 37 12 4 253 7,242

2.9%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-23

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Michigan, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 45,946

Direct
45,946

Indirect Induced

Total
45,946

As a % of State Total
0.9% 2.5%

35,768

97,781

133,549 68,601 19,569 14,629 14,517 4,068 3,692 2,413 1,836 607 138 3,479 179,495

16,439 2,105 7,004 3,871 1,420 3,026 734 208 240 94 628
35,768

52,162 17,464 7,625 10,647 2,648 667 1,679 1,628 366 44 2,851
97,781

3.3%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Information Utilities Transportation and warehousing Construction Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 7,369

Direct
7,369

Indirect Induced

Total
7,369

As a % of State Total
1.9% 2.6%

3,367 1,169 712 743 179 97 115 94 182 9 16 50
3,367

6,975 2,359 1,912 852 943 216 193 179 39 68 8 208
6,975

10,342 3,528 2,625 1,595 1,121 313 308 273 221 77 23 257 17,711

4.4%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 3,426

Direct
3,426

Indirect Induced

Total
3,426

As a % of State Total
1.3% 2.5%

2,162 987 506 203 107 69 148 48 33 4 8 49
2,162

4,232 1,966 621 515 583 133 32 105 55 25 4 193
4,232

6,394 2,953 1,128 717 691 202 179 153 88 29 12 242 9,820

3.8%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-24

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Minnesota, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Agriculture Construction Information Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 33,430

Direct
33,430

Indirect Induced

Total
33,430

As a % of State Total
0.9% 2.3%

22,734

57,544

80,278 40,053 11,348 9,714 7,948 2,949 2,013 1,856 1,839 372 186 1,999 113,708

10,658 1,698 2,660 3,678 1,121 202 1,444 569 165 126 414
22,734

29,395 9,650 7,054 4,271 1,829 1,811 412 1,271 207 60 1,585
57,544

3.2%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Transportation and warehousing Utilities Construction Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 2,822

Direct
2,822

Indirect Induced

Total
2,822

As a % of State Total
1.1% 2.5%

2,220 825 471 178 365 75 73 62 91 13 29 37
2,220

4,228 1,426 1,189 590 398 164 122 82 25 101 14 118
4,228

6,449 2,251 1,661 768 763 239 195 144 116 113 42 155 9,271

3.6%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 1,332

Direct
1,332

Indirect Induced

Total
1,332

As a % of State Total
0.8% 2.4%

1,425 658 177 248 106 54 40 74 17 5 13 34
1,425

2,594 1,157 433 287 354 89 85 20 23 35 6 105
2,594

4,019 1,815 610 534 460 143 125 94 41 40 19 139 5,351

3.2%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-25

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Mississippi, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Construction Agriculture Information Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 32,492

Direct
32,492

Indirect Induced

Total
32,492

As a % of State Total
2.1% 3.4%

17,480

33,847

51,328 23,356 8,045 5,279 4,620 2,687 2,430 1,588 868 427 30 1,998 83,820

7,128 1,641 2,007 1,988 1,351 2,146 232 348 224 21 395
17,480

16,228 6,404 3,271 2,632 1,336 284 1,356 520 203 10 1,603
33,847

5.5%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Utilities Construction Information Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 4,133

Direct
4,133

Indirect Induced

Total
4,133

As a % of State Total
4.8% 3.6%

1,215 329 279 122 165 73 73 95 35 11 2 30
1,215

1,897 608 455 305 166 72 58 12 52 62 1 104
1,897

3,111 937 734 427 331 145 131 107 87 73 4 135 7,244

8.4%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 1,770

Direct
1,770

Indirect Induced

Total
1,770

As a % of State Total
3.2% 3.3%

711 268 74 101 69 53 77 15 21 5 2 27
711

1,127 487 190 120 109 53 10 23 17 28 1 90
1,127

1,838 755 264 221 177 106 87 38 38 33 3 117 3,609

6.5%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-26

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Missouri, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Agriculture Construction Information Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 38,430

Direct
38,430

Indirect Induced

Total
38,430

As a % of State Total
1.1% 2.3%

24,602

59,787

84,389 40,835 11,494 10,779 7,491 3,558 2,566 2,393 2,040 332 189 2,713 122,820

11,235 1,488 3,427 3,393 1,339 290 1,906 666 140 132 586
24,602

29,600 10,006 7,351 4,098 2,219 2,276 487 1,374 192 57 2,127
59,787

3.4%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 3,018

Direct
3,018

Indirect Induced

Total
3,018

As a % of State Total
1.3% 2.6%

2,129 781 456 334 131 102 82 111 44 8 34 45
2,129

3,968 1,358 946 456 556 205 138 27 61 60 14 145
3,968

6,096 2,139 1,402 790 686 308 220 138 106 69 48 191 9,115

3.9%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 1,499

Direct
1,499

Indirect Induced

Total
1,499

As a % of State Total
1.0% 2.5%

1,343 640 204 148 78 59 50 90 13 3 15 44
1,343

2,411 1,107 265 303 337 100 99 22 18 22 6 131
2,411

3,754 1,747 469 451 415 159 149 112 30 25 22 175 5,253

3.4%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-27

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Montana, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Construction Transportation and warehousing Agriculture Manufacturing Information Mining Utilities Other Total Impact 12,852

Direct
12,852

Indirect Induced

Total
12,852

As a % of State Total
2.0% 3.3%

7,974

13,383

21,357 10,801 3,019 2,470 1,109 860 800 761 435 196 152 752 34,210

3,676 715 1,016 975 473 125 393 190 140 88 183
7,974

7,125 2,303 1,455 135 388 676 368 245 56 64 569
13,383

5.3%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Utilities Transportation and warehousing Manufacturing Construction Mining Information Agriculture Other Total Impact 2,028

