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Department of Music University of Sheffield


The Music





Andrew J. Boyle

in Submitted requirements of Philosophy,

fulfillment partial for the degree of 1934September

of the Doctor





print quality

I is

Summary A Quest for Innocence Delius 1885-1900 -

The Music of Frederick

Andrew J-Boyle

In Delius's


creative work is undertaken for the first The author's time. aim has been to assess the intrinsic in this qualities of Deliusts compositions tracing through the works the stages by which period9while his mature style emerged. Much ot the music examined is years of unpublished. The findings of literature principal (1). ways: It is of on the research add to the existing development in of Delius's style in his earliest this body three

study9a first fifteen








shown thatpeven

experiences which composer drew upon personal impressions on him as the primary source of his inspiration. Negro folk in Florida, musicpheard played a very significant in his development. His impressions of mountain nature role

works)the had made strong

are also important. and sunsets (2). The influence composers is assessed. of other Although it is known that ChopinjWagner and Grieg contrib(he freely Delius's to technique and acknowledged uted style influence and importance of this extent is examined in releasing his musical imagination and guiding here for the first The less well known influence time. of Strauss Richard is also considered significant. (3). A large of Delius's music in the 1890s proportion his to them), the was connected with the It is with his merging the turn of the century twin of that concepts of longing into the two concepts the period of his and innocence* one around finest work debt



List of Illustrations Preface List of Unpublished 1. 2. 3456. 7. 8.

iii Works v viii 1 95 155 177 219 260 295 340

348 355 361

1885-1892 The Formative Years (1) The Individual Voice 1885-1692 The Formative Years (1I) Aspects of Delius's Language Irmelin and Nature The Magic Fountain and Passion

The Quest for Innocence (I) The Magic Fountain and Koanpa The Quest for Innocence (II) Romeo and Juliet A Village "Une note A luill - Aspects of Delius's Emerging Style "And then comes Springtime"
from The Magic The love-duet III Fountain)Act 1880-1900 Compositions II. Delius's I.

Appendix Appendix Bibliography


Front early
Plates Plate

Head of Delius and back covers. 1900s (Coll. Lionel Carley).

between 1. pages 176 and 177:

by Jelka


On the St. Johnfs river, Floridapin "In Florida.... 11 - Quoted by Eric Fenby in Knew Him (London. 1936), p. 164Plate Delius "This Threlfall "I tell August 2. Leipzigpl387. Nina and Edvard Letter Pictures from

the Delius

1380s. as I

Grieg; Grieg

Halvorsenp to Frants

and Sinding. English-American in Delius:

Beyer, 20 February

.... 1888. Quoted A Life in


by Lionel

Carley and Robert (London. 1977)pp. 17. Delius to Grieg,

you frankly ..... 1833, ibid. oP-173,. Jotunheim

Letter .

Plate "Delius


Norway. Beyer# to Frants brev til Frants present author. Delius

from Grieg is smitten.... 11 - Letter Griegs 25 December 1887. Ed. Bjarne Kortsen: by the Translated Beyer (Bergenvl973)PP-71. should never think.... Henry Clews, 20 June

"I to

from letter " - Unpublished Trust archive). 1918 (Delius

Aulestadothe 4. home of Bjornson, Norway's national (This light to at recently came photographowhich poet. for here home in Bergenvis Troldhaugen, Grieg's reproduced Plate the first time).

Plate "I



Jebe letter Unpublished (Delius Trust archive). the from Jebe to

hope very much.... 1905 Delius, 24 April Plate 6. Delius in

garden at GrezY1897from letter "As soon as I come out .... 11 - Unpublished Trust archive). Delius to Jelka, Rosenpl October 1897 (Delius

Preface Over works has the is is been bulk years a complete edition of Delius's The initiative behind to be published. this venture by The Delius Trust, Londongin taken whose archives the next of the composer's surviving With the publication are become planned) widely dating have been from in manuscripts and letters Edition of the Collected number of Delius a large. for and the later the first (his time; period 1899 print, few

preserved. (some thirty

volumes will his maturity)

compositions forowhile of creative




many of


(1885-1900) been have generally years of development by Delius scholars. Until it had been assumed by writers relatively recently did not merit that the music of this on Delius early period key A few important of performances serious consideration. of his ignored have shown that this of the mark. It is true that the attitude emerged only around the turn of the censtyle mature Delius his music is marred by structural tury: weaknesses earlier, But the premibres in the past derivativeness. and harmonic (largely few years of his second opera The Magic Fountain Trust) The Delius due to Robert Threlfallsmusical to adviser of the tone poem and parts and of the melodrama Paa Vidderne works in the composer's is fairly wide development Hiawatha despite lacked (instigated their present defects, some of the composer's in inspiration and imagination. by the writer) revealed that, works early Indeedpthere

nothing amount of music which was worthy of performance was a large dim its shedding curiosity a as on own merits - not merely light mature style. on Delius's In this of the music of all close examination study0a is first fifteen Delius's undertaken of creative work years of for the intrinsic first time. qualities through tracing of on the The author's of Delius's the works aim has been to assess the in this period, compositions the stages by which the mature body three

while style of

emerged. The findings ways:


this research add to the existing in development style of Delius's





shown thatpeven




composer drew upon personal experiences which impressions on him as the primary strong source of his Surprisingly, inspiration. Negro folk music, heard in Florida, played a very significant impressions of mountain Idiomatic features ant. associations throughout ositions. (2). Although to Deliusts his in debt to it role nature of his in his development. His and sunsets music are also importfrom his arising comp-

works, the had made

with these experiences; his output. were evident The influence of

which are present from his earliest

other composers is assessed. is known that Chopin, Wagner and Grieg contributed (he freely technique and style acknowledged influence them); the extent of this and importance

his musical imagination is examined releasing and guiding here for the first The less well known influence time. of Richard Strauss is also considered significant. (3). A large of Delius's music in the 1890s proportion was connected with the It is with his merging the turn of the century concepts of longing and innocence. into one around of the two concepts that the period work of his finest twin

commences. The highly individual, language in which idiosyncratic Delius wrote his mature music is made much easier to understand by an appreciation of his years of development.
A list of this the unpublished All preface. works of the of the composer is

scores are contained given after When these works are Trust. in the archive of The Delius described in the textpor extracts quoted, the following is provided: information (i) Trust the volume number of the Delius archive which contains (ii) the the folio work (Delius Trust number of the the recto each pagepwith to DT) abbreviated The archivist has extract. being termed 'a' and the is

numbered verso Ibl.

of unpublished scores are as given in Rachel Lowe: Frederick Delius 1862-1934: A Catalogue of the Music Archive Trust, London (London, 1974)of the Delius In the iations text are this is abbreviated to RL. Two further abbrevutilized;

The details


Robert Threlfall: A Catalogue of the Compositions Delius. Sources and References (Londont of Frederick 1977)
Lionel (London. preparation. Carley: 1983). Delius: A second A Life and in final Letters volume (Vol-1) is under


accordance been made to uation lator in is





practice, of

no attempt


correct eccentricities Deliusts letters. of only


and punct-

Where translations identified unpublished. poem is

are quoted, the transsong texts when the given version of the

Grateful is extended mentyUniversity

acknowledgement of assistance with this Edward Garden (Head of Music to Professor of Sheffield)pwho

thesis Depart-

has supervised its preparCarley to Lionel ationpand encouragement; necessary provided (archivist Trust)pwhose to The Delius to exchange willingness ideas, and to provide was of inestimable access to materials, Trustees)for to quote extensto the Delius value; permission ively from the music and correspondence in the Trust's archives; was the the the to Mr. and Mrs. A. Boylefwhose unfailing best possible and to Lindis assistance; generous way in which she put her linguistic disposal of the author. support Hallanyfor skills at





EA complete list of all Delius's compositions the years 1880-1890 is given in Appendix III


Over Zwei highpsong mountains brgune Augen, song the

Polka, piano solo (date? ) Loreleilpart-song

Zum Carnival

(date? )

Der Fichtenbaum, Ohl Sonnenschein. Durch 1887 Sonnenscheinliedypart-song FrUhlingsanbruch, Ave Maria, part-song part-song (date? ) (date? ) song part-song (date? ) (date? )

den Wald, part-song

Hiawathaptone poem Paa Vidderne)melodrama music

Hochgebirgslebenpsong Zanonioincidental Suite for violin and orchestra Rhapsodische Variationen Quartet


1889 Sakuntala, for tenor and orchestra Romance for violin and piano

Suite dtOrchestre L6gendes (Sagen)pfor piano Four Heine Songs Petite and orchestra

1. Mit deinen blauen Augm 2. Ein schner Stern geht auf in meiner Nacht 3. Hrt ich das Liedchen klingen 4. Aus deinen Augen fliessen meine Lieder Paa Vidderne, symphonic poem


Maud.. for 1. 2. 3451896

and orchestra 'Birds in the high Hall-gardent '1 was walking a mile' 'Go not happy day? 'Rivulet my ground? crossing fCome into the Garden, Maud' American piano solo (early Rhapsody (date? ) for Orchestra


Appalachia. Badinage,

Piano Concerto version) music
Zarathustraspfor baritonepmale chorus


Mitternachtslied and orchestra.

Im GlUck wir lachend gingenpsong La Ronde se d4roule, symphonic poem


opera have been published



and The Magic Fountainpopera onlY in vocal score.



Chapter The Formative Years


183.5-1892: Voice


The Individual

Section Delius's




began in Florida. He arrived there in career March 1884 with the intention of cultivating and grapefruit Florida later it oranges, but when he left a year and a half His experiences there was in order to become a composer. that supported were to become the roots the growth of his in powers. While in FloridaDelius nurtured to composepand later, in Europe, his memories vided the constant creative stimulus. The powerful impression which twenty-two year old Delius is Solana himself of Florida the will pro-


made upon

best understood probably in terms of the extreme contrasts it formed with his earlier life. from the scrutiny First of alloDelius was now distanced In the three of his father and the pressure of obligation. firm, his reluctance to years he had worked for the family had soured their relationship and finally almost intolerable: made his life Bradford for "I was demoralized when I left have no idea of the state Florida you can .... of my mind in those days-"' for financial Though still father his supportt on reliant his from Delius dayst travel eighteen removed was some from what influence He had been released on trust and wrath. pursue his fatherts trade in wool he seemed to have circumstances to himself. 1. Until Delius's version in this 2. Eric as some form regarded where his responsibilities of bondage into were primarily

the error, the name of recent researches revealed to be Solano Grove. This plantation was thought commentaries of the name is used in older quoted study. Fenby: Delius as I Knew Him (London,1937), 164.


If it could by which


sense of hardly have he was

independence been more

was intoxicating so than the natural




surrounded: [of banks the St. John1s "The are low river] but bordered of exa wealth with and flat, be foliage to else seen nowhere quisite for hundreds One this continent. passes upon forest through of cypresses a grand of miles towerin of palms and mistletoe; moss robed far ing gracefully above the surrounding trunks treespof gleam whose rich palmettoes in the sun; of swamp, white ash, of and biack of planeof water oak, of poplaryand magnolia, tree .... beauty. Dhe river] of perfect affords glimpses hills One ceases and to regret and mountains, having them thought hardly imagine ever can visions surpass much do these necessarypso It is not grandeur on them. one finds which is nature the banks of the great stream, it "' run riot. area taken violently contrasted which of experience Having town and worked grown up in a mill his have plant on moorlands recreation by the been overwhelmed life at and the great Solana Grove). bank. In a letter and mountsemi-tropical St. Johnts cottage written of the on

Here with in


a second past.


cities)having seems to ains, Delius the luxuriant climate, river stood a later (some only four fifty

miles feet America sorry

wide from the


to trip *[Tlam

he said I cannot

Grove: of Solana [back] bring

Thesunsetshere are something blossoms. bedifferent varying andalways remarkable on some tweenthe mostdelicate colours hues ferocious lurid and most nights to theThere house little is a nice on others.... facing broad verandah on the place with a in the Johnts St. standing and the river ""' trees. the orange middle of to the extreme shifts in Deliusts personal Comparable in the daily change was surroundings responsibilities and his family, the The of social demands. middle-classmorality
3. Edward King: The Great South (New Yorkyl874)YPP-383-4from Delius to Jelka Rosen, April 1897. CLL tP-114. 4. Letter

flowers or a piece of the blossoms and orange the magnolia someof

some moonlight nights










of the Victorian courtesies gentleman - these in his new lifestyle. were more or less valueless currency business Much of Deliusts daily intercourse and social on From the beginning the plantation was with his Negro workers. and mannered it of would seem that he found the character the Negroes refreshing and charming. The impact of these transformations and simple in his life lives

So many of the social powerful. kept him from pursuing a pressures which had previously musical career were removed. And as the world of filial duty receded in importanceso was the subjective, poetic life in inverse of the self proencouraged and flattered undoubtedly portion. easier The choice for Delius: of a future path was thereby made much

was and familial

"Sitting the my after evening on verandah .... to the beautiful singmeal I used to listen ing in 4 part harmony of the negroes in their at the back of the orange grove. own quarters "" It was quite entrancing .... in such romantic hearing their singing .... I it there that then and was surroundings, in felt first the urge to express myself music. 11,6 description It is tempting to read into Deliusts of his decision to become a composer a moment of illumination kind 11a it, has of ecstatic called or. as one commentator """ for time. last of a second split only revelation which may Saul-like This image of Delius of revelation a experiencing It was not at Solana Grove his vocation has been misleading.

5. Letter from Delius to Elgar, 4 January 1934- Quoted in Pictures Life in Delius-A Threlfall: Robert Lionel Carle and (Oxford, 1977, p. 12. 6. Quoted by Eric Fenbylop-cit., p. 257. Cecil Gray, Musical Chairs (London)1948), p. 191. His idea been favoured has experience recently of a mystic, revelatory Palmer, Christopher Redwood the by Christopher and also tDelius as a Composer of Opera' in former in his article in his A Delius Companion (London. 1976), and the latter (London, 1976). Ff a Cosmopolitan Delius: Portrait

to music was formed: wish to devote himself had long been his heart's desire. Nor was it disclosed this to him, in his supposed moment of ecstasy, how he should development the full express himself: of his individual that Delius's style would seclusion, gazing at faith in himself. In his months of comparative many years. in his reported and spent words - "sitting Delius's Nature"Pthe principal outcome was probably take This

of a seems to have been the result than a flash process of resolutiontrather of revelation. Delius the basics of composition studied with vigour during his stay at Solana Grove. According to theory Thomas Ward (an organist from Jacksonthree hours downriver) a nigger"'e, ville, worked him "like from this time bears One manuscript book which has survived Delius, his tutor to rigorous in harmony and counterpoint. witness practice Solana Grovep Two songstdated 1885 and probably at written They are settings have also survived. poems. of Scandinavian In the autumn of 1885 Delius notions of citrus put all behind him and moved to Jacksonville to farming and later DanvillepVirginiapas mid-1886 Conservatorium. Both the timing Europe in to a teacher returning of musicpbefore Leipzig his the at course commence to

experiences of Deliusts and the nature him Solana thatptogetherptheir Grove on effect were such at his in the His life-altering. of validity confidence was was established. will emotions and his creative

was probably before Leipzig the musical ions became clear to him.





potential His first

of America-inspired

academic year at his American impressworkp

Florida the first his suite, probably scorepis orchestral and 1887. A second American score from September/October dating Hiawathapcompleted tone the followed poem soon afterwards -

8. Quoted by Eric 9. ibid. pp. 168.

Fenbyp.op. cit.,

p. 164-

(September in January 1888. The Rhapsodische Variationen La Quadroone (Rapsodie Floridienne) 1888), the now-lost (1889), and the L6gendes variations (1890) for piano solo make up an early orchestra group of works with American A second grouplincluding the connections. Fountain the composer and Koanga, occupied


operas The Magic from 1894-

A direct link with his exotic experiences is achieved by Delius in these works through his use of idiomatic musical features characteristic of Negro folk music. Evidence forms, of the influence of Negro music takes two principal one common in early Delius scores, the other a later deVeldance, and the a cappella charal song. opment: the lively first The dance sections and third of the Florida suite's is seen in the formerowhile the latter movements illustrate the songs "Now once in a way" and "He will meet her" in Koang and "After night has gonellin the Appalachia variations. , America-inspired Two of Delius's compositionspHiawatha Indian Red Fountain, based Magic The are of on stories and be seen, however, that Delius had little It will life. or no first-hand experience of Indian music. In fact in these Indians the to transfers he musicadapts and evidently works Negro his imitations features music. of of characteristic al be devoted to considThe bulk of this sectionsthereforepwill dances Deliusts the impact the and music of songs upon ering his to he was fortunate near plantation. on or witness enough The Appalachia variations work of 1902-3 is the final (if those pieces using American connection with an overt Howeverpby turn the by Walt Whitman excepted). are poetry the personal style of the century Delius had established in which most of his mature compositions are writtentand into this style had been absorbed elements of Negro folk Solana Grove throughIn on the echoes of pound music. a sense, it In the Delius's assumes of significance view career. out folk between Negro in his careerythe music and relationship be from the outset. Delius's understood art music should Without any precise record of how the music in the precincts Grove i. 1880s Solana the n soundedpany attempt to clarify of

this special relationship Howeversdrawing upon the

source material ible to suggest the evening air at Solana Grove. Helpful though all these sources are, certain qualifiapply to them which should be kept in mind. Delius's cations own memories of his stay in Florida great are, of coursepof But all of his recorded value. utterances on the subject date from the end of his life, had forty he years after over for the fact that, while accountstperhaps, it was the Negroes' dances which had been most evident in American scores, Deliusts his early recollections are exclusively concerned with a different aspect of Negro expression harmonized had him in later the song which preoccupied partpcommentators on Negro music have diffin their ered widely opinions as to what degree an African heritage in Afro-American music. Their was extant musical years. their be summarized. arguments may usefully The earliest music substantial collection of Negro folk Songs of the United and GarrisonoSlave was that of AllenpWare African (1867). tradThe editors States that many maintained had survived in the songs and dances to be heard and itions E. Krehbielpthe Likewise, H. American Negroes. the among seen far-reaching study of the subjectpAfro(1914) believed that "while their com[America] bination into songs took place in pthe essential Africall(p. ix). In from folk-music] came elements of[Negro (1925)p Spirituals Negro American foreword Book to The of a first-hand his J. W. Johnson reinforces this with viewpoint author of the first American Folksongs knowledge late of a living oral tradition among Negroes in the nineteenth century (By African language. was spent not far from old of of elements and of the survival boyhood happy coincidencepJohnson's a Solana Grove. He was fourteen years in Florida). For left Florida. This

must remain informed speculation. aid of Delius's own testimony and is possand literature about the periodpit the forms of folk-expression which filled

arrived when Delius Negro Newman I. White's of song textspAmerican analysis Folk-Songspappeared in 1928parriving at the "inevitable is simply that the Negro spiritual conclusion a continuation

and development What he argued of the white spiritual"(P-50)for the textsoGeorge Pullen Jackson also argued for the music in his White Spirituals in the Southern Upland (1933). These writers see little African evidence of surviving traditionsp that the Negroes' and suggest rather for talents particular imitation towards absorbing were turned the Gospel music of the white men and using it to their own ends. In recent years the pendulum has swung once again and commentators have favoured that to man's the the collectors and scholars their traditions ethnic in favour of the white cate of this view Early Jazz (1968). disposal African It first tribes. "' the was noted opinions the Negro of the slaves earliest had adapted abandoned it

new culturepnot music. The most

has perhaps been Gunther To his advantage Schuller in-depth above that study the

eloquent advoSchuller in his had at his among

to be made of music influence of

Negro music in two distinct on Delius was manifested ways: in a cappella This general division songs, and dances. seems to reflect the two areas of musical heard among expression which Delius For the Negroes - "It was mostly religious or gay music, '* the of purposes isionpand to of clarity it is helpful to maintain primarily dance. this in divterms consider harmony and melody in terms of

religious song and rhythm Ironicallypthe of Negro singing which characteristic impression seems to have made the most abiding on Delius in origin: was the one which was almost entirely non-Negro harmony. Schuller African have that tribes only out points in continuous a linear concept of harmonizationpsinging The European vertical organum at the third, fourth or fifth. harmonization by the assimilated of melody was gradually Negro, but "the particular harmonic Negroes made ... choices

10. A. M. Jones: Studies 1959)-

in African

Music, two volumes


TelegraphP5 11. Quoted in The-Daily October 1929. Reprinted in Redwood (ed. ): A Delius Companion (London, 1976))P-42.






African Slave

to the preface Allen writes:


musical Songs of

heritage". the United

'2' In States


"There is no singing in parts, as we understand it, and yet no two appear to be singing the the the leading same thing; starts singer improvising, words of each verse, often and the others, who Ibaset him, as it is called .... their an seem to follow own whim .... striking some octave above or below .... or hitting other note that chords, so as to produce the effect and complication of a marvellous time variety and yet with the most perfect 'I " discord. and rarely with any By the time Delius the process of set foot in Florida voicesp assimilation was in an advanced stage - "the native but the resultant always in harmony, sounded very lovely"*to harmonic peculiar quite something style was evidently the Negro: harmony was not that of the hymn-book... "Their far more rich and strange but something which baffled Delius the and enthusiasm of aroused it by any Tom Ward's attempts to analyse methods known to the theoristsOll" how the love of harmonic J. W.Johnson describes sonorities Jacksonville time the in Negro the at youth common among Delius few lived frequent miles upriver: a and visitor was a "When I was a very small boy one of my greatest hearing to and concerts was going pleasures in the the crack quartets made up of waiters [Ejvery barber hotels Jacksonville sing.... their the had its men spent quartetpand shop leisure time playing on the guitar - not have I tharmonizing'. banjopmind you - and in the these explorations some of witnessed hilarity the field harmony of scenes and of when a new and peculiarly and back-slapping be There discovered. would rich chord was demands for repetitionspand cries of 'Hold 1116 firmly it itt Hold itt' mastered. was until
Its Roots and Musical


Jazz: Early Schuller: 12. Gunther Yorkolgbb)PP-39Development(New 13. 14. 1516. AllenpWare Delius Philip in and The Garrison, Daily op. cit. Telegraph Frederick #PP-35-6.

v. 9p. 20-21.

Heseltine: cit.



The harmonization ably of



inevitable to Schullerythe outcome of the meeting between European harmony and the lin"" fifth African But the ear fourth and organum of origin. linear Negro part-singers style which improvising adopted in finding their way between these primary chord harmonic pillars cidental European was probably combinations very of fluidtand tones which would have produced into the sounded exotic

based on a simple scheme. IIV -I-V-I istaccording

heard was probwhich Delius The typical blues progression

ear. On the subject of . first-hand reminiscence sister has indicated body of a sizeable

Delius heardpno the Negro melodies has been recordedpbut Delius's that he may have been familiar with

such melodies: Fred the when was not playing piano or .... engaged in the study of counterpointphe spent in his boatp most of his time on the river by his old nigger accompanied servantpwhose duty it was to play to him on the banjo some of the old slave songs. 11'2 The sister-in-law has also reported that of this servant Delius in the songs they knew: took an interest but a childphardlypwhen was nothin? we I disremember sing to him first.... what I sang to him except the hymns. 006it was Albert he wanted to hear. ""' mostly "African to emphasize pentatonismllp"writes melody-tends Schuller. between African In the convergence and American "I it was no doubt melody which caused least musical cultures frictionpfor both tradition might survive alonga pentatonic tradition side a diatonic expanded into and also be easily 527 in Of songs various of an eight-note survey scale. a discovered that 1 in 5 Negro melodies collectionspKrehbiel " built was series. on a pentatonic

17- Schullerpop. cit. #PP-42-3Frederick Delius(Londonpl935)PP-76. 18. Clare Delius: (New Yorkp 19. Quoted in Gloria Jahoda: The Other Florida 1967)ppp. 266-720. Schuller., op. cit. PP-4421. Krehbielpop. cit. PPP-43 and 73-

Certain early

features baffled melodic of African origin collectors of Afro-American songs: it harder the to what makes all unravel .... a melody out of this strange network is that# like birds# [the Negroes] seem not infrequently to strike sounds that cannot be precisely by the gamut. """' represented other

frequently tones are employed which we .... have no musical Such# to represent. character for examplepis that which I have indicated 13 by the flat as nearly as possible seventh. it The partially flattened seventh in Negro songoand its common flattened "wild thirdpseemed counterpartpthe notes" partially (Krehbiells intervals. to ears accustomed to diatonic phrase) In due course they would be written flattened thirds they and sevenths; title of general jazz lead him to been in existence notes. , advance the since before blue theory the and sung as chromatically have also gained the Schuller's into early researches that Civil scale' a 'blues War (1861-1865)had

The scale was an eight-note division of which seriessthe from (1) the "stems directly into tetrachords two identical (2) African tharmony? the of singingtand quartal and quintal tendency of African melodies to shift around a central

2.16: tone"

22. 23. 24-

cit. 1p. v. and Garrisonlop. by Schullerpop. Thomas Fennersquoted cit. Schullersibid. PP-44AllenpWare



heard were songs Delius hymns, with simple melodic American Negro spirituals in well-known appearing collections probably give a fair indication Flattened of the type of melody. thirds and tendency from a tone a to approach the key-note seventhspa (as in the blues scale)Oas lower minor third well as pentatonthat the lines. colouration were probable melodic elements of the singing. The characteristics of Negro song would show their most influence in the second group obvious on the music of Delius of America-inspired workspwhich appeared between 1896 and 1903. opera pervade Especially Koangaphe his his hand to writing the Negro when turning his knowledge of their allowed music to effect in the on the stage of character ic





"It will make a strange I am keeping the whole the negro melody. "" The works of this Previouslypit

in chapter five group are discussed had not been in song so much as in dance that Delius's experience of Negro music had found an outlet in his own writing. Dance elements to be an important continue feature Delius American scores, though gradually of his later to the melodic/harmonic parameters of would give prominence his language considerations. at the expense of rhythmic Neverthelesspthe Negro dance was undoubtedly a primary catfrom music-enthusiast in Delius's to totally transition alyst committed composer. The most common Negro dance form, widespread among the Southern the name ring in the mid-1800spgained shout states , dancepnot Ishoutt being the to the type a reference a of Although the tshoutt came to be particular use of the voice. disappeared by the end banned by clergymen and had already Florida in it in thriving the of centurysJohnson remembers (and therefore his childhood in the period of Deliusts stay there) ."

from Delius to Jutta 25. Letter p. 98. 26. Johnsonpop. cit. #P-33-



1896. CLL/lp


The following Krehbiel:








'shout' the true takes Sundays# place on .... through the weektand or on 'praise' nights in the praise-house either or in some cabin in which a regular religious meeting has been held. Very likely the popumore than half lation is gathered together.... of a plantation [Ajt regular intervals one hears the elder Ideaconing' a hymnbook hymn#which is sung two lines at a time and whose wailing cadencesp borne on the night indescribably airtare melancholy. But the benches are pushed back to the wall when the formal meeting is overpand old and youngpmen and women .... all stand up in the middle of the floorpand when the Isperichill is struck and up begin first walking by and by shuffling the otherp aroundpone after The foot is hardly in a ring. taken from the floortand due to a the progression is mainly jerkingthitching the motion which agitates entire shouter and soon brings out streams of Sometimes they dance silently# perspiration. they sing the chorus sometimes as they shuffle of the spiritual. and sometimes the song itself is also sung by the dancers. But more frequently a bandpcomposed of some of the best singers shouterspstand at the side of the and of tired the otherspsinging the body of room to fbasel hands together their the song and clapping or extremely on the knees. Song and dance are alike into the shout lasts oftenvwhen energeticpand the middle of the nightpthe monotonous thud# half a thud of the feet prevents sleep within " it mile of the praise-house. Johnson can add that the foot which beats the rhythm does so time. "" to "a decided two-four accent in strict Examples 1 and 2 come from two shouts notated around 1910 by Lydia Georgia rhythmic Parrish Sea Islands. impulsion and published ""These convey the dance. Songs of the of the some'impression in Slave


27. From. The Nation#30 May 1867. Reprinted in Krehbielpop. cit.. -P-3328. Johnsonlop-cit.. -P-33Slave Songs of the Georgia Sea Islands 29. Lydia Parrish: (Pennsylvaniapl942).


Ex. l.

From tDo Re*member'.97 1,1 Slave Songs of the Georgia

1 1. . SeL Islandsop.



-7 me. Pa re-mem-ber




91011 00


re - mem-. 6er



re- m6pn-, 6er 0F0




po ,





re - rnem-her


re -n en 4 er

1,1 . ..... .. ............ ......................


Ex. 2.

From tHalk Slave

fe-, Angelsp Georgia Sea Islands., 60. P.

Songs ofthe

iv, X477 era A Olt I-Ord Looh oul de wi? l

//,zX e



e IT-0

Ha e am- els

am- efy -4v

L. J L. W Lj LA
-11 Ni Lord 01 0 r_ W 1 lO 1 Ila' e an fm call elf S3 MY 1; A Oh 15 an -e

moIA-er MeXe

L. i

1 44

L.. i

L.. h:d


7'A row ofl ei,


j-. 4 t, ' - 3.


Oh e0n-ye1.4


.......... .....

.............. .....


out that the rhythmic points of complexity African drummingowhich was "wholly and basiccontrapuntal in terms of polymetric time ally conceived and polyrhythmic so in Afro-American relationships"Y was still music. evident One minor rhythmic characteristic of Negro musicobut forms of expressionx one which is universal among varying F7]. (. It is is the so-called 'Scotch or equivalent). snap' from Scottish this that the slaves learnt possible singerso many indentured olina and Virginia howeverpattributes patterns. '32'



men had been sent the Jacobite after it to a peculiarity

to work

uprising? of African

in North Car'Krehbiel, speech-

August 1886)to in Leipzig in early arrived to be a three-year course at the commence what he expected Conservatorium. The first year seems to have been devoted Delius from 116 hours a day Comabsorbing what might be learnt & Bach"*... The handful position of songs which has survived from this is perhaps the outcome of his student period had begun Delius Not before late in 1887, after exercises. his second academic year, does he venture to compose for the to orchestra, by his tutor: encouraged "I was working at at the time with Hans Sitt at an orchestral and was working orchestration tFloridat, and it was arsuite, which I called ranged that it should be played at a rehearsal in the coming spring. "34' of a military orchestra



31- See White, op-cit-pp. 22. 32. Krehbiel, 92-5. op-cit. ypp. Letter from Delius 3 A6. CLL/l#p. q. 1 to Gertrude Rueckert, ll December

34. Delius: 'Recollections IV of CLL/1)P-395-

of Grieg'.

Given in Appendix


In Scenen

the fUr

manuscript Orchester,

the and the

suite four



sub-title are

Tropische as follows:


Manuscript 1. 2. Tages Anbruch Am Fluss Bei der is

Published Daybreak By the Plantage Sunset At Night

score River

3- Sonnenuntergang 4. Nachts
The original first and last manuscript. 1889 third

movement of it


no longer extant, been removed having were or of part the into perhaps of third taken

all from

but the


The missing revised only is it other third however, thus the

pages all that

when Delius

revisions, vivedyand alongside of the

out in Of these the suite. has surmovement

revised du Soleil des

score published 35 The three manuscript versions original . Le French bears title the movement the sub-beading Aupr6s de la Plantation



coucher (Danse


and 36

career and bold step in his early its filling first his pages with exuborchestral with score, It is individual a significant music. erant and strongly out achievementpnot merely because - as Beecham points in it for hardly is little "there any composer under thirty more because it is the years of age to be ashamed of"I"but Delius took a positive in writing inexperienced a composer completely In the succeeding years of his creative orchestra. have development Delius since many works which would write first his In been rarely work orchestral performedlif at all. product for the of Delius for the captures suite a charm which a place in the concert has remained fresh and preserved repertoire.

the 35- It is likely this that affected updating mostly done "It with many was clumsily orchestral writing: original from brutalities in it-"(Letter unnecessary orchestral 1889. CLL/1, P-42). Delius to GriegxJune by Robert Threlfall in 36. These manuscripts are described Studies Music Manuscripts in Australia', in Music, 'Delius (1973), pp. 69-76. (Londonpl959). Delius Beecham: Frederick Thomas 37. -P-38.


a naYve work. Large passages are either of material or tied down to extensive pedal repetitions An formal elementary scheme relies on the juxtapoints. blocks of material. Neverthelessy of contrasting position Florida is the air is full of local cheerful rhythms and in scents and sounds lively instrumental from Delius's which, carried colours, skill by convey in trans-

an appealing Much of forming erns the

exotic simplicity. the charm results dross it of conventional with

harmonic are

by touching Although music. their odies colouration occasionally notes

attractive series pervade

pattand melodic of Negro folk elements never fully the idea)a utilized) Melsuite. cell series: built

pentatonic seems to

much of

on several Ex-3(a)

employ, as a generating in the pattern of a pentatonic lst 6 bars movement, before

(AA,94417X 04A"406)


. mr





. 4.

Many pentatonic tints figures brief motivic




appear singlypfloated in or in multiples fusion of such motifs the first

patterns. using similar by a lone instrument over the figuration. ostinato accompanying is

suggested These may


texture) A prosection have

of Eventually birdsong. these separatel the character of stylized dispersed of pentaup into an outpouring calls are collected figures dawn tonically-coloured chorust: melodic -a

to be found in the opening The isolated calls movements'Daybreakl.








V. ra'. 1411

&g __

ob. 14 u

I Cie. 6. 11




U C. -.. II'


vI.. u


"c. II.


is a pentatonic series by these patterns, implied which are, however, no more than fig(While the subdiatonic foundation. uration on a wholly in each of these melodic tone is prominent mediant motifsp it is not introduced harmony. It will into the supporting be three that the added sixth is seen in section chapter of this employed by Delius well-defined within and narrow limits). simplicity of This colouration dance sections regarded music. is spread of the first throughout the score, but the and third movements can be by Negro of ideas influenced

The folk-like

as concentrations


syncopated rhythm which announces the 2. jljjj. rjj) is (4first 'Allegretto' the of movement in all but 21 of the dance's 223 bars. A relentpresent less momentum is thus sustained, and by the addition of motifs shorter note-values in stages: accumulates (A) Ex .

The heavily





cellya 6):






.________ ____

____ ____




I t rp- ;-=J


II _ ----x-





.401 0 s Ir T--

Principal melody combined with semiquaver fig-9); runs (7 bars after (C) Semiquaver triplets combined with leaping (7 bars after fig-10); dotted-note figure (D) Central climax, with entry of trombones (4 bars after fig. 12). It stylized relentless impelling tshoutt in that seems likely Ishoutt, employing syncopated a frenzied Deliusts Delius its has written principles of here a highly


rhythm, climax.

and cumulative It may also be recalled

a pounding, tension rhythmic that a to

neighbourhood was, performed, according Johnsontwith beating "a decided in strict one foot accent time". two-four dance The compulsive impulsive the and of gaiety rhythms it have made it one of Delius's most popular piecespalthough is most widely altered known under version. the title La Calinda slightly lated are christening in 1896-7pwas written on a Louisiana marriage The circumstances Deliusts worth noting. based in 'and behind the a be-

plantationpThe ceremony of the Negro

opera Koangap on George W. Cablets of life story (1880). Grandissimes For the slave Koanga in Act II, Delius


conceived of Creole from the alterations).

the idea Dancerst. first

tBallet of an unusual entertainment -a For the occasion he borrowed the dance (making movement of his Florida a few suite Cablepin a quite different

an contextpgives to that performed account of a Louisiana ring-dance similar in Floridaowith This relentless rhythms and a wild climax. dance was called the Dance Calinda. version of the primitive Delius borrowed the name for the stylized in tshoutt ring his Louisiana opera. has described What Delius of did the the dancellp5t as "a very noisy nigger Florida third movement suite's danceiin a light and earlier

'Lanza' the section in fact commences)as humorous vein:

Ex. 6. Florida, p3rd movementpfig-3? NZA

38. Delius:


I., CLL/lqP-395of Grieg,,,


Concentrated elements of

into Negro

these music

opening bars are most of Delius: which attracted



melody; with the exception a. quasi-pentatonic of b. a flattened thirdsa stylization of the Negroes' 'blue' note (see also ex-7, bar 5); C. the melodic progression d. tScotch snap'; e. ostinati rhythmic to have imitated banjo or guitar; dom. - submed. tonic; -

Delius in instance this seems the strumming sound of a plucked and becoming the theme Delius revels in


alternating rhythms, his extension in of playful syncopations: after fig-4


4 bars



via. Is


In by its stage

common with impulse rhythmic the build-up



earlier to a powerful ('Pi'U animatot.





first the movement are also of cells The process these characteristics of of assimilating had language his into Negro folk reached an already music Delius Floridajwhen 1888)a in important after year stage "His first in Variationen! Rhapsodische h is a essay wrote form in which he would later write several of his finest Composed 1888 September in half-hearted. is rather works

From the second climax. fig-5) the rhythmic into play. called

39- Unpublished.

DT vol-3

(RL p. 25)21


in St. Malo, these variations a holiday ways the appearance of an exercise or first is declared immediately in octaves by horn is not otherwise harmonized or accompanied; remain anchored to the

have draft: all six


several the theme

and trumpettand

signs of unchecked work; 46 bars, and the shortest only 16; the work for the 7th variation sketches evaporating Within these tonalitypthe was rhapsodic. in the sense cencepin in lettert.

variations frequent

complete key of E major; there are has the longest variation incompletep 6 bars. after is

and restricted of length severely parameters last to be thing these variations were likely It is probable the title that Delius applies lithat he uses the theme with considerable employing Variationen it more fin spirit than

some variations

The Rhapsodische

to import they show a deliberate a Floridian attempt formal flavour into an otherwise model and ab.!. conventional his variations He chooses to write on a theme context. stract idiom: into which he has injected of the Negro folk elements Ex. 8., Rhapsodische Variationenptheme.

are of by Delius



the especially of the melodysand pattern from Florida. familiar features opening progressionpare The degree to which the pentatonic of the melshadings from differs dominate tiny to the movements ody are allowed The quasi-pentatonic variation his theme is to is variation. not its The free unconnected manner in which that with the fact Delius the treats melody

and unyielding. pentatonism - undistinguished moments when the theme is graced with a Florida idiom impulsion; the charms lively of smiling rhythmic , briefly In this movement, variation again. respectothe shortest is dance The theme of this 3fis the most notable. playful the trombones in the four upper stringsjwhile in octaves Delius the And the-music harmony. extrathe writes over carry Negral: tAlla appropriate2instruction ordinarytif -

for all Howeversat those


Ex. g. Theme of var-3pf.

4A" 4-9444 . VfVA 69 A4


The notion of a 'rhapsodyt ions of his American experiences to be the many contrasts sidered to to in

embodying impresscomposition he in what conparticular in the Negro character - was for a decade and a half. In a foreword stay with Delius the work which represents the culmination of his efforts (1902-3)sDelius Appalachia directionothe this variations

writes: "The composition describes the natural coloring districts tropical of the powof the distant Mississippi-Riverywhich is so intimately erful with the fate of the negro-slaves. connected Longing melancholypan love for naturep intense humour and a native as well as the childlike to the delight are still and singing of dancing time the most characteristic qualities present of this race. " The America/Negro idea seems to have given rise rhapsody Variationen) in 1889 (the year after to La QuadRhapsodische (Rapsodie Floridienne). This work has unfortunately not roone " In 1890 the variations experiment was again - in Ldgendes for solo piano and orchestra. like Variationenpexists the Rhapsodische only in One of the variations draft. which is relatively survived. out employs a pentatonic (see p. 123) +++

tried out " This work., an incomplete fully the worked theme





40. For further 41- Unpublished.

information DT Vol-39

on this workpsee (RL P-138-9)-

RT p. 128.


"Ye who love the haunts of Nature Love the sunshine of the meadowp Love the shadow of the forest, Love the wind among the branches, And the rain-shower and the snow-storms And the rushing of great rivers Through their palisades of pine-treesp And the thunder in the mountainsp Whose innumerable echoes Flap like eagles in their eyries; -"
This Longfellow's Hiawatha stirringpopen-ended 'Introduction? (1855)pstands Dated begun and to invocation, his set of 41extracted from poems The Song of tone of Delius's manuscriptPthe of of the the work Flosuite

poem Hiawatha. was probably rida suite,

on the title-page January 1888 on the after informal 43 the

shortly before the



mentioned above The idiomatic in the character in Hiawathaysuch elements of that Delius's usually


P-15) . Delius elements uses two scores are strikingly


achieve similar.

ethnic Althoughp

are made to the and extensions by Negro music the earlier score influenced Negro plantation are reservation and Indian alterations changes are insignificant by the in the


works. comparison with common ground shared be recalled that the influence On the melodic side it will in had been the folk in three ways: main of music evident frequency basis themes of the motifspthe of pentatonic and dom. - submed. - tonicfand the occasional colmelodic motif The melodies thirds. ouration of the melody with flattened given of Hiawatha. their in Table It I (p. 25) will character represent be seen that from the the main thematic (d) (a) to themes of content derive in




The following two lines of the poem are as follows: "Listen to these wild traditions, To this Song of Hiawathat" DT vol. 1 (LL PP-17-19)Hiawatha is unpublished. 43. lost. been have Unfortunately.. the manuscript some pages of The composer numbered the pagespso it is possible to assess the extent of the missing material. 42.


