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TUTORIAL RADIOACTIVITY 1.

What is the number of nucleons in the nucleus


238 92 35 17

Cl ?
234 92

(35)

2. What is the relationship of the decay constant and the half-life t1/ 2 of a radioactive? 3. During the radioactive decay process of emits? 4. During the radioactive decay of
228 88

U to produce

U , the parent nuclide

(an - particle and 2 -particles )


Ra to
212 82

Pb , the parent nuclide emits?

(4 particles & 2 particles ) 5. The half-life of 131I is 8 days, what fraction of a sample of 131I had decayed after 48 days? (63/64) 6. What is meant by isotope? 7. What is meant by radioisotope? 8. Radioisotope uranium-238 decays to become thorium-224 as shown in the equation below 238 234 92 U 90Th P energy a) What is radiation P b) If the mass defect in the above radioactive decay is 3.35x10-27 kg, calculate the energy released in joule. (Speed of light,c = 3.0 x 108 m/s) (3.0 x 10-10 J) 9. What is meant by half-life? 10. What is beta particle? 11. The number of radioactive nuclides from a radioactive source has reduced to 1/6 from its initial number within 1 minute. Calculate the decay constant. (1.79 min-1) 12. A radioactive isotope, A having a half-life 48 days disintegrate into nucleus B. Calculate the time taken for 70% of sample A to decay into nucleus B. (83 days) 13. A Polonium nucleus emits alpha p and gamma ray to become a Plumbum nucleus. a) Complete the decay equation for Polonium nucleus by writing the appropriate number in the boxes provided.

b) The Polonium nucleus is placed in front of electric field as shown.

Draw path of ray for alpha particle and gamma ray in Diagram above. Explain your answer. 14. Write an equation for each of the radioactive decay that produce alpha radiation: a) Polonium 218, 84 b) Radium 226, 88

15. A sample of polonium of mass 120 g has a half-life of 45 s. Determine the mass of polonium that has decayed after 180 second. 16. A sample of lead-211 of mass 96 g has a half-life of 36.1 minutes. (a) What fraction of the sample has not decayed after 108.3 minutes? (b) What is the mass of the decayed products after this period of time? 17. The half-life of iodine-131 is 8 days. A radioactive sample contains 64 g of iodine131. Determine the mass of iodine that has decayed and has not decayed after 24 days. 18. The radioactive atoms in a substance decay to become stable atoms. It was found that after 288 s, 6.25% of the atoms have not decayed. What is the half-life of the substance?