Direct
2,028

Indirect Induced

Total
2,028

As a % of State Total
5.5% 3.5%

557 143 145 48 42 32 32 46 34 17 5 14
557

740 242 212 105 28 26 24 6 13 22 24 38
740

1,296 385 357 153 69 57 56 52 47 40 28 51 3,324

8.9%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Construction Transportation and warehousing Manufacturing Utilities Information Mining Agriculture Other Total Impact 854

Direct
854

Indirect Induced

Total
854

As a % of State Total
3.8% 3.2%

311 119 29 38 37 21 20 12 8 13 2 12
311

419 197 65 53 5 17 17 8 10 5 8 32
419

730 316 94 91 42 39 36 20 18 18 10 44 1,584

7.0%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-28

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Nebraska, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Agriculture Construction Information Mining Utilities Other Total Impact 14,465

Direct
14,465

Indirect Induced

Total
14,465

As a % of State Total
1.2% 2.9%

8,606

26,712

35,319 17,141 5,597 4,200 2,475 1,658 1,207 994 701 27 11 1,306 49,784

4,015 560 1,195 886 512 109 804 225 18 4 278
8,606

13,127 5,037 3,005 1,589 1,146 1,098 190 477 9 8 1,028
26,712

4.0%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Agriculture Information Construction Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 2,874

Direct
2,874

Indirect Induced

Total
2,874

As a % of State Total
3.8% 2.9%

662 233 155 42 76 38 10 26 45 3 5 28
662

1,576 506 383 244 118 88 84 53 10 6 2 80
1,576

2,238 739 538 287 194 126 94 78 55 10 7 109 5,112

6.7%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Agriculture Mining Utilities Other Total Impact 1,364

Direct
1,364

Indirect Induced

Total
1,364

As a % of State Total
2.8% 2.8%

416 182 54 25 47 25 15 36 3 3 1 23
416

963 409 126 148 85 58 31 8 28 1 2 67
963

1,379 591 180 173 133 83 46 45 31 4 3 90 2,743

5.6%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-29

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Nevada, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Manufacturing Construction Information Mining Agriculture Utilities Other Total Impact 13,049

Direct
13,049

Indirect Induced

Total
13,049

As a % of State Total
0.8% 1.9%

8,254

21,837

30,091 16,190 4,779 3,591 1,343 1,300 1,061 590 416 110 105 609 43,140

3,899 1,377 398 489 648 799 194 284 12 46 108
8,254

12,291 3,402 3,193 854 652 262 396 132 97 58 501
21,837

2.7%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Mining Manufacturing Construction Transportation and warehousing Information Utilities Agriculture Other Total Impact 1,227

Direct
1,227

Indirect Induced

Total
1,227

As a % of State Total
1.0% 2.1%

859 332 197 37 87 60 66 28 23 17 1 10
859

1,753 792 467 207 41 58 20 50 47 22 6 44
1,753

2,612 1,124 664 244 128 119 87 78 70 39 7 54 3,839

3.1%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Construction Transportation and warehousing Mining Information Utilities Agriculture Other Total Impact 594

Direct
594

Indirect Induced

Total
594

As a % of State Total
0.8% 2.0%

505 258 58 22 39 54 21 28 11 5 0 9
505

989 553 135 123 42 16 38 13 22 6 2 38
989

1,494 811 193 145 81 70 59 40 33 11 2 48 2,088

2.7%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-30

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in New Hampshire, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 8,909

Direct
8,909

Indirect Induced

Total
8,909

As a % of State Total
1.1% 2.1%

4,489

12,858

17,347 8,676 2,623 2,243 1,781 523 414 393 159 87 26 423 26,256

1,944 223 625 901 215 294 116 20 36 18 97
4,489

6,731 2,400 1,618 880 308 120 277 139 51 8 325
12,858

3.1%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Utilities Transportation and warehousing Construction Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 821

Direct
821

Indirect Induced

Total
821

As a % of State Total
1.4% 2.3%

422 138 99 25 90 16 14 11 17 1 2 7
422

939 331 244 161 89 38 21 16 6 9 1 22
939

1,360 469 343 186 179 55 35 27 24 11 2 30 2,181

3.6%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 372

Direct
372

Indirect Induced

Total
372

As a % of State Total
0.9% 2.1%

267 114 61 34 15 8 8 14 4 1 1 7
267

580 272 63 83 95 19 12 5 6 3 1 21
580

847 387 124 117 109 27 20 19 10 4 2 28 1,218

3.1%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-31

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in New Jersey, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 32,434

Direct
32,434

Indirect Induced

Total
32,434

As a % of State Total
0.6% 2.2%

29,900

81,008

110,908 56,937 16,446 14,722 8,255 5,358 3,108 1,855 462 322 53 3,391 143,342

14,942 2,552 3,511 3,705 2,046 897 1,311 48 139 36 713
29,900

41,995 13,894 11,211 4,550 3,312 2,211 544 415 183 17 2,677
81,008

2.8%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Transportation and warehousing Utilities Construction Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 5,433

Direct
5,433

Indirect Induced

Total
5,433

As a % of State Total
1.1% 2.4%

3,635 1,366 716 326 605 219 138 76 112 2 9 69
3,635

7,785 2,579 2,196 1,125 746 519 227 96 43 16 4 234
7,785

11,420 3,945 2,912 1,451 1,351 738 364 172 155 18 13 302 16,853

3.5%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 2,378

Direct
2,378

Indirect Induced

Total
2,378

As a % of State Total
0.8% 2.3%

2,349 1,094 301 193 362 111 104 90 22 1 5 66
2,349

4,734 2,065 822 676 455 259 172 35 29 8 2 210
4,734

7,083 3,159 1,123 869 817 370 276 125 51 9 7 276 9,461

3.1%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-32

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in New Mexico, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Construction Transportation and warehousing Manufacturing Information Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 33,116