Table f. lb





f -5a


f. lia




f. 26a

(e) f -17a


pentatonic patterns. down to Delius's common motifito These three notes are repeated of the tone poem. Most section

The cantilena

(d) floats theme oboe be echoed by a solo horn. in several in this guises (c)o is interesting of all in Deliusts 44 music. early Epwith one note vocal

themes one of the most attractive It is confined to the five notes G-A-C-DBb. This tone is the common Negro 'blue' additional The wide-rangingpeminently to the seventh. alteration

might melody is like song Delius some spontaneous,, improvised have heard on the evening air at Solana Grove. On the rhythmic side, the 'Scotch snap? is in evidence flowing in Hiawathapas in ostinatipboth are rhythmic al. so (a), syncopationspas as at and in impulsive multiple patterns, (e). do not end The ,imilarities to the dances in Florida at As earlierya with the use of the Calinda rhythm here. by degrees, dance Indian is in this with war climax achieved rhythms a combination momentum accumulating note values. use of quicker and the gradual Negro from his differs Delius's Indian ethnic writing The exuberantpoften in its music principally character. has its humorous, music which gives Florida charm special of given way to more sober composer has evoked a sense (a) comes at the opening of intended a musical probably meetingpwith by the slowly the low swelling music for themes. In themes (a) (b) and and nobility. of grandness has the tone poemowhere Delius depiction campfire of an Indian of assembled braves the Theme from driving


melody. pentatonic Indian Red his in just the such a scene composed hit upon a similarly sustained, opera The Magic Fountainphe (see In keeping 1). 225, brooding with theme ex. p. pentatonic the of noble seriousness the cross-rhythms of his IndiansiDelius Florida. makes little which enliven

represented he Indeedowhen


This 44. ten years

theme reappears in the orchestral (2 bars after fig-13)later

work Paris, some


have heard the music of the Indians may actually he did have some contact in Americapsince while with them: "Though there were no Red Indians living near Solanophe spoke to several of them in other by their parts and was struck extreme courtesy If left and good breeding. alone, he always Redskin would be a gentleman. "'*'s declaredpthe It is prudent, thereforepto is some historical note that there justification for the common ground in the music of Delius's Indians and Negroes. The ritual music of the many North AmDelius had witnessed a he might that 11(s]cales are most freperformance 46 As well as the hexatonic". tetratonic, quently or pentatonic between Indian also modal similarity and Negro musicPboth erican tribes varies greatlybutpif have heard Delius to their rhythms in accompaniment continuous percussive Deliusts Beyond this can stylizations singing. pointphowever, Indian be bear to traditional to music, any relation not said lacking its descending contourpprimimelodic characteristic simplicityand in Hiawatha section tive monophony. The syncopation dissimilar is essentially of the dance to the equiby Indian tribes. favour

formulae employed universally spaced rhythmic In other words, in his Indian was probably music Delius idea of what constituted much more dependent on the popular idiom than he was in his Negro music, and, indeed, the ethnic to Negro features it valid thought to extend his stylized nobilityphe so, and masking them in Indian But it is fail to create doesn't colour. a sense of ethnic Indian image keeping in of with a stereotypical much more (probably literature that and music-hall of popular culture Hiawatha. In doing than parody) Although with his the historical reality. of the Indian fact that characterizations musical technically very similarpthe

and the Negro are had a personal Delius with one of the groups relationship Deliusts his importance in in the career. other and not gains

45- Clare Deliuspop-cit. YPP-72-346. Bruno Nettl and Gertrude Prokosch: entry on Indian (London, Music in The New Grove Dictionary 1980)pvol. of

music 13jp. 298.


on character version of the Indianobased and drawn stereotype formulaethad from a 'pool' little musical ethnic potential of for development. His attempt to write an opera based on InThe Indians dian life would prove only partly successful. The M, agic Fountain border line the approaches and their often characterization t incidentally)that is in The Magic Fountain, with parody. , Negro Delius had made in delineating the small differences Act II dance in An Indian vanish. war and Indian actually itsof Delius to its culmination transfers all reaches when dance" - of things, part of the tDanzat - the "noisy nigger play, in the endponly a subsidiary part in the Florida Deliusts suite with and of, sympathies understanding personal have handito for Negroes the the other a admiration were, on He development. influence very positive on his creative he the to style musical attempted emulate and assimilate harmonic had heardpboth its folk procedures. exotic and charm The depth and range of the Negro personality, with which he the subject himself intimately of acquaintedpwas considered in his development two orchestral works and an opera later period. The full effect become evident. That influence of this in Delius)already would only his earliest of It slowly scoresp Negro and

is probablev surprising. howeverpthat Delius of was enamoured of the folk-simplicity Just like the in Florida. Negro music before he arrived As Indianpthe Negro was a stock music-hall a child character. had enjoyed Delius imitating the shows given by touring comThough American-styled American minstrels. of and panies caricature was their back to the heritage their derived heritage more from behaviour than musical Negro trademark, Southern for shows did (It plantations. these of the dialect trace was a and

had achieved workable an eminently European music may, thereforeyseem



conmusical actual based forms the the tent on and styles was minstrel show of ballad drawing-room the and music-hall nineteenth of century



belius 4-4 song). would also have been familiar with the folk and Irelandpwhich music of Scotland shared with Afro-American melody and the 'Scotch music not only pentatonic snapIpbut This would tendency towards wistfulness. also an underlying Delius had accepted thatyonce the account for the fact partly in his Leipzig challenge period ethnic of combining colour facility in and a European techniquephe revealed a striking adapting exotic music to his own needs. That the fiction Delius favour, of Negro parody disposed ably to Negroes of in experience the advancepdoes Negro reality not at invalidate the overawing Solana Grove. Delius was

Negro Pentatonic and other profoundly affected. colouration becameptherefore, music traits genuine means of self-expressby Works Delius fundamental ion; they reflected sympathies. by Negro music never suggest minstrelsy. in-luenced The beauty ustrated Hiawatha. inherent in Delius's by the fluid The thematic 12-section mateftal synthesis which follows colour early is the well illdance in

and accompanying

abesques are tinted with pentatonic this most ornate passage of Delius's (ex. innocence 10YP-30)artless

string arlend to enough career an air of

The period






in a highly been regarded the composerpthrough with the contact Exotic is supposed to have had a moment of and Primitive, this Delius illuminationpan established artistic ecstasy. abovephas commonly it was then that image ences years. whose or

was noted light romantic

in the nostalgic there reminiscof his experiences his later in he was increasingly to voicing given It has since been enlarged upon by those commentators has perhaps tended towards the sensational criticism


47- Surveys of the history of minstrelsy can be found in Dailey Paskman: Gentlemen, Be Seatedt (New Yorkjl976), and Richard Jackson (ed. ): Popular Songs of Nineteenth-Century America (New Yorkvl976)'.


Ex. 10.

Hiawatha, copyists MS corresponding to (bar 4) (bar f-27a f. 27b 3) of original -



912 INAIS,


V.1 V. 2. k4.

4. c5


The facts less idyllic





than and perfect the young composer was far from tardy picturedtand in ing the place behind him. William Randel, an authority Delius's Florida years)writes:

Grove were, no doubtmuch they have subsequently been leavon

"But something made Fritz willing quite to leave what may have seemed an earthly that he abandonparadise .... When we recall ed an attractive cottage with a new piano inside and an exciting vista outsidewe It would may well wonder about the reason. Likeliest not have been mere wanderlust .... to make his own of all was a determination from the constant way, and to free himself financial tyranny. 11'" pall of his father's Earthly In a letter Delius in paradise? many years later frame of mind - gave further a practical clues as to his Philip Heseltine had written reason for leaving. to him in November 1915 on behalf of D. H. Lawrence, who wished to spend the winter in Florida "since he isPI am afraid, far rather I write .... to ask whether it would gone with consumption. 4.11 be possible to go and live in your orange grove. " Delius . replied: "Even if the house had been inhabitable I Lawrence to live should not have advised in it. The place is five miles from any house or store. Life is frightfully expensive on account situation. of the isolated One lives foodiand off tinned a servant Wo fifty costs one dollar cents a day.... I should have loved to be of use to Lawto let him rence whose works I admirelbut go to Florida would be sending him to disaster. "

48. William Randel: 'Delius in America' in A Delius ComOanion (ed. Redwood, Londonjl976)vP-l5749. This letter in Cecil and Delius's reply are Gray: Peter Warlock (London, 1934)o p P-1 Oguoted -750. That the expense of living there had hastened Delius's from Solana Grove is also suggested by the fact departure that he left without paying several bills! Percy Grainger has been the main protagonist of a version tNe"The of events which provides another possible reason. Delius told it to me himself, story is quite true)for gress' & Florida in several times. He had a negro mistress while him-tt(CLL/l.. by had child a p. 112). she


Memory frequently priate more to circumstances. the experience


the present In his later of hearing

past in ways approthan to the original viewpoint looked back upon years Delius song at Solana Grove as the In Leipzig in 1887, one year the Old, Delius upon called race suite. of



enlightenment. peak of youthful leaving the New World for after

the to represent a narrow part of the Negro character American his Florida impressions the as recalled among instance)the He sought to capture)in the first naivety the peoplepin their exuberant,

dancing and even passionate, broadened have His to playing. perspectives seem guitar in 1902-3 Appalachia he the variations when wrote greatly (see the 'programme? of the work on p. 23), and to have shifted entirely sadder was to by the side time he began to publicly of reminisce. melancholic The longingi of the Negro, the singer inevitably)Delius come later: as his own creative personality And, as it passion which this did sopthe

on it direction.

would place more value developed in the same impressions of original -

ingenuous a poignance earlier.

would gain a new poignance and naivety fully Delius aware of not was probably process

and understanding of deepening folk by Negro influenced first work perspectiveshis shifting seam of up a workable a part of himtopening music realized Because later of# ones. as responses as sincere emotional Florida in was than naivety, ofpits essential rather spite Despite to substantially contribute scores, the operas The Magic
a TT

to much more mature American Fountain and Koanga:


Borrowed lst -20 lst


Florid bar 10



movementpmelody, movement)dance


Mag. Fount. gopening of Act I and later dances Koangav 'La Calindal Act II

fig- 4
3rd 3rd 3rd

2nd movementP2 bars movement, fig. movementpfig-4 movementofig-7 1


Koanaa, Act II, fig. 17-16.

Mag-Fount., Act joaE&a,

12, bars



Negro song theme of lst dance Mag-Fount., Act IIpwar


has been primarily section concerned with the influence of Negro folk music on melody and rhythm in Delius's Yettas early compositions. his remnoted earlier, iniscences dwell almost exclusively Negro on the impression harmony made upon him. The questions of whether, and to what degree, Delius to Negro singing for his own was indebted harmonic be taken up in chapter 2, and again in style will the discussion achia(American it is worth noting that Delius's mature chromatic stylep fluid with its highly movement and linear smoothnesspcame to fruition in his music around 1896-7It appeared first in the scores of that period Negro song. utilizing


of his transitional Rhapsody) in chapter

workspKoanga and Appalfive. For the time being







[July 20thI. - "The sun for a few moments flashes a few rays over the long valley. Ilfrom amongst the cloudsilook now on almost a fairylike scene -I 0' & shade effects the light I never saw before". EJuly 23rdI. - "The scenery is wild up the Eidfjord & romantiE looked the of mountains whole-mass .... bluish blackythe by the topp. made invisible The sight I have yet clouds. was the weirdest seen here. "


"Presently come to a hill overlooking the fjord on the other side. Such an expanWe sat sive & exquisite view I never saw before. on a hill almost like in a panorama - all round us the lovely scenery extended for 100s of miless the sun shiningpthe fjord dyed a deep blue, & only a few fleecy clouds hanging afar off over the highest peaks. Decidedly the most beautiful " ' place in Norway in my estimation.

51. Delius: et seg.

tSummer Diary




six-week This journey tour. the specan be regarded as establishing between Norwegian scenery and Delius's cial relationship his life. through art which was to continue unfalteringly It has already been noted that Deliusts first year at The twelve was not productive. his return from Norway, however, would months which followed be amongst the most fruitful of his career, with an impressive In the headed by Florida list of compositions and Hiawatha. Delius's talents matrix of circumstances at which released Delius's this timeoNorway and Norwegians are very prominent. the music ours of character It seems likely that the overpowering mountain scenery. factor periences of the 1887 holiday were a contributory Indeed, if the belief in his powers gained this process. Floridapthrough naturepwas icent wild In the in nature a solitary need of of existence amid magnificent reinforcementpthe Norway may well was to draw much of its his reactions to present individuality to the from his endeavNorwegian exin in Leipzig Conservatorium

These extracts Delius are from the diary holiday in Norway in 1887. They are typicallin for superlatives, he made throughout of entries

kept their the


his search


and magnifsolitude it. have provided

songs same way that his knowledge of minstrel him in folk have idioms part and pentatonic would prepared hand at Solana for the Negro music he experienced at first had long been favourably disposed towards this Grove, Delius From an early an mountainous age he had accepted country. leading image of Norway exported in the music of its composer: to "I had as a child always been accustomed heard Mozart and Beethoven and when I first Grieg it was as if a breath mountof fresh ain air had come to me. "-52' A brief taken in the summer of trip to Norway was probably 1881 by the nineteen of his year old Delius, in defiance fatherpwho is unlikely occasion. on this had sent him. to Sweden on wool in that Delius made any tours business; mountain but areas it

52. Delius: 'Recollections

of Grieg'pCLL/1



While tained Jutta talent. love of stay of Jutta




by contact with his nearest Bell, a young Norwegian emigre Many years later Grieg was formed Bell.

Norway was susneighbour and close friend, in with

considerable musical her sister that "Delius's recalled in Jacksonville under the influence though this songs her influence. Deliusts claim may bepDeliusts he wrote during his circle of friends

" Exaggerated


of Scandinavian poems for in America probably betrays In his first year at Leipzig,

Norwegian, and it would be seems to have been predominantly if those acquaintances had not spoken of their surprising their country and invited mountain-lovingpGrieg-influenced friend to come and see it for himself. Indeed, on his long summer tour Delius stayed with several of his Norwegian friends from Leipzig. If Delius's first intimate contact with Norway had, in sense, been prepared of yearspa special over a period the country turn of was cemented by an extraordinary in a period his return from of a few weeks following North. His Norwegian student included now the circle a bond to

events the compos-

Sindingtand through the ers Johan Halvorsen and Christian latter he was introduced to the man whose music had greatly his own creative Edvard Grieg. inclinations affected The close friendship between Delius and Grieg is well known and well documented. y4Its importance to the fledgling composer cannot be overestimatedyhowever: "My friendship & sympathy you have already taken long since &I in my life tell you franklyinever have I met a nature my love as which has won all I have been left yours has. In my life so much to that I have become egotistic my own resources it & have really without realizing only-cared You are the about myself & worked for myself.

53. From unpublished reminiscences of Mrs Andrew in the Delius Trust archive. 1938-1942ocontained from the correspondence 54. A selection is given 'Recollections with Delius's of Griegt - already several occasions in this chapter - published as IVPPP-394-6.

Mencke, in CLL/ cited on Appendix


only man who has ever changed that & drawn to you yourself my whole attention & awakened the feelings which I now have for you-" 5S An assessment of Griegts influence musical on Delius will follow in the next chapter. For present it is the purposes timing and consequent impact of Griegts psychological friendship and artistic encouragement which should be kept in to mind. During Grieg for the spring term in Leipzig (1888) Delius turned Aprillhaving

In criticism of his compositions. completed only two of his planned three years at the Conservleft Leipzig atoriumpDelius in Paris. Nevertheand settled less, he would send newly-completed scores to Grieg in Norway In the summer of 1888, of years afterwards. Delius forward looking show him to be already to the planned meeting with Grieg a year later)as he will be able to discuss his music with him - "so much do I attach S6 to your criticism1t. a couple letters from While Delius compositions Norwegian works followed he had in a short after period in Paris. In this it is perhaps significant settled context that he could not afford to make a trip to Norway this years to Grieg from now until joint and his letters tour of their in the summer of 1889 are filled the Jotunheim with longing for the mountain landscape in ItFor months now our meeting Glorious Norway has been my be all & end all"(early June 1889). s"' Among his works from the period are a handful of large-scale settings of Norwegian and his first poetry mountain-pieceya setting epic poem Paa Vidderne. work into would as a melodrama. The summer tour Norway's recall of for Later tenor in and orchestra of Ibsen's the summer he revised the GriegyDelius and Sinding Delius an experience had concentrated America-inspired on writing during his final batch of months in Leipzigta for

1889 took

wildest mountain with fondness all

regions, his life.

55. Letter 56. Letter 57. Letter

from Delius from Delius from Delius

to Grieg, mid-August 1888,, CLL/1,, p. 22* to Grieg, lg October 1888, CLL/lpp. 25. June 1889, CLL/ P-41to Grieg)early


Norwegian holiday by strenuous was undertaken Delius and Grieg in 1891. This year Delius was to remain long in the North in order to hear his own especially for the first timepat music performed a concert publicly ( as Oslo was called in Christiania The then) in October. work title the same source of inspiration question, sharing and the symphonic poem Paa Viddas the 1888 melodramaywas 51 erne. Delius lived in Paris for most of the 1890s, forming friends among both the aristocracy and the lead(particularly Scandinavians) there. working in

A less

circles of ing artists The friendship

with Grieg seems to have faded, and it is that the two composers met again in Norway. unlikely The mountain and its cultural scenery of the country life Delius, however, and his excursions to fascinate continued illness. to Norway only ceased with the advance of his final


In Delius






established of the several language. individual Though initially to the Norwegian into terms also soon absorbed works where their

development musical his features of permanent early with features and less obvious. his

responses were other

associated these mountain-scape, abstract of compositions were reference

Mountain 58. 'Paa Viddernet be 'In the translated as can Wilderness'. There Is no single word in English which conveys the meaning of the Norwegian noun vidde. The word is used to describe the mountain plateaux oT Norway, and implies and vast tracts of mountain wilderness2with peaks)glaciers deep glacial breaking up the high-level moorland. valleys Delius had a particular love for the Hardanger mountain known to Grieg plateau in South Norway2and was therefore by the affectionate and his Norwegian friends nickname tHardangerviddemannent Hardanger-vidde the man. in In later years Delius employed the word 'Solitude' his had it if to mindp idiosyncratic mean2in come an way2as (see quote from the letter to Norman the Norwegian tviddet O'Neill)P-38)-


develpieces of Deliusts Paa Viddthe symphonic poem opment were mountain-inspired (1890-2) Far Away Over Hills the the and overture and erne , (mid-1890s) his devlongest the of work composite - as was (1886). These facts Paa Vidderne the melodrama elopment , drew the that the composer associations mountain suggest The two longest non-operatic on creatively sufficiently large-scale ain were not narrow to inspire varied compositions. approaches each other to are or few, but warelrathert the musical material Indeed, in much of Deliusts his subject fundamentally consistently of mountin These

present. by described two poles of contrasting once were experience in joy and exhileration him as, on the one handyltthe one feels the Mountains", and melanand on the other "the loneliness learn to He Solitudes'1*6i high the would gradually choly of forces to ensure a duality those the opposing of exploit degree
A. "the

musicstwo to opposition



and balance
and melancholy"






tryst "The poignance of the first is like a song among the treesy fjord the is like a song across dying glowsat twilight's those sweet resounding momentsp horns in mountain like echo, usyin a miracles unite "* 11 with nature. (Bjornson) has become a rare event With the disappearance outdoors. for communicating over distances It to hear of the has also a horn sounded horn as a device

the vanished late-eighteenth and to many enjoy whatsto opportunity confluence a most poignant nineteenth century poetstwas horn The across open of a sounding of man and nature. hills fanfares its and cliffs, around echoing spacespand the sense of oneness with embodied for the Romanticist

from Delius to Norman O'Neill) 59- Unpublished letter 10 February 1920 (Delius Trust archive). (1868). in 60. 'Det forste Fiskerienten Given from motel 81. ( Oslo)1957), B, izrnson/Digte B. iornstierne og sang,e p. Translation by the present author.



and freeing of the this captures semi-magical


he yearned for. Tennyson in the following effect poem:

falls "The splendour on castle walls And snowy summits old in story: The long light shakes across the lakes) And the wild cataract leaps in glory. Blow, bugletblow, set the wild echoes flying, Blowsbugle; answer2echoespdying)dyingpdyinghow thin and clear) 110 hark, O hearl And thinner, clearersfarther goingl 0 sweet and far from cliff and scar The horns of Elfland faintly blowing! Blow, let us hear the purple glens replying: Blow, bugle; answer, echoes)dying, dyingfdying. die in yon rich 110 lovepthey skys They faint on hill or field or river: Our echoes roll from soul to soulp And grow for ever and for ever. flying, Blowsbuglepblow, the echoes wild set And answer, echoespanswerpdyingpdying, dying. What., today, seems a fairly exotic


poetic symbol would have seemed a commonplace, universal image bordering dn Hunting-horns the end of the last until cliche century. had belonged to all ages. Coaching horns were still previous being sounded in approach to postal and inns at the stations end of the nineteenth regions, The call mountainous In many countriessparticularly century. and simple horns were used by shepherds was no pastures of a horn across alpine

goatherds. known to travdoubt one of the most enchanting experiences One of the most vivid descriptions of ellers. and haunting 1887Pwas in from Edvard Grieg who, such an occurrence comes Beyer in the Jotunheim: Frants touring with his friend blue"I must tell marvellous you about one Skagastzl August day, the up among skied to cross a mountain peaks. We intended find 'Frikenlybut a guide called couldn't But farm the two milkon were charming .... the other a young maidspone an adultand Susanne. They blonde called pretty girl The lead the to mountain. us over offered high and spirits amid songs was made ascent (1847). 61. From The Princess Given in The Penguin Verse-T-Harmondsworthplg6g)PPP-71-2Victorian of Book


andvat the summit2we sat down and celebrated had to offer. with all that our rucksacks Cognac with glacier water lifted our mood to heights. truly But the best was ethereal folk to come2for Susanne had a little still instrument with herya sheep horn which manAnd when the girls had aged but three tones. bid us farewell up on the peak, because they had to return to the cows, and when Frants and I simply stood and marvelled at the lovely blonde, sight of the two girls their pretty and strong making way towards the mountain edge with the blue horizon as backgroundfthen all at once Susanne the girls horn the stopped put her to her mouth -I will never forget the sky: posture, her silhouette against then it sounded - mildly if melancholiclas that surout of the very mountain-nature rounded us:


When that last G had died "" each other and wept. In music, the use forms of the earliest fanfare being trumpet The and battle-piece. many nineteenth of horn-calls

away, we turned


might be regarded as one the hunting and call of tone-painting, Icaccial the bases of the Renaissance identification sought by with nature in a gradual association to the hunt by

extension of of than the hunt. From boyhood, whep he had been attracted had enjoyed hearing the horn fanfaresiBerlioz Jacques Barzun writes: sounded outdoors.

century composers resulted the horn-call to other areas


the "The hunts met frequently and observed and complex ritual of horn calls ancient a rich source of melody, echoes of which be found in later Berlioz scores. will

62. Letter from Grieg to Niels Ravnkilde#17 October 1887. Ebbe: Edvard Given in Benestad and Schjelderu Grieg (OsloplggO))p. 247. Transration kunstneren mennesket, og by the present author.


Again, shepherds in the mountains could be heard singing flocks. 1163 to their or piping With the plaintive in 'Sur Les pipe tunes of the shepherds Champeslythe slow movement of the Symphonie Fantastiquey in the age-old potential number of leading composers vho exthis ploited may be counted Wagner (the shepherd's potential (in Act in III Tristan Isolde) Grieg theme pipe of and und numerous character-pieces and miniatures influenced by folk music). Mountain 3erlioz the revealed Pastorale. Among the Romantic

Berlioz' implied in associations already pastoral calls, which he had connected with alpine pastures The were also seized on by a line of Romantic composers. intention the poetic of a composer employing symbol of an (to Berlioz) depict to alpine cite call was not mountainsybut "to reproduce the melodic style and forms of at populationsywhile by the soul in certain circumemotion felt 4 heights. " The notion at the sight stances of those imposing (overRossini its from the maintained appeal early-Romantic (Alpine Strauss Tell) ture to William to the late-Romantic Symphony ). Unlike the hunting was most commonly callywhich , introduced into a composition to suggest the vigour of*the hunt, the occurrence in both pastoral and mountain of calls by the imagery of contexts seems to have been motivated distance,. By Debussy's time the power of evocation residing among certain imparting the mountain the horn-call almost of an impression could effect dimensional depth, to the music(see ex. llpnext page): in threecommon singing the same time

63- Jacques Barzun: Berlioz and the Romantic (New Yorkpig6g)YP-4064- Quoted by Barzun, ibid., p. 198.





Ex. 11.

Debussy: dans llair

Les sons-et les parfums tournent du soir (1910), conclusion.

2 6 pp

d Commeunelointainesonne, e .. Encore plus lointainef plusretenu AtA R PP PP

6 AL

f- 1 F-F=1211r345rr,

-r-F OP r

From the

outset of his

a constant part introduction to high(1885)pohis association latter are Ex. 12:


of Deliusts his mountain setting of

careerythe prospect. BjArnson's

horn-call Already Over in

forms the mountains

the had made the earliest work, Delius surviving (although between mountains horn-calls the and in the poem): not mentioned the mountains higho piano introduction.


u= f- -f- -.- e


il k=2! le it -Z

, :aL


The fanfarfc teristicsPas of the call.

pattern is the

and bare distancing

fifths effect

are of

recurring the quiet




in facsimile

in RL pp-116-7-


The 1888 song Hochgebirgsleben element:


C4adds another

a repeatingtrolling call around an anchor-note to that Grieg noted on his a melodic pattern not dissimilar 6'fThe (see in 1887 tour mountain P-40). change to the horncall style occurs in the song at the mention of the majestic glacier: "Along the valley summer evening its sheet of shadows; trails billowing around the cliff-face, waves of grey mist lie a sea the evening wind has ruffled. The glacierynow from sightp concealed had scanned by day the wide horisons of his realmy in his crown. """ with sun-gold

Ex. 13. Hochgebirgslebenobars



for much of Delius poetry preoccupied 1888#for his version was also comof the epic Paa Vidderne for a solo tenor voice with orchestra, and posed thentfirst 61 then, after a melodrama. some revisionias Ibsen's mountain



in facsimile

in RL pp. 118-9.

6 October letter in his Grieg impressions a of recorded 7 became 1 he first the time acquainted with around Delius. The probability this tale to his that he retold for the possibilEnglish Norway-loving friend also allows ity to that of the milkthat Deliusts similar use of calls Susanne is not coincidence. maid 68. Translation by the present author. 69. The version for tenor The melodrama has not survived. Fartly because Grieg DT vol. 2 (EL p. 21). is unpublished. Delius that the orchestral writing convinced was too powerful to accompany a reciterts work was not pervoiceythe l9dO, when electronic formed until amplification of the balance voice made an adequate possible. soloist's


Ibsen during sought relief life through fjord of


Paa Vidderne


1859 at


age of


a period

of from


in country the Hardanger

He and professional personal crisis. the enormous pressures in his daily in Paa Vidderne he flees to the art: Norway and his beloved landscape western This allegorical tviddel. poem about tells of a young hunter

who leaves his to undertake hunt. With steela reindeer turns strong resolve given him by the mighty wildernessshe his back on the warmth and comfort in of his past life the valley. Delius's sections) the long of are nine movements (corresponding He endeavours, a series appropriate of widely varied. score together with poem's however, to knit horn-calls, ideas in the some poem. One, the hero to the

idealism artistic home and fianc(e

to reinforce which recur In two places in the . looks back down the valley


Section expositional upwards: as he climbs "Behind haze, in moonlit meyclothed ' lay the fjord and valley". horn-calls are heard at these points.

Ex-14. Section
T". (flO

Onepf-3a (bar 6) - f-3b.


na Lrl -All &-,, r IP F r-: -. VP=Fw --

to the quiet contrast mood hereyhorn-calls Two are the culmination boisterous of an exciting, The fanfaric, dotted-note the coda (ex. 15., P-45).


in call

Section in

climax used

70. Delius translation

set a German translation of the poem. The English used here is by the present author.



Paa Vidderne melodramap f-17a. Two-f-15b Section -

farvel, min vivl Gudsfred,min morl

+ k




IZ-10, "u pi %iddenopl


! jai

9-0 1wloft -

? if&




-- --L

----, %7


: -l



" L1r .i

________ .

_ ' -__-




( "




to the group of energetic properly motifs below under the heading "the joy and exhilerconsidered However, over nine bars (from ta tempot), the initial ation". from the wildcooled as if by a breeze blowing but echoes away into the distance erness, and the music all before This device the final chord. of utilizing resolute to transform the music from splendour to soliloquy calls is put to good use again at the end of Paa Viddernepa brilliant tfortissimot in the orchestra entry of the full passion is Nine gradually in volume untily diminishing coda to Section by the close, only horn-calls remain. Four the poemts hero meets a mysterious In Section hunter figure in the mountains. This haunting personifies the spirit of the wilderness: "I fear his cold eyesy depths, cannot plumb their tarns as if they were blue-black breast-" the glacier's nestling against Delius introduces here which will not only reappear a call but also in other mountain-inspired in later comsections, It may be termed his Wilderness motif: positions.



Ex. 16. Section Fourof. 27b (bar 5)-


4. .



d, J, )"w -P /3-

I- II --







11 L-

I Z:= -,!

E::: 6


plays an important Six. depicting Ibsents Section In an episode t'Winter in the wilderness into feeble minds"i puts steel Delius the first extended passage of writes It is writing based on horn-calls. of bleak motif the the same grim power which would distinguish in A Mass of Life


part words


career frugality, with

wilderness mountain in the composer's mature period(ex-17tPp. the High Hills Horns and strings 47-8). and answer each other, call

of evocations Song The of and


Ex. 17-

Paa Vidderne melodrama, Section MS corresponding to copyist's (bar 1) (bar 5) -'f-35a f-33b MS. of the original



F2. I F2.2

M41. 1/ 0 Tt-ss. 1*2.

v.1 02 VIA 4



(Ex. 17. cont. )


No 1


1 Y -

22 r1!

n-2 4#1

10 IE




-MAX. sez
-IU i .AIW4



intet saga em fuglek-widder sygt igennew tren banker. Er til vir i stid jrg drevet. henter jeg de to fro dolen,

No onetalksof songbirds chirping; Bloodis coursing freefrom fevcr.

ing my life his steeled If by spr r X, I will bring themfromthe valle


r r-01


-F I =




sounding alternating

and echoing


same motif

major and minor modes. only as momentof warmth, the third of the chords occurring The rolling type of tones in the horns. ary unaccented (see motif call ex. 13) is employed, but it is the Wilderness the passage, the first of which opens and closes section which is given in ex. 17callsyrepetitive create of the rhythm and negligible and space. a melodic In a sense of stillness introduces theme, Delius which, from Flattening The anchored harmonic movement minor mode into frequent the

across 16 bars in The harmony is stripped

variant his mountain feature of


such episodes. (unraised) 7th, the a natural retaining the natural minor scale or the Aeolian leading-note line is tension, the melodic tral in this timeless, featureless

now onpis a the 6th and to mode corresponds Bereft of mode. neu-

appropriately landscape.

The evocative mode and manner power of melody in this both with the familiar horn-calls by Delius was exploited (ex. Section Eight in the them of opening and without - as The poem here depicts 18). a desolate winter scene: "The weeks passed ..... in ice, brook and river were covered the round moon stood above the snowdrifts 1t and the stars glistened. Both harmony and melody are devoid of tension of points (the rocking harmony is nearly a wilderstatic), creating ness mood of "loneliness and melancholy" (ex. 18. -P-50):


Ex. 18.




Uger gik og jeg vandt mig sely, =in hjemye kom aldrig tilorde;





is =


93 1.9

v -n


The chill voice of works from this period. been considered suitable etic imagerv. In aakuntala and orchestra of unwelcoming iliar response: of

is heard in several the Ividdef In some instances the idiom has different for depicting quite podelicate calls setting love-poem -a from the for tenor solo

(1889)7'-a the



momentary glimpse composer the fam-

(RL p. 29). Robert Threlfall has DT vol-4 71. Unpublished. jan Sakuntala be regarded as one of the that pointed out (RT song examples of orch9stral earliest P-74)-


Ex. 19.





Lj:- --



LLk n.:-



The frozen ende langsom to a landscape

Ex. 20. Skogen

harmony and modal melody of Skogen gir sus(1891, Bjerrnson) besked might also have belonged of

bars 1-



"Loneliness not the case, however. and melancholy" are in these tones, but it is the plaint of the forest, not of the wilderness which is sung: "The wood soughs slowly what it knows. All it saw in lonely ages it has suffered and all since in the wind and lost-1171 is wailed The song-cycle for tenor and orchestra, Maud (1891pto "03 by Tennyson), words removes the composer as far from the This is wilderness love-longing of the Norwegian Yet, in the unresolved as possible. landthe timeless poet is reflected as in the vast solitude

scape of the spirit as effectively (ex. Ividdet 21PP-53) the of

B. "the joy and exhileration"

The other


considerable change features associated earlier defined what Delius feels in the Mountains" 1900sitaking the early ing explanation will also for

mountain-duality of Deliusts in the course of his career.

underwent Idiomatic

with mountain music and expressone as "the joy and exhileration in his music of character altered An forms. stylized on more abstract, is suggested below. It

had a proearlier style his into as a maturity minent place in Delius's well music in parts of the great its composervattaining culmination (1904-5). Mass of Life Three early thematic types can be identified in Deliusts mountain of resolution scores as agents of a spirit Invariably Energy type. Firstpthe allied (or alternative), a similar springing rhythms

this transformation be seen, howeverlthat the

and affirmation. to dotted-note

72. Translation 73- Unpublished.

by the present author. DT vol-4 (RL P-31)-


Ex. 21.

'Come into f. 21a (bar

the 3)-



Maud song-cycle,



ma 1




4 C)








k. wo



0 0 -W

.j .0 -


4. 1


i --49-







a thrusting,


energy: Ex. 22. Paa Vidderne melodrama, opening.



i 0. . *1 #10 -












Secondly, smooth rhythms Ex. 23(a). intervallic



melody, with relatively bold triplet movement and)frequently, this type: melodramaSection Oneyf-5a (bar 6).

Broad, ttenutol

Paa Vidderne


Paa Vidderne



Three, f. 22b(bar



The recurring fanfaric include with daring These themes might Ex. 24IL



a third


rising melodies leapspandpagainptriplets

covering a wide range (usually ascending). and purposepand

always convey great power be termed motifs of Resolve: Paa Vidderne melodrama, Section



It ditional most

be apparent from examples will illustrations which are given melodic types

22-24pand below, that


adr Delius's in

affirmative Delius's models.

admiration his development; several ways during be considered on Delius's music will this

owe a debt to Wagnerian for Wagner manifests itself the at influence

he had

in connection study, particularly in the operas. tral texture and leitmotivic procedures But the distinctly. his teutonic which permeates character the turn of the century, is principally until music, at least to the recurrence attributable melodic of these masculine A comparison types. and the section of examples in this instances of the genre from Wagner operas given in Table III illustrate this will point. sufficiently In find the study of Strauss's the

various stages of with harmonyporches-

Delius would also of his development him in the Richard Strauss to of valuable scores found have doubt He also orchestration. would no course

for Wagnerian heroic melody very much predilection Eric Fenby has related to his taste. that the horn theme in '1'6(see Juan, Don (ex. 25), never lost Delius for its appeal P-57):

74. Fenby suggests that this theme had an influence dn This is improbablepfor he heard Delius's melodic style. Don Juan for the first time in 1891: though the work made ' (see him CLL/l P-55), his own impression on a strong Wagnerian melodic style had long been in evidence. Delius was indebted to Straussts tone poems in be discussed in chapter seven. other ways)which will






in Wagner operas. .10

ALLJq&* COM bale)


a/ Cotiwupt) -




/ af.:




(oaaxm. -)
n jI I&x lip

p ghow




(a) (b) (c)

(g) (h)

(d) Tannhuser, Prelude to Act II. je TannhuseryAct II, "Dir, hohe Liebeit. f Das RhelngQ.Idg'Rhinegoldt motif.
Das Rheing_Qldp"Weisst Das Rheingaldy"Hedat du nicht Hedolll.

Der Fliegende Hollnde ytDutchmanltheme. Gericht". LQ-hengrin, Aet II, "Wenn falsch Lohe gr-ipPrelude to Act III.


r, 17

he still "Forty in that years later revelled theme, and rarely missed an opportunity of hearing the work. I never hear Don Juan -the 7 Deliuspand thinking without of his humorous way in which he used to tilt head at the pedal G in the violins in for the entrance preparation of his favThen)and at each appearance ourite. of the but wag his head off to theme, he would all its rhythmI11*5 Ex. 25'4


Don Juan






have an affirmative in commonp the spirit Grandeur and Resolve are three melodic types of Energ This essential distinctly individual thematic in character. they contrast scale was exploited to the full in Delius's first largeVidderne Paa the symphonic orchestral composition *" (1890-1). Indeed, his full melof'mountain repertoire poem brought into play, for there are sections of the work ody'is his both his wilderand with consistent affirmative spirit ness moods. (in German) On the the title-page of the exultant poem: conclusion "Now I'm resolvedpItll answer the call which bids me wander on the heightst My*valley life is now behind me; is freedom and Godo up here in the mountains in the valley men lose their way. " manuscript of Ibsents Delius quotes


The symphonic poem shares almost no other point-of-contact An Paa Vidderne its namesake)the melodrama. with earlier be formal the thematic analysis and of work's scheme will it will in chapter twolso undertaken meet present requirements to give the main outlines and themes of the piece.

75. 76.

Fenbyyop-cit. Unpublished.

192-3)pp. (LL P-33)DT vol-5


The opening



has a noble and restrained melody Ividdel idiom, but also of the lonely Resolve fanfare: Ex. 26.

ma non troppot) marked by the modality the sweep of a

JVdd 7WOPA* *044

,QfA&* 4*1


soon discarded txt in ex-26, taken up. Motif and the mountainst challenge Energy motif, comes to pervade the first a typical subject group. In a first bridge brings himself passage, Delius up onto approach to the foothills is Hushed and melancholy" episodes. harmony and a fragmentary tremolo spstatic in string call (ex. 27PP-59)the horns accompany the two modal melodies With the second subject(ex. 28)ybegins a huge climax the exposition which concludes section. Ex. 28. Second subject, f. 8b (bar 2). a plateau idiom of which, tmolto his "loneliness tranquillot. utilizes the familiar





category., score,

melody boasting


in unambiguously and breadth an elegance have been marked tnobilmentel.




an Elgar whichpin After its initial

28 is pitted in counterpoint a new against 61) (ex. 29, the music ever closer which levers countermelody p. 61). (ex-30, Resolve blaze fanfares its to the climax of and p. statementoex.


Ex. 27-

Paa Vidderne symphonic poemp M to copyist's corresponding f-7a of the original MS.


7-ffl4, VQ&fAAO



-4 '-Q-xr Got 4


4-w tIz
#v r hm*z 3/4

wq", WDA"






Paa Vidderne symphonic poem, MS corresponding to copyist's f-30b of the original MS.

T.T-' 1 .3-




w J. JL

PA7,4#'I, F



tI S
Al 0

1 4 )




14 AA le




-71 I

AA 1'





Ex. 29.

Subsidiary f. qb (bar

theme, second 4)e--, %




Zr4 Aq (d f" a)3; -PAT.

'-' 2'

ejA&s d04S9




Ex-30- Climax fanfare, f. 12a (bar 3)-

The statement two Paa Vidderne above that Delius's had "almost than conceptions no other point-Of-contact" the Ibsen quotation of the symphonic on the title-page codasdominated from ex-26)is derived in by a resonant suddenly reined horn-callpat first Ifortissimot, then echoing away into the by the melodistance. It is a wonderful effect, achieved 60). (ex-31, drama's Wilderness motif p. its qualification poemygains dash in work. A headlong from the the dying moments of the by Energy motifs

The melodic material of the instrumental music of Delius's development and early maturity can in a great many instances be seen to be a continuation begun in the two of the line A table Paa Vidderne compositions. of themes which serves to is given melody' proliferation of 'mountain form in chapter the two. where its to of element contribution (see in Delius's is The list music considered of -PP-143-4). belongs to the types outworks where the melodic substance in-r in this lined large-scale includes the most of section B development, Deliusts the minor works strumental of such as (1897pwith Sonata(1892)pthe Piano Concerto Violin later illustrate this and the symphonic poem La Ronde se d4roule revisions) (first Those works which stand outside 1899). this version (the have textual large either a content grouping songs and


borrowed themes in special or utilize ways (the treatment rhapsodic of American folk songs in the first (1896), and the Norwegian National version of Appalachia Anthem and folk (1897))songs in Folkeraadet operas) the In other 'mountain wordsfthe melodyt suited surprising, composer seems to have regarded types as those elements of his melodic This may to symphonic treatment. for the great majority required of themes in for symcontrasted

vocabulary appear cited


section sufficiently - while have little character of the pliability Indeed,, the "loneliness phonic development.

rather in this

harmonylis to static group, allied manifestly to elaborationfwhile the various all grades of themes of "joy and exhileration" are sharp-edged and self-contained than rounded and plastic. rather The virtue tmountain of Delius's melody' which recomthis will also composition in chapter two - was the essential considered conit embodiedparising from the composer's trast own duality. Works as varied Over the Hills in design as the overture duality this as and Far Away and the Piano Concerto exploit a constructive principlepgleaning trast over extensive structures. The deliberate antithesis from of it balance and corimended its be further use in large-scale

and melancholy" ill-suited

in these extremes in by Delius effect scores was used to its most powerful Life A Mass his of one of the finest works of mature period, (1904-5)Part Two of the Mass begins with an instrumental melodic piece went his art the which represents in music of "loneliness to its barest timpani furthest point the and melancholy" Broad, repeated essentials. composer ever in reducing horn-calls)

hushed chords string whispered 67-bar It is the piece. constitute 63)(ex-32pp. Delius haunting tone-picture a of solitude * 'Auf den Bergen' to this title added the unsurprising "' the of score. movement in a second edition short and protracted, rolls total material of this

Robert is not given in present editions. 77. The title has pointed out that this prelude was actually Threlfall it by the afterthought composer; was added to the MS an first Part Two)tHeraufl the of proper movement after nun tDelius: a fresh glance herauflowas complete (see his article famous Times Musical (June 1984)PP-318 ). two scorest, at



A Mass of













to the first serves as a prelude movement Two, 'Heraufl Mittag1Ij nun herauf, du grosser invocation to the full the double choir a weighty employing forces and huge orchestral of the Mass. Marked 'Con elevazione e vigoret)the movement is the apotheosis of the affirmResolve ation common to all Deliusts it does melodies such as these: themes, employing as

The piece proper of Part




6 bars after

fig. 60.


11 .

Fig. 63.

t 5,
in motifs The peak of the movement is announcedthowever, Grandeur, one broadosoaring theme- ex-34(a) of typical by two noble ideas - (b) and (c): being attended Ex-34(a). Fig. 62. (b). Fig. 62 (c)-4. bars fig-61. after


78. The opening movement of A Mass of Life is nearly as fanfares in the occurring rich in tmountain melodylyResolve 5 bars before fig. 2, and oneg of-Delius's most memorable Grandeur melodies at fig-3-


Over are taken from the mountain-overture the Hills and Far Away. Predictably, mountains are the text used in predominant symbol in the Nietzsche poetic this passage: and "'Tis gone, the lingering sorrow of my Summer am I become, yea springtide. high summer's noon-tide, on mountain's suminits, by clear, cool waters, 'mid 0 come, my companrapturous stillness. ions, and the enrapture silence shall This is now our home, on the our souls. heights the neighbours of eagles, we, neighbours of the snows, neighbours of the sun. Like a sudden tempest comes my bliss, and brings me freedom. ""' The calculated impact of this the chorus, following flood quietude utter of the prelude of with a wonderful finest in A Mass of soundyis one of the composerts strokes Life. Mystery in nature two the and majesty sides of become by have time this as mountain-duality delineated sharply as night and day. is to It is the last time such an extreme antithesis be found in Delius's Indeed, at the time the Mass was music. (1904-5) he was moving quickly written away from writing by the thrusting music impelled energy of the "joy and Possible idioms of his earlier reasexhileration" periods. Delius's ons for of this development are not difficult to find. First for and had settled was now into middle-age, Paris. French village Grez-sur-Loing, outside of his his He had matured into a new period lifeyand of out of Delius youth. might have said of his mountain-exhileration allyDelius good in the he once said as "the Turbulenceythe With a part the great by the of his Lifels Joy, energy, Dance - that striving great it of described youth". $*



represented endeavour of youthful the two parts opening of A Mass of Life choruses-to life of Delius's came to a close. culmination

79. From Also sprach Zarathustra. Translation by William Wallacepriproduced in the sleeve notes accompanying the E. M. I. record set SLS 958. 80. Letter from Jelka Delius to Eric Fenby, 27 October 1933Quoted in RL P-72.


Secondlysthe poser's in his mature career.


period A more flexibleoflowing

of theme and treatment differed substantially line

in from




had evolved, breakthrough

with his own 1900s. That in the early change of lifestyle and direction Delius, who had been frustrated for many years by his lack of success in his homeland, should now cultivate an impressionistic softness of language at the expense of the teutonic boldness of the earlier periodymay not be unconnected with his types or Grandeur thematic Buts are not uncommon in the music of Delius's maturity. with the diminishing of the "great of youth"., their striving lack the spontaneity occurrences and fire which impelled them through of of the a past earlier mature Delius youth feature They become a stylized scores. languagelbetokening a happy thought heroic than instilling and idealism, rather of opera lovers with this transition are A Village Romeo and who are the main a Resolve motif change of fortune For all this, the in England. Resolution

and this was dependent on pliable motifs. A third possible reason is that Delius's as a composer in England happened to coincide

affirmation. The most striking illustrations embodied in the music of Deliusts (1899-1901). Juliet The two young characters here are often associated

JiTfl 4
- which display suits well in certain the

they youthful zeal and happiness Howeverpthe in scenes. phrase recurs many other contexts and moods than these most noticably *' Examples 35(a) (c) are some love-motif. as a poignant of the forms Resolve motifs assumed in mature Delius scores (see next page):

31. In the famous interlude The Walk to the Paradise Garden (which was added to the opera in 1907), Ddllus fashions a from this climax motif. passionatepemotional



A Mass of Life(1904-5))Part 2 bars belo-re fig. 69.

IrT Pt



Margot la Rouge(1901-2), I'Vous avez les traits...

Scene 52 "




the High


The Song of fig-13,,I

. 14 '11. )




!: Or *.