Direct
33,116

Indirect Induced

Total
33,116

As a % of State Total
3.0% 5.1%

20,961

34,737

55,698 30,173 7,926 6,461 2,760 1,935 1,666 1,166 848 351 231 2,180 88,814

10,754 1,642 2,825 2,455 1,010 775 502 179 189 175 455
20,961

19,420 6,284 3,636 305 925 890 664 669 162 56 1,725
34,737

8.1%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Construction Manufacturing Utilities Transportation and warehousing Information Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 4,812

Direct
4,812

Indirect Induced

Total
4,812

As a % of State Total
7.1% 5.1%

1,501 560 381 110 127 71 67 62 49 10 30 35
1,501

1,980 742 496 312 16 67 53 57 65 36 10 127
1,980

3,481 1,302 877 422 142 138 120 119 114 46 39 162 8,292

12.2%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Construction Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Information Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 2,183

Direct
2,183

Indirect Induced

Total
2,183

As a % of State Total
4.8% 4.7%

930 484 66 95 102 45 44 22 19 4 15 32
930

1,194 605 193 119 13 50 41 29 15 15 5 110
1,194

2,124 1,089 259 214 115 94 85 51 34 20 19 143 4,307

9.5%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-33

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in New York, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 56,149

Direct
56,149

Indirect Induced

Total
56,149

As a % of State Total
0.5% 2.1%

49,962

175,155

225,118 120,434 31,206 29,252 14,114 8,712 8,319 4,297 1,384 1,061 182 6,158 281,267

24,008 7,058 2,963 6,054 2,847 2,271 3,235 144 390 124 869
49,962

96,426 24,148 26,288 8,060 5,865 6,048 1,062 1,240 671 58 5,289
175,155

2.6%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Services Wholesale and retail trade Information Manufacturing Utilities Transportation and warehousing Construction Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 10,544

Direct
10,544

Indirect Induced

Total
10,544

As a % of State Total
1.0% 2.3%

7,161 2,282 2,592 351 547 697 180 158 245 7 20 83
7,161

18,642 7,183 5,837 1,928 1,398 1,002 357 335 76 57 9 459
18,642

25,803 9,465 8,429 2,280 1,945 1,699 537 493 321 64 29 542 36,347

3.3%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Information Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 4,767

Direct
4,767

Indirect Induced

Total
4,767

As a % of State Total
0.7% 2.3%

4,795 2,084 1,270 207 340 439 117 198 51 3 11 74
4,795

11,890 4,756 3,691 1,147 852 602 249 61 102 24 5 400
11,890

16,685 6,841 4,961 1,354 1,192 1,041 367 260 153 27 16 474 21,452

3.0%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-34

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in North Carolina, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 44,040

Direct
44,040

Indirect Induced

Total
44,040

As a % of State Total
0.8% 1.9%

25,416

76,323

101,739 49,742 14,065 12,517 11,607 3,961 2,439 2,256 1,674 330 131 3,017 145,779

11,461 1,416 4,749 3,108 1,438 1,698 656 176 126 89 497
25,416

38,280 12,649 7,768 8,499 2,523 741 1,600 1,499 203 42 2,519
76,323

2.7%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 2,925

Direct
2,925

Indirect Induced

Total
2,925

As a % of State Total
0.8% 2.1%

2,251 703 561 479 130 93 79 90 45 11 16 44
2,251

5,447 1,598 1,454 912 718 218 142 36 78 85 8 197
5,447

7,697 2,301 2,015 1,391 848 310 221 126 124 96 24 241 10,623

2.9%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 1,461

Direct
1,461

Indirect Induced

Total
1,461

As a % of State Total
0.6% 2.0%

1,384 585 300 174 77 59 48 73 7 13 8 41
1,384

3,162 1,318 476 437 442 106 112 29 49 22 4 168
3,162

4,546 1,903 776 611 519 164 160 102 55 35 12 208 6,007

2.6%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-35

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in North Dakota, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Agriculture Construction Information Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 11,788

Direct
11,788

Indirect Induced

Total
11,788

As a % of State Total
2.4% 3.3%

6,599

9,527

16,126 7,926 2,312 1,757 776 769 750 678 362 115 63 620 27,914

3,128 549 841 450 465 97 609 177 62 45 177
6,599

4,798 1,763 916 326 305 653 69 185 53 17 442
9,527

5.7%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Utilities Agriculture Information Construction Mining Other Total Impact 1,809

Direct
1,809

Indirect Induced

Total
1,809

As a % of State Total
6.3% 3.3%

450 134 107 40 40 30 24 6 19 32 7 12
450

514 162 116 83 23 20 20 36 19 4 3 28
514

964 296 222 122 63 50 44 42 38 36 10 41 2,773

9.6%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 778

Direct
778

Indirect Induced

Total
778

As a % of State Total
4.4% 3.2%

266 109 24 30 24 21 26 9 7 2 4 11
266

303 134 51 33 18 14 3 10 6 10 2 24
303

569 243 74 63 41 34 29 19 13 12 6 34 1,346

7.6%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-36

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Ohio, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 65,413

Direct
65,413

Indirect Induced

Total
65,413

As a % of State Total
1.0% 2.4%

45,629

118,397

164,025 81,769 21,918 19,857 18,205 6,759 4,524 3,080 2,205 679 225 4,804 229,438

19,939 1,878 10,176 5,015 2,393 3,679 951 241 290 154 913
45,629

61,830 20,041 9,681 13,190 4,366 846 2,129 1,963 389 71 3,891
118,397

3.4%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Information Utilities Construction Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 8,442

Direct
8,442

Indirect Induced

Total
8,442

As a % of State Total
1.9% 2.6%

4,013 1,333 785 1,087 134 144 123 106 204 10 21 68
4,013

7,746 2,683 1,967 1,000 1,026 269 266 147 45 70 10 263
7,746

11,759 4,016 2,752 2,087 1,159 413 389 253 249 79 31 331 20,201

4.5%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 3,795

Direct
3,795

Indirect Induced

Total
3,795

As a % of State Total
1.3% 2.5%

2,552 1,092 690 246 80 106 165 57 30 3 12 71
2,552

4,774 2,203 666 605 624 199 37 123 42 22 5 249
4,774

7,326 3,295 1,356 851 704 305 202 180 72 25 17 319 11,121

3.7%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-37

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Oklahoma, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Construction Manufacturing Agriculture Transportation and warehousing Information Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 98,306

Direct
98,306

Indirect Induced

Total
98,306

As a % of State Total
4.6% 11.7%

82,368

167,953

250,321 122,525 42,406 30,665 14,866 9,722 8,719 7,712 3,907 1,313 128 8,359 348,627

35,687 7,284 12,523 13,695 4,455 1,419 3,433 1,683 688 93 1,409
82,368

86,838 35,123 18,142 1,172 5,266 7,300 4,279 2,224 625 35 6,950
167,953

16.3%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Utilities Construction Information Transportation and warehousing Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 32,893

Direct
32,893

Indirect Induced

Total
32,893

As a % of State Total
21.6% 9.8%

5,932 1,808 1,604 514 515 350 569 213 213 28 14 105
5,932

9,015 3,122 2,286 1,687 414 294 49 281 266 145 5 466
9,015

14,946 4,930 3,890 2,200 929 644 617 493 478 173 19 572 47,839

31.3%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Construction Transportation and warehousing Information Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 13,808

Direct
13,808

Indirect Induced

Total
13,808

As a % of State Total
15.1% 9.6%

3,390 1,445 311 394 315 461 157 98 100 10 7 92
3,390

5,352 2,522 1,057 577 294 39 196 129 87 50 3 399
5,352

8,742 3,967 1,368 971 609 500 353 226 187 60 10 491 22,550

24.7%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-38

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Oregon, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Agriculture Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 15,707

Direct
15,707

Indirect Induced

Total
15,707

As a % of State Total
0.7% 1.9%

11,536

32,879

44,415 21,933 5,923 5,196 4,349 1,638 1,592 1,117 1,071 109 83 1,407 60,122

5,293 628 1,451 1,946 163 543 333 797 42 56 284
11,536

16,640 5,294 3,745 2,403 1,475 1,049 784 274 67 26 1,123
32,879

2.6%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Agriculture Transportation and warehousing Construction Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 1,313

Direct
1,313

Indirect Induced

Total
1,313

As a % of State Total
0.9% 2.1%

984 330 216 65 182 43 13 34 50 19 7 27
984

2,196 725 533 330 204 97 102 67 16 30 3 88
2,196

3,180 1,055 749 395 386 139 115 100 66 49 11 115 4,494

3.0%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 635

Direct
635

Indirect Induced

Total
635

As a % of State Total
0.6% 2.0%

619 267 122 38 66 23 24 41 6 5 4 24
619

1,335 585 147 199 158 51 49 13 43 9 2 79
1,335

1,955 852 269 237 224 73 73 54 48 14 6 103 2,590

2.6%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-39

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Pennsylvania, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 73,792

Direct
73,792

Indirect Induced

Total
73,792

As a % of State Total
1.0% 2.7%

55,084

142,374

197,457 101,630 29,231 20,550 18,890 8,358 5,158 3,963 2,117 723 582 6,255 271,250

25,546 3,893 5,590 9,266 3,125 4,112 1,245 240 305 400 1,363
55,084

76,085 25,338 14,960 9,624 5,233 1,046 2,718 1,877 418 182 4,892
142,374

3.8%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Information Transportation and warehousing Utilities Construction Mining Agriculture Other Total Impact 9,661

Direct
9,661

Indirect Induced

Total
9,661

As a % of State Total
1.8% 3.0%

5,470 1,923 1,079 1,098 376 193 190 172 275 62 11 91
5,470

10,641 3,809 2,798 1,076 1,491 411 324 234 68 28 77 324
10,641

16,111 5,732 3,877 2,173 1,867 605 514 406 343 91 88 416 25,772

4.8%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Utilities Mining Agriculture Other Total Impact 4,418

Direct
4,418

Indirect Induced

Total
4,418

As a % of State Total
1.2% 2.8%

3,502 1,580 678 367 223 140 100 223 49 34 5 103
3,502

6,573 3,146 684 904 898 239 210 55 68 15 36 318
6,573

10,075 4,726 1,362 1,271 1,121 379 309 278 117 49 41 422 14,494

4.1%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-40

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Rhode Island, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 4,265

Direct
4,265

Indirect Induced

Total
4,265

As a % of State Total
0.7% 2.0%

2,714

9,181

11,895 6,436 1,587 1,384 1,187 339 319 187 59 19 12 367 16,160

1,241 411 107 529 129 89 120 6 6 8 68
2,714

5,195 1,175 1,278 658 211 229 67 53 13 4 299
9,181

2.7%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Information Transportation and warehousing Utilities Construction Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 533

Direct
533

Indirect Induced

Total
533

As a % of State Total
1.2% 2.1%

264 89 68 56 11 12 7 4 8 0 1 7
264

660 247 187 61 80 29 11 10 4 3 0 29
660

923 336 256 117 91 40 18 14 12 3 1 36 1,456

3.4%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 242

Direct
242

Indirect Induced

Total
242

As a % of State Total
0.8% 2.0%

167 75 25 34 7 6 5 7 1 0 0 7
167

414 204 63 42 48 15 8 3 3 1 0 25
414

581 279 89 76 55 21 13 10 4 1 1 32 822

2.8%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-41

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in South Carolina, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 23,372