In 1911 appeared Delius's The Song of the High Hills for It was in reference to chorus. defined his duality

final large this


mountain-piece, and wordless Delius had

orchestra work that

By this unlikely dotted

to mountain nature: of approach "I have tried to express the joy and exhilin the Mountains eration and also one feels the loneliness and melancholy of the high Solitudes of the wide far and the grandeur The human voices distances. represent man in Nature; an episode, which becomes faintery "" then disappears altogether. stage in Delius's and exhileration" careerp"joy be translated rhythms and heroic to in


the springing the music into fanfares of the Paa Vidderne , While some hints behind lie of the youthful ardour scores. High Song The the the nobly restrained motifs of stylized of (seepfor fig-3)and Hills instancepthe themes at bar 1 after 1 bar pressed before fig-7), terms the of "joy more in and exhileration" lyricism. an exultant is here ex-

82. Unpublished from Delius letter to Norman O'Neill, (Delius Trust 1920 10 February archive).


Howeveryit after Hills the is early






creations. Delius's the

that exultant sections, to be one of the composer's revealed The essential are all constituents "loneliness mode: and melancholy" chordsyhorn-calls idiom

ensues The Song of the High most masterly assembled for

harmonypalternating Aeolian

- slowly-changing and a main theme in


bars before. fig. 18.

d~ Vey
F IE & lot OE


But Delius plane of of early



11 -XI (Z-;; p II,


has now lifted these all than ever suggested thought works have been transformed in a rollingpwinding

elements before. into

onto a higher The horn-calls

ostinato. and which prepares of horn-calls counterpoint the hushed the mood of announces withdrawn, subsequently the (which commences with ex-36), and throughout tplateaut gentle of their variations on ex-36 the embroidery central of shapes intertwining seems anglais or cor passing to hang like secrets. a mist over the mountains' The harmonic pace is at times slowed to a standstillp time altogether onto a the music seeming to move outside the The which with level mystery ethereal of contemplation. wordless whether mactic vocal texture (fig. as a single clothes disembodied 30)pseems the mountain-hymn)ex-36p voice or in the mighty remove it from of the wilderness. the most visionary clitemporal exDeliusts lines from horns to flutes

play an endless It is the quiet

statement to the existence The Song of of that


unworldly the High

solitude is Hills

pression mountain association Above the in the


contemplative The spiritual its natural entry

awe which runs through landscape it describesiby counterpartyis wild of the choirpDelius The great -

with first mystic

and lonely. has written

score I'The wide






Section Although dealt


11 ... und schenkt

uns Ruh"

final idiom herepthe with separately Delius's language founding of a pillar as worthy of mention does share many features chosen vocabwith the composer's described for "loneliness associations and melancholy" ulary In the present the recurin the previous section section. tranquillity, idiom peace of a sense conveying an rence of The image be most external considered. will and serenity coranon here more general Delius spiration musicpthese frequently in is sunset; frame 'pastoral' his periods the this of was extended reference. of natural gradually to a

plundered all

associations produced the is

for insymbols store Wherepin his mature of his career. in tranquillity naturephe are with tone poems by This style prevails Lark#Song of Summ-


which his art for example2in er and the and complete in common is Two/IV):

recognized. most widely Late Brigg FairpA of parts Fennimore and Gerda. with nature by Zarathustra


oneness voiced

The sense of serenity have these episodes which in A Mass df Life, (Part

Noon-tide "Glowing sleeps on the meadows. Softl ... in the heather. Thou liest hour of solemn silence This is the secret flute... his sounds when no shepherd Stay thy song - husht whisper not eten is grown perfect. a word. The world Hushl" such peaceful, period In his their in to music. tranquil passages are ha Hiawat Florida both the and suite most serene moments, , The third the movement the sunset. of symbol common share devoted the to largely energetic the suiteptSunsettpis of tone poems which form a But in the short Negro tDanzat. earliest be found tranquil mood prevails. a and epilogue prologue have alternating bars the muted strings For the closing horns which the call a repeated and patterns semiquaver Delius bars final In these hangs in the air(ex-37PPP-70-1)to the to prominence gives to the texture adding the sixth of the a characteristic sharp)v scale harmonic warmth. (F dance Already in Deliusts


Ex-37. Floriday3rd





& It

Via I

via 1!






it ppp Ca

11- Lit 1.4


fail 1. r 6 rv


sup 4p

Va. I





66: W 6i=W

ppp 4 A ,, prdj k J 4 .. R,. " L


T. u.
pp p pp fter-do PPW



As was noted in section one.. Hiawatha was based on Longfellowts Indeed, at several poem The Song of Hiawatha. in the manuscript it is evident that relevant places quotfrom the poem had been written ations above the music, then For some reason, Delius did not get as subsequently erased. far as erasing the final two quatrains, which head the closing bars of the tone poem: "Westward.. westward Hiawatha Sailed into the fiery sunseto Sailed into the purple vapors) Sailed into the dusk of evening. "Thus departed Hiawathay Hiawatha the Beloved) In the glory of the sunset, In the purple mists of evening. The similarity in texture Hiawatha - ex-38, PP-73-4 The horn-callspsemiquaver sixth Delius



of the peaceful closing pages of to that is of ex-37 self-evident. -

in muted stringspadded ostinati harmony and near-static harmony are all present. Shortly the completion in January after of Hiawatha


to match the serenity again endeavoured of the sunsets time in response to the poetic imagery of Andreas Munch's this Sunset. 93Interestingly in this solo songithe piano writing idiom of the two orchestral the sunset resembles closely (like The the tremolo the haze scores. ostinato rhythms of of string horn-calls) ative, fragments hand (like in the left melodic and frequent added sixth chords give this evoc(see delicate its song special character ex-399P-75): sound),

83. Though it is not possible to date the song preciselyp between June and September 1888. it was probably written


Ex-38- Hiawatha,

MS corresponding to copyist's f-33b - f-34a of the original MS.

In in

the the

glory purple

of the mists

sunset of evening.



21; r, 08,






(Ex-38. cont. )







Ex-39- Sunset, opening.

Andante quietoquAsoAllegretto.

'Nun %,..

-. 1




s. Q


he s.;L:

in The



qjot;: mw 0)



. 1w dow

des S, hat

Ruh tt-n und schenktun%

FVv bl" J& AIIKU


J in


ra . dwace b1c,t

L N.& t mit




The use of tonic only Delius's chords of in music in

an added sixth these examples this idiom.

which has been noted feature is a harmonic




The section on elements of language influenced by Negro folk to music brought light for the colour in melodic figa pennhant of the sixth But the deliberate uration. emphasis placed on chords with in these tranquil is not generally an added sixth pieces found elsewhere. The warmyrich imparted texture to simple harmony by the associations In the added sixth for Delius. seems to have had quite particqj, ar

forms illustrated here it is not immediately simple how these recurring evident characteristics could constitute described as "a founding what was earlier pillar of Delius's Nevertheless, language". in these first attempts rudimentary in himself the means whereby he might express his to find sense of musical out his and rich the composer and tranquillity, serenity for ideas which would prove to be valid The ostinato fhythmsmelodic cell career. added-note harmony came upon him throughor call

to a Itranquillot setting coupled III Delius's in Scene in of music: again and again return (1899-1901)pin Romeo and Juliet A Village numerous passages the end of the song The in In a Summer Garden (1908)Pat Gold (1910)tand has a Lyre of Nightingale at the end of


the Air and Dance (1915)pto name but a few. Example 40 (P-77) shows an episode from one of the works Delius was the illness of his late years put a stop on before working (1924Y for Late Lark tenor to all and orchestra writing -A 1929). by dictation completed by a setting of these lines: "A late lark twitters And from the west, The given from the passage quiet is preceded


Where the sun., his dayts work ended, Lingers jt14as in content ......

In the The poetic imagery isphere, once more of the sunset. A Late between Hiawatha Florida intervening and and years LarkpDelius's language had reached a high degree of sophistYetpwhen - in late life ication complexity. and harmonic /A he would suggest 'tan influence luminous shining and serene.. is fundamentally that of idiom which he invokes peacellpthe Bars had Hiawatha into the "purple sailed. vaporslt which 6-7 of ex-40 in particular features. the recurring embody all 'serene' the Several the of elements of constituent formulated idiom Delius in his early scores were also typical in discussed in 'solitude' the the music mountain-scores of two. section ence between foundations. and horn-call differtimes, the principal only andpat harmonic is their the two idioms respective While rhythmic rhythm slow harmonic ostinati, Indeed, types of the fragmented melody might

characterize texture the both warm sunset and wilderness, of evocations dis-, harmony in wholly a mood sunset music creates of the the In from its desolate of place tinguishable counterpart. chords) bare 4ths and 5ths and modal shadings, here are full or other of added submediant adorned with the luxury often Deliusts in The difference is yet tones. small and subtle, between the solitude gap sensibilities poetic C> dissolution The is evidently of sense crucial. landscapes of the to the timelesspemotionless clearly complete, contrast natural with world the of sense of resolution his serene episodes. and serenity appertaining wilderness in the perfected)

34. From W.E. Henley:


and Death





A Late 2-Bars

Lark (1924-29)p fig-2. before fig-1 -


as die

in con - tent. Son- ne noch. &r r-M -L-J[, r



dd IUA'. W]

L. A H.

---- - --------

# xi

fills filit
an! -I LA tr tt

on auf

the old, grey dit al -

ci - ty Stadt
Ob. *P

An fin

in - flu - ince strah - kn - der

I Ow

lu - min - ous Frig - de,

and se Ein ver



sft [add WAV- & HILS] 0f .p .

rene, Abyr

A shin - ing ter, Ittz - ter

peace. Schrin.
Ob. 0. ff








The poetic choice of his bleak symbol

imagery for


of sunset is a favourite and ideal Delius. However, as was the case with idiom, it is the poetic mood which is

the composer's is incidental

range of idioms were not

imagery the associated primary stimulus; and mayfin fact, be drawn from a limitless That Deliusts appropriate experiences of nature. dependent on poetic formulae for imagery turned out natural symbols

as stock programmatic given by one of the composer's is well illustrated early songs. (1889-90, The poem of the well known Twilight Fancies Bjornson). 95employs one natural image, which completes each Verse one is as follows: verses. "The Princess lookId forth from her maiden bowIr. The horn of a herd-boy rang up from below. 10h, cease from thy playingpand haunt me no mores Nor fetter my fancy that freely would soars When the sun goes down, when the sun goes down"' The imagery is of sunset and twilight, but the musical language is not that noted in the sunsets of Florida, Hiawatha and the (see Sunset song ex-41, next page): of the three

35- Prinsessen Although Norwegian. in the original the manis lostpthe composed originally song was probably uscript In Abendstimmung. the title to a German translationounder -title Evening first English it its tF-e edition was given 'Stimmungf(mood) Voicesothe translator confusing possibly and 'Stimmet(voice).






Andante tranquillo ed espressivo VOICE

ad libitum 333333 I-T:





j -: -:::

con Tia



Prin - cesslook'd forth

from her maid - en bow'r.

The horn


a herd - boy rang



harmare horn-calls)repeated rhythms and near-static foundation ony - but the harmonic of nakedpcold consists intervals, between with an ambiguous tonal centre slipping B minor and G minor. In spite imagery in the of the natural is manifestly the solitude poempthis with music associated It evokes the chill moods of the wilderness. of human loneliness than the serenity rather which might be deduced to be the human response This beautiful to sunset. expression be further in of solitude and longing will considered two. chapter On several before in the period he devoted occasions (around 1890)yDelius himself had tried to opera composition out idiomatic the basic of spreading colours tserenel Most notof the early over a larger canvas. pieces able here are the first movement - headed 'Pastorale' - of (1888)16 and the small for violin the Suite and orchestra the effect poem Summer Evening (1890). As the principal examples of





DT vol-3

(LL pp. 23-4)-


compositions making substantial use of the idiom before it became a common feature of Delius's mature "? interest. stylesthese pieces are of special Delius's 'Pastoralel to the seems to bear some relation 'Pastoralel by eighteenth tradition established century it opens with and makes much use of a 'drone' composers: bass in open 5ths (a common feature Delius of early scoress however)sand favours in melodies the reed tone of the oboe. It emergessneverthel-esssthat the Movement is a miniature tone poemsthe music intended by the composer to create a mood poetically associated with pastoral natureo The opening is oddly out of character with the remainder of the movementspresenting a rather pedestrian modaltinted theme; it is with the second subject that a relation'serene' ship with earlier scores can be sensed. The tonic major chord is here repeated Ex-42. rhythms Second ornamented with an added sixthpand pervade both the melody and accompaniment: 2a (bar 4)-



of which of this material ensue, the last In the introduces feature. perhaps the work's most. significant figuration woodwindosnatches of melodic are tossed about (ex-43op-81). from one instrument With their to another repetitions


87- A handful of other which have probably not idiom that the pastoral Delius around 1889-90; Spring Morning (ldgOlET

orchestral works from this period, titles which suggest survivedphad may have been quite widely used by Idylle de Printemps (1889, RT p. 127)9 p-129) and Autumn (189opRT-p. 129).



-. -!,








- --j

: =:.


a --


Ex-43- Suite for violin, I. -f-3b

(Reproduced with the permission of The Delius Trust)




Suite for violin, MS Ipcopyist's to f. 10b - f-lla corresponding MS. of the original

3 gum

CL44bwr 2


i&. -Q96 0.


& 5"0



V, A"


, IAl


I'L* 4 Lu

, IK"




configuration related the sunset

are evidently textures of The idea is wind

and rhythmic repetition, to the horn-calls which passages in Florida

motifs cut into the and Hiawatha.


calls opens Florida. changes of such calls A further of Irmelin,

also an obvious extension birdsong in the imitating As single cells, making and with stress to Delius's peculiar of first the this idiom this opera;

of the isolated wood'dawn chorust which and abrupt entries tone, on the submediant " tone poems. pastoral took place in Act III be considered will in


are development Deliusts

triplet solo violin's rippling in primary chord arpeggiation runs with the added sixth the whole movement. In the final characterizes pages these have passed into the orchestral the solo arabesques violas, in trills towards the top of its range, a solo rises violin of fasten in contrary down the simple motion, cellos sinks harmonic to a quiet tonic/dominant progression pedal and At this the woodwind call motifs. moment - ex-44, out their 82 is tranquil of achieved resolution without sense p. -a pre-operatic output. equal in the composerts by many years the developThe 'Pastoralet anticipates idiom by composers of the English pastoral ment of a similar horn school. Delius's dates singular still One work unknown from 1914isolated talent far from which provides score, Vaughan to a remarkable parallel The Lark Ascending, Williamst

three. chapter The colouring


indicate a passages of the 'Pastoralet is in the use of idiomatic colour, Delius his ideas. Superfluin extending proficient

are needed to give the work of material ous repetitions in face The the compothe bulk. composer problems same any The Evening. Summer his tone material, poem small of sition

88. A similar,, pentatonically-coloured (P-53) in birdsong ex-21 was seen


associated call the penultimate

with bar.


as in colour

the of

'Pastoralet)has his tserenet

much of the idiompand little

lyrical of

charm and the plasticity

the argument of a work of suband energy needed to carry The material is also scant, comprising basically stance. the following two themes: Ex-45(a). Opening





theme, bar



treatment)the for thematic First, content it

These of

providelthrough episodic A-B-A structure. a 74-bar Summer Evening is notable in its pastoral exquisite idiom)a

attains of the

in the and uniquely includes a powerful - contains it a climaxoplaces of earlier scores. balance and motion ex-45(a)

essentials Secondlyo mood of peace and repose. pre-maturity music of this genre, it lyrical That the main theme climax. codapby enough rhythmic tension from the of serenity to spring such floating themes to rhythmic element in Delius's Delius's passages; discussion early it to

two reasons. the combining

somewhat apart This sacrifice is to

achievement of continuous The instances of the

become a primary flow in his music. 'serene' idiom brief this in

in music are numerous, often occurring has therefore been necessary to limit One song is worth examples. principal illustration, of Jacobsen

Danish Dreamy Nights however. dates from late in the period set by Delius) (1891), but is one of the most economical under consideration Its poetic in Deliusts text settings output. and musical

in further noting (Lyse Nmtter in the




been discussed

together here:






"On shore how stilloall nature seems asleep; like deep; the silent a silver path now lies blending the Heaven softly with the waves) the sunset glow the surface laves. 11 Ex-46. Dreamy Nightssopening.
Quiet sooldreamy f pp)
On huw


L Flo


r Pedale







1. 0 -,


The rhythmic ostinatopharmonic features ation are familiar imagery. But

the poem also "And gazing thus there seems to float in sight a vision soft of childhood pure and bright: How strangely glad that dreamy night. " In its bridges the two early simple way Dreamy Nights periods For its combination of Delius's career. of nature and innotheme of Delius's cence is to prove the central music in the 1890s.

pedal and added sixth colourto the sunset now in response introduces a new idea:


Section During


Delius -



Era of



the forty the deaths of years which separate Weber and Beethoven and the composition of Tristan und Isoldeothe doors of music were thrown wide open to the influence The Romantic of Romanticism movement, which . emerged in the poetry of the late eighteenth centuryyreflected the convergence the social of two currents: revolution which into political intellectual increased brought focus, bias of freedom and dignity of the individual to the and the aesthetical the Enlightenment. reaction Bringing

emphasis on human emotion, senses in interpreting human experience and on their validity of the world, the Romantic movement created in which a climate Individualism in art. might thrive Musicoemploying a language of

with it an and imagination,

feelingpwas sublimated not the Romanticist who wished tity: ideas the composer had to seek assistance in external At the same time, and symbols to convey Romantic content. it had been the tendency to aspire ever of literary arts The Romantic music's powers of towards suggestion. more being with movement in music can be said to have come into in Romantic opera. the fusion of arts So exciting the mixwas the potential, so inflammable the this tureythat vital years is probably period of forty in in musical history)with most chaotic experimentation combinations position. within the and many new forms The possibilities for creative of arts Romantic of programmatic comself-expression

thought abstracted and essentially an ideal medium for idento lay bare his individual

have been explored constantly aesthetic fury Yet, because in then. than ofsthe spite since ofprather blaze burned Romantic fire in the the music, with which Wagner. its brightest quicklyyin reached relatively point Broadly erst assertions Whereasoprevious had been the the speaking, the Romantic movement allowed composof themselves as a principal creative goal. the composer to the cult of the Individual, formal for expressing impulses vehicle musical that end, so to speak - music now became the

means to


the composerts identity. Means and for each Romanticist end wereoto some extent composero Carl Dahlhaus has described interchangeable. this altered function in music in the following of expressivity way: vehicle expressing "Ever since the Sturm und Drang it was a firmly held bellef that the essence of genius was originality; meaningopsychologically, that musicians speak of themin their than depict selves musicorather from a detached emotions standpointothat they 'must be moved themselvesoin order P. E. Bach). In the 19th to move others'(C. centuryoand especially with Wagnerothe being an interexpressive principleofrom pretative aesthetic as it originally was in both opera and keyboarq musicobecame a "M compositional aesthetic. belonged the generation of composers to which Delius dominance Individthe of taken for granted. was widely figures make their principal in the force with which


For the

post-Wagnerian generation in the creative ualism aesthetic Many of Romantic music's leading contribution they express to the their

of the any assessment value of their music commonly takes place within a frame of The passionately fact. this reference which recognizes lyrical language in TchaikovskyoRakhmaninov and Skryabin) the impressions DeliusoDebussy external and Sibelius, of musical and the and natural forces in eccentricity rhythmic charactersuch individual in history of Romanticism work a late-Romantic how far the peculiar-

art precisely individual identity;

IvesoScott andylateroGrainger: of in the istics are the milestones The more strongly Individualist music. ispthe

more it is assessed in terms of into ities of the composerts visionotransformed personal A set of values expressed a universal vision. music)also Individualist is necessarily to works of strong applied to in subtle ways from that applied which differs content works of kovskyxin the typical conservative a penetrating shift of nineteenth century composers. of Griegoillustrates assessment



89. Carl Dahlhaus: Wagner' in The New Grove Dict'Richard 20, p. 118. ionary of Music (London, 1980)yvol.


"Grieg's less mastery is perhaps considerably than Brahms'sthe shaping of his music less sublimexhis goals and aspirations not so allto fathom embracing; an unconscious struggle infinite depths seems to be wholly lacking. On the other handphe is much closer to usihe is much more kindred to us, and understandable because he is deeply human. When we precisely hear Grieg we instinctively that recognize by a person driven by this music was written the help an irresistible need to express)with of sounds, a deeply poetic, natural stream of emotions and moods - without compromise to theories and rules ... but rather way to giving the demands of a livingpgenuinely artistic feeling. There is no point in searching for completeness stubbornly of formpstringlogic in thematic ency and faultless argument in the music of the Norwegian .... On the hand, how enchantingyspontaneous other and is his musical imagination. ""* rich (Grieg) The Individualist to the instinctives appeals human" side of the critical "deeply faculty. Yet the Traditionalist struggle to (Brahms) fathom has in infinite taken An answer a definition his to to favour be less this of the his "unconscious this latter, of the depths". What is question

rather mysticoquality, the Individualist? end, refer back to

characteristic mustyin

meaning of music and in music -a the problem of what constitutes greatness its thorns)is problem whichpfor all grasped instinctively (represented by all by Tchaikovsky critics above) in their that lesser undefinedlyet assuredpassumptions and greater can be classified. genius In the literary between recognized world the burden of criticism on the degree to which an rests has reflected the universal of the conexperience artist flicts This is not the case in abstract artssuch of life. The languages of music and sculpture as music and sculpture. links to the material are referentiallwithout world. concrete (The referential language tension: the of music is tonal reference emotional of is to the tension emotions, to the experience of Sculpture and release. employs a language to the inflections and lines reference sphere of arts, where the physical a direct relationship and its representationp may be


90. ed-I. I. Tchaikovsky: Drevniki P. I. Chaikovskovo (Diaries) 1923)P-370 ff '(Moscow-Petrograd.. in Norwegian in Jon-Quoted Roar Bjerkvoldfs 'Peter Tsjaikovskij article og Edvard GriegAndsfrenderloStudia kontakt to MusicoloZica mellom en Norvegby the present ica (1976)PP-38pand translated author.



gesture). versal experience are instinctively is is the the abstraction


to unirelationship of the material world, these abstract arts judged by the criterion of form - for form That is to say, form of human experience. a concrete simultaneous complexity is the the complexity and unity infinite


is the sense challenges, and the unity by which the challenge In is overcome. of purpose and will this in way abstract arts are joined with other art forms: the spiritual in spite representing odyssey achieved of of endless favourable defeat. to spiritual conditions Tchaikovsky seeks in music, as a sign of "completeness of form, stringency and faultless thematic argument". He looks be revealed to form because can there possibly taneous complexity genius. finite simply And is depths" its masteryy logic in

of intricacy

embodiment of the human experienceywhere

mastery of and unity which is evidence of sublime to fathom innot the "unconscious struggle (which he feels in Grieg) to be deficient

only there the flux of simul-

towards this a struggle mastery? The stock of great nineteenth if symphonists, century In the this is accepted, stands high. criterion of judgement Mahler masterpieces of Beethoven, Schubert, Brahms)Bruckner, himself, the struggle andpto a certain extent, Tchaikovsky towards the ideal and of "completeness of form, stringency faultless logic" went on. But where does this leave the Individualist composition? Is not the aim of manifesting identity a and individuality creative appertaining majority izes the which of goal in conflict essentially with the universality the great to the mastery of form? In practicepin force casesythe which characterof personality of a composer may identify: is the manifested process of in ways with


is abstraction such goes in, so to speak, as rampant individuality Put another in human nature. waypthe comes out as a shading vision which inspires each Individualist personal may, when to the tunityt into musicscorrespond translated of human everyone that what experience yield which, in its a succesful form. relationship with having Without to complexity, qualify the can


personality/nationalism/eccentricity or whatis possible to speak of greatness in some Individeveryit (La Mer, The Song of the High Hills., ualist compositions Mahlerfs Fifth Symphony, Shostakovich's Symphony, and Fifth so forth), where the conjunction of a deeply personalsyet unifyingivision and complexity a valid essay in form. create Where the greatest in knowing where to problems arise apply the instances has not vision. the power of the ego is the essence Wagner is the leading figure of RomanticismpRichard of Romanticism in music. A whole cosmos, created by the ego of the composer and conforming in Der Ring des to ittexists Nibelungen. The charactersythe actionstthe words and the individmusical characterizations of one all are products Howeverothe is self-containedt ual. cosmos of associations looking it is not an image of life, always in on itself; but of its Like Valhalla, it crumbles creatorts at the will. final curtain. The majesty of the Ring edifice does not conceal that full the work, as a wholelis and puzzles. of contradictions Deryck Cooke has pointed over the Ring out that puzzlement began even before to the the music was composed. In response August R6ckel asked#"Why, friend poem of the cycle Wagner's is restored to the Rhine, do the Gods still since the Rheingold that the complete experience doubts. The rash of interpretative the appearance of the opera cycle did however: satisfaction, perish? tended ". Wagner did not find this to answersbut conof the opera would allay which followed commentaries easy not seem to indicate Precisely because aforementioned criteria of Judgement are in those Individualism of Romantic music where excessive translated to a universally readily appreciable



"EvidentlysThe Ring had not set feeling at rest, for the intellect to search and plenty remained for. Worse still, infound itself the intellect the objects of its of discovering capable search. " " 91. Deryck Cooke: I Saw the 'Ring, ', (London)l97-9-), p. 2. World End: A Study of Wagnerts


A unifying



not the

easily changes





concept. Enormous about put only


werepWagner's into perspective. be termed to great

contribution Indeedpit within the

he brought and developments to to music is difficult is likely that Wagner can limitations of the Romantic

is erapthat is possible be measured For the ors.

It in art. saypin an era when Ego was great that his most valuable mayactually) contribution in terms of what he made possible for his success-

post-Wagnerianstindividual was assumed vision in being moderated by a traditas a point-of-departure)but, ional sense of the validity of form, did not necessarily disable genius. A most interesting increased importance of relationships post-Wagnerian the miniature. development The intense was the tonal can be

making up post-Tristan chromaticism the regarded as a telescoping events of an of complexity being implied tonality extensive passage in pre-Wagnerian (though not enacted) in a brief space. Thus, a miniaturist (Grieg, again, for example) of genius can in a song or a piano cameo not attain conceptionpbut suggest It is symptomatic achievement of a symphonic that greatness. and symbolize had Individualism of how predominant the formal

become after Wagner that in the examit has been possible ination in this to identify of Delius's early period chapter four idiomatic areas of his language which would serve the the end of his composer as basic elements of his art until Even for his period Delius's career. case is somewhat extreme he devoted himself to composing at a relatively at Leipzig) mature age (he was 24 when he enrolled In the preceding no doubt played its part. years the events had been such as to make him markedly selfof his life (P-35)pDelius As and self-indulgent. reliant noted earlier respect. could write in 1888, I have In life been left to my so much .... I have become egotistic that own resources it & have really only without realizing & worked for myself., ' cared about myself in this That


by Delius In spite the of egocentricity of this profession four areas of his language considered in this already chapter individuality indicate that the manifestation of Deliusts The forms sense of appreciable. universally would assume, idiom capturespthe awe mystic resolution which his tserenet his the mountainof and affirmation of his deeply-rooted these personof parts are exhileration his language throughout integral they of and are parts ality, The acquiring his compatible with of a technique career. his twildernesst the nature noticeably achieving of his personality deficient in the lyrical continuity, this study it falls into most many years: early works are the means for development thematic and formal will be seen that much of of place with the evolution brings And this to the forefront also in the music. which period early Paradoxically) was to take

During unity. language Delius's his

harmonic chromatic style. that fourth area of idiomatic colour the simplepprimitive appeal of Negro it is this most exotic of influences provide the composer with his most

or would compose great works three the roots of that achievement are already self-indulgent supremely To conclude this early years.

eventually will Delius theme. universal four times in his life: planted also in these

sectionymention self-indulgence essential of negative side-effects of this In the Individualists. in the music of Delius and other degrees# Romantic composers are; to varying fact that all juxtafrequent for the lies the explanation self-indulgent composers century among the works of nineteenth position To the self-indulgent trivia. and appalling of masterpieces idioidiosyncrasy between difference and great artistpthe syncratic possible In Verdits Ninth whose not easily greatness to see, even in Beethoven, is distinguishable. such It is errors and omega is of judgement. Beethoven's


be made

opinion,, 11[t]he Symphony, whose first last movement is

alpha three movements are sublimepand Grieg put his name very badly set. 1111 of Giuseppe Verdi

? 2. Letter ed. Charles

in Letters April, 1878, given of 205Osborne, New Yorkjl971)'Yp.


Dances),? as well as the SlAtter(Folk Delius OP-72, the astonishing crown of his later years. Nietzsche's achievedpin in A Mass of Life Pa setting poetry , spirit of timeless affirmation and aspiration; yet his to convey the same spirit in the Requiem using attempts his own words, resulted in a dreadful self-parody sort -a of doctrine of decadence. salon pieces In also the titles of one of the least Throughout the ualism. these two Delius works is reflected favourable aspects of Romantic Individperiod composers



that were convinced heritage by or sieved through a great poetic which was altered their personal vision or interpretation could but profit from the conjunction. Shakespeare 'interpreted') was endlessly Religious traditions. poets and other poetic ritual was not deemed too sacred by Wagner for it to be a for illustration in a music-drama. In most of these subject works, what might seem - given a Romantic perspective "a deliberate popular character without either condescension .... light or unconscious compromise". 913can appear in a different "* as mere tastelessness. A final by-product blinknegative of the Romanticistts with other ered creative life to which is the a weakness all among them. four groups tendency towards highly idiosyncratic The idiomatic mannerism. composers It is are along

in this considered chapter are .. flagging and might be called upon to buttress This is a fairly inspiration. common trait of Delius's output) not only in the early period, but perhaps more so in the late By the time he came to write mature period. such pieces as

pronepDelius istic of the imitated, easily



93- Martin Cooperfin reference to the finale of Beethovents Ninth Symphony: Beethoven - the Last Decade (Londonpl970)p P-32794. Barzun (OP-cit-PP-397) "the Romanargues.. howeverothat ticist's absorbing of all great poetry as his proper food is a sign of true simplicity and right reason. "


On Hearing Dance tone (1915) idiosyncratic









and of small

he had assembled such a wide vocabulary he could write turns that of phrase

to the unbridled recourse poems without powers of imagIt is, neverthelesspt ination. weakness which has been greatly by some comrdentators. In the penultimat-e exaggerated chapter of this be offered study some suggestions will as to how this be placed in a more realistic element of his art might (see PP-336-9). perspective For the most part, Delius be accused of turning cannot but his idiomatic in set response to recurrent phraseology As noted earlierphis ideas. idioms bridge many types of



Andjas with Griegs instinctively this that we recognize .... by a person driven by an music was written irresistible the help need to expresstwith of soundspa deeply poeticonatural stream of emotions and moods-"




The Formative (II)__Aspects_of


1885-1892: Lanpuag,.e


Section The idiomatic in chapter character. in Florida, clear one give From the his


Main Influences


early music examined of Delius's his writing an individualsdistinctive became firstswhen his creative skill

in recognizable own stamp is already the unusual use of traits of Negro folk music. And in the Norway-inspired years in Paris, of his first compositions Delius drew upon personal of mountain-mystery experience in depicting the moods of the wilder and mountain-majesty ness in his tone painting. Remarkable though it is that his first works should that is inevitable possess a high degree of individualitysit betrays the influence of the bulk of Deliusts early writing The discussinexperience. other composers and his technical chapter one of individual elements of his language least bound by tradcentred on those areas of composition to ition therefore most sensitive expertise, and technical and When the the impression and rhythm. of personality: melody layer of idiomatic colour is peeled away from the surface of Florida, Hiawatha and similar early worksomuch of what the product of an aspiring comremains is clearly student poser. In the harmonic language of his early musicsDelius's in matters of form and main influences are self-evident; do his efforts though they orchestration are unremarkable, intricacies. to master their show his determination Neverthelesssiust of personal as a composer's expression ion in also experience may mark his music with his individualitypso is it individual both his sympathies taste which dictates with other composerst styles and his choice of means of In the sections technical iradequaciesovercoming on Deliusts


and form which make up the orchestration is frequently major part of this chapter, reference made to the influence of three composers in particular who consti(to use Deliusts tute own words) his "musical parentage"; Chopin, Wagner and Grieg. Before the aforementioned aspects of Deliusts early technique are examined, it is worthwhile isolating the areas of these composerst music which made the most impact upon him. "My first impression was great musical hearing the posthumous Valse of Chopin which a friend of my father's played for It made a me when I was ten years old. impression most extraordinary on me. Until then, I had heard only HaydnsMozart and Beethoven, and it was as if an entirely new world had been opened up to me-"" Deliusts for the music of Chopin remained great affection from childhood to old age. Thomas Beecham has said constant of Deliusts that only "Chopin and the later musical tastes Wagner enjoyed his complete favour, although on a slightly lower level he had an honest affection for much of Grieg-111 Chopin's influence on the course of music in the second half of the nineteenth century was enormous. As Wagner and Grieg can be counted among those whose harmonic styles owed how is futile much to that influencesit to try and evaluate directly from his knowledge of Chopints much Delius benefited how much indirectly from Chopints successors. musictand Indeed, there is very little by language Griegts absorbed of Delius which cannot be traced further back to Chopin. While the Norwegian was a close friendland his music nearer to Delius, Chopin's music was perhaps dearer to him. That it is impossible here. The to untangle is unimportant the threads to the harmonic crucial point is that Delius was attracted freedom which characterized the music of both men. Primarily, this freedom is evident for in a love of chordal sonority its own sake, but the blurring function and tonality of chordal was a desired side-effect. (London, 1. Quoted by Philip Heseltine in Frederick Delius 1923), P-52. Sir Thomas Beecham: Frederick (Londonpl959), P-195Delius




their visation on the taken writing




into their

and Chopin
existence music




was placed emphasis combinations of harmoniessand of unusual effects Abraham, Gerald off structural conventional procedures. of Chopin's

sonorities keyboard; in


he has pointed out that concertos, "demonstrates that the beauties of keyperceived relationship and key-balance by all the Viennese masters classical Chopints to him.... weakness meant nothing only by the of key-sense was equalled 3 weakness of his sense of development". Among the most significant in chordal usage advances Chopin's music diminished

his progressions of may be counted 7th andimore importantlygdominant unresolving 7th chords; 7ths to unexpected the resolution of dominant (9th, l1th chords# chords; of added-note sequences chords from derived avoiding etc. ); and a fluid chromatic style made in and passing-notes. appoggiaturas resolution of chromatic "Pianistic figuration alteration", writes creates chromatic Wilfrid Mellers music, of Chopin's that "indeed)there notes are so many taltered' become the unresolved a submay appoggiatura Far from estabfor the frealf note. stitute harmony Chopin's lishing tonality, classical A it: disguise the to minor seeks mysteriously instancepis present of the second Prelude, for flow Passing by implication. chords mainly they cease that beneath his fingers so rapidly become to have tonal an and significance, of colour-11" effect The "effect the is a phrase which sums up well of colour" To Grieg Chopints result sonority. of exploration of chordal and Delius, valuable Deliusts as also legacy. to Debussy to and Ravel, Wagner in it his was his rhythmic most patterns the


and in the shaping of his melodies was noted of the contours in chapter to study devoted one. In later of this sections Delius's stage worksomany most characteristic of Wagnerts

3. Gerald Abraham: Chopin's Musical Alec Harman and Wilfrid I Mellers: L-ondon, 1971), pp. 811-12,



Man and His Music,


also be seen to have played their Liketechnique. of Delius's operatic harmonic language and present chapter, Deliusts for to an enormous admiration textures testify orchestral Wagnerian precedents. Howeverlin the area of harmonic influwith those encesthe shadow of Wagner behind Delius overlaps instancespand very many. of Chopinvin of Griegoin certain It is probable to the that both Wagner and Grieg contributed harmonic vocabulary of deceptive cadences presence in Delius's music-drama part in the wise in the procedures fashioning will of dominant 7th chords, abrupt and (often chromatic) unusual modulationisliding sequences of diminished 7th and dominant 7th chords, and the proliferation 7ths, as they 7ths (or talteredt diminished of half-diminished are also known). Delius had few opportunities of hearing or studyprobably ing the music of Wagner before he arrived in Leipzigpwhereas with unexpected resolution sonatas and songs of Grieg had been his musical comOnce his inspiration in Florida. panion since childhoodpand in Leipzig, though., "Wagner had become his musical god. There 5 Delius Tristan. " were sleepless of nights upon performances , himself that he and Grieg "often went to the Opera recalled the were and tMeistersinger, constantly given and of course we never missed a performance-11,6 In the end, the clearest influence sign of Wagner's direct harmon Delius is the degree to which Wagnerian expressive his in the elements listed onyvincluding above, predominates in the microcosm early music. This is particularly noticeable intensity of his songs, where the emotional of his harmony together, 'Nibelungent, tTristant the intensity marks an early peak in his development; from the frequence harmonies of chromatically altered deceptively weighted cadences and progressions. arises and for

5. Eric Fenby: Delius 6. Delius: tRecollections CLL/1, PP-394-5-

(London, 1971)tp. 24Given of Griegt.

in Appendix

IV of


between Grieg and The close personal relationship Delius has been mentioned in chapter one. In the course him from Delius is it that received shown of this chapter also advicesbut and much valuable not only a friendship foundation for built he a the with which many of materials held Grieg to be It is clear that Delius his own technique. than important was generally artist and original much more a acknowledged: "At a time .... when it was the custom to speak disparagingly of the composer Grieg#Delius in expressing had not the least hesitation for the genius of this little his admiration Grieg is particNorwegian. fAs a harmonist excellenttthe would crypand would ularly then cite passages from his songs. "" As was the case with ChopinjGriegts value to Delius was in unthe Iteffect that he revealed of colour" principally is noticable to harmonic usage. But his influence orthodox in practically early all aspects of Deliusts some extent technique;
here. Melodic out Griegfs and rhythmic 'fingerprints' which appearance output also make their descendis the Perhaps known these the of scores. most well dominanto leading ing melodic formed by tonic note cell Concerto Piano Grieg's in the recognizable of opening phrase and this have in countless the phrase other instances in his music. In allowing same degree Delius himself, typical which Grieg would of emphasis friend. his begs comparison with his in the early of cell examples throughoccur in Deliusts

Griegian traits, which some of the more peripheral below, are worth mentioning are not dealt with in more detail

it given The following compositions: Ex-l(a).


Paa Viddernepmelodramat T-wopopening. Section

ki -4

7- Paul Klenau: 'The Approach to Deliust ion(ed. Redwood, London, 1976). -P-34-


A Delius





Act III,




to Sc. 2-


instances in Grieg's similar music, see his op. 2g, no. 1, bars 4-5; OP-33, no-2, bar 24; OP-33, no. 8obars 2-3)More obviously features derivative of Delius's are several to Norwegian folk music but writing which belong originally filtered through to him in the tSpringarttIHalling' and other dance forms adapted by Grieg for his own use. The influence emon Grieg (and perhaps Delius) of Chopintwho earlier inflections, traditional should also be kept Heavily folk-dance rhythms make accentuated This rhythmic their cell, appearance early in Grieg's output. JJJ JI f or instance is used in the third movement of the Piano Sonata, op. 7; it reappears on two in Deliusts occasions early scores - in the Rhapsodische (1888) and the opening of the third Variationen movement of his early string (1888). quartet While this rhythmic in evidence is little idiosyncrasy Delius's after earliest, most Norway-orientedoperiodstwo further folk music/Chopin/Grieg-derived elements of his language reappear in melodies throughout the his career; For Lydian Aeolian the the use of mordentstand modes. of and ployed similar in mind here. most partothe echo of Grieg mordent sounds like a distinct inin his early scores (seesfor when employed by Delius he seems But in mature compositions stance, ex. 2 (b p. 102) -. to have chosen the contexts for its use with great sensitivity; in order to it is employed either on various occasions instil into a melody a sense of folk-like ingenuousness, (fig. 19)vor a dance-song of A Mass of Life as in the first timeless spirit, of The Song-of the as in the mountain-calls (between fig. 23 and fig-29). High Hill The recurrence of -s the Aeolian mode in Deliusts from Paa Viddmountain-scapes been commented has already erne to The Song of the High Hills


68). Lydian (see fact The that in and PP-49 on chapter one in Delius's inflections only as melodies become prominent he approached the end of his period of development might the for by Grieg's be partly mode of use sparing accounted late stage of his career: until a relatively is particularly It .... the use of the Aeolian his in Grieg's modality of characteristic The Lydian is the mode that early music .... has been especially associated and generally idiom; harmonic Griegts and melodic with in frequency its naturallypon account of Norwegian folk music. But in the early stages Grieg does not make such a pronounced use of it as he does later. 111 device be Finallypspecial of a common made mention must with folk music connections which was to have very wide the in the development style; applications of Delius's 'drone' bass or pedal point. The uses Delius made of tonic and tonic/dominant pedals in his early music have obvious in the music of Grieg, in whose folk-dance compoprecedents his In foundation. they sitions provide a naturalpinevitable Study of Griegfs Harmony Schjelderup-Ebbe writes: , (often of the tdrone "Pedal point effects bass' type) are characteristic of Norwegian folk music .... Grieg's waspas it is style by national influenced well knowntstrongly Accordingly, idioms. a most proone finds his in effects nounced use of pedal point in These frequently, only not music. occur so Norwegian.... works that are especially but also in works of less national character that they constitute one of his major 114, characteristics. Delius's The mere presence of pedal points in works is It in is Grieg. itselfsproof his indebtedness to notpin of the manner and contexts them that he in which he applies the extent to which Grieg has guided him. Examples reveals 2(a) and (b)(p. 102)illustrate tonic/dominant the typical dances as it occurs pedal of the tHallingt and fSpringart in pieces by Grieg and Delius. The final two extracts show
8. Dag Schjelderup-Ebbe: Edvard

Griegpl858-1867 (osio, 1964)p

9. Dag Schjelderup-Ebbe: SDecial Reference to his

Harmonv. With A Studv Of GripRls ContriSution Impre'ssionism to Niusical

s1o9 53) ,pp


Ex. 2(a).


Homeward, op. 62, no. 6, opening.








___l __ __ --


at -



Delius, Summer Eve (1888), opening.

ArSJOUro 0 *V

- 4-- F


19 43







Cantabl) - ---

Dances, OP-35, no. lobars




r-- -

&--0 0. .






(1888), bars

48-57r1i A

P, dolce It IIJ.
__ __






in the use of a tonic 'dronet comparable to underfolk-melody (Griegts inner lines. pin cantabile and fluid fingerprint)mentioned melodic above, is also a feature of Deliusts melody here, marked txt). passages








3 vf------



b b

Over surviving Although

hig pit may be recalled, is the earliest mountains Delius from his stay in America. compositionsdating unremarkablexthe its flattened opening


of progression the submediant chord acting to the tonic as an appoggiatura as chord, might be regarded force in Delius's development. a symbol of the main driving Already in these, the first chords which are known to have been written by him, Delius is teasing the aural sensesidethe listener's tonal ceiving expectations with a colouristic The exploitation device. subtle of ever more sophisticated, is the dominant that trend and effective means of doing just from the time Over the mountains in his progress high was 1885 he fluency in postwritten until a certain attained Wagnerian chromaticism around 1891-2. As will become evident later in this studylthe course development. 1891-2, and especially of Delius's musical after the subsequent evolution of his chromatic style, is influenced than by Wagnerian or of his personality more by the dictates But the trend which was established other precedents. musical in ion his of the yearstand early forming a chromatic momentum it styleycarried gave him in into the the directyears over

otherwise (ex-3)Pwith song





him as one of music of the period. The individual marks colouristic applications dissonances, generations the "effect harmonies enough writes: in effect

it is and maturity; the most adventurous harmonic devices

this spiri

trend ts

which in the for

used by Delius

altered chords, particular - chromatically of suspensions and passing notesyunresolved had been the property and so forth of several As Wilfrid Mellers' to of composers. reference by chromatic of colour" of created alteration indicated; such common procedures were already Chopin's Gerald Abraham music. On the same subject, "This multiplication of appoggiaturasypassing notes)suspensionsiand anticipations, usually in chromatic formstproduces an extraordinary fluidity, in the harmonic plasticitypeven the parts are substance, so that at times all to found to be moving by semitones " as in Tristan. had passed through many hands in the years between

Though Chopints of its



and Delius's,



had lost


appeal and expressive power. In Part A of this section on harmony the most important devices in Delius's of the colouristic music are considered. Though they are for most part commonplace - the nuts and bolts of the harmonic machinery of the late nineteenth in it fit is how into to they useful place see For, even if he would make no original early style. is 7thpit half-diminished use of a dominant, diminished or Delius's advanced value to an understanding more of great of ez, to see him seeking chromaticism out for those chords confelt. is most keenly texts ambiguity where their century Deliusts It parallels istic moment in typical However of Die slide of notes in a colourChopints the chromatic musicsand movement in Tristan und Isolde. of harmonic progression , (1865))Parsifal (1882) Tristan and sections with (1868) chromatic alteration came to is, of coursepreasonable between the semitonal, to see (as Abraham does)


10. Gerald

Abrahami op-cit.,

81. p.


be governed blurring of or spicing matic

by a new aesthetic. function in chordal of the basic diatonic

purpose was no longer a order to achieve a shading harmony. In Tristan)chro-


deception is carried to and cadential is subsidiary to such an extreme that "effect of colour" the effect tension. on the psyche of prolonged emotional Expressiveness, function not colour, became the primary of alteration boldbecome gradually passages It in Delius's 1885-1892. er and longer works of the period is possible his in to see how his confidence ability grows between balance of tensions to maintain the subtle created of aroused expectation on the one hand, and the fulfillment chromatic harmony. Chromatic These the expectation and function other. passagesithe on examined most important of the composer's early career)are in Part B. In them Delius is clearly as a' recognizable successor to Wagner. Part
Diminished The diminished 7ths ities. upon the 7th tonal device the 7th: multiple choice of resolutions 7th arises from the fact that a chord three only of eight of the diminished tonal-




Eachotherefore, belongs to at least exist. " Deliusplike before countless composers luxury this enthusiasm, of ambiguity with chord From was to the excess in his the by early scores. century, middle of favoured being useful nineteenth composers both

himyseized employing the of diminished blurring

greatly in

as a means


works Chopin explored tonality semitonal in

operapand as a pivotal of SpohrpChopin)Liszt the

as an effective melodramatic (in harmony in modulations and Wagner, among others). for undermining sliding in

of the chord potential 7ths, often sequences of diminished (see ek-4, next page):


11. An analysis of be found in Deryck

the chordts may ambiguous implications Cookets The Language of Music (London)

1959), pp-189-90,



Chopin, Mazurka


A minor, OP-7, no. 2, bars




5-7- L

Similar period, Ex-5-

sequences are common in the music of Delius's earliest as in these bars from the Paa Vidderne melodrama: Section Three, f. lga.