Direct
23,372

Indirect Induced

Total
23,372

As a % of State Total
1.0% 1.8%

11,368

33,562

44,930 20,933 6,199 6,004 5,458 1,749 1,071 947 779 327 46 1,417 68,303

4,605 508 2,616 1,487 647 740 284 93 122 32 234
11,368

16,328 5,691 3,387 3,971 1,101 331 663 686 206 15 1,183
33,562

2.8%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Information Utilities Transportation and warehousing Construction Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 1,246

Direct
1,246

Indirect Induced

Total
1,246

As a % of State Total
0.8% 2.0%

928 237 216 261 44 33 34 34 41 4 4 20
928

2,118 640 552 290 301 75 65 59 17 30 2 87
2,118

3,046 877 768 552 345 109 99 93 57 35 5 107 4,292

2.8%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 640

Direct
640

Indirect Induced

Total
640

As a % of State Total
0.7% 1.9%

558 198 165 64 26 25 15 33 10 2 2 18
558

1,270 519 206 158 186 44 34 13 19 16 1 75
1,270

1,828 716 371 223 212 69 49 46 28 18 3 93 2,468

2.5%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-42

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in South Dakota, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Agriculture Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 8,223

Direct
8,223

Indirect Induced

Total
8,223

As a % of State Total
1.5% 2.1%

3,224

8,495

11,719 5,220 1,673 1,534 945 688 501 392 260 71 34 402 19,942

1,226 245 490 413 67 224 321 92 33 24 89
3,224

3,994 1,428 1,044 532 620 277 72 167 38 10 313
8,495

3.6%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Services Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Agriculture Information Transportation and warehousing Utilities Construction Mining Other Total Impact 715

Direct
715

Indirect Induced

Total
715

As a % of State Total
2.3% 2.3%

243 75 54 18 33 5 10 12 11 15 3 7
243

501 144 143 69 37 37 18 15 13 3 1 21
501

744 220 197 88 69 42 28 27 23 18 5 27 1,459

4.6%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Construction Agriculture Information Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 342

Direct
342

Indirect Induced

Total
342

As a % of State Total
1.8% 2.2%

135 44 22 11 21 9 12 1 4 3 2 6
135

286 118 45 42 27 11 3 11 8 4 1 18
286

422 162 67 53 48 20 15 12 12 7 2 24 763

3.9%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-43

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Tennessee, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Transportation and warehousing Construction Agriculture Information Mining Utilities Other Total Impact 35,187

Direct
35,187

Indirect Induced

Total
35,187

As a % of State Total
1.0% 2.2%

22,045

56,962

79,007 36,520 11,197 9,121 9,035 4,274 2,379 1,903 1,739 153 107 2,579 114,194

8,859 1,485 4,119 2,656 1,492 1,878 208 550 109 45 643
22,045

27,660 9,712 5,002 6,379 2,782 502 1,694 1,189 44 61 1,936
56,962

3.1%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 2,743

Direct
2,743

Indirect Induced

Total
2,743

As a % of State Total
1.1% 2.4%

1,927 537 449 417 139 104 68 98 5 14 18 79
1,927

4,081 1,339 1,036 520 595 198 143 25 36 19 7 163
4,081

6,007 1,876 1,484 937 734 302 211 123 41 33 25 242 8,750

3.5%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Agriculture Mining Utilities Other Total Impact 1,371

Direct
1,371

Indirect Induced

Total
1,371

As a % of State Total
0.8% 2.3%

1,184 444 261 144 83 75 35 79 2 9 4 49
1,184

2,492 1,091 332 326 363 145 72 20 13 4 6 120
2,492

3,676 1,535 593 470 446 220 107 100 15 12 10 168 5,048

3.1%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-44

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Texas, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Construction Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Agriculture Information Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 432,147

Direct
432,147

Indirect Induced

Total
432,147

As a % of State Total
3.2% 9.9%

421,747

918,441 1,340,188

189,790 42,091 61,647 62,091 24,198 18,372 4,156 8,611 2,271 612 7,908
421,747

456,200 213,166 106,893 5,900 34,031 26,270 22,648 12,308 2,381 189 38,455

645,991 255,257 168,541 67,991 58,229 44,642 26,804 20,919 4,652 801 46,363 13.1%

918,441 1,772,335

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Utilities Construction Information Transportation and warehousing Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 185,760

Direct
185,760

Indirect Induced

Total
185,760

As a % of State Total
15.3% 8.9%

42,108 13,213 11,550 4,108 3,162 2,436 3,958 1,516 1,309 131 95 631
42,108

65,893 20,228 19,292 12,728 3,617 2,164 375 2,155 1,879 710 29 2,715
65,893

108,000 33,441 30,841 16,836 6,779 4,600 4,333 3,671 3,188 841 124 3,346 293,760

24.2%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Construction Transportation and warehousing Information Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 77,924

Direct
77,924

Indirect Induced

Total
77,924

As a % of State Total
10.8% 8.7%

24,742 10,907 2,465 3,113 1,966 3,209 958 728 713 51 54 578
24,742

38,276 16,378 7,885 5,506 2,472 304 1,376 1,034 663 276 17 2,365
38,276

63,017 27,285 10,350 8,619 4,438 3,513 2,335 1,762 1,376 327 70 2,943 140,941

19.5%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-45

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Utah, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Agriculture Mining Utilities Other Total Impact 21,404

Direct
21,404

Indirect Induced

Total
21,404

As a % of State Total
1.3% 3.4%

17,713

37,072

54,785 26,548 8,203 8,095 3,914 1,918 1,836 1,341 722 238 196 1,774 76,188

8,077 2,757 1,480 1,815 813 1,506 481 137 173 97 377
17,713

18,471 5,446 6,615 2,099 1,105 330 859 586 65 99 1,397
37,072

4.7%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Utilities Mining Agriculture Other Total Impact 4,167