Half-diminished In acts its most as a chord (the missing root saypit functions




diminished chord with 7tht); leading dominant


common functionithis 9th of the dominant 'chord of the

particularly sound"). The chord is generally of more interest when 7th. In the first in place of a diminished of the below (P-107) Delius has employed it as a pivotal from B major to Eb(D# ) major, a mediant modulation

as an alternative fond of its ambiguous

that is to (Wagner was 7th. introduced two extracts harmony in where a

form of the same chord is also crucial 12. An inverted in But the so-called Tristanoof 'Tristan'-chord does course. not conform to the functional role of the half-diminished 7th.

(Retrospectwould have been more orthodox. ively, the chord is interpreted aurally as an altered super7th). Example(b) basically tonic the same progresspresents ion. Howeverphere the composer has gained the maximum effect harmony by placing it at the opening out of this equivocal it over until the of his song. This timesby suspending (A) dominant is soundedpit is interpreted retrospectively diminished 7th as an altered Ex. 6(a)., dominant llth 8b (bar with 2).



and third.



foco f94 vivo

(b). 0 Schneller Mein Ross)piano introduction.


chord, too, occurs German 6th:





Gerald Delius.

dominant II[T]he seventh .... taken as an enhar[is] Chopin's monic farm of the German sixth favourite pun, made some dozens, if not hundreds, of times in his music as a wholell. '3 Abraham's of comment might also have been written Again, howeveryDeliusts early music frequently reveals

13. Gerald

Abraham, op. cit.,

87. p.


him making particular The ambiguity

effort considerable in harmonic colour inherent in

the zffect in the song Chanson de Fortunio and the tenor song Sakuntala, where it is employed as the opening with orchestra As both works date from 1889, it would seem that Delius chord. him. Indeedy the idea when it first struck rather enjoyed (ex-7) in the opening of Sakuntala there is much to be Herelwith G as a pedal point pivot, the tonic pleased with. both the opening augmented 6th chord and the tonic resolution appoggiatura. are dressed with a yearning supertonic->tonic This is taken up by the tenor at his entry, with the repeated 6th A sense of longing is augmented chord as accompaniment. conveyed composer's Ex-7in these early bars, one of scores: the loveliest moments of the

Zhe chord where its faded. progression seems least harmony is used to impressive to place

Andonw. matte tranquille T,. J)d0ke .. Ich konn - te or Schn-sucht nscht tchla .... fen, Ean



c her


Dominant In

7th: the

emancipation of 7th chords, Chopin is again exponent of adventurous progressas the foremost regarded His sequential ions in the mid-nineteenth chains century. 8(a), fashion in 7ths, on employed similar are as at ex. of (for first in Griegts the moveworks example, occasions many 61-64jand bars 27, his op. OP-43, no-4i quartet, string ment of bars 13-15), 8(b). ex. and subsequently in the music of Deliusas at


Ex. 8(a).

Chopin, Mazurka 12 bars Befwe

in C minor, the end.

OP-30, no-4,


"Iro lit
calande 14L A dimin.

(b). Delius,

The Nightingalepbars
-MA*Iou, "O)


ho /. E)vTb

? or]

as a sequentiql may be interpreted progression prolongation of the fundamental of resolving principle the dominant triad onto a chord other than the expected in other wordsyit is an extension tonic: of the interrupted At the very heart of nineteenth harmony are cadence. century 7th chords the seemingly numberless ways in which dominant The Wagnerian harmonic deceptive might instigate cadences. became more and more dependent on deceptive ces the more the composer wished to avoid the finality (see a resolution of cadence ex. gpp. 110): perfect language cadenand



Ex. g.







A iL
(l, r)

HF: dann ! 8 i

und auch den

(. kichernd.)

l hi-hi-hi-bi-hi-hil

haV ich mir Ruh,

V---T" rL


ijU Ay E l go"
A: A:; A:

i= jh 0 im

qml 4=1#=i I/A i 1 5 =11.1

* &




- N ese. dCJC-fl:

-AF 'At'



P-- P-- PP


-aP: I


hoe 60,
1 6---l 1=77

SIEGFR. All fre e !>i




-M Im

g=##: 1 i
LZ 11



mor -den?





r, 0 2 5

-4 # i

f, mag: t



r. >f



H !9-

) L 0 S t'

9 i

(Erbeinihi adchden idrtlich. Nien Tvis anzu-nelimen. ) 4 1



Was, Mcht' ich?

ich denn das?


Ich will



-w gf

.f Nf

i dolee'


forming Added-note harmonies chords of Of Delius's in music 9thollth 13th were not common and in the serene frequently slow, this period. They occur most tsunsett episodes the Sunset, and piecestsuch as the song he rethat also be It of orchestral recalled may works. in 6ths music to chords his stricted primary use of added in the 9ths dominant Of this type. However, the instances of early string quartet Of these, and eventually
Ex-10Early string





secondary .1

towards a much freer 9th and 11th chords:




Since lying Schubert's a major third or lower submediant) had been a common colouristic From device. LiszttspChopints been have Delius Wagner's would and music able to draw for his extensive much of the inspiration use Of mediant However, as was the case with relationships. pedal Pointspthe his Griegts between and striking similarity manners of seems to indicate employing these modulations that it was primarily Delius to him that was indebted. Schjelderup-Ebbe writes: "One of the chief means whereby ambiguity of tonality is by sudden may be created changes of key, which device is also a major for obtaining As used coloristic effects. for both these purposes such key-changes are most characteristic of Grieg's style and are found his throughout extensively periodpmodulation (mediant) higher to tonal centres (flattened


extension was the natural in this tonality, as a single progressions -within in Deliusts early of thirds song Hochgebirgsleben: Ex. 11. Bars

works .... The is often the the chords or Mediant modulation

factor in such changes unifying by thirds between relationship keys involved. "'* of mediant cycle


poem Winter the cycle through prolongs six by dropping transpositions which are possible of the eight first by a major third then a minor (bars 31-39)sequence a descending (Sleigh Ride)oDelius Night In the small tone Mediant relationship in episodes substantial Such passages share and Hiawatha. habit the composer's of stating a down a major third or up shifting then (see fig-1; to the maybe returning Floridaplst movementY6 of key the early centres orchestral a certain theme in characterizes works naivety the tonic the Florida through keys materials


and repeating for a further tonic fig. 4; bars before Hiawatha

repetition 2nd movement)

3rd movementofig-3-5)of thirds cycles occasions

to modulation: now extended to to A major 8 bars later, further F to a major after again the Deliusilike brash 6olour Grieg before of a sudden or light-hearted

also employs on several identical to that of ex. llponly for instance, F major at f-5a., C# major 9 bars later, and back 19 bars. him, was adept at introducing in harmony to mediant shift (see touch to his writing

add a humorous ex. 120next


14 Dag Schjelderup-Ebbe: f-L9), P-150.

A Study of Grieg's

Harmony (see


Ex. 12(a).




j IM




0 1 -

91 1-


? -


19 .

4t -4



Puck) OP-71) no 3, bars 11

44 2


are also commonly behind progress6th ions involving German the either or the leading note 7th harmony. Deceptive chord as a pivotal cadences formed by these progressions in Wagner's late music are widespread In and became increasingly so in the early works of Delius. (Ixl) the following the cadential is approached extract chord relationships 7th, and quitted as a dominant as the leading note 7th is between chord of the new key. The resultant modulation key centres a major third apart: Ex-13. To the Queen of My Heart, bars 31-34-


= =wc====:
cold ray strays O'er



: 5az-f

mf ==Wilt th?u

Vr heart's face, throned queen!. thy my



To conclude this three extensive section, passages They typical music up to 1891-2 are examined. of Delius's have been selectedynot to illustrate aspect any particular time, but because they technique of the composerts at this place in harmonic context style many of considered

the in

details isolation


the above.



14. -


-J .

fft-E 79it ! 1 4 1 : 6: 0 P

1: ke -

-. -





23 & Ot ==; P

1dA ! -A m !

4 t 4

1"I dt 40 zi 7.4





> F, k. 27 m -t






. 0". - mot6.

...... . .... ... .... .......... ... .......

.AKl! ii OF. PE Ii0m p *4 rP11 P all


- -----

ove; 4
6 ,

30 Wl


+. -

:7- t RP g1-


--w I

m-, x


" i I-I.

-DA F = 144 m--


I .


44 01

" .1-


--. j. i =



q -- a; --- 4;




0 Schneller Bars 19-31. harmonic

mein Ross


Words by E. Geibel.

begins at the central The extract structure. bridge at the return of passage in the piano, and concludes (D the tonic at bar 31. The whole passage may major) chord be regarded preparationsaccumulating as an extended dominant Overall It is a device of tension at its climax. on common in Wagnerts music, and was also used by Delius (cf., for instance, in the numerous occasions other scores the change to close of the Paa Vidderne melodrama, before a high degree * -time for the coda). (i) Bridge passage, 19-22. Points interest. of blurring lines descending with all progression, is a succession of 7th chords and half-diminished



by semitones, 7th chords.

At the deceptive cadences in bars 19 and 20pthe dominant Al'(in inversion) 7th third resolves onto a half-diminished to a halfon F'* then B7(in second inversion) resolves The progression 7th on A. diminished to the dominant returns 7th at the entry of the voice, although at the introduction B and suspended D colour note the appoggiatura of the dominant (This resolution be repeated the harmony for a half bar. will accented spice of the chromatic at bar 24, with the additional A# -A). note Bpassing (ii)

The underlying harmony of bars climaxp23-30. V)l ) is made more interesting by the chromatic to the fifth of the chord at 23, and the added 9th alteration 27 - properly an extension of the at 26. The bass notepApat 7th - is heard as the root dominant pedal under the supertonic dissonance. llth chordpa, marvellous pre-climax of a dominant Dominant 23-26 ( 1(ii-l-


Ex .'l 5-

36 3

The Prin -=s 37 look'd fonh 3 from her bow'r. en -

? 4f
maid The






of the hom rose a-


gain from be-low.

She 4.1

wept 41

in the twi

light and

JJF7 V! P in,

iv 1;;

i -


W Aj


is it 'What ter sighed: -ly 4-4 ---t

I long for, what is AS



I long for?God

es: c. -===::: c:,::

dim. tj help me!' she

P cried. 4191

And the





went st down

r, 43

if, 3




and the

sun so _- ---------



Twilight Conclusion

Fancies (bars

(1889-90). 36-52).



Bj. Bjarnson.









figure in the piano identical ceded by a horn-call to that at bar 50: the passage opens and closes, therefore, in B minor, in accordance However, the voice with the key-signature. in G minor before enters emphatically back to B veering (at 42). Furthermore, minor both voice and piano although in closes line the melodic implies F4 the dominant minor. As was noted in chapter (see this one PP-73-9), music . is a haunting evocation of the chill of human loneliness, and here the unresolved is yearning of the poem's Princess beautifully in this tonal rendered closing ambiguity. Points Although G minor is quite in the of interest. clear , 37, the pivotal (half harmony bar 36 ielody at of -diminished . 7th on E) is stil). in the accompaniment. Only after present the German 6th in bar 38 is G minor agreed upon. Heavily accented every progression. unessential notes play an important role here - for instance) C4 at bar 41)the the appoggiatura suspended E and D in the G# in disonant sequence at bars 44-5 and the unresolved marks almost plagal cadence at 46-7The tension by continually created suspended or deflected harmonic intensity resolution makes for an emotional without in Deliusts 1890. It is a justly well precedent music before known songpand may be regarded as the peak of the composer's achievement in this period. the Ambiguity F# minor establish only by the piano. at 47ythe B minor The accompaniment home key is regained B minor, but

Ex. 16.

M lentol 35Ag0.3t
Kil ;o--

rallentando poco a oco

ed molto tranqu illo




















r-:! -,





A 6"! :;==4Ii , tj

- ff


I J.


r- a




56 rit.


LJ Dgl I


; J-J Tvpp


105r a od

cre. vc.




Ex. 16.

Opera, Irmelin bars 35-6-0-harmonic






The Prelude to Act III structure. of Delius's first opera, Irmelin)is a simple A-B-A structure, with the keys in mediant relationship: B major-). of the three sections Eb major4 B major. The selected passage commences at the from the 'Allegro transition giocosol of the opening section to the warmly lyrical The harmonic slow centre of the Prelude. is fairly scheme of the extract unsophisticated: a diversion into the tonic minor at bars 42-6 and a brief at the call flattened mediant minor (Gb) at 47-8 and major at 54-5Points Dominant or tonic/dominant of interest. pedals are , This much-used throughout the extract. present practically device simple produces several rich sonorities when the harmonies. In each of the pedal clashes with progressing dominant 9th chords marked * (bars 41Y42 and 56), the third has been replaced chord is made yet flattening by the suspended more ambiguous The tonic. unresolving at bars 42 and 56 by the


of the ninth. In bar 46, the persistence Bb creates a of the dominant 9th harmony (? x? ). This acts as a pivot to warm subdominant the Db 7th chord (the dominant of Gb)which follows))at which the suspension point on Ab. sinks to a resolution gradually Richest from the use of the harmonies of all arising is that at bars 54-5. The material is in Gb major, pedals Eb but the obstinate tonic/dominant the previous pedal of instils major tonality radiance. an aura of added-note




The Forming


a Chromatic


The most elementary form that fluid took in Delius's early music was that of from the tonic; downwards in semitones

chromatic the bass

lines sliding

Ex. 17'-Paa Viddernepmelodrama., Section


8, f-44a

(bar 2).

harmony is very the tonic simple means of colouring be in the and seen in many of can common composer's works, the illustrations follow in this writing which of more sophisticated in It the mature music survived section. as an idiosyncratic way of commencing a highly of Delius (for final the the instance)at of opening chromatic episode here Hills; High the The Song in the of variation choral chromatic After used in slide is in an upper voice). were occasionally slides is not an important this years to come. In the two function altered chords progressionp about 1887 semitonal inner though voices)too,


part of his language for several below the chromatically instances of the cadential merely as an ornamentation (b): (a) imperfect at at and perfect Ex. 18(a). Hiawatha, f. 29b.




Eve,, conclusion





r-Ir fl,
r= ---L2-




(See also
Similar number of

ex. 13oP-113)to these may be observed in a great procedures Grieg's As Delius became steadily works. more in the prolongation of chromatic passages, howeverp

proficient it was probably the music of Wagner's late operas which His first to write guided him most. attempts slow movements in Hiawatha Variationen and the Rhapsodische mark the beginning of the development of his chromatic style: Ex. 19. Rhapsodische Variationen,
Lib eA,. rccmj)jr

6pf. 65a. var.

L Arvio-

, Am *-RA vrrA


rn g. -. r
sTwis .I! T-< ?, -II ; 4r

r, -L

j lll -r-, -I

1 400--




F 1!,

-1, I


& rr

and secondary chords by chromatic auxiliary notes and passing notes is at an unsophisticated level: the significance of the passage is that it shows that Delius is thinking in continuous indphrases and of their of primary The principle and polyphonic effect. of ( diatonic here the Negro music-influenced theme of melody the variations) in conflict with its chromatic accompaniment also assumes development. variation mented 2. cadence importance in the great A different application Here the juxtaposition course of Delius's idea occurs of this of a chromatically represents ex-20y in ornaividual linear

The alteration

a second strata next page):

and a wholly conventional cadence of diatonic/chromatic conflict(see


Ex. 20.

Var. 2, f-58a.


sketches have certain iationen,. influenced

from chapter may be recalled for L4gendes for solo piano features in One variation by Negro music; is of the common with in particular in it the

one that


and orchestra the Rhansodische seems to

incomplete (1890) Var-

have been

same melody, the second one much The piano takes over at bar 9, and its elabmore chromatic. under conof the theme put the sense of tonality orations (ex. 2l, p. 124)-'s siderable stress An important shaping of smooth linear stage in Deliusts harmony was reached a couple of years movement from chromatic Five of the Paa Vidderne than the L4gendes in Section earlier harmonic fluid more with a experimentation melodrama. E is present by is tonic the still caution; style governed 125): the passage(ex-22)p. more or less throughout Deliusts

conflict chromatic two harmonizations


of diatonic/ principle Ex-21, bars 1-8, shows developed.

15. The piano figure in Delius's included 25-27).

at bars 12-15 of this example were later (see RT. pp. The Magic Fountain opera


Ex. 21.

Legendes,, f-33a(bar


s ",..
(, -.


4. sr, r4. s. aiii4wrr.

1"1 CPAF


CAIrofj, c

-e, -r '


bi: 0' 4""

_______________ _______________

________ _______

lowo go


c4 *,

:f -I-

I :-




Ex. 22.

Paa Vidderne, corresponding

MS melodrama, copyistts to f. 28b of the original


du oni livelden . 11vorfier Is-qler vdad til din w. der, Ftue-; AA4'rOj A-"w

Sov du brdre und- W J,. end pi %idd, os brul3c me?.


do you each night keep yearrang th I- little cottage?

Did you, under sheepskins,slumbe Better than in heather thicket? "



b Iij

@ad pi sengestokken Samle znor med mig og katten.


Z., a. dt og sang, t1l drommellokken d til leg i natten. mig

4tDromme. d; i, mie. -hvorfordrom Tro mig, dagens did er bedre!


hi Dther sat on bedside fr2mebo2rd,

Dther old, with me and pussy,

pan and sang till flocks of dreimbirds Took me out to play in moodght

dream and slumbe 'Dreams are dreims, -why Truly deeds and days are betterl

14 " 1
. -+



q:- -- - zz: ---'

-,,- 1j-

1 1:


00 . a


his in precame style chromatic 1392 the in is the slow movement of seen music maturity This is dealt Sonata. Violin at the end of with in detail (ex. is to with it 23))and ex-22 compare useful this section in be seen that almost all it will movement it; semitonal The furthest Deliusts the of earlier ascending score is downwardstwhile motion and descending before the a much finer in is apparent the Violin balance the Sonata has

extract. Even

slow movement of harmonic development trend in Delius's been examinedithe illustrations in the become already given have evident may J balance i3 He of opposing a at subtle in this aiming section. forces. One force is tgravitationall the pull downwards



function tonal and chordal progression of is 'centrifugal' the the music; the other which underpin by from tension tonal the and chromatic centre urge away flow. linear semitonal As the anchorage of a tonal Centre is loosened, it the diatonic becomes increasingly alteration; loses its difficult indeed, to the identify the function tchromatic proportion has written of a chromatic alterationt to the loss very term in direct

that, Dahlhaus of tonal Tristan, -Case in the 11if, as is already partly the essential of element in the association and not root connection chords is semitonal (and be disputed hardly it can progression the associit is the function that within the harmonic that determines signiation ficance of a phenomenon), then falterationt is strictly termyas it seems an inadequate is to imply that chromaticism secondary has Rather, derivative. chromaticism and from its degree inependence of a achieved 6 in 11 alteration origins 0 In theory, then, composers employing chromatic post-Tristan However, the harmony draw close to the border with atonality. tonality borderline, point exact at which of such a existence breaks tensions down)is hypothetical. to the was central to the creative aesthetics crucial in There is always tonal anchorage posers, The conflict Romantic spirit emotional in general, and of Wagner and Delius. the music of these comof

applicability Carl clarity.

styles the strain chromatic which their although Delius Wagner, For be and large. this mooring may put on these tensions Romanticists)music without composed other Delius's (Atonal be music )in absurdity. chaotic would opinion)revealed IV)soul" that the composer had "an extremely ugly

DictionGrove New The in Wagner? 'Richard 16. Carl Dahlhaus: 20, 123-(London, 1980), Music vol. p. ary of in Reprinted October 1929. Tele Daily 17- fThe raphIP5 Companion A Delius ed-RedwoodpLondon, 1976))P-43-


are very much in evidence his important in in Deliusts writing remain music, and early Wagner employs pedals in identical his career. throughout S-PP-154-5)and (see, V. Tristan, for Delius to example, ways For this reason pedal points P-185, tImmer sehr ruhigt). it in this section earlier favoured to folk the tsafety-nett the the perils counterbalance Frequently, In several is evident of tonally of illustrations that Delius given also

melody unequivocal harmonization. chromatic

the music: was deliberately he had heard in offered in

Negro influence the of melody shows Delius therefore, whether of question arises, harmonization the style trying to imitate of Florida Negroes. the among one as to how this Suggestions folk

might music chapter were that "the linear style have sounded, and it was concluded finding in Negro improvising adopted part-singers which [the] harmonic was between pillars their chord primary way incidental have fluid, produced very and would probably European the to of tones which sounded exotic combinations he time the was as It indeed, that 9). same 11(p. at appears, ear his Wagner period language of and the of chromatic adapting desire to the included Deliusts town his to endst own ends, Solana Grove: at experience musical a profound recapture "Delius admits that he is a self-taught debt he a great owes musician .... and says heard to the negro music which he first in he grove orange an on was working when ity loved tI Florida in the teighties .... mymusic seriously and I began to write the thereyand falls Night quickly self. harmonypsounded in always voices, native It was mostly or religious very lovely. like by the negro no means musicibut gay by one man or womanpwhich sung spirituals London from today. broadcast are so often I felt that It was much more harmonious. felt the here was a people who really " emotion of music'". fluid diatonic The conflict chromatic melody and of in the eventual important harmony is composer's element an in Its the works significance to maturity. creative advance of five, his transitional 255 et. seq. p. period, and chapter 1896-9, be considered will six, p. 279 et-seq. in chapter

18. ibid.


harmonic language early on Delius's section extract with the examination of an extensive concludes Interesting Sonata. from the slow movement of the 1892 Violin (which be considered for its advances will also structural in the next chapter), the Sonata is the summit of Delius's in instrumental music in the years up to 1892. achievement This in the years composition followed, that the progress powers for several of Deliusts years is best measured by his approach to problems arising his handling from the demands of music-drama: of character, The the chromatcontinuityletc. orchestrayof of rhythmic Once he had turned to operatic icism of his language of the composition of 1896-9. second No. 2 followed makes little Sonata Violin advance between and the transitional in 1977. Delius's Sonata the works

The Sonata Sonata for in

was first

violin 1923 and Sonata

published (1914) is

known as No. 1; No-3 in 1930-





meklfrt i-n-Mn




(Ex. 23-cont. )



(Ex. 23- cont.


Ex. 23-

Sonata in B major for violin, (of bars 1-53 slow movement,

structure. Example

and piano 157 bars).




23 constitutes



A-B-e of the orthodox This too, falls section, superstructure is equally

of the second movement. structure harmonic its into an A-B-e mould; conventional:

Bars 1 -17 A

Kevs F# major: tonic

18-26 27-39 40-44

lst B



dominant C# major: [F-fCz#4 C# majors]

2nd bridge


major A gentle chromatic begins the tranquil

Points slide flow of from of

A' (corresponds
interest. the tonic piece. texture (i)Opening,

to 9-17)
bars 1-9.


polyphonic his ideas:

note (cf. ex. 22) instance Bars 5-7 give a typical of the had begun to conceive in which Delius


dominant Preparation the 21-26. bars of passage, by bar beat 26 the is 7th which falls last the made of on (B#)of (Gx) fifth the the and seventh altered repetition of bars. When it comes, their dominant in resolution chord several bright before the tension released of a momentary glow offers (a 27 the dominant F major triad bar mediant relationship, of 6th German 7th on C4 being quitted as a of F major). (ii) lst bridge (iii) is B-section, repeated three bars 27-39. A new 4-bar variations timesywith phrase in the in the violin and melody


harmonization. three tonal

The basic areas the

harmony passes


simple: through:

17 - V? of


%7-50 .

35 -3f ..

in some way, 4part from the ornamented (These 4-bar triad opening of each repetition. chords, marked * are in second inversion)the for most common position ?resolution? The bass line in a Wagnerian deceptive cadence). chords are of the piano part almost never has the root of the chords, and maintains a constant





Section Until scores though traits ual



large-scale instrumental about 1890 Delius's of form. Beautiful expose his weakness in matters idiomatic is, with the composer's the writing often much individand sense of harmonic colour creating material proves lacking. to be tshort-windedt, and is made


The Florida is rhythmic suite continuity which are often extent, of blocks of material, up, to a large The unsoftened juxtaposition. down to a tonic tied pedal. but the crude is blatantly unsophisticated, of these episodes is not balance sense of formal which results and contrast naive spirit generally Hiawatha, described as a 'Tongedichtl, to manipulate in his first efforts gling however, The turns more out, work material. bridge lacking structural material, coherent how the difficult to imagine, for instance, dance could ever be integrated into the inappropriate to the the work. strugshows Delius and extend thematic like with a suite of unity. It is warKey-

self-contained larger whole.

of the superstrucrelationships play no part in the unifying the tone poem opens in A major and ends in E major. ture;









the composer in the structuring would assist of his music. In his operatic harmwriting a flux of ebbing and flowing onic rhythm was evolved which might be manipulated to sustain longer rhythmic continuity: episodes, intrinsically unified, developments be considered four). in chapter resulted-(these will Until then, Deliusts most satisying work was done on a small (1883) in Longing scale songs and chamber works. and The Birdts SLar jr (1389), for instance, indicate an imaginative . form, while to the through-composed in the fluctuations approach intensity in such love songs as To the Queen of of emotional (1891) Heart my and Aus deinen Augen fliessen meine Lieder (1890-1) the opera The Magic the breakthrough in continuityin Likewise scale, the on a limited Romance for violin and piano (1889) offers signs of Deliusts in his awareness of the subtleties metamorphosis: of motivic based on the mature compositions a structural principle anticipated. from motivic evolution of material cells would be one of his most individual achievements. (1888) With the emergence in the Paa Vidderne melodrama types of tmountain of Delius's various melodyt, some of the difficulty On the of large-scale composition was lessened. one hand, it affirmative will be recalled, were these contained, motif: three in of catagories their springing resolute, rhythms, Fountain is

in writing a rhythmic potential which might be exploited lengthy On the other hand, there was the floating, passages. tranquil mood-music associated and melanwith "loneliness idiom might also have a the strong choly1t: contrast of this structural With Delius which application. the aid of these idiomatic parts between of his language, 1890 and 1892 in

was able structural

the undermine These were the Paa Vidderne overall effect of the composition. (1890-1) Sonata (1392). and the B minor Violin symphonic poem The table in Paa Vidderne role of themes and their given that a few motivic on P-135 reveals shapes and rhythmic cells of situations. serve in a wide variety

to write defects

two works did not seriously




Principal symphonic

themes poem.



Paa Vidderne






main f-3a

CA IA 0t f4tj

(b) f-4a(bar


f . 6a
2. lst bridge
jfpke ,

f Ja
ctL ihst le. kl L.---.

(b) f-7a(bar


(c) f-7b(bar
. )alw) /0 -4 1

(d) f. 8a


3. Second subject ftZFZX group t (a) main theme

f. 8b (bar 2

-0, tf


second them---L9" ja;; f. qb (bar 4


1111-0" V I-1

FiI -F

S f q-, o,
(c) central climax theme Aej f. 12a (bar 3)




from is derived whole of the material its continuation, theme, l(a)fand l(b). However, opening the triplet should be noted that, while rhythm of l(b) figures in themes 2c - 3c, these a kinship with triplet instances of the cell out of its use in grow directly the 3(a)


the it bears later

the l(b). than second subject rather work such frugality confers cogency and cohesion. Less easily is the contrast table observed in a thematic in spite limits. which Delius achieves of his self-imposed The passion and resolve and l(c) of l(b) give way to quiet ("loneliness for the bridge reflection and melancholy") in turn leads to the noble second subject section, and this theme, 3(a). Following the extended second bridge which answers for (f. begins the reprise 14b - f. 18a), Delius a development section of his ideas and first with bridge. a 'verbatim' of the first repetition subject More imaginative is his handling of the its altered the theme) violin scoring of subject The previous between the high a dialogue Bb - Eb tonalities supporting here to prepare a semitone raised key of E (now major).

theme In a 400-bar

second subjectfwith 3(a), now forms the

cellos and horns. been tidily the theme have the conclusion in the tonic

Beecham has said of the work that "there is no fault force to be found with its architecture and its downright A it Indeed, with its solid makes an effective show-piece". blocks intrinsic thematic structural of material and its unity Vidderne and contrast)Paa stands out as perhaps most thorough, most effective sonata essay in orthodox in Delius's output. At least as important Paa Vidderne, as the motivic however, is the the form

of coherence his ideas to any length does not Manage to develop or with At its heart, in what would have been a devany conviction. in a strict the work lacks elopment sonata structure, section

and structural unity fact that Delius




(London,1959), p. 63.


Instead there an argument. of development bridge passage -a which seems to section direction and limitations of the composerts incompatible cesses were essentially with (P-138) form. Ex. 24 sonata shows the first 70-bar is themes. bridge, involved be seen that and it will figuration with the triplet is little rhythmic the

is an extended indicate that the creative strictly 26 bars proapplied of the


remainder of the bridge concerns heard before, with no attempt being made to use these development. to thematic springboard

whole passage common to several The impulsion. or motivic itself themes with restating as the

The structure of the Paa Vidderne symphonic poem has by any extra-musical evidently not been pre-ordained proepic poem - where mood of Ibsen's gramme. It is the general the symbols of the mountain's and the freedom of challenge the wilderness represent artistic has triumph which contributed also chapter one)P-57)Like Deliusts earlier work 1392 Sonata endeavour most to the for and spiritual composition (see

Romance of 1889, the in the process much more of motif which characterizes evolution Each of the three movements advanced works in Deliust3 career. In design. the different to a structural approach presents has handled relatively firstpDelius the demands successfully symphonic poem)the economic to unify the movement. The but is imaginaA-B-A structure, "loneliness in the tively a episode around central constructed bound., loosely The first two the idiom. of and melancholy" , tranquil this intense epiemotionally passages which flank (ex-23)Most important is the sode was considered above finaleyin individual which sonata form is modified to suit of the the composer's first requirements. from of motifs (ex. 25)P-139): of orthodox sonata form; as in helps tise of thematic material slow movement is a conventional the

and pianopthe violin B anticipates in some ways

The similarity themes of the principal shown in the table movement to the material (P-135) Paa Vidderne is inLmediately striking


Ex. 24-

Paa Vidderne


poem, f-14a






Ex. 25(a).

AAAt44- V.V orle




AAO vw"v








i ad 4)

ze p


In third into








movement a

theme appearspclosely to the main subjecty related which the triplet of the Paa Vidderne rhythms typical 'mountain melody' are incorporated: Subsidiary theme (bar 132).

Ex. 26.

In these

to the contrast ideas a substantial material rhythmic to refer

The thematic and - in its

from fashions Delius orchestral work, (some 112 bars). central section both a sense of unity provides Yet it impulsion would continuity. to the composer's There isistrictly treatment of his speakingpno

be inaccurate motifs as Idevelopmentt. argumentpno logical

a continual expansion of ideas, but rather first from Delius shifting of perspective. views his material from this that anglepthen one; and, if a new theme appears as with ex. 26 - it seems to be no more than a variant of the main subject underlying The tendency natural an outcome is materiallso impulse of the movement. rhythmic of the tdevelopmentt section of it of of the has of working. the first

treatment an episodic movement towards become in the finale a definite)purposeful

material method


Once againpthe principal in its springing unity runs; Ex. 27(a). First subject:

material dotted-note

has an intrinsic rhythmic figures triplet and elegant

A (bar


(b). Bridge


B (bar






C (bar


# -4c,

F-: ---






D (bar



A and C are particularly closely related, as are B and D. The sequence of short episodes the central constituting section commences with two new themessin E is which these family groupings are extended: to AvF to B: rhythmically similar will that themes Ex. 28(a). Subsidiary theme: E (bar 108).


be noted


Asa* A. Moll, eyvis"-*


Subsidiary .

theme: F (bar 118).

The simple balance effected B-type material is against ment. The thematic opening of the

by balancing maintained final

A-type throughout

material the move-

scheme of the episodic central ffl: 11 : 148: it Variants

movement, from the sectionjis as follows: it of

118 129 157 161 171


of E


1 0:
5 0: 1 4:

I g 6:



11 B
It c D E A B

Recaoitulation 185 - 221: 222 - 231: Coda 232 - 255: Reprise if of it

Material derived from F)B and A


(C) makes no reappearsecond subject It had, however, dominated ance in the recapitulation. Contrast is the climax and balance of the central section. 'Paa in the endeavour to round off this not forgotten In Viddernet-Sonata in a blaze of mountain-affirmation. (a derivative) E the tranquil theme second subject placing Interestingly, the at close foil adequate itulation. the of the central section, Delius to the ensuing truncated)but instrumental works after provides a quite energetictrecap1892lincluding

In Delius's those

of his mature years, the episodic working of material Some of the works from is a favoured structural procedure. his late development be considered in chapter period seven; will a sequence of interemploying among mature compositions In a Summer Garden-(1908)., tableaux may be mentioned related (1917)(1911) and Eventyr The Song of the High HilLs


Paa in the evident melody? of Sonata Violin B Vidderne the would minor symphonic poem and be present in practically works of all of the instrumental been have Typical instances development Delius's period. (PP-143-4), be it V Table in together will where collected bold rhythms of "Joy and exhilseen that the springing, with the horn-call are frequently contrasted eration" The types fmountain and melancholy". of "loneliness and modality Once Delius had evolved rhythmic a more flexible brashtechnique rangeythe and a subtler, mellower emotional of these rhythms became much less ness and angularity (In A Life Mass and of of parts evident. mountain-scapes for instance their The Song of the High Hills, reappearance in the scores is inevitable; occurrence occasional and their indicate to final the a nostalgia seems years of composerts Delius's later for lost At of career, youth). all stages however)his an iambic springing elopment. habitual accentuation 'mountain melody' use of rhythmic to testifies types patterns the love his to adhering he had for years of devfigures







pla V&o

A4,04wooAre rr*4ota"o

2 (a)
4-b"Wo roa"Wj")

14 Poil =--qmmm



Tw **Am

a dbp#A"CL4CM41r,




3 (a)
JUIL. Al Cd. L*

A%AX*-o TC4&*L41AAQ.

h 4$ago






V. cont.

4(a) , -, J,










for L4gende (1892? -1895)violin and orchestra (a) opening. (b) 10 bars before fig. D. Overture, Over the Hills and Far Away(1895-7)(aj opening. (b bar 7(c) bar 5(d) bar 7(e) bar 109. (1896). Romance for cello and piano (a) bar 5(b) bar 24(begun Piano Concerto 1397; version revised pub-1907) (a) opening. (b) fig. l. (c) 3 bars fig-3. after (d) fig. 10.


An important early of Violin motivic

stage Sonata in the




Paa Vidderne


of evolution it is evident

and the Deliusts technique here that a few

small motivic A degree ial.

matermuch of the subsequent seeds germinate and unity results continuity of rhythmic isihoweverystill 4-bar quite minimal. These

f rom this procedure. Rhythmic flexibility two scores and rigidity Control style.

a constant exhibit flow of rhythmic

of phrase squareness Delius's mature unlike

tension and release of emotional over a flux first flexibility basis would the of rhythmic of tension it is demanded by the his operas)where developjinevitablypin The and climaxes soaring moods. a of characterts gradation his Delius at flourishes of rhapsody which characterize best in the operatic mature scores are lyrical technique.




of an

Section Throughout little

Four the


Use of


Orchestra Delius had

his how orcheffective of opportunity very Oslo, the 1891yin 10th When, October on writing was. estral Delius first became the work Paa Vidderne poem symphonic had the previously be composer to a performance, public given with rehearsal sessions of only two short It may career. in the year-long a six of course orchestras by a military be recalled that Florida was rehearsed this Perhaps experiencep 1888. in of result a as orchestra Grieg that to 1889texplaining in Delius the. suite revised done with many unnecessary been "clumsily it had previously " In the summer of 1890 Delius it". in brutalities orchestral found but Leipzig, in hired orchestra a rehearsal again to through time each of once himself play enough only with had the benefit

of hearing



20. Letter

from Delius

to Grieg, early

June 1889. CLL/l



21 he had little Since him. had he five so the with pieces imaginative him, Deliusts behind and colourful experience in the works of his first years must textures instrumental as a composer. be regarded achievements as one of his earliest orchestTable VI lists the instrumentation of Delius's ral scores up to 1892: Table Date 1887 1888 VI, Work Florida(original) Hiawatha Paa Vidd. melod Rhaps. Variationen Suite 1889 Marche for violin Caprice Wind plec. x 2.2-2-2. x x x x x x 2.2-2- - 2.2.2-2. sym. poem 2.2-2-2. 3.2.2-32.2.2-2. x 2.2.2-2. 3.2. x 2. . x xI x x x x x C400ams Brass 4.2-3-14.2-3-1x 14.2-3-14.2-3-1+

$'. I Harp 'r'^* ,,., ... +3 x +2 +3 +3 x


4.2-3-14.2-3-14.2-3-14-0-0-04.2-3-1+I co-turrs 4.2-3-1

+2 C404mor;

+4 +4 +2

Florida(revision) Sakuntala 1890 Paa Vidd.

x x x x

Irmelin(opera) Petite Winter Su=er Suite Night* Evening


2.1-0.0 4.2-3-1-, r*srf 1.2 4.2-3-1-+2



Numbers of strings * Winter Night is



early Delius scores of

unspecified be to an orchestration presumed

the now-lost (1887)





fretexture 1889 the was As the table indicates, wind after the the include anglais cor of to rich colours extended quently been in the having former bass used also clarinetpthe and bassoon is added for the same Paa Vidderne melodrama; a third


See CLL/1, P-50, n. 2.


Variationen to the Rhapsodische purposes and to Irmelin. , The tendency the middle and seen here towards amplifying lower range of his wind textures in mature realized was fully (or by frequent the triple works use of wind)contrabassoon The cor bass oboe(in sarrusophone) and occasional six pieces). are fairly clarinet permanent fixtures of orchestra, as is the harp. The trend in his developis towards the grand size of the late-Romantic ment period This tendency in the orchestra. encouraged was undoubtedly anglais Delius's by his knowledge of the music composer from the mid-1890s (His mastery of the orchestra Strauss. in these of Richard his In be discussed in periods early seven). chapter years will howeverpit is not the complex brilliance but the of Strauss instrumental influence. The string the bulk of almost always carries section Delius's in this The strings material period. are rarely if the composer had conceived his music first absentlas in terms of that-section. Alternation and foremost with (the bodies is rare. of different sound wind band, for example) The role of the wind instruments at this stage in Delius's from that which is evident in The already (1894-5) Fountain in his development. and subsequently , Each instrument is regarded timbre, capablL. as an individual in the strings. to the mainstream of adding colour material Deliusts is that of the painter conception who adds to the basic tints colours already on his canvas subtle and striking career Magic from his palette. individually selected The flute two important rolesy and piccolo often perform to a passage)or embellishing either adding special solo timbres flutess the figuration. frequence The which with a passage with is surprising, and not as a groupsare given solo material Neverthelessi Delius's later in typical career. of stages their and, in passages such as use is invariably effective (P-148), below from Paa Vidderne give very that the melodrama distinct colouration to the mood-painting. highlights differs sonorities of Wagner which are the greatest and bass


Ex. 29.

Paa Vidderne corresponding

Five, copyist's melodrama, Section to f. 29a (bars 712) of the

; 40
. .

MS original







Men jeg borer klokk Op fro kirken udpa taogen'

aLaa ddetringge. a et gree. bedre klAD9 bar foseesangen! w

Bells I hear out from the steeple, Fr om the church by river yonder! ----------

"Let Better

ring, let bellsgo twin " n in falls and rapids!

V. g v. a


. *AW 4 eo-. -# Rm

C. 3.

. -j L

(A similar Eight of example occurs at the opening of Section the melodramafsee chapter one, ex. 18). The mellow low register is exploited 'also of the flute (see chapter at the opening of Summer Evening one)ex-45(a)). The unusualfthin iri its lowest tone of the piccolo register is chosen to carry the opening melody of two orchestrations (1887) Winter Night in this and of piano pieces period Grieg's in 1889. wind of sectionshaving any individual Aus dem Volksleben (op. 19, no. 2) orchestrated by Delius

The oboe is the spokesman of Delius's by far the greatest amount of solo writing


instrument the



appeal to the composer, and he in its use when other wind instruis at times very sparing in its in tone to relief. off order are set playing, ments In his first the Paa score using the cor anglais, instrument at material melodrama, Delius gives it thematic Sakthe expense of the oboe. By the time he came to write (1889), been had to however, the anglais relegated cor untala to individual chords or a role of adding mellow timbre Vidderne brief passages, without this after orchestra absent ment was rarely between the two extremes of stage, but assumed a position these early works. has a more menial role The clarinet than the upper for the section's a pivotal providing point wind instruments, dual responsibilities as the position as orchestral by the clarinet frequently is underlined section is Hence the instrument with the viola. material present on many occasions when the upper as the Its component. source of individual and colour tenor of the sharing discreetly the any soloistic from Delius's prominence. The instru-

orchestra. had a direct





members of

are silent, with accompaniment material. section The bass clarinet makes its debut in Sakuntala, where it plays a modest part identical to that Of the cor anglais. in frequent The increasingly of both instruments presence betrays the influence on the music of this period probably had realized the expressive potential in first Lohenp,, in timbres their and especially rich rin, of , From The Magic Fountain Tristan. would give onwards.. Delius the cor anglais well as the clarinetp and bass clarinettas in his wind ensemble. much more responsibility bassoon) by the is A traditional played and modest role Though luxury is the passage. of a solo allowed rarely which do Irmelin the require Variationen Rhapsodische opera the and in the bassons, character crucial the contrabassoon three -a has made Delius yet not fully-fledgedirich-toned orchestra Deliusts in The a sarrusophone its use of appearance. introfor the the Fountain Magic way paves opera)The second (1896-7)Koanpa in duction of the contrabassoon Delius of Wagnertwho


of the middleas the emancipator horn his love toney Delius)in the of and orchestra, of range The part traditionally taken by the wind in is his heir. is the the orchestra of middle and enriching amplifying In the introduction frequently to the horns. transferred Florida, finale Floridaiin the of to the first movement of in Hiawatha, Sakuntala the war-dance and the two Paa Vidderne Wagner is regarded how be illustrations a essential of many can seen scores The horns Deliusts instrumentation in the magical were. pivot Delius's in by horn-calls impression mountainof all made detail in been dealt has inspired already. with some scores The pervasive of the horns as both accompaniment presence has disadvantage that the however, the instruments, and solo considerably one role Delius seems to orchestral fiveynot interesting horn fourjsections. nullifies sympathize that the players of the effect with the opinions the other. of is most

material trumpet, to the given is frequent Most two tat represented the extremes of widely. for violinywhere their by the Suite contribution negligible At the other being scored. their hardly seems to justify Some have important Hiawatha, is they solos. where extreme interesting tone trombone the uses of occur when most of in a quiet is seeking Delius passage, proba mellow texture bass the the tone in and contrabassoon of of anticipation ably '(see clarinet Deliusts he had from for writing music in ex-30., P-151)for him well, violin served in facility a as a composer period loveliest his of some create would in the interest His particular on the in own ability his earliest

one of modern orchestra In contrast to the consistently for the horns)the amount of attention trombone and tuba by Delius ranges

stringsiand textures. string

and the string violin than in this evident for violin., the Suite string not three

more never was general ensemble from 1892: to apart up period early for Sonata Romance, and violin violin pieces for string at this are also orchestra time (though they have

quartet, been have to written believed survived)-" See RT p. 127-




HiawathalcopTist's f. 25b (bar 5-f. of the original

MSycorresonding 26a (bar 2 MS.