Direct
4,167

Indirect Induced

Total
4,167

As a % of State Total
4.0% 3.5%

1,383 447 310 127 194 60 49 88 40 36 5 28
1,383

2,272 747 602 386 181 83 85 19 39 13 22 96
2,272

3,655 1,193 912 513 376 143 134 106 79 49 27 123 7,822

7.6%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Mining Utilities Agriculture Other Total Impact 1,742

Direct
1,742

Indirect Induced

Total
1,742

As a % of State Total
2.6% 3.3%

843 366 76 93 111 44 71 25 17 11 2 28
843

1,375 611 232 178 121 60 15 44 6 11 7 89
1,375

2,218 978 307 271 232 104 86 69 23 23 9 117 3,960

5.9%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-46

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Vermont, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Construction Information Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 6,008

Direct
6,008

Indirect Induced

Total
6,008

As a % of State Total
1.4% 1.9%

2,120

6,031

8,151 4,211 1,037 821 760 276 212 208 205 51 26 342 14,159

931 100 262 330 124 149 66 24 21 18 95
2,120

3,280 937 560 430 153 64 142 181 30 8 247
6,031

3.3%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Utilities Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 384

Direct
384

Indirect Induced

Total
384

As a % of State Total
1.6% 2.1%

157 42 41 30 8 8 6 7 7 1 2 6
157

360 128 82 36 51 13 13 8 3 8 1 16
360

516 170 123 66 60 21 19 15 10 10 3 21 900

3.6%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 178

Direct
178

Indirect Induced

Total
178

As a % of State Total
1.1% 1.9%

94 34 21 11 5 5 3 6 2 0 1 6
94

220 104 26 24 30 6 6 2 4 3 1 15
220

314 138 46 35 35 11 9 8 6 4 2 21 492

3.0%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-47

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Virginia, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 47,908

Direct
47,908

Indirect Induced

Total
47,908

As a % of State Total
1.0% 2.0%

25,182

70,388

95,571 50,572 12,546 11,099 6,575 3,700 2,675 2,414 1,379 317 269 4,025 143,479

13,353 1,158 2,966 2,687 1,346 760 1,761 168 127 184 673
25,182

37,219 11,389 8,133 3,888 2,353 1,915 653 1,211 190 86 3,352
70,388

3.0%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Transportation and warehousing Utilities Construction Mining Agriculture Other Total Impact 3,755

Direct
3,755

Indirect Induced

Total
3,755

As a % of State Total
1.0% 2.1%

2,570 1,090 574 108 263 165 80 65 114 41 6 64
2,570

5,642 1,960 1,524 637 447 401 142 106 39 19 39 328
5,642

8,212 3,050 2,098 746 710 566 222 171 153 60 44 392 11,968

3.1%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Utilities Mining Agriculture Other Total Impact 1,825

Direct
1,825

Indirect Induced

Total
1,825

As a % of State Total
0.7% 2.0%

1,697 951 182 64 172 75 58 92 19 22 2 60
1,697

3,400 1,663 453 388 243 178 104 32 30 10 16 284
3,400

5,098 2,614 635 452 415 252 162 124 49 32 18 344 6,923

2.7%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-48

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Washington, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Information Agriculture Construction Mining Utilities Other Total Impact 25,362

Direct
25,362

Indirect Induced

Total
25,362

As a % of State Total
0.7% 2.1%

21,724

59,531

81,254 38,932 11,684 9,652 6,482 2,960 2,806 2,282 2,185 156 130 3,987 106,616

9,594 1,930 2,587 2,568 1,137 810 226 1,647 113 60 1,053
21,724

29,338 9,754 7,066 3,914 1,824 1,996 2,056 538 43 70 2,933
59,531

2.7%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 3,300

Direct
3,300

Indirect Induced

Total
3,300

As a % of State Total
1.1% 2.3%

2,178 666 475 203 267 192 81 122 17 30 19 105
2,178

4,854 1,471 1,247 678 400 456 133 38 137 32 7 256
4,854

7,032 2,136 1,722 881 667 648 215 160 154 62 26 361 10,333

3.4%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Manufacturing Information Transportation and warehousing Construction Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 1,489

Direct
1,489

Indirect Induced

Total
1,489

As a % of State Total
0.7% 2.2%

1,379 556 120 146 186 100 59 99 9 9 9 86
1,379

2,924 1,191 402 364 312 234 97 30 66 10 4 216
2,924

4,303 1,747 522 510 497 334 157 129 75 18 13 301 5,792

2.9%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-49

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in West Virginia, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Construction Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing Agriculture Mining Information Utilities Other Total Impact 26,420

Direct
26,420

Indirect Induced

Total
26,420

As a % of State Total
2.9% 3.8%

14,085

20,386

34,471 16,185 5,272 3,437 2,575 2,239 1,086 877 744 650 318 1,087 60,891

5,534 1,186 1,640 2,411 1,288 539 248 515 305 181 239
14,085

10,651 4,086 1,798 164 951 547 630 229 344 137 848
20,386

6.7%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Construction Mining Utilities Transportation and warehousing Information Agriculture Other Total Impact 3,188

Direct
3,188

Indirect Induced

Total
3,188

As a % of State Total
5.5% 3.9%

1,067 260 233 74 137 127 87 61 35 32 5 16
1,067

1,157 397 248 181 99 9 39 43 35 36 13 57
1,157

2,224 657 481 256 236 136 126 104 70 68 18 73 5,412

9.4%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Manufacturing Construction Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Mining Transportation and warehousing Information Utilities Agriculture Other Total Impact 1,438

Direct
1,438

Indirect Induced

Total
1,438

As a % of State Total
3.9% 3.5%

613 216 45 81 103 50 48 24 14 17 1 15
613

688 324 112 59 7 56 22 24 16 12 4 51
688

1,302 540 157 140 110 105 70 48 30 30 5 66 2,740

7.4%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

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The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Wisconsin, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Transportation and warehousing Agriculture Information Construction Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 31,978

Direct
31,978

Indirect Induced

Total
31,978

As a % of State Total
0.9% 2.0%

19,065

52,778

71,843 32,542 12,037 9,621 7,907 3,017 2,038 1,535 997 300 102 1,747 103,821

7,343 5,925 904 2,021 1,063 211 456 620 107 69 345
19,065

25,199 6,112 8,717 5,885 1,954 1,827 1,079 377 192 33 1,402
52,778

2.9%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Information Utilities Agriculture Construction Mining Other Total Impact 1,787

Direct
1,787

Indirect Induced

Total
1,787

As a % of State Total
0.8% 2.2%

1,625 442 577 294 80 62 52 33 10 42 8 26
1,625

3,425 1,064 577 818 470 117 118 69 76 22 4 90
3,425

5,050 1,506 1,154 1,112 551 180 170 101 86 64 13 115 6,837

3.0%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Manufacturing Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Transportation and warehousing Information Construction Utilities Agriculture Mining Other Total Impact 931

Direct
931

Indirect Induced

Total
931

As a % of State Total
0.6% 2.1%

1,026 359 363 107 47 46 27 34 9 3 5 26
1,026

2,097 870 380 275 277 87 61 18 19 22 2 84
2,097

3,122 1,229 743 382 325 133 88 52 29 25 7 110 4,053

2.7%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-51

The Economic Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry in Wyoming, 2007
Employment*
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Construction Transportation and warehousing Manufacturing Information Agriculture Utilities Mining Other Total Impact 32,029

Direct
32,029

Indirect Induced

Total
32,029

As a % of State Total
8.5% 10.3%

16,929

22,105

39,034 18,365 6,642 4,939 2,796 1,382 969 770 734 384 384 1,669 71,063

7,225 1,607 2,533 2,603 820 622 393 291 237 276 322
16,929

11,140 5,035 2,405 193 562 347 377 443 147 108 1,346
22,105

18.8%

Value Added ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Wholesale and retail trade Construction Utilities Transportation and warehousing Manufacturing Mining Information Agriculture Other Total Impact 5,762

Direct
5,762

Indirect Induced

Total
5,762

As a % of State Total
20.1% 9.3%

1,349 362 376 115 151 89 67 63 56 35 9 26
1,349

1,321 425 366 236 11 51 46 28 22 33 14 89
1,321

2,670 786 742 351 163 140 113 91 78 68 23 116 8,432

29.4%

Labor Income*** ($ Millions)
Sector Description
Direct Impact of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry Indirect and Induced Impacts on Other Industries**: Services Wholesale and retail trade Finance, insurance, real estate, rental and leasing Construction Transportation and warehousing Manufacturing Mining Utilities Information Agriculture Other Total Impact 2,590

Direct
2,590

Indirect Induced

Total
2,590

As a % of State Total
15.5% 8.8%

734 273 70 90 123 44 37 32 25 15 2 22
734

736 325 146 85 9 30 18 13 15 15 3 77
736

1,470 598 216 175 132 75 55 45 40 30 5 99 4,060

24.3%

Source: PricewaterhouseCoopers calculations using IMPLAN modeling system (2007 database). * Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs. ** Indirect and induced impacts on other industries exclude NAICS codes grouped under the oil and natural gas industry. *** Labor income is defined as wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income.

A-52

Appendix B: Data Sources and Methodology This Appendix describes the methodology used to derive the results for the study. It first discusses the data sources PricewaterhouseCoopers utilized to develop estimates of direct economic contributions by the oil and natural gas industry. It then describes the development of the indirect and induced impact estimates. I. Estimates of Direct Economic Contributions This study uses the IMPLAN input-output modeling system and its most recent database (for the year 2007 - released in October 2008) as the primary data sources. The IMPLAN modeling system is similar to the Regional Input-Output Modeling System developed by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The U.S. Forest Service, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Bureau of Land Management, developed IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) to help with land resource planning issues. It was later refined by the Minnesota IMPLAN Group. The system has been in use since 1979. Its current users include academia, federal, state, and local governments, and the private sector. The IMPLAN database represents a consistent set of economic data processed from various published sources (such as the Bureau of Economic Analysis’s National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) and Regional Economic Information System (REIS), the Census Bureau’s County Business Patterns (CBP), and the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Covered Employee and Wages Program (CEW) in a variety of formats and under varying disclosure restrictions. The IMPLAN input-output modeling system was used to construct customized economic impact models for the United States and the 50 states and the District of Columbia for the oil and natural gas industry. The IMPLAN sectors that correspond to PricewaterhouseCoopers' definition of the oil and natural gas industry are shown in Table 1 of the report. The direct employment in the oil and natural gas industry was used in each model to drive the impact analysis.7 Direct value added and labor income (including wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income) corresponding to the national or state-specific direct employment in the oil and natural gas industry were obtained from each model. In general, most subsectors of the oil and natural gas industry as defined by PricewaterhouseCoopers have a one-to-one correspondence to an IMPLAN sector, thus the 2007 employment for these subsectors were directly obtained from the customized IMPLAN national or state impact models. The exceptions are four NAICS codes: NAICS 2212 ("Natural gas distribution - public"), NAICS 23712 ("Oil and gas pipeline and related structures construction"), NAICS 4247 ("Petroleum and petroleum products wholesalers"), and NAICS 45431 ("Fuel dealers"). Each is included as part of a larger IMPLAN sector. PricewaterhouseCoopers undertook the following procedure to estimate employment for the four NAICS sectors. First, employment numbers for these sectors were obtained by combining paid employee counts from the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) with establishment counts from Nonemployer Statistics (NES) provided
7

Employment is defined as the number of payroll and self-employed jobs, including part-time jobs.