_______________________________ _____________


T7T rTi. FF r

__ _____ __ ___





is texture approach to string and imaginative first in Delius's orchestral score, Florida, seen already (the instances viola solo in the of solo passages with (first textures movementp polyphonic second movement)ssimple after banjo colour Some months movement). of or guitar-effect he produced the exquisitively-worked tapestry: later of the 191 (s in Hiawatha e chapter onesex. 10sand slow movement and splendid strokes the third of original above). Delius's obvious inexperience in in orchestration, however, is also the fig. 10) (the

A bold

ex-30 most

two recurring weaknesses in his use of W the double bass is used scantily and, section: string little or as with much of the cello writing$with subtlety (partly harmonic because of the composer's flexibility (ii) dependence on pedal points); melodies are. over-frequently in octave placed (for instancesthe Important unison finale stages

on the top three or four strings fig-3)before of Floridas and after in Deliusts to an eventual progress

are formed by the two the melodramasshows increasing that Delius's competence as a harmonist - resulting had iderable in more fluidtlinear textures significance cons , It is only with his first for his string writing. symphonic mastery of complete Paa Vidderne scores. the string section Ex. 22 (p. 125)sfrom of movement in the bass all sections) equal to that of Wagner's his late table in Even-in on the thematic operas. orchestra is present. that a new style to discern P-135 it is possible the accumulation The most vital of section of the work forces the central climax gains its dynamism preceding poem that instruments Delius (of achieves a freedom 3(b) in drive theme the majestic of restless precisely Played the bass instruments. the smooth against among sweeps curve of the main theme of the second subjects3(a)sthrough fascinating barssit a of 35 counterpoint a provides some 'Duals Deliusts in of opposites' breadth works. unprecedented from in the score. places several occur of true is the Vidderne successor Paa its 6rchestratibn beautiful One Hiawatha. Florida and to the finest moments in of Straussian The 153). cantabile in ex-31(p. passage is shown this In kind in




Paa Vidderne symphonic poems MS corresponding to copyist's f. 27a (bar 7) - f. 27b (bar 4) MS. of the original

-I"". t rA. "I


WA S*u



1.10 31J,



it&w, n W,

wo*A a,. UW-c I www"s

o"S", A wa 3

,n, "Ao




.Arme 64S3




and the



struments prepare a perfect cadence at the release tonsion, the composer introduces of harmonic a texture: the upper wind, violins more gentle and violas descend onto a melodious figure, in the harp glistens while its through judged contrast between arpeggios compass. Finely harmony, texture flow: and release)in and rhythmic is the main benefit this Delius's derived from technique his concentration on opera in the 1890s. Paa Vidderne repreThe Magic sented the furthest point Delius reached before tension Fountain.

of the lower inbars 4-5. Here, with





and Nature




five variety identity. initial the course in

or of






Delius a manyareas to be found greatly has been

in a wide wrote faceted creative of in the the It yet little composer's music in of the

of styles - products Each of these primary language are creative Delius,

mature of this


though ' development. that

some were there

may, therefore) mention aesthetic from life

seem surprising


Delius's artistic

which around

study of that must be regarded the turn of the between

characteristic as the centuty: natural of core the

of of his

expression musical and human longing. ness poetic on the and sunset

of the affinity As with Deliusts imagerypthe notion on symbolism between of to things between Delius,

beauty wilderis a namely

exploitation of this affinity to

oneidependent correlation and a state



state poetic ingly

to such works and is fundamental a Summer Garden, Songs of Sunset, On Hearing as Sea DriftPIn Cuckoo in Spring the First and Summer Night on the River. In factfalong Delius with style, mature most the essential elements of the in the seeds of his absorption and longing were, indeed, sown in the The first these seeds sent shoots other Twilight his end Fancies development of the period, (1339-90). has in been Deliusts

relationship important

an internal emotional or mental in the material This world. Man and Nature becomes increas-

relationship first period up were Consideration left until

of nature 1335-1392. (1389) this


of now because,

and facet of at the

1. The thi, of his narrow a wider

largely unappreciated work is still scope of Delius's of recordings despite the unprecedented availabiiity few of pieces a The of popularity music. persistent has range prevented probably and stylistic emotional work. of the composer's understanding


first in his



(1890-2), previously increased


suddenly evident.

assumes a prominence

poetic awareness of this during the years 1-890-6, is one of two crucial affinity the em; rgence of in these, years preparing turning-points (The other is the development his mature style. of a controlbut deep, In Irmelin the restrained, flexibility). led rhythmic finest from Deliua the love music calls of solitary passion of his first of passion that gives intensity. intimately surroundings opera. two loversywhose the of climax In both operas Subsequentlypit union The Magic the is is the inflamed by obstacles, prevented Fountain its emotional

not writing The composer's

and inextricably in the drama.

is expressed with the natural wound together Nature plays a passive the role: human longing

and equilibrium. of perfection symbol of a state ever-present is the foil Nature to emotional chaos. brief Irmelin is examined in some detail)a Before conbe Twilight Fancies Sakuntala of will and of sideration Delius's The two earliest among of songs presence value. output nature abovelit expressing is notyin longing and As intimated itself, of special significance. if this vital would have been more remarkable in Delius's evident make-up was not creative of the close affinity between in

is interesting What is thes e formative years. brings both the in poetry that songs chosen nature/longing imagination rarely the compoLser up onto a level of musical his in work. contemporary elsewhere attained in The opening bars of Sakuntala were considered deployment in the two effective with connection chapter 6th the initial song' in of the German moments chords of harmony, with its persistent (see p. 108). The ambivalent heavyPalmost (A unthe G)vmatches of 4 mood appoggiaturas Drachmannts Holger poem: love-longing bearable of

element some form


had kept me from sleeping, "My longing for fragrant winds round me had sighed, flowing my window unchecked through tide; as if a mellifluous I heard the exquisite music lofty palm trees soughed outdoors; it sang to me as I paced the floor: Sakuntala. Sakuntala, 112Ex. 1 (P-158) orchestral colouration reveals a duskily rich in the opening bars (for a piano reduction of these bars, A block of subdued, dark reed tones) 108). ex-7 on p. see including as its cor anglais top layer the are muted. (They and bass melody in sustain clarinet mellow the (plus low tremolo horns)yhas The much of for flutes.

of the evening breeze, leaves of palm trees, in fact the complete the whispering Drachmannts love-sick insomniac ambiance surrounding seems into these few, ostensibly to have been breathed simple bars. been fairly has already extensively in chapter described)especially two, where it was suggested in as an unmatched example of the expressive potential harmony. The song will Delius's early also be seen to be importance in the fashioning Bjerrnsonts of great of Irmelin. Fancies watches the progress of the sunset; princess horn-call; of a distant of the poignance she loneliness in which she suffers by the stark longing: all these elements reappear sensual moments in the Additional Irmelin Irmelin opera. of poem she is aware is chilled her unfulfilled at crucial Twilight

strings the 90-bar song). The intoxicating


in conceiving the plot assistance P. Jacobsen's J. Delius in to was available Rose (1868-75): bright image was reflected 2)"Her the knights, in the helmets of all rhyme and rhythm and with evtry been had her fair entwined: name rose Irmelin Irmelin sun, loveliest Irmelin, of all-" by the present author.





Ex. j.

Sakuntala, copyist's

openingp MS.

AVIAMV , Prokit, TM4mewAAo ;-2


64JJ &4n4O


2 kfts

. rjl*loq ib"





The final







princess-in-distress mythology came in 1896-7 when he set Irmelin Rose. Whether the name of the princess in Delius's opera comes from Jacobsen or from the Norwegian folksong where Jacobsen For the had himself found it, is impossible to S say. part of the remainder of this greater chaptery discussion is confined to those portions of Irmelin of the opera where the blend of nature and longing pervades the Notable for these sections)Irmelin is otherwise writing. in Deliusts development; of small importance as an opera it must be considered However, some of the musicoa failure. dramatic characteristics of the work which have a bearing later on Deliusts operatic the concluding section of

ventures will this chapter.

be considered


Prior Irmelin










has rejected knights several who have come to the to woo her. She has coldly them all, inciting castle refused No suitor has yet awakened in her the anger of her father. response she expects when the lover of her day-dreams Alone again in the gathering arrives. gloomyshe sings of her melancholy and longing. the at once noticeable as the transformation commences from dusk (bar 523) to almost dark (bar 681). Added sixths bring a warm hue to the static, (see harmony tranquil colouristic ex. 2, p. 160, bars 524-536). The element of the familiar idiom initially absent - the sunset in Florida and most obvious characteristic of the sunsets These horns. distant Hiawatha is the withheld are of call bars, and enter when the dusk-haze for only a few of figur(The (p. bar 546 161). of contour gentle resumes at ation theme is anticipated their 527-30)bars at already in the snatches of melody Deliusts idiom is

IV in to the volume poem 3- Morten Borup, in his annotations Copenhageny Works, (Collected Vmrker Samlede of J. P. Jacobsen, Fregdegaevart tAsmund -traces 1923T the name back to the song Songsil853)Folk (Norwegian Folkevisar in Norske


Ex. 2.

I, Scene VI, IrmelinpAct E-aFr-s524- 584 -

Scene VI Nfolto tranquillo h


pp 41



- ----


lit - tle they all


of my



beat - ing





* e-







him, A'ii--T7='Nil q 9

... ..

-, 7,.

that's beat-ing for r-7= -.

him. rT-" ,. v-.g

Z.. 5,

I ir






i A M- k100*-,

J-t44 What is welth Ad fa me? NNbat is 'Nay






a bat is


un poco accel.
n. t there .





(Ex. 2. cont.


J vivo the di%tance) -its


.. ...........................








52 4

o .
ti *> ---

un oco*rall.






symbol of one it was noted that the poetic chapter Deliusts from far in have the horn-call unusual seemed would horn the outdoors was a much more a when sound of youth, When these evocative common phenomenon than it is today. In calls have been introduced into they connotations, and pastoral the imagery of distancesseeming dimension to the tone-painting 'depth of fieldl, with mountain compositions have been associated with almost to add a spatial lengthening the of aural -a

is given by so to speak. No intimation horns are being played in the evening Delius of why distant (no hunt is mentioned, for instance). in Scene VI of Irmelin But that the validity of the poetic metaphor is not account; vagueness surrounding ratherythe into the general music helps it to be assimilated serene weakened the horn on

mood of

peace. In the the of sunsetpthen)is serenity represented beauty. In so many of Deliusts mountain natural scores "sounded .... as if out of the very mountain-nature horn-calls (Griezts Heretoo, the calls that us" words). surrounded become anceybut are the not merely a symbol voice for a device of the ideal evoking the imagery of diststate Interpreted itself: they of nature through the unruly dying glowtllto quote sweet in resounding to the reaction the natural of how a captive reminder course, sensuality:

words,, is one of "those Irmelints poignance. moments" of intense She finds is the that of captive. sunset beauty little within before her, not

of emotions again Bjerrnson's

of nature. love-longing,


a poignant peacebut She is not, of peace she possesses. her unfulfilled her tower, but within

"How free those horns sound: here Itis so lonelyj fill the air What strange sounds When the sun has gone to rest. I sit alone in my maiden bower that comes not. And sigh for the lover in from room my I gaze oter the valley lower. lower and the sun sinks whilst north wind the wailing I question " to me love soon? Will come my dream




Delius the north wind, setting moving harmony and a chromatica passage of quickly writes In contrast to the pedal "wailing" melody. ally sliding, is in harmony the music of earlier ariayit employed point however, a chorus Immediately afterwards, passion. restless distance, is heard in the and pedal men and women of young In these lines about point harmony resumes.

In from his




Irmelin to

menial search at

service for his the

, the



princess. betrothal banquet is

young prince, Ni1s, escapes robber king, Rolfpand continues At the opening of Act III he for Irmelin, disguised as to

to be married off by her father when Nils suitorpbut sings one of his swineherd " rich At the is entranced. ballads to the assembled companypIrmelin breaks up, the men horns the gathering sound of huntsmen's Irmelin is left the chase, their to join wives to watch. " swineherd. Irmelin on how her senses alone to observe the scene and reflect (who has descended to the kitchby Nils have been disturbed his performance). The sun is setting. ens to repeat between the beauty of nature The affinity and a longing is made explicit in the song Irmelin loverts gives (ex-3PPP-16, 5)- In expression to nature of this voice relationship music of his career; this of his section coloured subtly JulietySongs of longing finest the some of would in its in the writing simple way, yet, felt delicately first is and opera as Romeo A Village in and moments as similar The Gerdaetc. Sunset, Fennimore semiand Delius compose

(as 392-3) bars or from the tonic tonal at note slide C (as major 397-9)pthe major/Eb dominant shifting at note (as 401-2) never at the progressions tonal mediant areas and the equiits harmony points: to the pedal on settle allow judged. finely is between tranquility librium and unrest Delius's sunset of that elements It comes as no surprise sixth tremolos, added haze the of string idiom are present -



III, IrmelinyAct bars 391-428.

Scene Iy


IA: 11LU eU LIAiiqui iiu 0- 63


beau - ti - ful and




na - ture




--3'1 A there

1, .--I-h,;

tIkk: . -4

,, 0$ =, i- .2.

EE F-rE S- 1, 10 I F. -1 100 10 -0


And the frag-rant

pr - fumes

howthey sweet ly scent ;d1, r-



=1 - --



71 -P



'sw ---:
-dW ow :w ;w444 ;44 t 44 :;:; 3

......... air A
?K00 10

. .....



and wdodq






-. tJ4


442==- -5, -.-- =.==:; t PE -



wria "

1 44-


i, --I -I

FFw the sun's



IF -1-1 dw im *I *j blshing



H4=4 f


ji 1 1,

and the







(Ex-3-cont. )

4)1 Irm.

415 & LA -111C Irm.

strange. I






RE have felt like



L? :'r



1 Irm.

J+, z5 ---Iaii .-61 __-_j

-0110 tranquillo

--= ;


r 165

harmonies a further family of

and pedal points. instance of that

Nevertheless, idiom. It

the belongs

passage to that.



in chapter onepwhose pieces)described is with pastoralprather than twilight association j serenity. (see Suite for In the tPastoralet the violin p. movement of 83))horn-calls A similar birdsong. were replaced-by stylized recurring motif accompanies

-small poetic




As was the case with Sakuntala pthe imagery is not of , freedom and space implied in the sunset, but of the loverts through immediate the raised ambiance. consciousness of lovepflowerspfragrances and fields are expp)rienced as never Irmelints before. in its to love anticipates awakening close of The Magic FountRomeo and Juliet wasteland of ainpthe and subsequent The gardenpas tsummer gardenst. the sunsetpis a symbol of his Delius's the ideal of nature. many Edens reflect state balance the with and order of nature. preoccupation In his first figures and opera - with its pasteboard imagery the magnolia grove at A Village the fairy-tale izations passages the plot only have a feeling of described above.. moments when Deliusts insight psychological Irmelin becomes for characterare in the brief

From these of flesh and blood. a creature by leaps developed his handling the of emotions of characters Butpin the remainder of operas. and bounds in subsequent it has to be recognized Irmelin of that the consequences his lovers the luxury and sensuality of passions allowing is particthe The followed by Delius. opera of end up are not ularly in the between the not unsatisfactory. chorus ordered of As the mixed illustratespa youths and passion metaphors interests of conflict to has become apparent is to this conflict and muddled of opera has

periods beginningspDeliusts


composer. forthcoming

A credible resolution his career before

as a composer


some way.


Troubled nor the

by neither


chorus of emotional conflicts Act I offers the a glimpse of an ideal at end of youths (ex-4, Arcady Representing 168). innocence of rustic p. to of being)the youths act as a foil an ideal state Their function is, therefore)similar turbulent emotions. The youthst by sunset imagery. to that earlier performed state perfect other. explorers is in of children of nature, humans living harmony with nature and, consequently, with each It was just that circumnavigating such Arcadians that hoped they had found in Africa and the Americas, by Delius in his Indian

mediocrity of Irmelin,

of the



are depicted and whose descendants and Negro opera Koanga. As the opera The Magic Fountain in Deliusts first children of nature output, these youths have a greater than their significance modest contribution This chorus marks the beginning to Irmelin suggests. of a years in which Delius period of some seven or eight was in humanity., with the concept of innocence preoccupied It anticipates the Indian to The Magic Fountcontribution in Koanga and the vagabond ain, the work- and dance-songs A Village Romeo In each of these of and Juliet. choruses later of the composer explores the dilemma arising out between the state the choice of nature and the ecstasy In Irmelin is clumsilyyeven the conflict naivelyy passion. works listens to

of handled. As Irmelin

the youthst song, she expresses her desire to be one of the "merry bandt' who are dancing hand in hand into the woods; but unfortunately she has no The idea of his lovers lover "to roam with in the twilight". a part of the

happy group is thrown out carefree, interest his For is by Delius it almost as soon as stated. the Irmelin in their scorns in them resides now passion. innocence: youths' kisses kisses to their "How different our firey burn like His kisses deep, deep down into my soul. We should not sing but look at each other eyes, deep, deep into each other's look, Deep into soul each otherts (cont. p. 169) look and kiss. forming



Act I, Scene VI,


L J! 30C am -m . 4b IA-i

P. -. i 1; 1 Ii 0' I

ACONTRALTOS A 1: i ! i ;op., Ka 'M&Ia,.






the woods



A- way,








the woods



A- way,




the woods






" the w6ods- let

i IP


W) 'm , 31;

92 01
i ' ;

F70i :pf.--,:: 3 F ) J. -

i- -*i.1-h J.




stray ..............................

and dance


"P'l-y' .......... ...........

in the part - tug

I F- 4
U, p 0

10 stray A T. ...... ...... ......

and dance


In the part - ing play . ..............................

stray, Tra




and dance







In the part-


stray, Tra


la la


la la la






in the part - ing


Till into the springtime glows summer itself and the summer burns out. Till fade and wither the leaves all And we both wander into the night. 0! glorious " night.

is certainly section not lessened by to imply a resolution effort of the loverst in "night". Derived from the metaphysical passion symbolism is meaningless the emotional notion of Tristan)this without This much had been realized by chaos caused by separation. of this Delius his next opera. when he came to write As it turns descends on Irmelin outythe curtain and Nils in Act III "hand in hand as they are seen wandering joyfully through the wood wondering at and discovering new beauties It makes for a disappointing everywhere". conclusion. Not only is their ideal apparent adoption of the youthst state of innocence

The confusion the last-minute

it had previously been confusing after by Irmelinpbut it is also a negation rejected of the emotions dramatically interesting which had made Irmelin's suffering The sensuality and credible. of the music Delius wrote for her cannot evaporate Delius at the arrival of a companion; has implied in text and music that her longing is not merely for a friendibut for love and sensual fulfillment. In contrast to the destiny death-urge compelling of of a M61isandeyIrmelints is an absurd climax passion.

an Isolde



tragic woods

with Nils heart-felt

in the pleasant stroll to a tale of (occasionally)

The "Dramaticallys? Irmelint is a failure. libretto gives it no chance of life-114' Andrew Porterts of the 1953 premi"ere comment$in his review Deliusts Irmelin, the of weakness pinpointed primary of With its characterizationscontradictory shallow conception. libthe dialogue, improbable detailsjimplausible plot and

'Deliusts 4. Andrew Porter: (Junepl953)pp. 275-



The Musical



by Delius his thatpat the reveals written start of theatrical career, the composer had little sense. In writing his first in Wagner's wake, opera, Delius wished to follow both the 'Durchkomponieren? adopting structural continuity sBut, of Wagner typifying and use reminiscence motifs opqras. retto in neglecting the opera seems to This flaw in Irmelin Newman at the drama element employ much fuel did not of music-drama)Deliusts but emit very little heat. escape the notice of Ernest


"The simple had to be padded liberally story to make it last out three acts, and Delius, who made his own librettoylacked at that time the most rudimentary sense of stage Convention technique. is piled on convention, Some and there is practically no action. The less of the navetes are staggering .... we think of drama and characterization while 6 listening to fIrmelin' the better.,, Delius a librettist also call that his skills eventually came to realize as lagged well behind his composing talents (see fiveop-235). Nevertheless, though he would

in the shaping of subassistance of others plots and tektsphe sequent never made a point of delegating the responsibility to a poetydramatist or any artist of more than himself in this field. As will become clear experience course of became increasingly studypDelius's operatic ventures imaginative the probabiland individual; increases ity in direct that his genius as a proportion from coming to full composer of stage music was prevented fruition by never having been matched with a good libretto. in the this

chapter upon the

5- It is interesting that Delius's contemporary) great Strauss)held Wagner in similar of his esteem at the outset Strauss(London) Norman Del Mar: Richard operatic careerlsee ). However, with the composition l, p. l 1969)pvol. of his (1893), Strauss first Guntram went to the opposite opera to Delius, from In Delius. to wished who extreme contrast lightWagnerian a the and methods combination of explore Wagner libretto out-Wagnering plotyStrauss weight penned a His legend. Teutonic in ponderous of elaboration poetic Tannfusion is Del of to a i'ar, main character)according hHuser and Parsifal. 6. The Sunday TimesplO May 1953PP-11-


The handful employed dramatic the part characters primarily


leitmotifs as 'name-tags'.





most part

They do not

significance or reveal psychological of the composerpbut merely attend like shadows.

accumulate insight on appointed


One exception, which anticipates in The Magic Fountain, is the more sensitive motif-working theme: use Delius makes in Act III of Irmelin's


-4& a6




theme with different harmonizations, increases more chromatic as Irmelints passion (cf. bars 39-4Os489-9Ox5l9-2OylO47-1048). The influence early signs in of a rhythmic This aspect of Deliusts writing. evolving fully in the next chapter)but considered see how the dramatic need for fluctuating emotions the all loosened struggles of up Deliusts with motifs writing had done of Irmelin Wagner is also evident fluidity it in in is the the positive orchestral be more will to





he treats




gradations more in Irmelin in the

or six years the love-duet

creative work. EX-5 shows the which draws the opera towards its

of than five previous first half of close;

Ex-5. Act III, Scene IIjbars

J f;, tranquillo ento i Am I dreant-ing,


am I dreaming, Are these moonbeams oer me


1"; this


I: ' I: '

im -



(Ex-5-cont. )


1E-i F'


L this ... and


but a


..... ... .....



soon a

A ii



I-Ri iizi

04 5 -IN
Z; ; -> Z;

miss? NILS Mf tj col S ...............................................





dream - ing,

Am I


n ly -


iiig, Are




it. IUr
gj I ovi


! F


I -do


+ Are. these moon be'ams r me stream O'e


F9 -.. moon - beams oer me



ing? Is this







(Ex-5-cont. )


is this


Is this &d




and is this col A kiss but A dream %o soon kAL ..... .... ........ to







......... ..... so soon to

miss . .........

in, so soon


miss, ....

........ ... . .... ... so soon to ja



m S's?
cot 8




Are these

II. Nils ------------------------





dfam - ing


(Ex-5-cont. )




'm-t these a rs which

cla-----Xsp so 'a ji

! ho





VU& a



(Ex-5-cont. )










.................. NUS






& Am .61


A 16 0. 0.6,




443 F Irm.


d7 g92 '. -, love's 0-do,


sake, AL

54 J5
ver, ne - ver inbre aia ver, ne - ver more to part. to


coi 8.............................. q4* rallentando ff A fA I

1" A ,f Nu Ar -. Ne -

................................................... .................................................... Pi tranquillo 72



tl bC

018 ........ ... ...........................

............................................................................. M-W


Fil i j! all '. 14



The composer measures his the music onto increasingly mounts: emotion (A) bars 897-924:


and rhythmic paceplevering levels leventfult as th? -loverst in the bass tonic anchorage harmonic foundation to the

An unshifting gives a static

(B) 'bars


rhythms and exploratory cautiousystolid harmony in the upper parts. chromatic (triplet Fluid inner movement rhythmic figuration) odic Prelude accompanies well-defined (The contours. melody comes from to Act III melthe

2, The 16). see ch. ex. bass is more active nowpboth in its rhythm as a component of the upper and in its role harmony. (C) bars 937-942: Melodic inner appoggiaturas and chromatic movement comes to its peak, accumulating a high degree of tension, be rewhich will leased gloriously in the climax of the duet.

developmain trends of Delius's creative Control the 1890s are established. ment throughout over fluclevels is foreshadowed; tuating emotional more significantlys, between nature brought from the the conflict and passion That these the material of opera. -composer is of dramatic are couched in a trivial elements context to this importance that the dramatic study than the fact the best text made them possible. less con-













"In I

Florida. through at Uaturep and gazing sitting I in learnt the gradually should which way it find eventually years until was not myselfpbut found I I had settled that Grez after really at ft myself.












Wina and Edvard



Delius and Sinding

Gri egt Halvor5env


Engli splendid sh-Ameri musical can. deeply 9 Man.... feeling! He is like except us in nothing end that's " everything! to 1688

HardangerviddeL3ut in the






"I tell you frankly, that has won all 08lius to

have never my lov-e as yours 1888


nature a life met my has done. "







"Delius Grieg

is to

smitten Frants

with Beyer.


madness'. 1887


25 December

from far too think should never settling of far Orchestra Chorus a Big not also and and from light Norway summer my beloved and the the the of nights and melancholy and all poetry Northern high plateaux mountain summers and the than individual humans where rare and more are " in any other in the world. country Delius to Renry Clews,, 20 June 1918










Delius had already of seven set before he became music acquainted in Paris in 1891, and subsequently Bjornson in July.

Bjornson's poems to daughter his with a week with spent

, ; oo' f
(5) Helfdan (see chapter Jebe six)



hope very much that we can again journey. consider Pacific our great never it given up. t' to Deliusv24 April 1905

seriouslY I have








Grez, 1897


Soon everything


Grez I come out at garden of your 11 in be to to uproar. an seems me












and Passion

At the time Delius broke off work in the summer of 1894 for visits to the opera in Munich and the Bayreuth Festivallhe had prepared the libretto of his second opera, The Magic Fountainyand was ready to begin serious work on This conjunction music. of events had a positive effect It is probable development. on the direction of his musical that the importance The Magic Fountain has in the 'composer's career is to that summer's experiences: "In Bayreuth I heard 'Parsifall twice and Tannhauser is magnificent: once. Parsifal the finest work of Wagner The orchestra I am really and theatre are perfect. very Eto I Munich] it, will came no doubt be glad benefit to me. Before leaving of great Munich I shall 3 timesp hear the Nibelungen Tristan 3 times and the und Isolde Meistersingers 3 times. "' chapter examines three aspects of Deliusts second when seen from emphasis momentum; its dramatic mature music. of fundamental Neverthelesso on directly linked the


opera which assume a special significance the vantage-point of his mature style: (i) the use of leitmotifs, with particular their (ii) (iii) the unifying emergence role; of controlled makes more feasible of light


which the representation implications. aspects


Each of these They represent stylistic it is also derivedito

crucial features of evident that

on Deliusts stages in the evolution his individual language. sheds

these elements of the opera have been from Wagnerian methods. extent, a great In this discussion will of The Magic Fountain an attempt between individuality be made to draw the dividing-line and (althoughoin the endpthe placing derivativeness in-the opera of that line must remain a matter of conjecture). Delius



from Delius

to Jutta


August 1894PCLL/ sp. 90.


to put to good certainly came back from Germany determined learnt there; techniques use lessons yet Wagnerian are not It seems that he imitation. employed by him in obvious found in Wagnerts music much he could adapt, rather than adopt. Section Part For associated AOne The Added Dimension and Drama


reference with


characters In this list, on PP-179-80. from those themes which are used in a variety, of contexts "In local function. to instances three confined a more to the where a harmonic progression contributes greatly (Page is too process of recognitionsthis references given. in the chapter and elsewhere by The Delius Trust in published The extent of Deliusts here are for 1979). the vocal score

a table of themes and motifs and ideas in the opera is given important CAPITALS distinguish

literary to response very marks a new commitment on his part to explores suggestions This levelsithe on several possibilities of music-drama. breathes dramatic array of leitmotifs a lifesa substances into the simple of The Magic Fountain plot which Irmelin and tWisdom1$? SailorfsT and 'Solana's Longing' Delius had the not evidently accepted challenge (the things environment)s placesscharacters, concrete only of ideas and ideals the but also of abstract which motivate The It dimension. is his use an added of characters. actions Wagner, had becomeywith the life-blood of recall of motivic Fountain The Magic Delius In form. too exciting art an lacked. 'Wapanackit device's keen the potential of a perception reveals thing of character-motifs sprinkling which the light had Irmelin not suggested. the shallow of soil - someover

lead the useful to motifs, 2. In the application of titles 'Delius's his in Threlfall by Robert unknown article given (Perthi Musicpvol. 11 Studies in Fountain?, opera: The Magic Some alterations been follow-eU-T-ere. W. A. jl977)jhas and been have his listing to made. additions


Table (A)



in fnrm!

The Magic Art

Fountain A






(C) Sailors..
AD i fLN D




(E) WISDOM. I/p. 6/6





(F) Will.


(G) Sailor's



' (ii)
-2 L--I-L


0, -A4)


In'. pp u


IL=Z: d


/- I




(K) Forest.



INDIANS. II/p-68/10





0 'i

l. %


-. &-



-. fP-



(N) STREAM. II/P-104/10

fl V"II.



io hio 1-20--a --,

1 A., 11








(S) Watawals Dilemma.

1-> -7- -irvo-

-11 11 4--a Z11-1 wl

Declared =-=---; Love. [I/P-146/6

1 mi--- i1

III/P-150/5 *





Of the many roles in the operas assumed by leitmotifs there'are best the dramatic three which seem to illustrate Delius brought sensibility to The Magic Fountain. On several the initial a association occasions has with an idea isson the reappearance motif of the motify interpreted A simple example is in a new light. subtly in Act 1 by the theme sung by the sailors provided at their moment bration the greatest of the oncoming breeze, they same theme., it is as if in ironic lapse Act of faith: of despair (motif G). When, in joyful mockery of seize their, celeupon subsequently


earlier Ex. l.

IYPP-36-7) Ao4ioj rivilk Ajijervasy,, ww

-. g




&! Rar-. ox mm



+, A :1. i. k. f.;kk-ly a



reinterpretation. describing she makes use of a vision of a paradise everglade Kiss music which had earlier the gentle appeared at the 5-6 bars Watawa. heights bliss. Solana's her quotes Of and hhythmic (motif its U), and the theme general and adopts of intervallic characteristics (see also

end of the As the

opera dying

comes perhaps the most striking Watawa sings her final arial

ex. 10)

Ex. 2.



189-91 pp. A. .

P, See how the moon baams flood the sweet =At-no Ila Cray*

Lis- tan'
mock-Ing bird Is warb ILDC songs of love.



for thee




mag-a* - Ila

gray*. (Shedlos)

By implication, -garden








of blisswhere enjoy a purey she and Solana will love. eternal (2). Dramatic in the orchestra's implications music can form a large Implied leitmotivic process. part of a composer's thoughtsifor important in the forming

of rounded, example, are They remove the declaration credible of intent characters. from the libretto and motive and place it in the wordless in his first Delius illustrates this voice of the orchestra. scene in Act II, where Solana begs Wapanacki for a guide. Without he disclosing further detailsythe may says chief know who pan serve as a guide. he Indeed, in the musicfas ponders which . is this question, quietly, it is the played, musingly example in at theme of Watawa (theme (ex-31P-183)Act 1 is having H)

A rather amusing Solana's frustration mention. of lower

is made abundantly aspirations "With gold I can soothe the common herdp Itis they understand. all How many a daring thought would succeed but for the mass of commonsense beings-11(pp-25-6) Who he has particularly in mind as the target of these reproaches the sailorts Delius is revealed (C). motif makes interesting by the orchestra use in in repetitions Fountain of

also worthy of to deal with people in his words: clear

The Magic

two motifs of danger - the which imply the presence (P Hidden Q). Danger, and Danger of Fountain and motifs directly to the Danger)at its first weapon refers appearance, intended dramaphad to the Watawa, of one at stage with. which slay Solana: belt "Hidden my within close knife. 11(p. 111) lies a poisoned Laterlhowever, it is also employed in allusion Fountain fountain. Danger The the motif of of ies the disclosure

of Hidden



danger accompanfountain's


Hadjo, that the by the seerpTalum into It immediately is snatched up are waters poisoned. 9). Watawals music - it is her new weapon (Act IIYP-117pbar these two the Subsequent underline motifs of appearances 6-7). At bars the (see climax dangers P-153, and PP-139-40 of the operalthe fountain-godpUnktaheimaterializes. Despite



Act IIPP-77-


Watawals motif

Ex -4.

Act IIIPP-178.




7% 0


"41. m 4. Z. C
0, m, -m4

't ,r* b


his of

"attitude all't., the

complete danger covert of unheeded herepsome


repose .... he brings the

seemingly unconscious with him is forcefully

restated dire -a p-183)3. through.

by recurrences warning Finally

in the orchestra two motifs Solana (ex-4) by the headstrong instances of themes which acquire, than initially

subsequent useia deeper significance In had first theme represented each case a which -suggested. a-material associations. object or person takes on abstract The most obvious is that of theme Lpthe Indians' example , theme -a melody in which the noble character of the race

And it is the virtues seems to be embodied. of the race Indians the courage and solemn pride image than of an rather seated round a campfiresthat are to be recalled as Watawa her self-sacrificing takes the fountain4s waters steps into (p. L to the accompaniment at the close of Act III motif of 188pbars 3-8)Similar the Stream and transformations affect , New World themes (motifs N and A). The firstpbeginning as a for the forest brookoattains the wider meaning of motif time when it accompanies the meditative endlessoflowing of Talum. Hadjo: (He seems to be absorbed in deep thought down into limpid water) and looks intently "Drifting, towards With driftingpdown the eternal .... the stream of time words

Day follows

day, year follows



had stroke, the New World theme that (P-52) is Florida the coast of on As Watawa. lies death by Delius the on of she at reemployed has the poignance the verge of another of unknown worldvit 3-10)bars 189, swan a song-(p. a fine musico-dramatic heralded Solana's arrival Part Though BLeitmotifs and Structure

deviceothe leitmotif musico-dramatic a essentially have by Wagner to applications. structural certain shown was Fountain. Structural Magic The in these Delius explored some of by-product important for and convenient example., was an unity., in the but Convenient, not coincidental: processes. of motivic


examples be clear from

from that

The Magic the


structural uses of

deliberate The important stage in technique.

manipulation the Rhythmic

below it will considered function of the motifs results by the composer. opera represent a of a motif-generPaa Vidderne symphonic

second ation

in the motifs fashioning composer's cells in the

Sonata had effectively knitted poem and Violin practically in bhese works into a larger all of the thematic material In The Magic Fountain, and subseauently in A Village whole. (see chapter Romeo and Juliet seven), Delius shows himself increasingly his aware of the suitability of motivic working to methods. creative Two principal First, the methods may be distinguished. In in any single restatement constant passage of one motif. Act IIsfor instancepthe ruminations of Talum Hadjo as he beside sits interrupted., his 'stream fluent of time' motif by the then are introduced, of the stream itself twice (motif

This ritornello N; pp. 104-9). the contrast created effectPand accompanvocal line and mostly slow-moving with his angular the most well-balanced iment, makes this passage of arioso in Act II, Wapanacki in the work. Earlier gives his advice built to Watawa in a brief on repetitions entirely arietta 82-3). (motif Although J; the his overall motif pp. personal of effect unify is the rather arietta. monotonous here, the motif The largest self-contained does serve to in the most section the structuremand This is

define its to motifs employing opera in Act III. impressivepis the love-duet Three below. in Section individually Secondlyounity of music through is series insinuated of related in the into


extensive passages Dramatically, the motifs.

is of a course section motif a altering of purpose in. developments the illustrate to emotions of a charoften has her Watawa to For motif one peculiar example, acter. III Act in which undergoes such changes. soliloquy agonized (motif is S) idea at The basic a sorrowfulldrooping shape its ances first appearance (bar 7) on P-134 in the final and P-136 bars on p-129. Its reappear(bar 6) in are - ex-5(a) -


more thoughtful,




Act III;


the forms it takes on PP-137-8)grumbling while instruments, seems to convey the deep-seated is Watawats "gnawing pain":

in anxiety





Act IIIoPP-137-8.
L, CA" 69 3


Hand in effect form:

hand with the of the motivic

dramatic process

impact on the

is created listener's sense thus

the of

a simultaneous effect of unity and development. Act III provides another example in the simple expansion T during The initial love-scene. the enchanting of motif cell (T) accompanying declarations the loverst is spun of passion first urgent into a floatingppoised (V). Passion motif such instances Kiss in theme (U)pthen the into the



in to a growing thriftiness point use of It was indicated that the same mOtivic earlier material in the dramapreworked for to different points extended This principle also context. the influence of motif/drama outside bridges the interlude which estral fresh Indians' of applies to

course Deliusts


opera his material. was its

Talum 6(b). ex. the whichialmost motif unnoticedpcalls of the nervouspexcited 6(a). to the war-dance Indians - ex. (bar 13 onwards) horn-call Even more discreetlypthe ensuing

subsidiary music The orchassociations. first half of Act II (the (the forest the and second retreat camp and war-dance) Hadjo) includes the passage given on pp. 187-8 as bars is a transformation The theme of the first twelve


'Ex. 6(a).

Act ii, p. 86. (Cf),j

Ex. 6(b).






(Ex. 6(b). cont. )




-t -1 -

U. b,

A' &
i. .



3- L

I jj


9'-- ---" i


fl r


I suggests 8f this also, the

a later phrase Act. Not only underlying

(ex-7, the


used of the

only two are




themes, similar:

close but











AM ,II -t -4 p ,.



his into degree materialpthen2 unity of a by these two motivic of one motif primarily means: repetition to within of motifs a section of music, and the alterationboth developing While roles play significant a suit situation. is the second procedure in Delius's which music2it subsequent Delius induces

3. This theme is one of several borrowed from the earlier The in Florida Florida-inspired the use suitepfor score, Maggic Fountain. This and other borFowings were liste=ln Table 11PP-377-


iV6 -, of Magic

to an relationships*are allied intuitive the alterations process of alteration: are governed 'by', the fluctuating levels In later of emotion. years this 'became his principal The themes method of generating material. of the orchestral and instrumental works he wrote at the peak of'his career often consist namosswonderfully productive ., inspired by a fine --, sense for what was suitably (1916), Deryck Concerto 'Writing of the Violin that _suggested "the whole material of, the workpthematic initial is evolved out of its and rhythmic, two-bar entirely motto - with.... unrhapmastery-""sodicPrigorously organic has expressed -The present writer convictions elsewhere similar behind the great Mass of Life. ' abo ut the economy of thought

cardinal Fountain

importance thematic





In The

of little in his

more than hands, their

dymotivic inception

plastic. Cooke has

In Jn himself

ways wholly






by his as a composer of opera seems justified The advance from the superficial second work in the genre. in Irmelin to the concrete/abstract use of character-themes implications in The, subtleties of motifs and structural by Delius's 'Magic Fountain was no doubt made possible study of Wagner. At Bayreuth Wagner's in musictand expresses a great on this period of "Wagner obsession"s musical and Munich letters of he had steeped himself in he frequently this period

for Wagner's work. Commentators admiration have spoken of his Delius's career Ismaintaining "Wagner had become his that '? Wagner". However., because he "worshipped God'17'and that

Musical 4. Deryck Cooke: 'Delius ahd Form: A VindicationIpThe Timeg (julyol962)PP-465its Bell-Motifto 5. Andrew J. Boyle: 'A Mass of Lifetand (FebF-uary 1982). The Music Reviewovol-43 6. Christopher Redwood: tDelius as a Composer of Opera', A Delius Companion (Londonpl976), p. 219. (Londonpl971)pp. 24. 7. Eric Fenby.* Delius (23 8. Donald Mitchell: Jan-' OperaliThe Listener tDelius and uary 1958)PP-177190



is is

individuality Fountaintas

strength so obvioussthe too readily overlooked.

of Delius's In The Magic

to give artistic voicepnot elsewhere)he strove to a counterfeit Wagnerian to his own personality. spi-ritsbut It is worth keeping in mind thatseven when he wrote Irmelin, Sleepless Delius Wagner's familiar music. was very with Leipzig life in Tristan nights after everyday were a part of (see p-98). in the score of Yet the sprinkling of motifs in Irmelin leitmotivic be in to methods can no way compared began first Wagner Tristan. to Der fliegende Holl9nder, where . the opera explore seriouslythe of leitmotifs)is applications in "While by Irmelin. in technique most nearly approached development Rin the Carl Dahlhaus.. "the musical flowrites is based fliegende , Whypthen, in Der leitmotifspthe the recollection on motifs of have more the character Hollander of interpolation-" if

to the more advanced techniques were familiar devotee Deliusodid he make so little use of them at that time? The same problem is carried over to The Magic Fountain. had acquired the

Tristan had in 1888phe score made of -Delius in Die Meistertechniques a partial of Wagnerts analysis '*and he had described Parsifal as "magnific. ent. pthe sin, ger, Yetito finest work of Wagner". what degree do the advanced leitmotivic the score of these operas influence procedures of of The Magic plastic Fountain? Certainlypthe the integration a great of leitmotivic into cells functionprepresents opera, some of a network them

motivic multi-layered unravelling of motifs and the saturation of scenes symphonic late Wagnerian distinguish the middle and motifs which with belong to a different world. style Delius's to Wagner's music seems to resemble attitude That is to Grieg. the he to music of the attitude adopted saygan attitude of selective assimilation as it his on a basic critical self-knowledge)drawing both of understanding process reliant -a does on the composer's weaknesses and

a structural with but the Irmelin;

advance on weaving, the spans of


Wagner? in The New Grove 9. Carl Dahlhaus: 'Richard 12d. (London 1980)pp. 20 Musicp vol. ary of 10. See RL P-135 (f. 18a-b).



In the late 1880s Delius's strengths. songs rose suddenly to, the high standard Fancies, due to the catalytic of Twilight . Delius effect of Grieg's set music on his own. Yetowhile two versions never resembled many poems first set by Grieg)the be In Delius's ea ch other. assumed that the must operaspit , by leitmotifs in Irmelin minor role'played was more a result deliberate of - an exercise or of options of selectivity, intuitive The ignorance than shaping of of' options. of in the work - notably other elements and character plot to a 'fairy-story with a simple profile opera' appropriate fairyAlternativelysthe this epances of a choice argument. to opera may have been suggested knowledge talents that his operatic were in level Whichever it is of state of infancy. viewedpthe way in Irmelin with motif-working waspby and large, compatible for tale plot Delius by the his first the firstpit his degree . In the is of complexi. ty. composition of his second operapas that Delius was exercising evident planning the librettoohe dramatic with the a

a word too much philosophical concisepnot have I it drama the conceived as as or phpychological " There can be sensed behind these self-imposed requires.,, is it not limitations an artist who knew his own measure; then both At reasonablepeven the music and the the logica4to to plot development assume that the shape of represented he tailored his own needs? by The Magic

While options. make the poem very

control over wroto;, 11I want to

Wagner's art were of selectpelements forward. his to inspirationpworking career move and a stimulus Wagner's influence. from Wagner; he worked through He learnt Magic The in leitmotif The appearance network of an elaborate with an obsession result was not dramatic "For Delius me much: said as opera. with 12. the place of religion". taking of to Jutta Bellp12 August Fountain the Wagnerpbut art is

stage of his Fountain importantobut





1894- CLL/l

Quoted May 1894Bellp2q Jutta from Delius Letter to 12. A Life in Delius. Threlfall: Robert Carley Lionel and (Oxfordpl977)pp. 29. Pictures

P. 90.


In the,





of artistic by Delius reached with his of.: leitmotifs is indicative and of the


work's position had been most clearly uality in momentary subtleties voiced of -harmonic colour and in the evocation of moods. It was by the end of the 1890s evident foreshadowed by his and rejection Delius's that training of traditional art relied feel for colour primarily on an intuitive and the balance A motif-recall of,, emotional tensions. technique of any kind issof bedfellow for this fragile course, a strange art, imposing without a web of reminiscences and accumulated While a degree of leitmotif responses. evidently -working seemed appropriate to the composer, the use of at this point as characterize much of Wagner's Subsequent music.. runs quite to his art. contrary operatic bear this had absorbed the ventur. es will out. Once Delius into a motif -generation structural advantages of motivic recall technique longer had themes prominent motivic no and cells p direct associations with well-defined objects or ideaspbut more cerebral processesssuch The motivic performed a more abstractPgeneralized role. 'atmosphere? Romeo the score of A Village which permeates be considered in chapter and Juliet will seven. Section In his rejection Two Momentum and Climax as it does from

he which considered 9'3 crucial stage is The use he made second opera. of the nature of that search, in it. Hitherto, Delius's individnote integritypa

'a luill

of certain and structural contrapuntal tools at the outset of his career, Delius was also rejecting basic in music: means of creating momentum and direction from the conflict impulsion the rhythmic resulting of contralines, and the simultaneous puntal afid ' gravitational pull directional ion within language intimate tala and Section push of functional systematic tonality. modulation and subtle progressTransferring the colouristict Sakunformatspin to extended melodrama for

of his Five of

songs the Paa Vidderne

13- See chapter



intrinsic lack of to lay bare its harmonic was only in those scores where this style was abandoned in favour of a motoric rhythm that In the dance sections continuity was achieved. of the Florida exampleomerely impulsion. It served simple harmony and elementary structural a models were brought into use, and through Imotort impelling rhythmic constantpinflexible, cell -a Likewise momentum was sustained over extensive sections. in the Paa Vidderne Sonatat symphonic poem and the Violin , figures the dotted-note 'mountain typical melody' of Delius's suite and the war-dance of Hiawatha drive. contained rhythmic great A huge leap is necessary for Delius Forpin his scores from of his maturity. onwards, most fluid one of the to reach the style the end of the 1890s

features, the most individual and probably his control compellingois over a superbly and pliant rhythmic motionpa mastery of subtly ebbing and flowing

This corneratone waves of climax and anticlimax. of Delius's The description definition. art ha s defied and precise fundamental idea of a flexible momentum was once rhythmic 'a sense of flow?: to by Deliusprather referred vaguelypas "A sense of flow is the main thingpand it how you do it so long as doesntt matter you master it.? '"* To describe flow is directedt the climaxes to which this flight" lyricism" and "soaring phrases such as "rhapsodic havepover into the years, been called service. became bridge How'Delius 1889-1899 to the canyon was evident practically The emotive Magic Fountain. power of dynamic here fused the language with was A new teahnique resulted for the first time around 1894 with The harmonic' the composer's energy of rhythm. him to move his music

which enabled brief or sustained climaxes. of and out into effortlessly The fluctuating ride on the energy of waves of material temotional harmonic tension: rubatol. a of sort and rhythmic





(London Him Knew 1937), p. 169. I as


A visual main elements harmonic alteration, rhythmic flowing These are



such a passage in of the

reveals form of



are present: tension, particularly and tension or driving in the runs. forms

chromatic and


elemnntary musical components - basic tools of the Their fusion in a composerts composer. style would not normbe a matter ally worthy of special note. What distinguishes Delius's is not evident in the notes use of these elements on the do,. not artistts tools page. These basic tensionsias of the craftsmany in themselves disclose anything of the nature of the For thatpit is necessary to seek out the genius. inspiration craftNthe with which the craftsman guides inspiration his harmonic It has already been emotion. language to a was geared primarily From the first, Deliusts progress is

a_ctual his tools. Deliusts noted personal that

expressiveness. intuition) relied on the refining of his sensibilitiesphis his feelings. Again, so much seems commonplace. It musts thereforesbe that subtleties once more emphasized of tonality) might have sublimated interest to not of primary Emotion had to make up forpand Delius. functions executeftheir in some way. In later years, when he could view objectively in his lifets threads the central workshe would frequently that"Cclhe than inventpand should always feel rather stress "s Deliusts is emotion, as a sculptor's feel deeply". inspiration counterpoint or diffused or his which another inspiration Delius's the craft is the is beauty the and balance of of lines his representation and curves; by inspiration in structure feelingspwere

tensions, as a sculptor's and rhythmic of harmonic control by his inspiration is the control the of representation craft his deinstinctive The of extension mallet and chisel. of being from feeling choice a means of governing on pendence of harmonies is seen to governing the for flow the onies practically and rhythm of these harmfirst time in The Magic






end of the previous chapterpit demands of music-drama the subtly altering moods, fluctuating emotions and developing brought from characters that the composer a more advanced language. at in this considered section illustrates in a clear-cut way the composer's control over a-moment of accumulated tension and its release. In the opening bars of example 7 (P-197) a chromatic upwards begins) slide by a rhythmic propelled ostinato and the vocal cross-rhythm: it 6 is elementary. The slide for bars. continues altogether of examples Harmonically, but in these indefinitelyp progression could continue barspand in bars 5-6, the melodic especially the The first three


As was suggested was the practical


increases by cross-rhythms in tensionpcaused greatly The music takes flight the ostinato. with and is urged on to its is reached at bar 7. The exultant goalpwhich resolution (Ab* - Db) is diverted which is anticipated at this point rhythm by Delius in a typical Wagnerian deceptive cadence: V' - IVc (here.. Ab"" The from float Gb4j. down its to music seems tension to the firm resolution moment of highest of a Bb*Eb cadence at bars 10-11. Intuitive though they probably arep the measurement and gradation of of harmonic. tensions, and the scale in accumulation to a neatly and release rhythmic tensions contribute

Though on a small poisedpbalanced effect. herepthese are the characteristics which also function instances rubatol. more extended of temotional On several are carefully being layers of the Act III

in The Magic Fountain, fine occasions climaxes built up by an additive processosuccessive the tension and impulsion added to heighten

far the most significant Of thesepby is the music. be considered As this love-duet. on its own in will Threepa simple Section passage from the heart of Act II has Compared with the this been chosen to illustrate process. 8(b) in love-duettex. the tension impressive of crescendo (pp. 198-9) first here of has a charming naivety. heard earlier in the Act in preliminary repetitions It is built a passage The melody Hadjols on material which is included basically consists (motif M);

as the sequential

ex-8(a). of Talum




Act Iopp. 8-9-


Is 09


er -







Ex. 8.(a).

Act IIsp-74-

(., tooo.

c. x-fl

Ex. 8(b).

Act IIvPP-103-4-

. /lIn F A, ' I J' I I .. I I .





i. I


\, ..-6_





J, --k"CZ




(Ex. 8(b). cont. )

t. X-1




8(a)p movementpas rhythmic at ex. 6-bar Already -the'idea heavy. first in the seems wooden and 8(b), is the gently statement of ex. on the other hand, there The second coaxing tension rhythmic of a counter-melody. (bars 7-12) adds to this statement a flow of triplets. Subsequently its the under with music now moving smoothly P is crowned by the harmonic own momentumpa lyrical climax tension of chromatically notes. altered chords and unessential All the aspects so far mentioned are also contained in ex. 9 (pp. 201-204) Watawals transformation encompassing p in Act III from being in despair In bars to being in love. 1-10 driving pull against rhythms and chromatic passing-notes when accompanied by little in F minor/Bb anchorage centres; minor tonal of clear bars 11-17 the same dashing rhythmic energy is presentpnow tightwith profuse appoggiaturas and accented passing-notes the ening up the pitch 13-14pbut without of tension; a rhythmic harmonic resolutionpand ensues climax the downwardat

the tension curving sweep of 14-17 defuses somewhat; in bars 18-23 Solana's by distant is still call accompanied (Eb dual tonality minor) a major/Gb and a gentle rhythmic transformation takes place. momentum. But at bar 24 a simple The harmonic tension ambiguity and the rhythmic vanish. Watawaptsotto her breath plistening vocef, holding with all powers twhispers: A striking dramatic contrast Delius her "Am I dreaming? stroke is effected Again he is energy calling". and tension through powerful

by the possible contrast made -a harnesses in the preceding section.



Ex. g.


IIIPPP. 140-3-

"4 ____ -.'-4"

11 IT rT -1 jo 34 ; "Tl








(Ex. 9. cont. )




(Ex. 9. cont. )











0; 4., iAI:;

,f t:LI




11 "





(Ex. g. cont.






















1 ' -' -er'









i 204



it [Fjrom Rheingold onwardspWagner was inclined to supplant the regular rhythms or barthat predominate in Classical groupings and Romantic music with irregular formearlier ations .... The regular movement of strong and done weak beats and bars .... is not entirely away with in Wagner's rhythm, but it is thrust that its conso far into the background tinuing is felt presence only feebly-1116 (Wagner: ) "Now., I recognize that the peculiar tissue of (naturally in exactest my music agreement the poetic friends with structure) my what now consider so new and significant - owes its texture in especial to that intensely delicate feeling which prompts me to mediate together the nodes of transition and knit all between extremes of mood. My subtlest and deepest the art of art I now might call Transmutation; the whole consists of such transitions-I'll (Wagner: ) ClIn it the trace of found)but foreordains melodypthat melody is

musical of Tristan setting nut is an-yl-onger word repetition the weft of words and verses the whole dimensions of the ispthe structure of that by the poet""r already erected

that Wagner brought to a peak in Tristan was the style Isolde innovation triumph an of musical und extraordinary imvision and dramatic - which was to make the profoundest on contemporary composers and those of the succeeding pression (Delius's) At least as significant as the muchgeneration. It studied for evolving harmonic from idiom his was the material technique Wagner developed scenest longffluidounbroken




p. 124Wagner on

Goldman and Evert Sprinchorn: 17. ed. Albert 213Music and Drama (Londonpl970)pp. 18. ibid. 271pp.


by flexiblesdynamic the musical with texture characterized A This interruptions. rhythms and the avoidance of cadential Wagner continuum Regarded as an has an exciting appeal. 11 (the 'Gestalt' has the immediacy entity which is heard)jit I and emotional concept, and seems of a visionarycompleteness 1 . to be the product impulse. musico-dramatic of a single The forces resulted , When the acting upon the composer, however, which in this individual many and varied. stylewere late-Wagnerian is broken downithree continuum

primary areas of creative can be identified. motivation First For the flexibility. for rhythmic desire of allthe libretto Wagner developed a of Der Ring des Nibelunge degree ('Stabreim') for poetic an unusual allowed style which licence. It stimulatedpor of metric at least corresponded tendency to compose in more prose-like withya phrasesothat isowhere the grip upon the musical of a motoric continuity A principal is loosened. pulsation of weak and strong accents for four-square musical moulds agent determining regular for the thought thereby composing potential was also negated; freely-ranging in in broaderymore was exploited concepts Tristan pulsion trated As an alternative to the rhythmic proin the weakening concenof pulsejWagner sacrificed tension contrapuntal of intricate on the linear and Parsifal. second and third of long-spanned art of the main with the concerned inspiration The true continuity. Inis perhaps dramatic. Transition areas are

cross-rhythms. Both the actual behind tuition effect Wagner's

"all knitting his together in of part plays intuitbetween an of mood" extremes the nodes of transition human balancespin for the chemistry, the shifting ive feel dramatic In action a scene where no sudden relationships. and reactions example, the emotional happen as a gradual will - not convulsive climaxes evolving developments in and Subtle emotional gradations process. language therefore, a musical their stages prompt, overlapping And language this breadth same continuity. and of capable disturbs two lovers, resultsitoopfrom he came to Melodypas Wagner's principle itpwas define of infinite melody. of meaningful a succession for

melodic Cadential

eventsodevoid formulaesfrom


emptypconventional this viewpointpwere

fillings. manifestations be bridged or melody' isp that that Wagner

of. conventional and should empty gesturing by. -passed. The fart and 'infinite of Transition' have different are in their effect causespbut the late-Wagner related. continuum - closely It is made his Nowhere is in probably most important it these stylistic contribution that the

features to Delius's


upon which the premises two composers languages similar are remarkably Wagner's that and would nowhere precedent more clear hold for Delius It inevitable attraction. an irresistible, the outset that Deliuspfrom of his was commented on earlier denied himself the use of what he saw as outmoded careerphad more clear formed their momentum); expense of rhythmic dependthem was through the means to replace that feeling; he despised music ence on intuition and powerful feeling. With so much common ground in empty of sustained temperaments t the sharing their of characteristics creative Deliusts in their is hardly music surprising. musical styles composition he sensed benefited language. how far in limited respectspwas crucial As Delius's Wagner. follow his technique that own of could it is 1900 it between that 1894 took and seems style -shape from these limitationsp from Wagner which arise the differences be lasting turn to derivationspthat the than of out rather Yet Deliussin significancepand traced. There were of Imotort is little doubt that in Wagner's his flexible rhythms great cells to the value in Florida to Delius advance from rhythmic for Suite Hiawatha the and and fluctuating tensions of and climaxes in which the thread of his development is enormously from these areas of Wagner's operatic techniques (at the

arching The freedom of Wagner's Fountain. prose-rhythms dominance the his of strong/weak pulsation of weakening and Neverthelessp impact upon Delius's music. had a liberalising For Wagner's techniques. imitate did matured Delius not violin The Magic Wagnerpthe ation of consequences elaborate of his rhythmic own modernity This techniques. was the path

explorwas for


from his attitude to course resulting Dahlhaus points conventional practices. out that the "lack between bars and sometimes even. between of differentiation compensated for in Wagner ... by the extreme subtlety hr (and him detail"* Unlike the and complexity of rhythmic in the Austrian-German other composers symphonic tradition had no grounding such as BruckneroMahler and Strauss)sDelius in contrapuntal in abstract training symphonic craftspnor is his powers on In their writing. concentrated place Delius the effect harmony in suggesting mood and of expressive Hinted emotion. music at in 'The Magic Fountain' $Delius's in his most characteristic between balances rhythmic scores (emotional) tension. relaxation and highly-charged rhythmic The rhythmic in his 'emotional rubatolp energy generated for for brief though usually compensation passagesswas It was a plateaux music. of leisurely-pacedpweak-pulsed ' between soaring arch solid pillars. melodyt operas may well have been the peak of into the 1900s. He did assimilate well of idiomatic A form 'infinite akin to that in'Wagner for Delius aspiration beats




vacabulary of progressions (Indeedpit is probably in the harmonic side-stepping points. has influence Wagnerts in Deliusts that work of cadences Buttas with the counterbeen most conspicuously evident).

much of Wagner's for bridging cadence-

does not assimilate in Wagner's techniquesphe rhythmic point by which the earlier development the symphonic procedures To Wagnerithe his breadth melody. of maintained composer symphonic treatment of his significance; continual To Deliussboth the technique motivic he invoked and its ensured their Beethoven as his forbear. early nineteenth incompatible with in extent century his own. Delius's for melody'. ideas

ethic a creative symbolized master The motif-metamorphosis which emerged processes 1900s compensated to a great music of the early basis of Wagnerts finfinite the rejected symphonic 124-






What, then, of Wagner's 'art of Transitiont? "My greatest in this masterpiece art of transition is subtlest and most gradual the big scene in the second act assuredly of Tristan und Isolde. 11" Without the breadth-giving the breadthcounterpointpwithout giving symphonic craftspDelius the majestic conceptual scale this art to emulate was in no position for which its deemed creator This is not to say that Deliuspin

most appropriate. turning inwards and seeking an intimate and intense stylep did not have use for Wagnerian models. In the discreet fluctuations levels of emotional and the gradations of tension in his has been of serving brief, great but fluidsclimaxes, and new aims. the 'art But significance to Delius. of Transition' itttoopis

a new master

Section '$Come Watawa, kill or

Three kiss" The Love-Duet

FThe vocal
The Act III

score of the duet is given


as Appendix

] r.

sung by the two lovers, Watawa and Solanapforms the dramatic and emotional climax of the opera. developments beyond those presents no -Musically. notable -it discussed in this Neverthelesspa already chapter. special has been reserved for it here. The love-duet place assemblesp in one close-ended is of these developmentspand piecepmost by them. Because their value has been characterized primary principally unity. momentum and formal in achievement of Delius's Motifs as elements 84-bar duet in is the extension and binding of materialpthe for its rhythmic of interest Here it represents well the The Magic Fountain.


and Drama _(_A) The in the love-duet two motifs have which predominate As dramatic the piece commences, ttranassociations. strong horns sound a rising-fourth figure moderatotpthe quillo which

20. Goldman and Sprinchorn$op.



has love point:

followed (motif

the T)


from their

the f irst

first kiss

decalaration (motif U) to



through 0 -A


Solanatin deepened motif

Watawa that tone, tells an imploring his own. The first violins add on to extension:
", Z3 F

her the

love horn


a chromaticocoaxing

cells V). Urgent and impulsive, the 1coaxingf-motif now glints with And passionpit is now sensed from the the spark of passion. fused motifs, is the new stage of Solana's It is a love. neat dramatic stroke. motif is associated aware suddenly out her with his great the end of longing Act for II, The second where Solana is Watawa and cries

music proceeds independent apparently

As the

and the

emotional are joined

pitch fast

risesythe together

two (motif

of (motif R; see p. 12Q#bar 12). name The undertones desire had then are carried the motif of strong in the love-duet to a level of excited passion. The fusion and Solana's of these two motifs#Passion the love-duet In the been prepared. has actually to Act III, both motifs are given (pp. 128-9). passage climactic

pin 'Longing, introduction orchestral in a marvellous in full (B) Motifs and Structure . duetts the These motifs, two-thirds of some generating Delius formal the basic to unity piece. a materiallimpart A tripartite scheme arises makes the most of the effect. (o in the opening from the use of the Passion motif section (from bar 55) bar 22)yand then again in the closing episode as the motifs turns strand central are heard only its attention to in in Both tapestry. a now elaborate in the middle hints section, which countermotif:

a new rhythmic



'_!: '"





is Solana's


-Adea (C) Momentum and Climax When it is recalled , duet control and is the first he exerts over

the dynamo which drives the piece to its climax. Longing breaks out in full statements as a bridge between the middle and final sections. that every smallphighly-charged in Delius's climax music, the tension of emotional subtlety The additive process observed this


tension employedplayers of rhythmic and harmonic to accumulating a driving momentum. But it is far easier for detect the the than the ear, and analyse eye with with dovetailing are proof ideas and grading of shades of tension finely-tuned intuition ducts increasingly of the composerls for 'emotional the rubatol. It is helpfulpneverthelessoto tension which define list the some of character 1-22 stages of increasing of the piece: 'Tranquillo

energy is earlier

seems remarkable.

Two statements of material moderatol. ' from the Passion motif derived are given, the (1-10) first with a simple chordal accompaniment (from the triplet and second adding gliding runs 11). 'Piu from After almost wide bar Two statements of vivol. the springing countermotif its in bar 23 the entry material are derived given here. is and entryp added. break


always presentjits leaps instilling energy. a reckless (Watawals With the second statement triplet motif 51-54runs of the longing suddenly

countermotif impulsive rhythm

39)sdrivingoarching bars


Eruptions 55-84

the surface at Two statements follow herepthe countermotif in the violins 67) combining runs.

of the first

Passion material earlier being pitted the against

and a new chromatic countermelody (from bar the violas, and second all these and the driving triplet

At the

his of crown




in the headlong

The passion is channelled into the intense Ptightlylonging clenched of bars 71-74 (chromatic sequences of minor triads 7ths at at 71p7th chords at 72 and half-diminished ). What might have been a toweringialmost 73-4 Tristanesque is broken off: for the goal of these culmination not an ideal unattainable of sustained passionpan horizon it far hand. is more at concrete, and "In close embrace we two shall slumber merging soul and soul in one long kiss" (Their lips meet in a long kiss and they fall to sleep in one another's arms). lovers romantic is


Thusswith end in view, an intimate rather than a passionate Delius does check the white heat of his duet. Though this denouement is rather naive,, it is intended p.surelyto resolve in a symbolic physical the tension union. of the love-duet What form can the love of Watawa and Solana takejonce their passion has been resolved?




and the

'Nature-Deatht energies it meets. 112" de Rougemont and bliss" three, against its

"Passion only in

is deepened to relation

and releases the resistance Denis "love-longing





in it noted chapter expressed, was always were inexScene backdrop tranquil mood seemed and nature. of a Indeedpher upon a setting tricable. aspirations were dependent frame for feelingsand her beauty as a as and peace natural of their by 'sounding-boardt. contrast with its The suggestion implied opposite was made that that Irmelin's it was state By their were the opera,

be defined and measured. could unrest of emotional her longings backdrop benign to the vague resistance meaning. given fairy-tale In accordance the substance of with

in The Dictionary fLovel 21. Denis de Rougemont: (New Ideas Hlstorv of Yorkol973)ovol-III. P.101.




were satisfied when she met her princepNils. Upon mutual declaration longing their was at of affection love and hope. into a childlike once sublimated Passion, as observed in the preliminary quotationtfeeds In the enchanting It is love obstructed. on obstacles. love for the expressinstinct scenes in Irmelin a remarkable 11 ion Of lovets Deliusts behind be tension music. sensed can Herepthe belongs to an etherealp love-longing princessts different dream-world: emotional a obstaclespon material the necesDelius it. planepcannot supplies,, therefore.. affect, By implication, the perfection 'resistance' in nature. sary irrationthe is which and peace of natural obstacle an order her dreamp Irmelin the of sake alptroubled mustpfor of spirit resist. of more fleshcharacters by earthier directed aims. and-blood Declaration the end casepsignal of love does not., in their Norp longing to the passion exact opposite. of - ratherythe The Magic FoUntainpare by which passion in the obstacles The passion is inflamed lacking in concrete immediacy. of the he it is whose love-duet is initially the passion of Solana: HappilypWatawa and Solana are love their reactions)and love in (at the has been unrequited RpSolanals the pleading motif his in lover the overcome will Passion motif. end of Act II), he it Longing; deep-rooted Love rejected tribal is resulting. is who doubts feelings# the lover's



whether resulting greatest Watawats raises fulfillment

His love is returnedphoweversand with obstacle. into the duet it is a shared passion which entry Now the obstruction to the tension. the emotional mutual of their The longer the the symbolic love duet ispparadoxicallyptheir continues union arises. the the Delius longer higher they mounts

own passion. hold back from the

physical problem

his emotional goal. reaching upon dissolving love? be resolved How can longing without For disappointing. is the Irmelin in Deliusts solution be to and princess idealism prince of the united childlike have to been have regarded necessary would satisfactorypit than longings rather human a spiritual as Irmelints warmly

emotion. And so a fundamental it himself with presents



force. The problem is confronted by the composer a physical in The Magic Fountain. In a crude sense the deaths of Watawa is a and Solana in the poisoned waters of the fountain The forced Ideus termdramatic ex machinal. convenience)a ination of post-passion Delius's intuitive moments of love votion. to her todf, of a love-affair dissolution. genius in death forestalls within a redeeming its inglorious this expediency, In Nevertheless, offers dramatic

considerable power as a transmuted)edified, positive First)in Watawats self-sacrificellove It fate: is devotion this ) and not

vision. and beautypthe survival force is intimated. is seen as decompels her of the

thereforepthan *(Sol.:

which passion form is a somewhat different in Tristan.


Dost thou think in such that ure waters Death could ever find a place.... Come then, Watawa. If thou lov'st met follow me unto death. (Wat.: ) Not afraid is Watawa death follow unto will she fountain the drinking of and whilst breath. " bless our love with her last (Watawa rushes to the fountainpthen, turns and looks Then she stoops joyfully lovinglysalmost at Solana. if in fountain drinks, the risestplaces(as and over her bosompand totters hands her to pain) great ... (PP-185-188) far for Delius's

significance greater and of dying Watawals in is vision developmentplove seen subsequent The and melody being toyand of, nature. part as reconciled as "See how the moonbeams"pare of harmony of her cameo -ariaj herself for Watawa (ex. 215)10, sees p. simplicity affecting Edenta in Garden blissful love paradise her lover of a a and Beyond in the such nature. of embrace where she reposes love enshe which of pure state as passionspthe ephemerae dieslis the nature# of in state she grace whose and visages instancep this a personal have to value compared would particularlytit in developments the love similar treatment with Delius's of Passionate love allp was notpafter composers. of other operas (post-Grand) late in century nineteenth an uncommon subject and intimate have been of ending. In opera. It is surprising, thereforepthat there seems to be and nature's It is peace.




Act III,

pp. 189-90.



/1 0La



T -R Is L. w-I-:

:;: -







Three main patterns of dramatic scope for comparison. development in works where a passionate can be distinguished love plays a part. In the tdeclarationt-opera the story little the Arabella Turandot and main characters, and a union sealed:. Irmelin; it is are examples of the genrepas is Delius's and musical comedy. In the also the stuff of operetta level love is ?separation? at a passionate sustained -opera (a include by enforced death sort separation pwhich may operas some of the greatest syndrome'): of 'Romeo and Juliet Boh6me, La by inspired themevincluding this the era were of Romeo and Juliet A Village Pelleas et Melisande, Deliusts at the point where of sustained and apotheosis in Idevotiont-opera, Finallysthe into the passion, which Tristan passionate is in conflict und Isolde. love mellows with the former passionate of how finishes love is declared between

devotion, or, conversely, a dutiful Madama Butterfly devotion: and La Traviata are of dealing typepboth act with one opening with operas forward in time to relate leaping lovepthen a tale true devotion

the conflict of passion and dewas wronged; has two interestingpperhapspand is prompted more yet votion Ballo Maschera. Un in Onegin Eugene in and masterpieces has an element in common with While Watawats self-sacrifice final third of purepsublimatedpdesenthis state groupothe fused sualized extraordinary. quite There isphowever, love with nature to which she aspirespis

note should one opera of which a special diverse itself lends to its herepalthough be taken ending Der Rosenkavalier a far grander presentspon interpretations. , Delius's than operatic conceptsa, pageant of passion. scale its of obstacles Throughout stands a series many intrigues Octavian Sophiepin lovers. and in the path of each pair of former's infatuation by the kept with apart particularpare the the Marschallin betrothal to latter's the unfortunate and Only Ochs. the towards Baron opera's conclusion appalling does Strauss What at this point the obstacles removed. in the following way by Joseph Kerman:

are is described


11[Ahen the young lovers come together at that Strauss the end of the operapall can folk song. can produce is a sort of feeble I thinkpit is the poorest By any criterion, in the opera. Was it for this thing minimal that we had to sufflevel of consciousness and to sacself-pity er the Marschallin's Ochs? for thispthe rose and silver rifice Three Noble Orphans and the white suitpthe hours of leitmOtivespmodulations four finicky and program-musical wit? '"" Reactions to this as Kermants are scene as positive here. The dramatic problem of passionnegative can be offered FoUntainpis The Magic lovepearlier defined in to regard ate relevant dissolving nur how can longing with it? The melody and harmony of here: allein'sis in a union of and Sophie of an ideal ideal folk be resolved the duet, without tSpUr love


survive universal Octavian to

because song-like (unobstructed) the affection: of pure Not that marriage. simplellfolk-liket are folk figures; they aspirephoweverp simplicity. Delius

nur dichpspUr love can this

have Strauss solutions and Conbeptually, toolthe in composers, common. essentials all lead them to suggest a reconciliation with the intuitions by the Strauss's in represented case and pure unspoilt by Delius's folk-lovepin nature. image case of courtly in important become is. to The role ever more of nature his the At at end turning-point the career of I)elius's music. be seen to assume a central position is it By then with associated aesthetic. creative He is transience. deepening some Delius's with concern features from this other several with stagepbutpas. yet years Fountain that Magic The in real is his stylesit mature of Andrin be identified. first it towards can progress this the of operapfulfillment of aspects other common with Juliet. Romeo A Villaae in first and come will potential of. the in his 1890s it will

such Stylisticallypthe

(New YorkP1956)pp. 260. Opera Kerman: Joseph as_Drama 22.


Tristan may be said to have been , in Delius's The suicide extended opera to the 'nature-death'. of Solana and Watawa ispof course, modelled on the end of Wagner's Deliusts love is also theme of passionate. opera. in Tristan. Both composers to that strikingly similar language which would express this sought a musical passion drama But longing. the the climaxes of sustained of their The 'love-deatht of (who could compose years), the question of opera in his last how longing the dissolution without of love can be resolved in Tristan the essence of the tLiebestodt need not arise: in, but should survive is that longing shall not be resolved, (who bypdeath. Delius be For could write sublimated or conceptions are a tGood Friday' individual. For Wagner A Mass of Life the longing of and a "pagan" his characters Requiem, as it has been called).. should have its fulfillment.


Theoretically, of

The Magic Delius's


maturity. starting-point momentum controlled the early rhythmic stages of flexible impulse, all the principal by emotional elements of his in however the language practice are present-In mature p is development the Delius's hierarchy certainly opera of In the full works threshold powers. the creative of not decadep Fountain the Magic the The between of and end written bearing have the a which will opera three of the aspects further. developed language not significantly the are mature on Village Romeo and Julietp turning-point#A Only in the real fulfilled: Fountain the Magic The struc4l is the potential of force dramatic the of generation, tural of motivic strength drama in the passionate powerful and rubatol the These to its nature. are not stilllove and relationship for a few years a state of suspended animation. bornpbut enter 'emotional

can be regarded as the With the emergence or


Chapter The guest I) 'The Magic for

Five Innocence and lKoangal


With much larger

The Magic project.



had also

Indeed, as he envisaged was of grandiose, even Wagnerianpdimensions: "I have a vague idea of writing 3 works: One on the Indianspone on the Gypsies and The one on the Negroes & quadroons. Indians I am doing at present. "' What in mid-1894 might have been a "vague ideal' was evidently by early 1896 a real Delius and challenging visionpfor was by then composing his operapKoanga. he had already und Julia auf finest a work By the and quadroons" in 1897P time Koanga, was completed Keller's 'Romeo on Gottfried story The as the basis of his next opera. Village Romeo and Juliet was completed "vague ideal' in the bears which course Delius of "on the Negroes

embarked on a it, the project

settled dem Dorfel

of the seriespA around the turn of the century. The original concept - the had formed these ficial the part abond) to the is to lovers, years. in

1894 - had been modified A Village Romeo and Juliet to in it

relationship played

the notion of a tribal by its Gipsy (orpmore accuratelypvagprominentpis Its principal attitude This failure it the strictly

only a supertrilogypfor

still grouppthough level of sub-plot. define Sali more clearly and Vrenchen.

confined purpose in the opera of the two peasant Village of ,A idea has led Romeo comment-

to accord with the initial to suggest that on the trilogy ators of the composerpan unrealized concern

and Juliet

had been a passing ' vision.



from Delius

to Jutta

Bell, 29 July

1894, CLL/lpp. 88.

Threlfall's 2. See., for exampleoRobert comments in 'Delius's Music, Fountain', Studies Magic in 11 The vol. opera: unknown RedwoodIs observ(PerthpW. A. Pl977)opp. 6o-l; also Christopher A Opera' Delius in ComComposer 'Delius in of as a ations 222. p. panion(Londonpl976),


this a view of these works is presented chapter Through this than usual. which is broader enlarged perspective.. one of the most fundamental and intriguing sources of Deliusfs litBy examining the primary art comes to light. erary models and traditions and characters of the plots factors become evident in the and libretto. First of all, which three helped Delius to form the workspcertain common between source relationship


had been attracted to a cultural and popular group in each case by its literary idealization; and secondly, each group has been credited# literary idealizationpwith through a naturalpunspoilt and Delius virtuous character In a nutshell, the fascination ated The term lost literary is to more civilized peoples. supposedly image which proved to be of such that of the 'Noble Savage'.

to Delius 'Noble

critic to on several has no logical

has been particularly associto the literary the American Indianpbut with according (whose work in this H. N. Fairchild area is referred Savage' occasions basis: in this chapter)pthis narrow image



"Negroes, South Sea Islanders and other sorts in precisely regarded of savages are often the same light as the redman .... a Noble Savage is any free and wild being who draws from nature directly virtues which raise The doubts the to civilization. value of as to term may even be applied metaphorically when a compeasants and children romantic between their innocent greatness parison the thought and that of the savage illumines of the period. 11"3 Delius in being" the prompted not only and wild

he had in 1894pbut tq throughseems act also vision original In link. three unifying these as a other wordsp opera out Romeo and 'Juliet The Magic FountainpKoanga may# and A Village three is indeedpbe common to all a trilogypfor considered innocence. ideal image of an the motivating broad range of literary assertionpa, of support in this influences upon the operas are considered acting it is the It second opera, emergesphoweverothat chapter. In this

3. Hoxie Neale Fairchild: 1-2. pp.

The Noble-Savage

(New YorkP1928),


Koan-aa,,,which presents most powerfully In Koanga this ideal innocence moulds but also the character and its players, the music. A Village Romeo and Juliet but its beauty and impact result from to his the composer's creative aesthetic innocence. vision of ideal Section Deliusts One -

Delius's not only

concept. the drama of work#

and structure is a greater crucial



The Unclear


drastically plans for The Magic Fountain altered in the course of the opera's Most obviouslyp composition. what began as an opera "about the Indians" changed course to follow Solana for the Fountain the search of the Spaniard Youth. This alteration in the change of Eternal was reflected from Watawa to The Magic Fountain title of the work's at a late In addition, the search for stage of its evolution. the fountain to accomowas itself pushed into the background date the flourishing The composerts of a romance in Act III. reassessment continual of what the opera was actually about flaw. has a part is its In the end the Indian tribe principal third only the middle of the opera. For the purposes of this chapter2thenoDelius's ideas for the opera can be regarded as at least It is at this version. preliminary as the final the idea adequate theme of of in in early as significant stage that

of a plot around the primitive race seemed centred for an entire Indeedpit was then that the opera. st-ruck Delius as being capable uncivilized peoples a trilogy. areas of the source Indians material were used by Delius First in Florida. of a112 knowledge he had acquired during

supporting Two main his opera

about he drew upon the first-hand While this his two years in America. may have included some Indian familiarity customs and legends, its principal with in background the the to are evident opera of contributions tropical that nature, and in the Florida was discovered around 1510. Tradition itself. has it story by the Spanish adventurer Ponce at the mouth of the St. John's

de Leon

He landed


river on a search to the Indianspthe Unlike neither Delius's fountain

the island of Bimini wherepaccording 4' Fountain Eternal Youth was to be found. of heropPonce quickly left again, having found nor


Nevertheless, the Spanish adventgold. Ponce in the early urer in Delius's opera is also called drafts of the libretto. It is mainly Delius's second source - his reading him with details which seems to have furnished of the Indians 5 In the 1890s, Delius themselves. would have become familiar image of the Indian different from with a literary radically that the to offered Wild West. Already and American for prepared later the generations earliest through descriptions the of mythology the of

from natives


which reached Europepthe mould was being image with great literary a cultural potential: "They are a people guileless and unwarlike knowing loving is not evil a what .... .... speech people without covetousness .... their is the sweetest in the world and gentlest 4. The King " is man remarkable presence. a of .... These positive impressionspconstantly echoed in the writings from the middle were given added significance of explorers, of the Indian could century of the sixteenth when the virtues by observers the be contrasted accompanying with the cruelty for treasure. From Montaigne lust to Rousseau the Spaniards' American Indian as a common symbol was embraced by writers false to to all things conventiono courtly of reaction He habits was the andplaterpindustrialization. unnatural of uncivilized aristocrat (in Independencephowever foe to both sides)pthis peoples. which the Indian image began slowly Following War of was both ally and to be modified. the

4. This was perhaps a story of special appeal to Deliuspwho has also disembarked on the St. John's on a journey of adventure. there were very few 5- At the time Delius lived in Florida in the area. However, in her recollections left Indians of Delius has written her brotheryClare of meetings between (see the lo in Indians Delius of parts country other ch. and p. 27)6. From 'The Journal of Christopher Columbust. Quoted by Fairchild, op. cit,., p. g. 222


Of these The Last Wapanacki

reading was extensive: "I read the Last of the Mohicans & Lake Ontario: by Fennimore Cooper.... I read alsop The Natchezothen Atala by Chateaubriand .... I read all I can on the aubject which I am And then treat treating. in my the subject own way. "' books, the most obvious influence by was exerted Indian Delius's of the Mohicans (1859). chief



in seems to be modelled on the leading character Indeedpin the bookpChingachgook. the Cooper story, he is a the Wapanachkipwhile member of the tribe called also being This notion the final representative of the Mohican people. tribe a dying onto Watawa: of is also taken up by Deliusywho passes it

"the last of my kin. Killed death have suffered were allpall by the hated paleface. IIpp. 110) "(Act In the initial conceptionpDelius stages of the opera's magician named envisaged an important role for an Indian by the Indian Tamenund -a inspired character surely patriLast Mohicans. in The Though the the of name same of arch the magician hermit seer Cooper's dance in described basing by that of the replaced was eventually Talum Hadjothe of wisdom and agelessness The in the warcharacter. chief were preserved idea also seems to owe a good deal by Cooper in Chapter XXXI. II Delius derived possibly Seminole tribe. to the the ritual notion


From Chateaubriand of his

on the story by In addition to the works specifically mentioned is known that he was acquainted Deliussit with Longfellow's Indian having famous life this The Song of Hiawatha of poem It is the probable the 1887 tone poem Hiawatha. inspired source page): of some tribal nomenclature in the opera (see next

Delius is most likely 7- Cooper wrote no book of this title. Pathfinder(1860)jthe The is to action which of referring Ontario. Lake largely around on and centred 8. Letter from Delius to Jutta Bellp2q July 1894- CLL/lop. 88.



(regarding the legends of Hiawatha) "I repeat them as I heard them From the lips of Nawadaha, It The musicianpthe sweet singer-" "Nawadaha, Nawadaha Sweet singer watch the Mighty".. "Medal' and sing with me. " (Act IIoP-71)


and IlUnktaheethe god of water" are all echoed in The Magic Fountain. , Far more significant however) than these few pointers, is the fact that to all of these books one image of the Indian is common: the noble hero whose natural virtues rewin respect even from their enemies: being a prisoner I couldn't "Despite [captorls] help admiring my mirtholove and He is light contentment. of foot and his is open and serene his approach speech .... Even age itself is harmonious and fluent. joyous cannot rob the Seminole of this "' simplicity.,, fulsome in his praise Cooper is equally of the Noble Savaget he does distinguish between brutal Indians and although between his Indians, "the realism of seemingly caught noble Eand] the knowledge of the heroic redman handed cult own W down to him., ' The Last of the Mohicans has the following description of the Indian youth Uncas: haughty bold his high the outline of .... features distinguished the of elevation .... forehead1together his receding with all the finest of a noble head .... an proportions prounblemished specimen of the noblest of man-11", portions Magic Fountain As mentioned earlierpThe was envisaged as essentially composition; an Indian consequently opera the p in the early of influence stages of its these books is main untarnished briand's Atala by civilization. The Seminoles in Chateau-





W. Longfellow:

The Song of


(Bostonpl879)p Translation


(Paris, 1969)PP-40. Atala 10. Chateaubriand: by LiF-dis M. Hallan. (unpublished) 161. op-cit-pp. Cooper: The Last 12. James Fenimore 65Yorkpl859)pp. Fairchild, of the




more evident was diverted.



in Delius's the plot plans for the opera before At one point had stated: Delius Indian "I want this work to be essentially I want the Indian Characters to be the For this most important. reason I dont want much of the Spanish element it would com[Solana] in the end the subject.... plicate himself .... He and almost becomes an indian Watawa become one with their surroundings & the beauand Nature .... the surroundings his past Watawa make him forget tiful all life .... He does not want, to go back to his 3 ". land native or people ideal that the emphasis on the Indians' unfortunate to

implies was early nature concept which this for Solana's in the effort thirst of sustaining for Watawa. Neverthelesspthe literary wisdom and passion be sensed strongly traditions of the Noble Savage may still Indian in the opera's element. remaining first in As a group the Indians are seen in two lights: closeness later lost the nobility which is embodied in their leitmotif-

Ex. j.

Act iI, p. 68.

(t, *Lr. rc4vopwaia)

- and secondlypin "wild and simple grandeur

ion of an Indian in "The



of their dignityllto

war-dance. borrow
14 0

They combine Cooperts descript-

July Bell, 29 CLL/lt 1894Jutta from Delius to Letter 13. pp-88-9. (New YorkplHo)PP-5Pathfinder The Cooper: 14-


It that the






Wapanacki2the spokesman These include

type adherence Indian"(as "noble for his race

of to



however, characters, be discerned. can most clearly Solana addresses him).. is their ennobling virtues.

and for

compassion: (On finding Solana half-drowned on the beach) "He is unarmed)and much in need. Come, bear him to the camp. 11(Act I2pp. 64-5)

fairness: "But the white man is defenceless, harms even for vengeance no Indian 81-2) (Act II, " pp. a man without arms. : and prudenc "The white men like seagulls the Indian must reflect)be One instance of the wise hermit heed before figurejalum activities, sible to 'civilization'. wise around us arise and wise. " cautious (Act IIYP-84)

Watawa he directs is to this that prudence Talum Hadjopwhose words and advice she should This second for revenge. acting upon her lust Indianst Hadjo2though the the of sphere outside the heights from effect of sullying men preserved He is the one person who has found in the baptism Youth Eternal Fountain rather a of of the human aspiration pos-


waters of the than a fatal poison: "Fifty years of weary fasting I dared; ere to drink fifty years of contemplation (Act IIPP-114) I ere was prepared" by been ignored have The virtues civilized of contemplation fall into decadence: their societiesoprecipitating.

to decay "Nations Passing away developing dreamt have many what so and yet never attaining but dares did they ftwere easy, and still to prepare. " in Wisdom and patiencepwell (Act IIPPP-105-6) much less that can be said in support for from lust She Savage image. Noble moves violent of a for her former love to enemy. passionate an equally revenge One characteristics. There are practically no intermediary is from this deviation scheme significantyhowever: minor first heardtimmediately is When this leitmotif. melody her Of Watawa, there is


after air of


shipwreck poise







a refreshing


and simplicity:


Act IxP-57.

this theme recall (1903-4)Sea Drift in his masterpiece (fig. The words from Whitmants 24 of the this point poem at vocal are as follows: score) should 0 happy life! 0 songs of joyl ... 110 pastl But my mate no morepno more with me We two together no more. " In this the melody of Watawa seemed to have context poignant It isphere, like for the composer. a a definite association cast into a dark room - that innocence pure beam of innocence heard is bird in the poem. is lost the to song sad whose which Delius erary Howeverphe had adhered depictions of the does in the quite Indian end lay closely in writ litto the traditional ing The Magic Fountain.


that seems significant the closing episode of


more emphasis on the elements of the savagepunciviland wisdom as properties of nobility ized man than on the innocence which are also and purity Though they were the of stereotype. characteristics primary element in the an important probably of passions gave way to the stronger If Delius's perspectives shifting in the opera reflect doubt natural dispelled initial conceptionpthey plot. issue a more romantic on the central

of the about the suitability been have it to theme, seems savage as an operatic by the time he began his next operatKoanga.


Section Part While Delius

Two One

The Noblest Literary



had cast his net widely among legends and literary for The models in the course of his preparations Magic Fountain, it is known that Koanga was based on one book. In February, 1896 Delius particular Bell: wrote to Jutta am writing another opgra - Please keep this to yourself quite the am taking -I in Grandissimes". the story of Bras-Coupd George Washington Cable's novel- of the Grandissime plAntation in Louisianapcalled The Grandissimes, in 188op was published first in book form. The story as a magazine serialpthen of Bras-Coupd(who 28 and 29 of it should in Koanga in its the case with legendary so. the is the also book. Mioko-Koanga) forms chapters called With these facts firmly establishedp be easier to be specific about Deliusts and historical opera, with its influences. context interlinked than was the historicalp not from is "I

theory literary

earlier and literary


So many and significant digressions are Delius's Cable original that some idea of the literary traditions influenced the libretto which probably can only be gained through

to the history reference of the Negro in literature. Despitepor because ofpthree hundred years of rather turned to literature as a means of protest oppressionpNegroes The Negro literature of this only at the beginning century. discussed Negro here ispthereforepwhite literature involving characters The first main late upon story be in four this considered can periods. is that of British literature period of the In factpone of the influences century. acting eighteenth from the previous derives the literature of this period Aphra of the Behn's royal novel seminal slave Oroonokopwho Oroonoko (1688). This was brought to serve


15. Letter p. 98.

from Delius

to Jutta



1896. CLL/l,


at of

in Surinamepechoes court Negro literature: the




"It is probably due to Aphra Behn thal so large in of Negro slaves a percentage literature] were kings in their own country.