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by the Census Bureau.8 Each nonemployer establishment was assumed to have one owner who acts as the business’s sole employee. In our analysis, data were obtained at both the national level and for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. For the four NAICS sectors, in some states the paid employee or nonemployer establishment counts were suppressed because of the small number of establishments in these sectors. Since counts were available for these sectors at the national-level and for larger sector aggregations at the state-level, a “raking” process was used to estimate the state-level employee count for the sector of interest. The raking process uses information from known sectors to impute information for the sectors with suppressed data. For example, NAICS sector 45431 ("Fuel Dealers") is one of two sub-sectors in NAICS sector 4543 ("Nonstore Retailers"). A matrix was set up with 51 rows representing the 50 states and the District of Columbia and two columns. Thus, each cell in the matrix represents the total employment for a state and sub-sector within sector 4543. When the exact count was not known for a particular cell, the starting values were determined by allocating the difference between the total national employment in the industry and the sum of the known values across the states based on the number of establishments provided in the BLS database. Because not all cell values were known, the column totals did not match the national employment counts from BLS. Similarly, the row totals did not match the known state-level totals for sector 4543. A standard raking algorithm was used to adjust the unknown cell values so that both the column and row totals matched the corresponding BLS sub-sector and state sector totals.9 There were two exceptions to the above methodology for filling in missing values at the state level. First, NES does not report data for all detailed industry sectors. In particular, while NES provides data for NAICS 2371 (“Utility System Construction”), it does not provide data for the NAICS 23712 ("Oil and Gas Pipeline and Related Structures Construction"). As a result, PricewaterhouseCoopers used establishment data from the latest CBP database (currently for 2006) to apportion the NAICS 2371 nonemployer establishments to NAICS 23712. For example, according to CBP, there were 304 establishments with paid employees in NAICS 2371 in Alabama, 36 of which were in NAICS 23712. As such, 11.8 percent (36/304) of Alabama’s 209 nonemployer establishments in NAICS 2371 were assumed to be in NAICS sector 23712. State level estimates were then scaled to match the estimated national total for NAICS 23712. The second exception was for public-sector employment in NAICS 2212. For this sector it was not possible to use the standard raking procedure as industry control totals were not readily available. Instead, employees per establishment for the public-sector employment in NAICS 22 (“Utilities”) from BLS were used to obtain initial values for states with only establishment missing values. These initial values were then scaled to match the difference between the known national total for the public sector employment in NAICS 2212 and the sum of the employment for the same NAICS code in states with known values. Estimates of the oil and natural gas industry's new capital investment in 2007 are obtained from the Annual Capital Expenditure Survey published by the Census Bureau.
8

A nonemployer is a business without paid employees. Most nonemployers are self-employed individuals operating very small unincorporated businesses, which may or may not be the owner’s principal source of income. 9 Oh, H.L. and Scheuren, F. (1987). Modified Raking Ratio Estimation. Survey Methodology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 209-219.

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For quantifying the economic impact of the oil and natural gas industry's capital investment, its capital spending is translated into purchases of capital assets by type through the use of the so-called "capital flow matrix" from the U.S. Department of Commerce. II. Estimates of Indirect and Induced Economic Contributions Estimates of indirect and induced economic contributions by the oil and natural gas industry were derived based on the IMPLAN models for the country as a whole and for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The IMPLAN models are built around an “input-output” table that relates the purchases that each industry has made from other industries to the value of the output of each industry. To meet the demand for goods and services from an industry, purchases are made in other industries according to the patterns recorded in the input-output table. These purchases in turn spark still more purchases by the industry's suppliers, and so on. Meanwhile, employees and business owners make personal purchases out of the additional income that is generated by this process, sending more new demands rippling through the economy. Multipliers describe these iterations. The Type I multiplier measures the direct and indirect effects of a change in economic activity. It captures the inter-industry effects only, i.e., industries buying from local industries. The Type II (Social Accounting Matrix or SAM) multiplier captures the direct and indirect effects and, in addition, it also reflects induced effects (i.e., changes in spending from households as income increases or decreases due to the changes in production). The indirect and induced contributions by the oil and natural gas industry on other sectors of the economy in terms of employment, labor income (including wages and salaries and benefits as well as proprietors' income), and value added were calculated through the multiplier process built in each model.10 Because IMPLAN state models capture only the indirect and induced effects within each state, the indirect and induced effects crossing state borders (“cross-state spillover effects”) are not captured by the IMPLAN state models. As such, if not adjusted, the state-level indirect and induced impacts calculated by the IMPLAN state models would not add up to the overall impact captured by the national model, which includes the cross-state effects. PricewaterhouseCoopers allocated the cross-state indirect and induced employment, labor income, and value added effects across the 50 states and the District of Columbia in proportion to each state’s share of the total national employment, labor income, and value added. The allocation was done at the industry level. The state indirect and induced effects reported throughout this study include such allocation of the cross-state spillover effects.

10 Because the IMPLAN models are used for total impact analysis (as opposed to marginal impact analysis) in this study, necessary adjustments are made to the initial indirect and induced impact estimates to prevent double-counting. For instance, any indirect or induced effects from the initial estimates for IMPLAN sectors that are fully mapped to the oil and natural gas industry are removed. Similarly, indirect and induced effects for IMPLAN sectors that are partially mapped to the oil and natural gas industry are proportionately adjusted.

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