14 "

It in

"Nothing illustrates influence the enduring better than the of Aphra Behn's 10roonokol stamp it placed upon representations of the Negrots love. Perhaps the physical unattract7 iveness the of the Negro necessitated heroic to him of passions rather ascription than sentimental*"" trade movement was the gathering momentum of the anti-slave England in the second half century of the eighteenth helped heroic Negro image the with of create poetic in poetry is evident The stereotype well into the the that Fairchild noblepsufferout points century. the


qualities. nineteenth ing Negroes

time the the share essential of were creations who here: Three mentioning are worth -characteristics. (A) The longing (often heroic the royal) slave for of freedom of his land and people. Robert Southeyts the simple four trade typical examples., with their sonnetsare slave of an abused and tired slave kept awake at nirht that the thought tt .... far away happy join the negroes midnight song .... And merriment on Niger's shore-" resounds (B) The softening by gentler ofheroic sternness instancepis Day Bicknell The DyinK_Negro of and )for image an African His death in than love by


serving as the slave of a sea-captain. prince fallen for hand, he has by his is brought own about himself sacrifice with a white woman and would rather The African pride of Prince the it islin fact# Fair-

endure separation. Landon's In Latitia

Christianity child

which following the summary of the poem: offers the life "She describes of a young black and courAgeous, a mighty princepfreepproud He is captured hunter warrior. and and Being into noblephe slavery. cannot, sold his fellow-slavespbecome like reconciled

bows the



16. 17-

Fairchildpop-cit., ibid-oP-402.



At last, to his lot. to Christianity.... hope of salvation-" (C) The dying At- least in Negro poetry,

howeverthe knd meekly of

is converted dies in the Africa.

sees a vision the

be the heirs to Negro had joined

sons of Africa were supposed to bred-of The innocence. virtues primitive the brotherhood of the Noble Savage.

The remaining three stage of this of short account Negro literature The secondpoverlapping are American. with the firstois in which that of the Colonial era. - a period the sentimentality of English was almost entirely poetry the view of one literary "too familiar him with the black man to transform 'Indeed,, I into it was the aim of the prolific a noble savage". to degrade pro-slavery pamphleteers of the Colonial period A counter-movethe Negro to a different altogether. species excluded, historian, the ment early was eventually formed eighteenth century at the end of the century. groups The entry of the Negro into of the third marks the beginning first in fifty cotton years of the arose planting of the Southern among religious and humanitarian the early groups in the and egalitarian American novel the the boom the adthe American beingpin

stagesencompassing With century. nineteenth a need to emphasize again

institutionsfor vantages patriarchal in the agricultural Negro was an irreplaceable economy. unit The loyal slaves who and happy plantation personal servant Kennedy) feature in the works of George Tucker, John Pendleton Simms and James Fenimore Cooper (for Gilmore William examplep in The Spy)yhave comment that "the composite of the Negro thus portrait developed of perhaps six a figure reveals loyaltypthree parts unadulterated parts (mainly from that derived minor virtues and one part assorted same devotion) 20 " vices. prompted the

ibid. pp-289. 19. Tremaine McDowell: 'The Imagesof to 1850'tin Prior (ed. Gross and HardyYChicago 68. ibid. 20. op. 18.

Negro in the Southern Novel the Negro in American Literature 5b. It)b) pp. p


stage begins with; and remains under the influence Beecher Stowe's of, Harriet novel of plantation 1852; Uncle Tom's Cabin. The importance of the novel; in shedding the light arising on some of the horrors of realism from patriarchy; is well known, but the book also helped to establish figures for the of jovial supposed to people all George Washington fourth ignoble stage. His the next two generations black 'Mammiesl; tUncles' Southern Cable stereotkpical and 'Aunties' to this

The final

estates. belongs historically


Cable white families. one of the few masters who succeeded in transcendof realism ing the Negro stereotype. In his study of the Negro in fiction Brown writes American literaturepSterling of Cable's that it "shows full with folk-songso acquaintance unlike and superstitionpbut speechplore he does not use the his contemporaries.... to support old traditions material .... Cable is one of the finest of creators It Negro character in the nineteenth century-" from the furthest As Cable represents one of the points Savage in Noble idealism the reached pre-protest romantic of in opera subjects it appears that Delius's tastes literature, from the romantic to the realistic. drastically have altered was very one handpDelius from Cable's in what he selected and, story; begun been had of romanticization process on the otherpthe These romantic by the author. of are untypical elements book the the fact to in Cable, one part of confined and are his for by Delius opera. which was selected famous legend is the Bras-Coupdt a 'The Story of of The appearance discriminating is deceptive. On the Grandissime old novel narrated slave. Grandissime to the the tells Innerarity, Raoul story who slave ball. house In fire this a after a garden around children demands the in with of storyaccordance settingpand romantic It is in the into weaves narrator tellingpthe include these many elaborations 'The Story of Bras-Coupdt of emphasis a good deal by the

to Mrs-Stowe's are successors be however9to is considered,

Brown: 21. Sterling 66-7. 1969), pp.

The Negro in



(New York,


and noble attributes of his legendary main He is, for example.. "a pr: ince among his people", character. for the physical and the whites are "struck with admiration beauties of the chieftain'loandoindeedothe master of the plantation in physical for the literary broken: "To the good fatherts many tender questions Bras-Coupe turned eye that gave no a failing length: answers; untilpat 'Do you know where you are going? ' asked the holy man .... the answer of the eyes. He knew. 'Where? ' 'To- t the voice failed a moment; the departing hero essayed again; he tried again it failed; his hand, and with an ecstaticp once more, lifted upward smile, whispered, fTo - Africa' 1122' and was gone. The royal the hard heart slave of great pride and dignity; the dying vision these elements softened; of Africa: all image of the Negro Noble Savage are present of the traditional in istic Cable's is novel Coupe' story a little For him 'The Story of Braswithin a story. island of romance in his otherwise realby facets the tempered realism exotic stark of compromises the seem to constitute for Delius. It was upon of the story that he formed the role of Koangap the elements of realism to Cable and the slave "recognized in the other his peer couragepand each was struck deathotoo,, other. " Bras-Coupe's traditions. The slave is captive with an admiration is an echo of past and physically

on the


primitive. What are

attraction essential these characteristics at in the

ridiculous postures of his habit Bras-Coupe., for instancepare omitted: of lying before face down in the dirt the mistress of the housephis bouts laughable two suitphis wedding of military-style images the the these not are apparently of Out Delius interested in. prince was also goes the warrior frenzied dancepan 'Calindat orgiastic ritual, and realistic 'Calindalpa in comes the Delius spiritedpbut relatively drunkenness

expense of practically all The frequently Cable's version.

22* George Washington 1880)pp. 213-


The Grandissimes

(New York,


for the wedding ballet. suitable Randelpin his pathfinding 'Koanga and article its librettolopoints out that the opera lacks Cable's modern Louisiana languagessubtleties descriptof plot and realistic well-mannered William dance He writes "saw no more in Cablets novel than many of its readerspand contemporary unaware of Cable's did with the book social conscience.... what could be expected precisely of an admirer of Wagner. "" The question of whether was aware of Cable's or not Delius It seems more probirrelevant. surely out for a story which could able was looking serve as a frame for his second Noble Savage operapand reCablets legend that with cognized sufficient editing of An opera more true to Cable Bras-Coup4 could be that story. The operatic have been less true to Delius. would probably social conscience that Delius is version longing slave only echoes of the royal breast for his homeland, the proudpheroic softened but even the mannered by lovegand the dying vision of Africa, Noble Savage tradition: tone and idealism of the English "Farpfar my people mourn for me. awayPalmyra., flow bewailing The streams more gently my fate. I listen. The mountains never me, may yet call No charms my land could offer, deprived of your lovel humble slave# Here I will work for youpa patient find the labour sweett and in your sBrvice haspthereforepnot triumph; "Far.. far awaypmy foes enjoy their Jeer and mock at me. betrayers my vile fires And round their will run the at night howpin the WestpKoanga is a slave. But vengeance were a poor rewardoPalmyra, by your sidep if I might linger labour find the sweetl" youpand working with (Koangals All in the essential If opera. aria in Act'II) the Noble Savage the are present heroic elements ion, and concludes that to create a masterpiece. Delius had let a great slip that Delius opportunity


of qualities Koanga himself


Randel: IKoan a and its 23- William (April 1971)p Letters


Music and


the Noble Savage, the lost then the main body virtues, in the opera represent the innate of Negro plantation workers the the virtues nature and oneness with simple acceptance of of trilogy theme of an ideal of a tribal and its innocence than ever in 1896 as seems to have been stronger Delius main difference set to work on Koamra. Indeedothe between The Magic Fountain strength of and Koanga is this vision in the later with greater power. is more crucial to the operapsustained Of course, this success of longer factor and emphasized of creative vision than to cicumstance. The notion

writing operatic Almost every composer perhaps any other artistic medium. faces the same problem of transliterature who adapts existing (libretto). forming to the simple the complex (source material) involved justified The abridgement is only on the fundamental premise that the touch of music can enrich broad dramatic of simple truths. concepts with the emotional significance hangs upon a fragile While the success of this transformation the thread vision of of musico-dramatic namely, strength Verdi's Otellop like in is librettist/composer there works Death in Venice War and Peace and Britten's Prokofiev's ample proof With Delius's that new masterpieces stage works is. thread can be made of old ones. there is the constant reminder It has been shown already

this of how fragile faded as Delius had of his theme gradually the vision that from The work changes direction he wrote, The Magic Fountain. ideal the theme his Yet, to of on opera second with act. act innocencepit his theme is is manifestly obvious that Delius's faith in reaffirmed. Part In it is the Two of The Libretti the of of Koangal



otherwise in forms

recently-revised This stated. all important

music libretto

Koanga which followsp which is quotedounless in 19749and original in 1896tit has certainly some of the turning-points conideas.

published was first details to Delius's

being into Since the libretto came historypand had a rather contorted here. noting are worth


(A) Delius

The Delius to Jutta

libretto Bell:


On 25 February


wrote "I

I level my music .... with so vile uage is sometimes 11024' as a musician

Coupe Bras libretto today of my send you I wrote the music and the words at the same I must really time .... I find get some one to is not on a work with me - My literature
& langown my style it that me shocks

At ably of



stage of the


third libretto

a good deal of it (B) The Delius/Keary 1896 Delius

act has not in the next libretto

had not

This been written. there is survivedpbut version. (1896-7). By the

earliest presum-

had become acquainted with the Jutta he July to C. F. Keary, 15 could write novelist and on In Deby Keary. had been rewritten Bell the libretto that further in his he that a qualified statement year cember letter to her:
"I think libretto is all C. F. Keary wrote the told you that & the We together result worked 26 , I could that wish. I

spring historian and

It the



concert II 18990Act retto lay

version of his

which music

was performed in the programme. printed Delius For a full performance

At manuscript. opera appears in London in May Delius organized libthe piecepwith as a concert on the decided chances was begun on a translation Koanga houses in opera his best

Germany andpaccordinglypwork to interest in 1899. Early attempts libretto ("There in the be true fruitless may something proved 216 for finally it A-111) but being production was accepted quite not in 1904 by the Opera in Elberfeld. (ca. 1899). Substantially (C) The German translation Elberfeld Rosenpthe translation at used the work of'Jelka differs in certain OriginallypDelius respects Cable had followed important from in the English the having version. heroinep


from Delius to Jutta Bell025 February 1896. 24. Letter CLL/llp. 99. Jutta December Be119230) 1896. to Delius from Letter 25. CLL/lpp. 109. Delius November Jelka RosenP3 from to Unpublished letter 26. Trust archive). 1900 (Delius


Palmyra, this a wholly ich soll "The









new aria Ihm angehbren"; in the hour is near"). (D) The Jelka_Delius/Beecham

was removed for Elberfeld, (Act was given to Palmyra published version

to reference and in addition IIx"Heute noch scorest Around

English (1935).

1935 work was begun on a translation German of the revised back into English version begun by Jelka task probably -a by Thomas Beecham (with Edward Agate) with a and completed view to the British premiere at Covent Garden in September 1935It is this version which appeared in the first vocal

"By now it would appear that any thought of back to the original Kearyplet referring alone Cablepwas far from anybody's mind. Nor for that matter were Delius's original noteidea values given much thought .... Poetic followed idea)often inverted poetic with no link connecting always out of and nearly character and/or context .... For the sake of this turgid poesysall characterisation was lost dramatic and any potentially moments that exist--' were submerged in this cloying 'poetry'. '? strong criticisms were made by the two authors of the version. recent (E) The Craig/Page A complete version overhaul libretto was made by Douglas Craig and Andrew Page Wells Koanga was performed Sadler's in 1972. This at was a painstaking (1972).

These most

of the before version

to make the opera dramaticattempt faithful to Deliusts ally credible while remaining original (1974) It in the vocal score appears most recent concept. (1980). The authors have given a full full score and account previous of 'Preface to the the history Revised

and defects Libretto of

in a of the libretto Koangat (see f. n. 27)-

27. Douglas Craig and Andrew Page: 'Preface to the Revised Libretto of Koangal in Koanga (vocal scorepBoosey & Hawkes, London 1974)#P-v-


Part In which acter in their Acts



Drama of


I and II Delius adheres to a working-principle individual these sections their strikingly chargives the two social are contrasted and structure: groupings music. of the on a juxtaposition of the and wills motives. desires Negroes' uncorrupted simplicity.

actions and in their Dramatic centres contrast of

of these shadings representation On is the that the potential the most evident. of principle to moments of high drama one hand is the recitativepflexing is the domain of the whitespDon this or passages of arioso: (his (the master of the plantation)gClotilda Jose' Martinez exclusively given over to the slavespthese numbers are. in the case of the body of slavesp and for Koanga several and dance-songs, cheerful work-songs While the two sides meet dramatically 'heroic' arias. majestic Palmyrapand dilemma of the quadroon heroine in the personal and arias: musically in no crossing to abandon in only one 17-bar passage - just'long (Act fist 18). IIpfig. his mighty with from The effect the white caused in this of by distinguishing way carries two neutral ensemblespthere Koangapfor of the dividing-line. for the his splendid aria style the is practically examplescondescends ignoble recitative to fell Martinez wife) and Simon are the choruses Perez (his overseer). On the other handsthere

conflicting white characters and the It isphowever. in the musical


enough the


an impressive of

character power. The of

alteration/ chromatic image the to firm of tonality convincing a up add gradually the with savage civilized and virtues civilizing savage with fumhad Delius innocence tribal theme Clearlypthe of vices. had much deeper significance in The Magic Fountain bled with him in the composition for of Koanga. Nevertheless, these observations apply only to the first two in of Part. acts ways Acts of K6anga. which will I and Hpand obeys laws in the be described Act III for reasons of its at course ownpdiffering of the discussion the end of this

rhythm devious/sincere


complex/simplepthe and the musical styles




From the at the work-songs and dance-songs. Koanga was envisaged by earliest stages of its composition, Delius from the use of these songs. as drawing colour special flavor "I am getting in the Southern all the whole in the music .... I am keeping 2" the character of the negro melody". As has been seen in chapters one and twoshis personal exbeen put to use in perience of Negro melody had already Variationen the Rhapsodische parts of FloridasHiawatha, and discussed later in this the L6gendes variations#andgas chapterpit would William form Randel the basis of his two Appalachia the conceptions. has pointed out one is definitely thatpof six choral a genuine Negro song from the received


a look

part of Cablets Randel notess even if Delius wrote the bulk of the songs.. they do "suggest being exact and, without actual songs known to collectors loyal to the general character of songs in reproductionspare 34) " the Southern slave tradition. first 10 LawdpI'm slaves' songpturns goinlawaylpthe out to have prologue of Old Joe an important where the young the story of flows Following the in the opera. role ladies request of the plantation is the melody Koanga and Palmyrapit

songs in Koangaponly 2q This song pmoreover j Delius of the time. it forms same hand as the story of Bras-Coupe: Neverthelessoas in The Grandissimes. narrative

intermezzo. the orchestral throughout song which of this before Three orchestral the theme are played variations on Palmyra's Act I the scene is set for the opening with of The first contrast all possible achieves statement entrance. with style that cellos): the of sets breezy this the prologue. passage is tone of the In the harmony, orchestration an unaffected (ex-3pmelody in and embodied opera simplicity the upper

28. Letter p. 98. 29. William 30-
















1012 bars






Dawn is first their the

A sad Palmyra witnesses as Act 1 begins? from the break of daypthen the rousing the slaves of by the overseer, Simon Perez. Delius cabins conveys all and haste of the


in a work-party assembling harmony and melodypthe crescendo of contorted chromatic by the firm F major tontension accumulating until released The individof the robust ality song 10 LawdqIIm goin' away'. the ual voicespeven namespof Negroes which are mixed into confusion hubbub resolve into one common mood -a song, g bars sense of cheerful resignation: Ex-4Melody of first choral before fig-9.31

ipF -Ij #='o -weas A.. d, -"J,-00 3: .

i-: A; ".


pi III sbt)s VWJ

I di

brief 31. This melody had made an enigmatically appearance Ord movementofig-49oboe). Further uses of the in Florida his Threlfall in 'Late by Robert traced article theme are (Springpl974)ppp. 25-7. Composer Florida' in Swallows p


the vicious ensuing 15 bars of recitative is turned shown by Perez in waking the slaves arrogance Palmyra. His professions by towards of lovepinterrupted to her. They are accompanied threats. are clearly repugnant the by a distant of 10 LawdpItm goin' awayt from the rendering (ta cappellatobut The counterfor a dominant fields pedal). is thereby reinforced. point of character The master, Don Jos6penters at the climax of the battle Simultaneouslypthe between Perez and Palmyra. of wills second choral song is heard from the fields:


EX-5- Melody of second choral


Act 1#2 bars after



*. y- r6



-4-1 -


k-, A, , -/ I- mli, -y . 4-1Y. '..

and Perez prepares the entry arrived on the slave trader's of Koangajnewly here a passage of their It is worth quoting boat. recitative, lines melodic and shifting typical as it is of the angular the music given to the white characters tonality of all (see ex. 6pp. 241)To accentuate the contrastpthe serene 'John say you got A terse dialogue between Martinez to the reap what mighty The third you sowl(ex-5) slave is brought is in. repeated in the fields before

heard first twopis twice. like the song. choral ingeniously of the two ensembles It is introduced at the climax begins Palmyrals The Act I. with quartet which which conclude (Act Ipfig. 24) Koangals intransigence to soften attempt distant To thispthe becomes slaves complex. more gradually trivial to by degreespsinging quaver a rhythm. their weight add in bursts finally at the climaxs The melody of their song tension Ab chromatic the of accumulated resolution along with in the choral (ex-7pp. 242imelody soprano and tenor lines). After a brief Martinez, of in the second theretexture the cloyingtand more Clotilda even makes wife (in the melody choral canon emergence'of the eventual fore Act I It is provides with a time) even more splendid. this addition a similar recitative Herephoweverpthe ensemble. procedure is followed


Ex. 6.


Ipfig-13em o =a
To SIMON PEREZ The men are down in the canes. --I



0 AtlI

A A*-I

Well, what'sthoplanto day? a tempo l

want the bigfield clearedby tho dr L


They are


rr In


week, A mw*w, 1

and if they grumble,




the women?

2. ) JvlWWI



0 4 I op, 1 .1i 4-1qI

In -dl- go fields.




a worse yield than we

managed last year.


W. W. Cor.

T hot



-9 F


0 F -1

P' 1r. il

AD - -0
stly brings us nought but trash,






ta. ma-ran 0

hard - ly worth this ho-cmit


= - CA

-1 1 dq
Fag 0.9









112 bats



poco rit.
Fl. I., Ob 1. 01

a tempo


D. Ssn

1.2 No mF 3.4

Yt 12 in C 1.2 Thne 3 Tuba Tunp





kills thirethousandwith thato. Ahos

LAw-dy wasoleSsm-sonsofel But r-TTI MI Min Uw-dy was ole Sam-zon-61


he said "Son,

you done gricirtyoul

Ma'smind Musiyou


threethousand with that jaw! !

- said I S;m--u. n*s Y;o-ther &? it


--ruiv a


a- "IM-7 our


renors kills three thousandwith that jowl Basses Law- dy was ole Sam-son sofee' bul he told "Son -pa you 40"r prieveyour Ot It Ws mind It al MustYou

VI. I vi If d"





towering conclusiori for a snatch of the the

final though the moment is first songp'O LawdpIlm goin'

reserved awayl in

orchestra. Act II opens with an extensive preliminary section (mostly before is raised) the curtain given over to a celebration of the simple pleasure of the Negroespwho have the day free for Koangals First and Palmyra's wedding. comes 89p. (ex. fourth 'a 244). their choral cappellal songpsung the orchestral It interlude develops which follows builds motifs, atmosphere. anticipatory interlude this ation. ant throughout in keeping the most -Delius, for parts appropriate the 'Calindal up the including festive an However)

of glimpse is particularly with

wedding-dance. for its instrumentremarkable

importan inspired sense of colour, writes 32The banjos . on-stage naive charm they impart Act II amid the orchestra is strikingly texture in with the relationship of Negroes and whites curtain rises the Negroes sing perhaps their mood being introduced (+) and 13th (++)

drama. When the lovely

song, an unusually wistful llth the aid of heavily stressed with (ex. 9pp. 245)chords In the subsequent the Negro slaves unfolding of the plot into the dramapand on each occasion their make two incursions a moment of highly-charged cheerful singing and dancing defuses tries to dissuade episode where Clotilda her of her Christian from marrying Koanga by reminding Palmyra's is the cue for a beautifully faith: violent response 8) (from both 'Now in a way' ex. once and coupling of effective 8). (see (from Act II, fig. Secondlyt 9) her' tHe will ex. meet between Perez and Palmyra followihg a confrontation tension. Palmyra the Palmyra: . dance Perez: you and always willt" best take care. "Palmyrapyould have my revengepyou I'll wait and seet" choral songp'O Lawd, Itm goint of the first between Perez and Clotilda a dialogue "I hate Firstpin

-a awaylpaccompanies


Negro-influenced that one of the first 32. It may be recalled dance in Delius that the in of plantation a score, melodies in the strings been accompanied by a banjo effect Floridaphad T'see ch. lpp. 20).


Ex. 8. Opening of-Act

II. '

Act II
Songs are heard behind the curtain

Gaily, but not hurried p

once Is Pi iF ! W--s 0 way,
p F p F F .. P.


we am


for a day,
F-9 ;j i 1 ill



down out uck in Zd Our



Let the

A Now





a way,

We are



a day,

And can


down our sic.kin and our z s


Lei the

Tenon 4" Now once in a way, We are


ica a day,
r rr we can

And can by
p lay down out sic-kin and our hon.

down our sic-Mesand ind our i ur


d L7. hI

19 Lei Me



to - day,

Vidin I

Witoncefflo Damb"as



poco rit.
CIL 1.2



I or Mor on store
p is P4


.91 ;I-.



h, gh,






Itead The I. At

Cot - Sol,






sheaves vn-PlhUCJ



"ti. 1,

iread the Iunj

C,11 I011


"m 5~






vd be.



fre. d the kmit

IV[ - W" p 10

r.m. ____ .1

EH - ;!
Gone stand h.sh.
The the-lei un*pthW


6. -d No-


I -Ifirls

prr Wawa
poco fit.

emadThe WO

Col. I. "

rou. con Moto

VID vs. pp ut ;I T




Ex. g. Act 11012 bars beforp

fig, 3-


6-. Meet h .... a.. be, -hen -_ the I sun -_ Joe$ down.

When the


71P-Poof -

-will sangs

Z: to the

rp 9 : F





her when the

sun .II



When the





Inoon. L--




Fun goes down,

When the



sanp to the moon;

meet her when the

whip- poor- will




















d, P
1.2 IM

a tempo


in IF

Strips (0. state) 4 aj

E=6_j l Isis
FWhen, lp from maltno - Its trees, the lits - Ty scent a blown, And strange lights wan. der o'er the dark In





I When, frommax-no-lis z6hiswan.; if*", the hel - vy went a blown. And strange eT OCT ; dark



p 1.




Ip when,

When. from mas- no - Its trees. the


Fr i! went

9' -

And strange lights wan -der

r==:: ==

P! F Eg
o'e, III, dark Ilieduk



fr7M M40- no




hea - vy



strange lights wan - tier O'er





a ternpo


VI 11
Op via. Pitt .0 pizz.



(Act rhythm





of the tCalindat is rapidly the action which moving. During betrothal the magnificant aria Negroes in the chorus are moved to respond words

neatly combined with dance (tJTJ_JjMJ_), of in It



towards Koanga the their only is perhaps of bondage

suggesting an unwilling resignation. in the 1896 libretto that even the clearer is bearable love exists: while


Oh.,see he remembers his country while we. we forgetp But his love is more strong than the country and the house of a king. Wherefore, strange in the land of a stranger and slavespwe may yet Kiss sweet Ineath the shade of the cypressp may dance and may sing-" (From the programme of the 1899 Delius concert) The wedding-dance of Creole of Palmyra and the Ballet Dancers that years of follow. the first Even though the movement of music is the Florida substantially suitepalready ten

to its new contextpbeing old, it is wholly appropriate of much rhythms and cheerful simplicity marked by the lively It is interesting to note of the Negro music of the opera. the melody of the choral that meet hert provides song 'He will to the main theme. a happy counterpoint how tense the Throughout Acts I and IIothenpno matter backdroppa, a or Negro disarmingly cheerful reference-point, of songs. constant What might on paper give the impression extension of a quaint in practice through the achieves of the Negro stereotype moving and release calculated power of each emotional -a human inherent virtues. of sense real drama how bitter the dialogues, there is The occurrence is common enough other found emotional calculated of similar in the dramatic and quasi-dramatic likely A greater example is hardly contrasts works of to be of his placing

composers. by Bach with the than the impact created heaviest the Passions, to in the effect measured chorales A to closer much parallel contrition. and of guilt sense Bach's Passions, links is the to Koangathough with obVious As Rusticana. Cavalleria Mascagnits in singing off-stage the work was well known internationally by the early



had a direct influence on Koanga. What intriguingly might seem a procedure to that of similar Koanga - the use of Negro songs in Tippett? s A Child of Our Time - is, in fact, closer to Bach's than to Delius's conceptThe Negro spiritual ion. conveys a sense of the slavest heavy burden and of how it may be lightened by Christianity, the Koanga work-song is imbued with an exuberant, while possible it positive life-force. Indeed. while of calculated emotional contrast igious in a dramatic undertones simple unusual. In human dignity9which the light of these is there are numerous instances being used to suggest rel-



scorepthe affirmation of Delius's apparent aimois most it can only the basic be


regarded as a remarkable reorientation of concept Act III devoid of the choral of Koanga that should be entirely backdrop the first which two acts . 33From so characterizes dramatic the work-songs a purely viewpoint are lacking simply because is no work done: the Negroespstricken there with the and famine caused by Koangals plague cursepare unable to The slaves lament sing two undistinguished reminiscent of those sung by the becalmed sailors choruses, Neverthelesspif in The Magic Fountain. the first two acts from the same viewpointothe frequent were to be considered toil in the drama by work-songs from the indigo fields is superfluous Whatever reasons Delius and irrelevant. initially had for level employing a symbolic of music-drama byOthe final in, both ignored negated and act. are interruption of the stage It traditions the arias abandoned is that the second area of characterization of the Noble Savage are most clearly embodied: time Delius had of Koanga. This was the first his previously-favoured tenor to write voice a in the fields.

discussion. f S. 41 in Act III 33. For the purposes of this can be considered the conclusion The orchestral of that act. fig-41 from (15 the to the bars opening of epilogue passage fig-44) is an intermezzopcorresponding to the sceneafter Like Act 1. before the earlier passagepit stands change drama. flow the the of main outside


that voice which Songs of Sunset and the Requiem. For all this, the music of Koanga in Acts I and II, its harmonic through muscular schemes and forceful rhythms, has a sense of uncompromising that is not to be purpose found in any other Delius It has been noted earlier score. image Delius that the poetic envisaged of Koanga was of a parts Drift, majesticoheroic ideal match. I first character. The musical realization in is its

the baritone, long series of famous solo A Mass of LifepSea includes part



and it

is for






an invocation of the second the voodoo gods to enact Koanga's cursepand (from fig-17) Africa. detailing poignant memories of some phrases, upon which he is immediately

Two clear sections can be distinguished (Act Itfig-I5)pthe being first aria


launched on 3* They in the 'his arrivalpare as commanding as any work. in a combination rhythms of thrusting evoke the mighty pride (giving Deliusts harmonic to way movement and a sinewy the second sequences harmonic colouration supports perhaps partpthoughpsubtler had yet written. The lyrical the longest passage Delius fig. heights" 18 from "nor the rocky until melody sweep of common third-related at is the motif heavy next another beautifully harmonic prevails After the textures appears in balancedpcorresponding rhythm. (see In to the tensions of the accompanimentpKoangats personal ex. 10, p. 249)(in Act I towards the whose end of ensembles the character of Koanga is suffocated)#Koanga the middle tour-de-force. of Act II. His The stage second is set aria is for his fig. 16). For

The opening

operatic how indicative It is a of proud, even aristocratic wedding6 that the words which he has in Deliusts bearing creation ("Farofar first the his are awayoPalmyrall) second aria open to Palmyra in the opera-. The aria divides he has addressed

34. The dramatic impact of Koangats entry is one of the most in the operatic canonpcomparable in its timing impressive Strauss's Baptist in John Salome. the that to of and power


Ex. 10.

f'tei Act 1,9 bar's' -6:

- fig. 17,e:


'o.. 10




to 38

cky heights where .08


*a - gles














*door would drink at dusk; FIN4aa


A -! nor shell I feel a-gain that


wa - ter hole where the 380

If 4d d?

pounding In my
. ............................

. ..................................


veins while stalking It 81........ . ......


night. 4 !

But since I was be -trayed I'm -4 Vt.

-4 F



Cor& ii ?n Tag







ir ,g

ii= =-dk --1

Nt ab.


L) now
0. P

bH4i a-way with whip will

cap - tive; yet

P9 K


tho' my flesh



TV PTrbs.

Tv Timp.

bO r9

Bassa, Va. 41LO bear hls

AI ,

to thosethat boughtme.

Voo-doo,Ko-an - 98 vowsIt.

.0 -.
ZR 41







I --


, pom





Ex. 11. Act 1194 bars after,

fi. g. 12,.

_: 'I

L -.




mourn for me.

The streams kkkk


gen - tly flow



ing my fate. _



ft T
Cor in I

110 ilip

poro cronr




- -7 7Y----

:: m.







11 r


The moun




i=;!; r PC


tains call

I may

ne -

. . ver lis
jrAL AL ar Ilir

-41p-ov. -'w * *'* il-r-


-4 t'en. o

13cl 1. k&Lfor,

p- ,






chorms my land


of -


of your


dp 4) VLe,


-dw. OF V p


for vou, a



hum-ble slave,

and in your














Far, far

a -way trem.

my foes on-joy


tri. umph;

my vile












into heard the final voice line Delius's an

two in fluid two of

parts. the

the Act I

first aria. settles Koangals

half It




style as 250, "the

harmony lines). our

achieves briefly in words

a glowing climax (ex. llpp. A major the chorus evoke for beneath

homeland": one music of his full Koangats of

their the


Koangals in

anticipates mature Following

the choral

textures most characteristic baritione which solo prompts asides. Martinez is regained pleading orchestral (Act by

accompaniment fig. 18), through invocation is

violent majestic




after degrees to an


of measured an arioso at fig. 20. Finallypan crowned by a boldpalmost Koangapand conception his first of note this the the in

intensity extended barbaric act

crescendo the its Act

now-distantpfugitive Delius's exaltation. white II. It heat from

for arietta ends in heroic

prince sustains savage Act I to the last of viewed

that was noted earlier. from standpointpcould a literary Now thoughpin type. to literary its operatic as contexts, successfully of the figure


be summed up as a reversion its realization and musical its of Koanga transcends of 61aves. character The seems

stereotype musical to reach out


as does the body larger-than-life this

of command the emotions and demand respectpto literary into The model a complex of condensing an audience. is justifiedpit types abovep was suggested operatic simple dramatic the emotionto broad because concepts music can give al significance of simple truths. stock and defined This Koanga figure. immediate the in In does his not full wear the dramatic

mask of an over-familiqr has he an exciting power As with the Negro role of Koanga has in been Act

presence. the which no longer

choruses, III.

upon premise Acts I and II

be reorientationptoopcan seems to apply his Koanga has seized dramaticallypfor justified now that to bondage for no resistance the motive freedom, an heroic Koanga's Nevertheless, the and unity strength of longer exists. is Nor the the diminished. of musical quality is greatly role and dramatic conception at all comparable to that of the


Koanga's previous acts. the swamps (Act III#after ativepand piece poise before of though writing,

of earlier fig. 18 seem to dry up after that point; estrian episode follows. It is in Koangals final ariaphoweverpthat feebleness Act III Delius's in inspiration of spicuous. to gather in Africa. are But all the and mortally his failing strength The ingredients for Captive

into the ritual in sacrifice 6) is a passage of flat recit(fig-7) the subsequent is a sustained arioso it lacks the lyrical sweep and rhythmic The nicely balanced material. pkrases entry fig. a looselpedthe is relative

most con-

manages wounded, the prince through a vision of his people an impassionedpheroic aria present, as they were for his first aria in Act I. the earlier music remains stolidpdisjointedpwithout of this

impetus to

1896pand late in February and February 3 Bell, "Shall he asked Jutta I make a 3rd Act or only the 211.'6 From subsequent correspondence with Mrs. Bell in June and had yet decided is no evidence July that Delius there to add On the other handpwork on the first two seemed the third act. her: he December 1896 In to to be progressing wrote well. in
for 12 "I have been working the last on it halfway throlphaving and am about months Act and the Ist and orchestrated written half of the 2nd" . 36

of Koanga

period as prompt speculation from his so little why the third act should have called He worked intensively the fervour earlier. on achieved January

and sweep. Delius's letters

Though mind

seems to indicate little work nowpevidently this A lengthy-interval

he had a third had been done on it. between the composition of that




coursepresult of a work need notoof sections and subsequent In a case like in inconsistencies of approach and quality. large Koangaphoweverpwhere strides seem to have been made due to the appeal of an exciting stage early at an quickly new ideapa year's would inevitably delay modify in the commencing artist's a culminating perspective. act

35. Letter from Delius c OP-99.

from Delius 36. Letter CLL/lop-109.

to Jutta
to Jutta

Bellp25 February 1896,

Bell#23(? )December, 1896,


visijon of the work may well also have faded as a result of his coming into close contact with the from which it had derivedpparadoxical reality though this might seem. At the turn of the year 1896-7pDelius returned for the first time to his plantation in Florida. From the from his later works he had writtenpand to his attitudes Florida is possible experiencespit to surmise what his stay had come to signify there for him in the eleven years he left-Solana Grove. since In retrospectpdistanced both by land and timepthe strange American in 1884 seems world in which he had suddenly arrived itself to have resolved for Delius into idealized images. And in these images he found the stuff The of creativity. natural exoticism and colour of the landscape was the prinforce behind the two orchestral cipal works Florida and Hiawatha, written his return to Europe. Yet shortly after is no doubt the Solana Grove landagainpsome years laterpit scape Magic which is Fountain. The distance evoked in the the luxuriant American everglades of The


reality and its roimage in Koanga is huge. That Delius mantic never supposed it to be otherwise is suggested by the commentp or intended made at an early stage in the composition of Koang #that "I dont believe in realism in opera Fantasy & '"'I poetry. It was the poetical Wordssubstance of his experience what in tranquilwould have termed the "emotion worth recollected his in which assumed significance creative make-up. All the evidence that it was not seems to indicate being in Florida his artpbut which stimulated actually " It seems there. reflection subsequent on experience gained lity"


37. Letter from Delius to Jutta Bell#25 February 1896. CLL/lpp. 99. 38- It is interesting to note thatpas is far as is knownt Delius worked on piano pieces while in Florida in 1897, his Similarly, during first Koanga. than on years rather therephis creative powers were evidently fired more by the his by immediate surrounds. Scandinavia distant than poets of


to Solana Grove before returning the third writing act of KoangapDelius probably made it impossible to finish the opera in the same spirit in which had been begun. Renewal of old experiences, it reacquaintance how beautiful that no matter naturally reality was - might well have dissolved the poetic vision built introspection. up over many years' For all its originality and its music of unqualified is flawed in trilogy greatnesspthe second opera in Delius's In both Koanga and The Magic the same way as was the first. with reality which seem to have motivated comThe virtues were not sustained. position associated with into the backuncivilized man receded further and further The innocent as work on The Magic Fountain ground progressed. the as the noble, savage is the foundation denouemento of two-thirds of Koanga. Butplacking a consistent the opera as an entity also yields a final sense of aimlessNot until does Delius the third ness. opera in the series and well a successful whole. It is in A Village Romeo and Juliet that the composer's innocence be regarded theme of uncivilizedlideal can first Delius's a complete, sustained supported conception. as having create his theme was to be modified in manner of handling entire (this be considered in chapter the opera modification will together technique taken with the fruition of his motivic skillspwhich also occurred at and orchestral Delius's aesthetic of new creative emergence development and maturity. separating Quite this six): humblevas Fountain basic ideas the




timeithis marks the border

transformation waspsome indicsudden though this by Delius's in the its music evident of coming are ations Koanga, both in the opera and in its time he had completed American RhapsodypAppalachia. the sister-work,




The Noble -





Once the main drama of Koanga has been played out with Palmyra's follows deathothere intermezzo. an orchestral This acts as a bridge the scene returns to the epiloguepwhere The final Joe. Uncle to the storyteller the section of orchp from fig-43jis transition, estral a reminder of the intermezzo which opened This is first Delius Act Iobeing based and foremost a particularly to on material a tidy structural poignant the original first idea. here heard then. However, through



Whereas material. some striking alterations drama he had led fig. 2 the in towards the prologue after by harmonized LawdpIlm 10 the away' melody of with goin' (see the most elementary ex-3)0the rechordal progressions turn from of the the to the epilogue theme prior in a very drama - is coloured leading now away different manner:

Ex. 12. Orchestral


bars before fig-44-

The chromatic the flento the special molto' unaffected

alteration mood created and almost simplicity

to richness of by muted stringspwho play the song As for impulse. devoid of rhythmic has given of the Negro song - this chords

adds harmonic


At this spirit. stage the place a wistfulpplaintive discussion a short must be widened to include orchestral work which Delius composed in 1896 - the American Rhapsodyp 31 It is no surprisetwith Appalachia. title this and dating (contemporary find Koanga)pto that the on early work with here to in the opera. has the same positive as is evident spirit piece for America opened up a productive Delius's seam enthusiasm in this year. Rhapsody is the parent of a far more The Appalachia interesting the variationst choral and orchestral offspring RhapTo 1902-3. this, the in Appalachia, composed also called sody gave the subtly intermediate both in the share America. two things. evocative The first writing is which its levergladel music serves as an openingoan Secondly# both to works. episode and a conlusion Delius learnt theme slave song an old common a Rhapsody it is the main theme of In the early in the latter score it is the to constructedland

episodepwhile central are very theme upon which the variations the chorus gives poetic expression: which Ex-13. Appalachiapchoral







and'.6ou 'rAu moddie BUt - ter


'114ct bill




the dar*

hadvors w#U. 04c


works can also contactpthe by differing though have achieved be said to a common purpose,, Negro the the description ispa and character that of means Negro. Delius the with associated which surroundings natural Apart from these points of

39- Unpublished.

DT vol. 9 (EL PP-47-9)-


the Appalachia variationspit may be recalled from chapter 'Noticet: this one, Delius affixed "Appalachia is the old Indian name for Northern-America. The composition describes the natural tropcoloring of the distant ical districts Mississippiof the powerful Riverpwhich is so intimately connected with Longing melthe fate of the negro-slaves. intense love for nature, as well ancholylan humour and a native delight as the childlike to the of dancing and singing are still time the most characteristic qualpresent ities of this race. " These words provide Rhapsody as the key to the Appalachia It opens, as already well. mentionedpwith a descriptive the "natural tropepisode evoking coloring of the distant districts". Then comes "the childlike ical humour and a the singing and dancing": an episode employing banjo-type melodypthensin a pentatonic counterpoint Negro melody "After has gone",, all in a to thissthe night 40 most exuberantorobust manner. Rhapsody a total Half way through the short transformNow the tune is played tAndante)molto takes place. ation native first of tranquillot, first But it ensemble. inner adhering parts extent texture, quite remarkablepthe to sliding semitonal movement to an in Delius's The resultant unprecedented music. triadic melody and melting contrasted starkly an overwhelming sadness: Rhapsodyff-59b. -rrm;:-17r=
J-P ot lp IE


head of


by the string is the harmony

section which is

and then

by a wind

with harmonizationpconveys chromatic Ex. 14. Appalachia


* Fi1


-; r

--- 1F-

-it 1-




IA4 L-jj 14,1 J. . -t-I

40- Some bars of this

episode are given in RT, plate



be said to present thenomight section, later what Delius described as the "longing Its melancholy" of the Negro race. to the version similarity of 10 LawdoIlm goin' away' prior (ex. Koanga 12) is obvious. to the epilogue of After this the American Rhapsody follows point a course without sadness leads in the mature Appalachia. The musical parallels , itself, it can be presumed of the Negroes - of slavery Civil Wart Pitched to-a musical against each othert


the Negro song sometimes in the middlepare 'Dixief with and 'Yankee Doodlelowith by the triumph recorded an eventual latter towards the end of the score. Each of the episodes in the American Rhapsody is concisepthe whole work being less than 200 bars long. At the end of his Negro opera and as the central pillar in his American RhapsodypDelius uses songs in a chromatic This "longing them poignant which renders and wistful. style is not compatible image of the melancholy" with the previous Negro he has presented. longing is caused By definitionpthis by the absence of a desired irretrievable, object probably p Innocent in his ignorancepat one condition. manpblissful life theoretically to this a stranger and naturepis with It is only when removed from his innocent longing. that state Within the power of nostalgia. the Noble Savage can learn in Koangapthis limitations temperament Delius's self-imposed or would conflict and the heroic with both wrath of to Act IIIpthe the "blissfully" resigned slaves Koanga. Howeverpcoming as it does wistfulness (here audience ex. 12 expresses by the symbolized of the story) than

as a postscript the sentiment more of the daughters on the plantation

who have heard

Negro. the of In examples 12 and 14 is seen the logical extension diatonic/chromatic had in Delius made the experiments of by Negro in elements coloured of earlier scores conflict Variationen L4gendes). (notably Rhapsodische the and music With melody and chromatic use of diatonic Appalachia Koanga to Jn achieve and a nostalgic accompaniment is in the important reached evolution of stage sentimentpan beginnings Delius's These the are of the composerts style. the deliberate


idealistic fantasy move away from the early and naturalistic to a more maturesmore intimates of the poetry of innocence for that simple more romantic., concepts based on a longing This tfin-de-sieclet in Delius is basicpoetry. perspective for lost innocence. The more his creative ally a longing in mature works is imbued with a nostalgia for aesthetic lost innocence9the nearer diatonic/chromatic conflicts stand A Village to the centre Romeo and of his musical style. Juliet illustrate how the composer manipulates these will conflicts to achieve -sustained and powerful dramatic effects.


Chapter The Quest (II) A Village for

Six Innocence

Romeo and Juliet

Section In a letter

One to


Delius Bell

and Keller

of 20 July 1894, Delius wrote, Lelande if Gipsies like the you can of much very should 11I L book for is one His it this to to request mell. afford send in the surviving that correspondence of the few intimations opera of the Gipsies. subject 1894- It was the Negro opera after libretto 18969and in the when work early of in 1898 the youthful auf dem Dorfel. The reason source peasant love for this the third in his visualized The idea again mentioned the Indian which followed for a new opera was begun lifepbut Gipsy tale not a of was Julia Keller'stRomeo Gottfried und series is not would be on the

Deliusts If his

reaction The Gypsiesowhich enthusiasm image

in lies heart possibly change of Lelandts to "the Gipsies of Lelandelloor would seem to be the book he had in mind. for the theme was based on the romantic may vagabond lifepLeland

uncorrupted of an unfettered, it: blunted have well to "I saw in her smiling agreeing eyestever from her voluble lips heard nothin allpand is lie the that but the lie# mentaf which Romany.... the of grain anT-inmost action trickerypwheedling Anything and everything or threateningosmilepor or bullyingpfawning day long All for tears a sixpence. rage, or fortunes tell tricking to flattering or and lie. 112* life triflespand one all greasy sell Whatever the causepDelius only a suballows eventually Romeo A Village in the and to vagabonds significance plot incomplete. trilogy remained Apparantlypthereforepthe Juliet,. has been the view shared by previous commentAt leastpthis different In (see 219). this a chapter view ch-5pp. ators

Jutta Bellp20 July Delius from to letter Unpublished 1. 1894 (Delius Trust archive). (Boston, 1882)#PP-114-5The Gypsies Leland: G. 2. Charles


that the opera shares with its suggested two predecessors the essential elements which placed them in clear to the ideas and traditions relationship. of the Savaget. 'Noble This does not mean that Sali and Vrenchen, offered: Romeo and Juliet, may be considfrom the same literary ered as issuing mould as Wapanacki the route of the Noble Savage from and Koanga. Following the plantation to the Swiss mountain pastures and reservation involve from the main literary highway to an will a detour the in byway. and parallel At the end of the eighteenth century letters in English trend towards idealizing between nature and the people whose lives from it. 'Romantic naturalism1pas separable usually English poetic tChild according important there the was a strong two lovers A Village




relationship and work are inthe movement is

termed, has as its most influential spokesmen the Lakeland poets, and among its most recognizeable images the figures and the of the 'Noble Peasant' This is especially true of Wordsworth# of Nature'.

to whose naturalistic principlep "the excellence of human beings is in proto the number and richness of their portion Hence the childpwith with nature. contacts fresh its is to and lively perceptions .... And of adultsothose be envied. are most blest among who dwell uninterruptedly beautiful and awe-inspiring scenes-114 The image of the child which has gained its learning# loose it and wild in would become a turn of the is possible outLucyp Fairchild

from contentment running and sincerity was to have such an appeal that nature literary favourite stereotype. romantic

By the

Fairchild outpit points centurygas eighteenth the contours mouldptheir to distinguish of a literary Wordsworth's defined in lines works as such clearly Tales of Paraguay. Fleetwood Godwin's and Southeyts

3- Hoxie Neale Fairchild: P-175.

The Noble Savage (New Yorko1928)y


"These children derive from nature usually beauty; love of the scenes physical great amid which they live; exquisite sensibilities; independent and a moral instinct of, + hostile tovanalytical and often reason. 11 Both the child of nature and the peasant whose simple philfrom his closeness life-powers to nature's osophy is derived (Wordsworthts draw their tNoble Dalesmant) from motivation a basic tradition: reactionary force common also to the Noble Savage

from the same revulsion "They spring against civilizationpand preach fundamentcorrupt the same gospel of innocent ally simplicity. About the same distance 'romantic which separates alism' from separates The influence significance, in a fresh the mainstream Keller's 'poetic of but light. the the older literature realism' school is of from still the Noble 'romantic evident



naturalism'. and of

most famous story (1856). In common with the best of his outputpthe Seldwyla between by delicate balance the reality is a of marked story the poetic existencepand sensibilities and difficult a tragic by beau. into thrown ty. natural this relief can engender when It of was clearly the latter feature of Keller's art that was attraction primary In his descriptions to Delius. of Sali's

of naturalism are re-examined premises is the 'Romeo und Julia auf dem Dorfel Leute von collectionpDie of Keller's

innocentp and Vrenchents to the countrysidep free relationship of their naturespand instincts in to those have Keller appeal a strong made will two operas about people Delius which prompted him to write Vrenchen Sali hearts. are good-looking and untamed, simple with beautiful "the are most which eyes, childrenpespecially brown the hope to and complexion girl's seepand one could hair gave her whole face a lively exand innocent dark curly Their between land is the uncultivated playground pression" their

4- ibid., PP.3745- ibid., p. 180. 6. Gottfried Keller: Romeo und Julia auf dem Dorfe. Translated (OslOP1948) by the present author. from the Norwegian edition P. 10.






a wildonatural


"where weeds and bushes and piles of boulders in a strange were tangled and enchanting They wandered about for a undergrowth. by swinging while, and amused themselves hands over the highest their thistles they down in the shade they settled saw. Later and the little plucked girl some long blades of grass and made a green dress for her doll. " ' The wildland's charm is equally later. in love: they fall years strong for the pair whenp


"They crept into the field so artfully and that there was almost no trace of carefully thempand there they built hidinga little place amid the golden ears of corn which heads so that towered over their they could see only the deep blue sky above them-117 free are creatures of innocence, childlike natures

to give expression to their spontaneous and simple emotions. Moreover, Sali and Vrenchen lose little of their youthful As adults fond of playing thay are still charm as they mature. games, and Keller speaks of two childrenpthey whenplike fall asleep together could the "oblivious happiness walked together", and of "and sleep as sweetly and well they felt how they as

in a cradle"'* children So much at least do Keller's characters seem to share The the child of the 'romantic of nature naturalist'. with innocence their and integrity which naturepand own instinct# cultivates which is moral in them. is way of Kellerts in conflict world. the behind the with the cynical mediocrity This pindeedpseems to be the

parting-shot: It .... the papers told about two young people had had death they together after sought who for an entire danced and amused themselves [I] fete.... t was at a parish afternoon further presumed that the two young people [a] barge in order had illegally appropriated base and ungodly wedding their to celebrate immorever-spreading another of yet sign of the timese"11 and the moral decline ality

7- ibid... 8. ibid. 9. ibid.,,, JO. ibid. ll. ibid.

P. 13. 60. op. P. 56. op-71. 122. op.


much in the story of Sali and Vrenchenothenp with which the Delius of The Magic Fountain and Koanga identify. Howeverofor Kellerothe ideal could method of for him was representing what his characters signified by showing them in contrast to a grey realism. evidently The contradiction implies this. of the term 'poetic realismt For Delius in sigthe social and moral issue is replaced by emotional the realism tensionspand nificance of Keller's falls narrative away. Sections two to four to of this are given chapter Delius made to over 'Romeo



an examination of the alterations to make it compatible und Julia auf dem Dorfel with his own his art was motivated howpin this instance, by the artpand But firstoone further innocence. of lost citation concept the middle ground represented shows thatoin by the poetic the natures of Sali and Vrenchen - like fields land between the farmers' both and author wild composer were of one heart: which "But they had not gone far before they stopped one another. again and embraced and kissed flowed The great like stillness slow music them; only the river through could be heardo breathing. weakly and muted like a quiet Can you tHow beautiful it is tonightl far hear that there is something sounding ' ringing? a lovely song or bells offplike flow. There's 'It's the river's no other sound. ' I 'Noothere is something elseptoot sidest can hear it from all it is the sound of blood 'I think in our earst' rushing for a while to the tonesp They listened came from the great or imaginedowhich real fairy from the only perhaps stillnessoor moonbeams which played on the whitepwavy mist. "" night ( horizon This distant as a senwhere musicplove and nature the togetherois mystic melt presence) sual and a symbolic " Delius's work. of essence from Keller

12. ibid ., pp. 116-7. , 13. This passage becomes the kernel duet in Scene VI.

of the operatic



The opera A Village principal ways from its contributes advancepin significantly this workpto

Romeo and Juliet

original source. to an understanding his mature style.

"+ +

differs Each of



these of Deliusts

Section As had been the 'Story the of Bras-Coup6l,






case with his treatment of Cable's Delius tale removes from Keller's


elements which he does not consider part of its poetic The balance between the two counteracting forces essence. of realism heavily in as peculiar interpolations in and poetry favour of the to his vision Keller latter. of the is reweighted The different as are by Delius emphases are the various


he makes. The story is seemingly conof the two loverst parents directly does by Delius it irrelevant not whenever sidered Out, thereinfluence the relationship of Sali and Vrenchen. fore must and wife and run go the (Salits befalls Manz which parents) when they have to move to town inn. The farmerst quarrel over the violent behas to be left in; likewise the fight pathetic degradation

a shabby

wastelandthowever, (Vrenchents Marti father) tween Sali which precipitates and More surprisingly#Delius Vrenchents tragedy. cuts the scene in Kellerts the meeting of narration: which is the fulcrum by their on a the two farmers, accompanied grown children. love bridge in the which sudden a stormpand sudden narrow flourishes streamlined had never In additionpits between the of version been out really girl their of and boy. childhood lovepthe Yetpto Sali scene Deliuslin

whose and Vrenchen was superfluous.

mood runs wholly melodrama and almost. gothic love the the childlike sensitiveptentative of grain against Delius's enjoy. characters which The two confrontation scenes in the later stages of Vrenchents Sali to though and storyt not essential the opera, help the that they be included to to on grounds also seem


resolve the poetic and define nature of the two lovers: at the fairground, where they had come to dance, and at the Paradise Gardenpwhere they had sought anonymitypSali and Vrenchen to the river. are urged ever nearer goal Delius resolves a in Keller's into primary spectrum tale of characteristics It was noted earlier colours. that Koanga was preserved from the at times ridiculous and un-noble attitudes of Cable's Bras-CouO. Delius's Sali and Vrenchen are also pursuit of poetic life to aspects strangers of prosaic which infringe upon his idealized, broad-stroke sketches. Further deviation from Keller's was necessitated story by Delius's extraordinary reinterpretation of the figure The Bacchanalia of 'Der schwarze Geiger' or 'dark fiddler'. figure Gardent which Kellerts presides at the Paradise and the wild dance in which he leads both vagabonds and Sali down the hillside the townpfor and Vrenchen and through over in their example, are practically unrecognizeable operatic forms. for the dark However, the role which Delius fashioned fiddler was created more by the addition of a range of new in Kelthan by the subtraction characteristics of elements The character lerts is the pivot in Delius's narrative. version of the story.





The Dark


"And when you care to come into the world with me, the woods and dales we'll roam... (The dark fiddler. Scene III)


I "You spoke of the great world tourpand about this. am always in the mood to talk But what do you mean? Are you serious or only joking? 1"4

There are few more intriguing in the operatic characters A Village in Romeo fiddler dark than the and Juliet. canon from Halfdan letter 146'Unpublished (Delius Trust archive). 19 ', Jebe to DeliusO22 July


The achievement figure in Deliusts which this represents development the more remarkas an operatic composer is all able in that the role is. to a great extentpa creation of his imagination. between Delius's It is the differences dark fiddler its fascination and Keller's which give the role and depth. The strength multiplicity person. of Threads lies in the of Deliusts characterization ideas which are gathered into this one intertwine of the fiddler's motivations the create the poetic of a complex personality. language he usespwith its veiled as a bridge seems to move seem particularly model. Deliusts image

to and overlap Partly through meaningstand from sub-plot worthy dark of First fiddler

his functioning through partly dark fiddler to main plotpthe on and between several planes-Four of these comment. of all. the level the of the literary retains Keller's

history and some of the personal rHe figure! is the grandson of the of seediness deceased town trumpeter and the heir to the overgrown fields (in the opera, the illegitimate thus barred from grandsonpand his inheritance). He is also the leader of a troupe claiming Inn the musicians whopwhen not at vagabond revelling of of the a life Paradise free Though Gardenpare of moral stopping well roaming short in of woods and hillspenjoying the facial uglinesspbitrestraint.

terness violin unlikeable and ecstatic playing of Kellerts does imply some of his earthiness. fiddlerpDelius There is an air of smugness in the fiddler's pleasure by beggared Marti Manz finding their avarice and at "It me to see the havoc pleases 16 (Scene 111). 11 they have wrought friends his the vagabond also reflects. of ribaldry while on his own morals.

is given in the opera of why the fiddler 15. No intimation he is called the "black f iddler" In the novella is "dark". bonfiresphe forest is covered in ash and becausepworking with Fiddler" Black did "The in Though title the the appear soot. has it bsequently the first sul score, opera given of edition way to the more poetic misconstruction. 16. The libretto quoted in this chapter is that of the vocal (Boosey HawkesP1952). & score


These superficial fiddler lies and by the


represent the gesturejand

elsewhere. twanderlust' of his enchantment

realism, a dark real substance of Delius's Perhaps most of all in the freedom spiritpled beauty. This always onwards level

a nod to worldly


of natural second is stressed of characterization early on by Delius whens departing from Keller. he introduces the fiddler near the beginning and him of the story. heir to The fiddler is

Manz as the the wildlandpand (Scene I). Not so their who encounter childrenphowever, him in the woods as they play together. Sali and Vrenchen by this are awestruck exoticpmysterious who offers stranger them his wasteland as a playground "Come now my children and do not be afraid. My land shall be your playground. So long as you hear the wind singing throl the tangle no sorrow will you know. " (Scene Iov-s-PP-30-1) future in his forebodings the them about who confides his wild paradise "Here lies my right.. but a wanderer and a bastard can claim. no redress benested Wherefore.. full these thick all soon down" must come tumbling (Scene Iov-s-P-32)

by Marti recognized dismiss they lightly



for is and mistaken mingles playing with - and whose violin The impression the sound of the wind in the trees. of a On his later is footloose reinforced. second appearwanderer ance Sali yet the dark fiddler interrupts the tryst and Vrenchen on the wildlandpand of the now-grown makes them a generous#

offer: extraordinary "And now we're beggars all I bear you no ill will. And when you care to come into the world with mep the woods and dales we'll roam be. I'll and your merry guide My guide the sun and moont the west across the sea. towards bread The waving corn my daily from the stream. to strange music wild My bedts among red poppies. " (Scene III, v. s. pp. 69-72)


idealist an on a spiritual The dark fiddlerts to nature relationship ation and his goalpat once both means and end. On the third and fourth planes of characterization


Here,, the Romantic





of the quest. a loner. is both his motivthere


Bohemian side of the manpbut are close connections with this be seen that the it will differences separating each of them from the secondary level in defining are crucial a convincingly subtle and rounded character. The dark fiddler ispof They too are one of the group of coursepalso "ever on towards the setting roving

vagabonds. sun"(v.

s. P. 191): "Vagabonds are wel fetterless and free, owning nothing. living nowhere.... Always roaming fearing no onep lawless merry free.... life throt we go a singing the setting towards sun't (Scene VIpv. s. pp. 204-217) rework the seam of childlike in exploited innocence of care

The which


the Negro songs was most consistently Koanga. Indeed. dances the lilting vagabond chorus of and for ta cappellat before the curtain tDance alongtpsung rises Scene VI is the clear awaytp successor of 10 LawdpI'm goint IV' tWell in 'John say you got# and the off-stage once a way' " takes part in the choruses The dark fiddler of the vagbe credited with a and isoby associationpto abond troupe There ispon the surface, little temperament as merry as theirs. the dark fiddler to distinguish as a lone wanderer from the dark fiddler the final is fiddler of spirit. whopas part of scene. Howeverpthe from freedom a In the case of the vagabond groupprevels freedom embodied in the effecting vagabonds it is of spirit. through dark

limitations, the a lightness

a largeness a freedom from


17- It is worth noting that it was the practice of Thomas 'Dance along' as a freshplight-hearted Beecham to interpret J. The (ca the recording more recent of work chorus =84). . J. (ca. tempo familiar has made a much slower =46)pfrom have that probably would surprised which arises a wistfulness the composer.


As a postscript to these two aspects of his character is interesting to the role firtt it that an alteration indicate 1921 in to the vocal seems an effort score printed between them. Early by Delius the distinction to underline fiddler dark have the the sitting with of opera editions the the offers vagabonds at final scene. as the an inn table The altered opening for rises curtain to Scene VI, howeverp

most abiding'images: one of the opera's by It is evening; the verandah is lighted The dark twilight. lanterns, soft summer back his towards the fiddler stands with back his his hands at the on and audience back of the stage and looks at the high glow upon them. with the last mountains by the in the far distance horn-calls Off-stage evoke device a mood of mountain-pieces common to all Delius's be fiddler the to The longing the on lonely of solitude. fading Only the is are as tacitly calls expressed. move again does he join On the the of characterization it While figure. Pan-like be fiddler dark seen as a might flowers found the he and that amongst was noted earlier his journeythat birds motivated and satisfaction a pleasure intimacy is a sense in which a yet closer with ingspthere in found the Though music and implicit. words is only nature level with oneness a complete entrypthere of sigallegorical to or symbolical assume seems which nature being than is That to an observerpthe more say, nificance. human identification with nature. dark fiddler personifies from time heard the is woods some A mysterious zephyr-music the it But is the wind# of song before the fiddler appears. hearing itlthe On (see 271)lpp. ex. or the song of a man? be to the farmers take the wind music two the and children it is or notythere Whether eventually in trees. the soughing human from tones song: the a emerges flingest how thou on ItO piper unfollowed, of shrubs and the wrangle the tangle of trees throt fiddler forsakenp thy limp I after must while but are we not comradesso Vagabond windt" (Scene I, v-s-pp-25-6). his first is here comrades fourth and final his at the inn table.


Ex. l.

Scene I, fig.


has the same freedom. one with the windthe between what is nature draws a vague line Delius and what is However, being humangthe dark fiddler, human aspiration. cannot is hope to #'fiddler brother keep up with his mercurial forsakentf. Rather ironically, the symbol dark of his humanity he is the wind's fiddler is given spared embodies him in

The fiddler

a limp by Delius -a the original story. The role of the acteristics possibly first he when just Delius

fiddler wish in


probably his ideal individual

such a romanticized 1894In in Gipsy the end# thought opera a of dark fiddler is a closer relative thereforepDeliusts of Koanga As Wordsworth reprobate. than he is of Kellerts rough-edged has his 'Noble Vagabond?: had his 'Noble Dalesmant, so Delius a creature communion of with the wildsonot naturepwith of the a heart civilized unweighted intimate townpin by responsibility.

the charIt was vagabond. he envisaged


has been convincingly dark fiddler is no less than This intriguing personality. by Christopher Palmer:






a representation idea was taken

that the of Delius's

up most recently



"He, like the Fiddler, was in a sense an outcasts, isolated1cosmopolitan in outlook spiritually but basically f6r and temperament stateless; routine morality and the standard ethical into which he had been code of the society born he cared not a fig. The mode of life de6 beginning Scene by the the scribed at of chorus of vagabonds .... 'ever journeying onthe setting wardsptowards was sunt - this Delius's 1"I own philosophy of life. here a dangerous That Delius had misconception.

life enjoyed a cosmopolitan as a young man, and that he longed for but, once he determined is true; travel, to pursue a his travels He was creative careerphe confined strictly. wanderer. "I'm no Bohemian. nor ever was. I like my hours ""' meals at regular 0 That Delius for society's "cared code is ethical not a fig" but, for the sake of his artphe true also; allowed perhaps himself to be bound*by it. dark is his fiddlerpnot in It ideals artistic his lifegand which to lay are reflected in the stress on self-personno footloose.

is to run the risk of misrepresenting role Furthermore, there is good reason to believe the composer. had than being a portrayal thatprather of himself#Delius friend. fiddler dark the on a close modelled partly Jebe while in became acquainted Delius with Halfdan ification the He was a Norwegian violin the mid-1890s. virtuosop He the born 1868. also most colourwas one of around was and In his Delius's life. to ful enter characters and eccentric Mexicopbut for in forties Jebe many years prior settled early Paris in to that he had been driven for travel to by a sense a thirst explore rootlessness and His many areas of the world. of

18. Christopher (Londonpl976)pp.

Palmer: 113-




a Cosmopolitan

Delius: Some Personal fFrederick 19. Quoted by C. W. Orr: Companion (ed. Redwood, Londonp in A Delius Recollections' 1976)pp. 62.


has not surcorrespondence return Jebels but also the personality, reveal not only vived) had considered fact that over a period of years Delius him on his travels. Joining into "And now Itm setting off on a journey Always the wide worldpas an old clown. suits far is it to still onwardst always onwards. land of the holy frenzy. '? "' (Norway? undated, prob. 1898) letters to Delius "We have travelled much and are going to stay Egyptpbut the assumption here until to we go is that you join us - and for a whole year-112-' (NaplesY15 Junepprob. 1901)


The assumption proved wrong. But Jebe was not discouraged in his hopes of tempting Delius away to exotic lands had discussed together: they tour a evidently I go there "When do we go the Pacificomust alone as well. 112" (Paris, 26 July 1901)
In 1902-3 Jebe and Ceylon: I time is already your received "It since some I want you to know that only kind letter2and happy been I have life in over so my rarely Well2to this letter. you would understand a have had to have experienced what it is to voyage.... an eternal smell land again after [Tlhelong have I now which story adventure footbleeding but finishbdpnot with on paper still-untouched steps across the world2through this living Bohemian wonderconditions, of pits bring home I ful alive.... adventure [P]erhaps, you will a few come with me to visit life for lead to beautiful a a year places2and ideal idyllic2just just as your peaceful as as I know that later, More this Grez. life about at you about it you are going to want2when I tell to want time are you going other, or some all 111-7 to trot around the globe a little .... (ColombopNovember 1903) is in the Far EastpIndia (Delius (Delius (Delius Trust Trust Trust

20. 21. 22. 23-

Unpublished Unpublished Unpublished

archive). archive). archive).



"I burn with a feverish desire once more to see the countries like where I felt a 14new-born childt"


June 1904)
seriously I have

"I hope very much that we can again Pacific journey. consider our great never given it up. 1115

(Oslo, 24 April


two -2possible even if 21, in. 11 (Copenhagen,

I have now our world tour at last. three women singers, who are all from you, I hear like to should .... I donft at all reckon on you joining undated, prob-1905)

I am "You talk of the great world tourtand But always in the mood to talk about this. what do you mean? Are you serious or are you only joking.... I cannot stand it here any longer, and I shall leave this years .... certainl autumn for several You go via India)I via Americapand when we meet " for I " we exchange women one. give two

(Oslo, 22 JulY 1905)

Delius as "the It described Jebe on more than one occasion in such terms 47 only man I ever loved in all my lifell. dark fiddler his Delius's to that relationship seems is parallel to that with Jebe. The notion of a world immensely its to Delius appealed romantioism, Butyunlike Jebephe would never actually His music - not least in the an adventure. fiddler with full is a freepwild of the spirit exhileration and and free, wild places.

character tour would have and Bohemianism. begin part poetry

on such of the dark associated

24. 2526.

2728 Unpublished letter (private 19b collection).

CLL/lip. 244(Delius Unpublished (Delius Unpublished (Delius Unpublished

Trust archive) Trust archive) Trust archive) from Delius to Adey Brunel, 27 April


for him to write was possioie fulfill his desire to experience of


thus because hd didn't hand an unfettering at first

He didn't dissolve the responsibilities and ambitions. image in reality. poetic [Jebel of seems to be making a reality his life the music that he all and living has in him - With me it is just the I am putting everything contrary into my music all my poetry & all my 112" adventure. The dark fiddler is not the image of DeliusIbut the image of his longings.

Section all fiddler, is For the


"Are with

we not which


vagabonds? " the surrounds His role in



dark the

he remains

foil as a opera essentially In the end happiness to the frustrated of Sali and Vrenchen. for the lovers by antithesis he and his companions define the course they must pursuep showing them an alternativa But as this was essentially the function they cannot accept. Delius does Keller's in go these why novella, characters of to too such are lengths lies shift interact. expanded to in develop the The answer a correlative which they third his source. It will and deepen Sali of roles composersand in Sali roles? subsidiary These and Vrenchen. in ways which demanded the characters and Vrenchen by Delius with form the from the

a secondary functional,

character. for he serves

by the

of perspective The roles of area of

and most important


laid be recalled that Keller emconsiderable Vrenchen their Sali fact that maintained the and on phasis the tragic lifepdespite events which on outlook childlike faith To this families. unquestioning befell their end. their depicted is as that morality in the virtues of conventional of the uncynical innocent. Not so their operatic namesakes.

from Delius 29 Unpublished letter 19i3 (private collection).

to Adey Brunel, 27 April


characters are, from Scene III onwarossalways one The step removed from the childlike naivety of Keller's. heavily, lies tragedy weight of their into and has dissolved blithe, their Their innocence has memories carefree spirits. been lostpand in thempthereforepa there lives poignant sentiment which their childhood which is can be identified and as a longing both for for as nostalgia the freedom from care friends;


by the dark fiddler suggested and his (about the dark fiddler) Sali: "Fear notpmy Vreli, the man means us no harm; Itwas ever on his land we used to hide and play. Vrenchen: "Our childhood's happy daysp they seem so long ago" (Scene IIIPV-S-PP-75-6)





"Naywe wander together will lands into strange and leave our past behind us .... 110h if it were possible to wander free and careless like on the great road gipsies onward ever onward.... I'Aye, love we'll wander together throl the wide world joyfully like larks .... singing "Come sit beside me herep the nightl stay by me throl We'll talk of bygone days and so await the dawfill

(Scene 4#v-s-PP-105-109)
Vagabonds: "Vagabonds fetterless Sali and Vrenchen are we and free....

"Are we not also vagabonds? . homeless outcasts on the earth.... wandrers let us wander On the mountains hand in hand and see the purple from shadow land" arise (Scene VIpv. s. pp. 204-218)



evident why the role of the dark perhaps already by Delius into that of a charismatic had to be reworked fiddler final the Until Bohemian. the which at point quotwandering (halfway final the through scene)pthe above occurs ation It is


towards one conclusion, seems to be moving inexorably and that a happy one. The lovers are charmed by the vision by the dark fiddler. From early in the of freedom painted story for Sali and the ground thoroughly prepares follow the vagabonds into the mountains. For Deliusts lovers, as for Keller'spthis is not to be# however. Sali the idea of a and Vrenchen eventually reject to die in each other's vagabond life and choose instead Despite their embrace. it impossible they find laid such lifepDelius direction. acterization They long of emphasis dreams to a freetwandering accept the fiddlerts of existence Having offer. opera Delius Vrenchen to

Bohemian on the virtues of a carefree seems now to make an inconsistent change of This is merely an appearance. In Delius's charthey are creatures of the two lovers of longing. for the freedom of vagabondsofor the simplicity

Their impovand, most of all, for each other. have a meaning in the love they have for each though children otherpand a simple no longer, they retain for that love. faith They live in each other. and sincere is to negate their love. If they To fulfill longings their desire follow the fiddler to escape into on his way, their desire that the world would be resolved which gives so childhood lives erished to their grey much colour is resolvedptheir passion this possibility entertain the reality existence. love will ispfor Likewisetif their be extinguished. To deSali and Vrenchenpto is

It love have. is to regard the they of value the worldlypexperienced love with cynicism, attitude which they look back to. diametrically opposed to the innocence They seek an alternative. this How inevitable and right in its life context seems vagabond sensed in conjunction and Vrenchents of Sali it is the music times Delius perspective of not of by hard innocencepas experience with the longing of their

rejection eventual of the in the opera can only be At times it is the music music. for their lost innocencepat The change the music diplaced it the towards

effected in Koangapbut that his writing

desire. passionate here by composing

from in

of human emotions innocencepbrought with he had been moving

maturity stylistic for a decade.


Some of the music of A Village Romeo and Juliet is in the next section; examined an appraisal of the remarkable the destiny way in which Delius resolves of his two lovers is offered in chapter eight.

is crucially different story from Kellerts, the product of a complete He has made the characters his own. The vision. quite decency lovers and honour which Kellerts most ardently crave by innocence are replaced and freedom in the opera. While Kellerts death by moral to their characters are forced version of the but nonetheless Deliusts there by emotional pressure, are carried pressures. In his novella the author the mystical tints reflects which life: In his opera the poetry everyday colour of reality. how dependent the composer suggests life is upon its mystical tints: the With of the dark fiddler# rejection Deliusts trilogy of operas comes to a symbolic conclusion. At this The Magic Fountain the premise underlying point and Koanga gives way to a new premise. The ideal of a people in a noble naivetyppreserved from cynicism, is replaced living by the knowledge The Magic is unattainable. that the ideal in the image of Deliusts and Koanga are conceived A spiritual Utopia. innocence is presupposed in the main Not A Village in Romeo and Juliet. This is so characters. innocence as the goal. a questpwith It is in the figures of Sali and Vrenchen that Delius be fully identified; the and in their motivation, can himself he had in 1894 of his creative power. The vision motivation and Negroes was operas about the IndianspGipsies of writing by the same dream which Sali and Vrenchen share: inspired "Oh if it were possible to wander free and careless like road on the great gipsies onward ever onward .... 11 Deliusts reservation and to a quest took him to an Indian Sali Vrenchenphe and was perhapsplike plantation: slave all the time looking for the distanced land of childhood. Fountain reality Salits poetry. and Vrenchen's of



Romeo and Juliet began, work on A Village down in Grez-sur-Loing. The long chapter Delius was settling This turning-point was closed. of travel and new experiences in his life the turning-point in waspnot unexpectedlypalso At the time creative behind youth his career. him.







he put




The Music




A Village in The emergence of Delius's mature style fifteen Romeo and Juliet the years of of result some was in the ambiguities development. His fluency of harmonic language the typifying expressive post-Wagnerian grammar through had not been quickly gradually achieved, but acquired in tensions and Romantic longing convey sensual Nor was the expressive his stage works. of subtle potential diatonic/chromatic mastery of which so charconflicts -a In fresh discovery. Delius's music some mature acterizes the need to scores #particularly some early had Ldgendes, he endeavoured and by the Solana Grove memories of in the Rhapsodische Variationen the poignance to recapture balancing delicate of diatonic These modest effortsp writing.

of his elements and chromatic in instances it has been seen, anticipated more important the composer sought a strikingly the works of 1896-7pwhere Koanga final In by the of act effect such means. poignant the tragedy the

in heavily drama up a chromsummed was of American The Negro the melody. principal variant of aticizbd Negro melody transformed Rhapsody Appalachia a humble triadic A The longing. of into significance a song of exquisite Village that lies in Romeo and Juliet fully first Delius exploited the the fact that dramatic it was here and poetic

of this conflict. potential Relying and of tension not only on momentary conflicts to the whole episodes relation of each on also resolutionpbut development), dramatic (that the is to powerful sayoon other poetic effect of Delius's music in A Village Romeo and Juliet


in the course of extensive appreciated Two of these will be examined below; howeverp passages. described in part I below is useful the short by extract (Each of these examples uses motifs way of introduction. can only which motifs (I). have an important in the opera. role be of Table IXPP-333o noted should It the The first in is three particular). in the moment of Sali and with a

be fully

The rejection of the dark fiddler. , Scene VI shown in ex. 2 (pp. 281-2) that Vrenchen decide the they cannot follow The orchestral mountains. accompaniment two strongly (motif B of version of
a 4&

two lovers


to the

contrasted Table IX ) the



and a rocking jovial vagabond's choral

concerns itself figure triplet figurepwhich is song:


.-IIII v,,

(Scene VIpfig-84)
of anchorage ornaments of an F the vagabond The lines.

In major song



1-30between the points (marked +)ODelius centre harmony is and fluidly

not obscured to the expressive quality texturelbut of the contributes because it is easily Juxtrecognizable. passage precisely unambigof bars 2-3 is the quite aposed with the intensity has 4-7. The bars motif positiveorising at progression uous in the their through the lovers experiences all accompanied 8-14 balance The Bars the procedure. emotional repeat opera. certainty and uncertaintypof and securitysof of insecurity tension constantly. and resolutionpfluctuates it werepthe Contained in a nutshellpas emotional conface throughout the opera is flict the characters presented in these few bars.

with chromatic diatonic phrase simple

moving by the chromatic


Ex. 2.


VIP7 bars




+ rc r. Q0.

KAat g.

Vhs meinst

P u

W ren - chen? Ilre - li?

ii-4SOII'h Wir shall we fol


low +




die - sen Leu iAese gaod poo

ten ple

in to

die Ber eke maux Cr. 9010

go? WNO

c f.


(Ex. 2. cont.

ik Vr,

Wronchen. EE INV-ai di* II'A. t that Frau we ge - sagt, own said ist is wahr; true:


das that 876

ist life

fUr is

uns not

kein for

# -F

F, C,







Ilre - U.
Ob solo

Iio - ses

IZe -

beni -it nicht fdr

is *of /&r

CI. Cf. I
ta 7;t Quart.




The strife between Vreli's fathers and Salits Nobody has won and both families is finally have been over. by the quarrel. What is worsepVrelits fatherpMartip ruined has lost his senses and been taken to the local As asylum. the to curtain risespthe is evident. pitiful state Vreli has been brought


Scene IV.

EX-3- Scene IV.-fig-5Interior is hors, only a bedstead and a bexck is tell. IrlifIl of MARTIS Aosse. forrything Wo m/oRs irfure It is almost dark. The door remains open through the wAote scene so that #me loahs east sale the twilight a istall fire.


Vorhang auf. Curlain. ch144 die Mg




Via. V. 1.



-Nacht ig bricht i

1r her . ein, op p ros . ehinjr!

6--1. ja A-

, die ehe

6-Z-i letz to Nacht gastNIKA1

dF6 im in al . ten CAffle my old

The dark resolved tones. string are appeal. Contourspit vivacious from Sali With

uncertainty and tonal of the texture colours Eb bar 7, tonic triad and warmer with an at Vrenchents song has a directpunsophisticated its

twailtomodality and simple melismatic folk has the air of a beautiful melody. The first kiss dared danced had a and with who girl lament, in Scene III expressing a woman's now sings loneliness and sorrow in a universal idiom of

a personal deep feeling. Sali comes inpunnoticed for can

by Vrenchen.

emotion, a few moments, with mounting (ex-4): be longer contained no

He watches her his feelings until


Ex-4- Scene IV, fig. g.

V1. I. Ob. Cl.


Tr. Cfg.

Vren-eben, Vre - li, Pift mosso

.; in Wrz, mein MY Owl$, 0 con anima. ls

'eins 1're-

ges Lit! bl

El ' 35
VfIF v pw;

su ito
J f u l:
j 4.




Tr. POS.Tbik.

6 ....




Sie fillt Ih. .. den flals.

Me elaPd Aim rogind ihe sorek.

of Vrenchents lament is replaced with an security in bars 1-8 (employing motif C exploratory progression from Table IX ), and the tension rises towards the crisis In her immediate joy at having climax. at bar 9pa chromatic Sali with her againpVreli steers the harmony finally to bright the tonic Eb and some momentarily (11-13)progressions The tonal


A duet couple musical opening principal polyphonic is



expression an outpouring of Much of the material arises out of the (as in the dance-duet phraselbut of Scene II)- the line is only one of many threads melodic in the given thought. weaving:

the in





young lyrical

EX. 5- Scene IV, fig-12.

W& A rest da n icht go - kom Add you Came. not 1C)(r" ledly) Mon. Was Ary auch to" go-schAn' /or low -0 ich lie Wor - kept

Vren vre chen, lie if, I

ber ir'



d4d, 0 C*
A Cl. it

Me Add

nicht I

bei left

dir. eofvo



semp-lexato rfrn L J=I,

L-L 4f . hj,
"I cb,



:r "WIT-1


bass and The chromatic of chords, side-slipping alteration inner lines are all characteristic fluid of Deliusts most The tonal tensions of this duet' rhapsodic style. sensual ensuing section remainpto a great extentpunresolvedpthe harmonic Vrenchen to a restless, shifting as scheme adhering to Sali the plight describes of her father. It is only when the music settles onto Bb major at fig. A second duet 21 that a tonal centre is firmly established. followspcommencing questions,, "What shall you do? with Salits Where shall you go? " Though it is music in a broad, tranquil inner does duet elements the of conflict contain style. (see ex. 6s286). Simple diatonic passages in resolute mood



Scene IV, fig.


30, L" -i-


Hin O&f.






ift __Jrl '-. 0, . 01

. 01

JIL im
. 0-

1 . 06 . 66 . 10. . 46

61 S.

4j-- -4
tren - men Von Mir. Afou, out WO






ith will

f. 1 - p. ful - low,


o Cr. L O 3 =

0 Fit. Cf.


A) are balanced with more chromatic writing at moments when the lovers' (as at bars 6-8). resolve wavers and emotions are ruffled The fluctuations in this long dramatic of feeling in the beautiful sequence are finally resolved song "Come at a variant of motif sit beside empty me here". house the glow G major the music Twilight of the tonality of embraces has passed, and in the dark fire the two lovers. The unites duet sinks a semithe preceding a mood of peaceful resignation:



1-5, employing

closing tonepand

EX-7- Scene IV#fig. 27Motto lento.

VrenChen. schlingt ihre Arme zUrtlicb um SALI und drckt ihn auf dte Bank am Feuer nieder. ihrowa Aerarms tdadwly about SALland df-4wdoAim to ihe bwncA by tafore

yr. Iw Kornin, Come setz' dich be sit no - ben michl Bleib side me Aere. stay so 6y dia me gan 1AFOO ze the Nachtl *Ijrkt, -

pp semprelegato

Removed from like piece. . longing of its artless

music is trivialoa simple hymnBut considered in its relation to the earnest Sali and Vrenchen for freedom and for each other# contextothe


restraint. conveys not mere simplicity0but style beneath these still is sensed to be running Deep emotion fate At the moment when they are resigned to their waters. for futurepthis their to the music nostalgia conveys what and they (III). its have lost. duet. The duet which brings Delius's mastery Scene VI towards of post-Wagnerian from climax uncertainty 7 The final

well closepillustrates the tension harmonypaccumulating of its in finely increase chromaticism a graded (see ex. 8, pp. 288-290).


and tonal

beneath the first The Db tonality of the opening lies 8-9. (Gb) bars The in implied its barspwith subdominant hypnotically is interest concentrated on rhythmic entire JP. the constantly repeated


Ex. 8. Scene VIsfig-95-



g .i

wt p

, lp mid

Sieh, derliond - schnin See- themwAt - bcaApfs

k do

te the

Lento assai. ,, VLL u.IL div.


sieh, see

derNlond-schein themoon-beams

ius kiss

set Me wood#-


und Mef. 'Clds t Ff J.


urd bun and an

42 0 ..

PPy? Lpoco mareato .



P sempre 'T--77-z rd. 7 .. 8indle


Ihe poodjr, the fiegd#


th e flo w-





$, rr


Blu rIow


Inen. erir,

Triu-mend seufzt d"er (AP ri - ver und

'a cLad. r




stil aoft


-I=- I =rF




OP W, 0 I, wI I tet Ung a. long

Ri ig

OP fm 1 11 1

F F-

Sam and

un seems

wr war - trild! to 64@k 001

stil so) 011.


Oing - ing.

8 lides
orth. ve-mprp re


OP F tet Jang a11


--? -.1R



; var





OR is



liTt. '.


(Ex. 8. cont. )


Lau lig

schal lenf



Fer Iar -

rie ey

. , 50


jamhii i- .




IF 4: vt 01 Vr.. ffl. -. IIPF

1,14= iFer - ne la r Ot'g


Firt If.

'F1 Td sound*

ie, of
g m Ir Ig

, I
sch6 mue
0 1 Min wa --

pne fe



"i- i
Min soa ge wek ken bvmb


kin line


schb 10108 g iz,q 1'. F

no &

ge ken

wek tremb

ken zit ling 0-

ternd CAOes





Op -0



Mc, Oc


-A 2f

116 1z"I 0,






der - i7a1,



Wie mo

der vf"g

hall, Ung, Mrob Tr. Poo. Tba. Tuttf went&

Schwel $Wei

Ion, ling

. 11


4 Ij


tm -




1- 1 i FF PE --; = I r cresc. poco a poco 4" i

IF it --

. -1 1

-, 289

(Ex. 8. cont. )

R-ollc A #'

!" ster dy

-ben ing it 1; in 6 Me

F' bends

11 49!-5

S. 30r 19F F'

den ly den ly

10 %1 0


schwin faint -A I-

ster dy ot 0 ,.

ben ing

in in

des t" 41L

A eux

b6nds Wz - tern sets fad - ing g


Sp- Pt i
k-4 -4-mi ,


* ! F- I po .


o Tr.



l 1 dr



! r-



letz ,fad


er el

Aue.. -; g

.- the schere
i* OR



wo 6.

das Choer

E da re

Cho to


Da - hin, Ichere the -: m wo 4 das Choes


Cho t - et. to was . der 41 OL

n mw ,,

I %; & Tba.
fff rp-


W- net, wan-der

wa - gen Aall we

auch wir ZWel two not dare

zu to

kehn. go P.

wa. gen sh. all we

auch two

wir zwei not dare

zu to

gehn. gop sea$& Cr.


12I I


) 4PO Tf. 'I Fg. Cfg. Brt

--&@DUFg.Tr. ? ob.


_Z. Cr. Cb.


At bar stepped

figuration up. to the gliding reference river. bars 15-19 (Eb - Db - Cb -AG) add greatly to tonal for the eventual tension E major andpas the preparation home key is made from bar 21pchromaticism is also increased. After the earlier tonal harmonic

10 the Triplet


and rhythmic

movement is corresponds with the textual Side-stepping sequences at

the prominence ambiguities, of E at the climax arouses and unequivocal gravity tenexpectations resolution of a glorious of the emotional longing. It do-es not come. and the loverst sions passionate After the duet the drama rushes on and, far from there being tonal areas is passed through resolutionpa series of new tonal in 7th quickly a hay bargepthe fiddler Sali and Vrenchen appropriate and 9th chords. dark fiddler and the and vagabonds reappear for the lovers as they push out into wildly each other's of a firm boat sustained

plays Only as the young couple sink into the river. embrace does the composer allow the satisfaction Apart from one melodramatic chord resolution. sinks, the throughout B major tonality established 44 bars. the final


as the fig-104 is

Section [Niels


An Epilogue

Lyhne taught Gerda] that a belief in Godwho rules perfectly over a personal or rewards in another and punishes everything, lifepwas reality, an an escape from brutal impotent to take the sting out of attempt 11 34, the harsh conditions of existence. erda. that I would die it -]twe never thought death isn't that Niels. it first possible .... tell is the end. You who are healthy cantt him to come fetch the want priestj .... " "' so much.

30- J. P. Jacobsen: Niels Lyhne (Copenhagen, 1880). Translated (US10,1971) by the present author. from the Norwegian edition P-156.

31- ibid. oPP-158-9.


Hjerrild: 'Tell me Lyhne .... do you want to talk wit-* a priest?? 'I've got no more to do with priests than you have?, Niels bitterly. whispered tWe're not talking about me - I'm alive dontt lie there and healthy and torture yourself with your principles who - people have no principles I are dying .... Niels' became ever worse.... It pains have been good to have had a God to would complain. and pray to.... And finally he died his deathpthe difficult death-""



conversion Niels' own death for his

scenes of his

from young


operatic (1909-11). None of

workpalthough visagedpwhich 'Pictures' of The stark

of the bookpFennimore and Gerda them, however. have a place in the finished extensive sketches remain of the scenes enhave extended the eleven would probably the opera to fifteen. humanist

- were treatment

Lyhne - Niels' novel Niels death and finally wifepGerda's initial part of Delius's concept

philosahy of Jacobseh's'novel would have found much sympathy in the mind of Delius. Indeedphe life-code in his uncomprosimilar would voice a strikingly (1914). Requiem Nevertheless, in the end he decided mising Why this that was not the way his opera should conclude. he changed his mind is open to speculation. It is possible Delius in the book the enactment of thatpwhile recognized harrowing deaths Gerda his own beliefspthe painful of and y because they ran against Niels the grain were rejected of Throughout his careerphis his artistic aesthetic. music was for expressing Fennimore affirmation vehicle of life. in a glow of therefore, and Gerda comes to a conclusion, 6 Pictures fresh heart. In 1 the passionate to and optimism friendpErik, love of Fennimore closest and Niels' gradually their fadespleaving a hollow marriage and tragic relationship. the In the 7th to 9th Pictures, in Niels ately Erikfs set and secretly carriage three years lovepagain and Fennimore fall passionto end in despair when him. The 10th Picture is where Niels (p. 293) up: grew

overturnspkilling laterpon the farm

32. ibid.,

p. 164-5. 292

(Nielsoseen in simple farmerts is clothes, Behind him, s4tting on a low wall, left. is seen and beyond the garden the garden is the fjord. Niels has just from returned the fields). "Dear haven, ftwas here I old homel Peaceful 0 Earth, O Earth, played when I was a child. be my life our old and trusty mother, thine now. "

scene Delius writes a theme as bright and Grieg-like Norwegian period. The glance as any in his early back to his youth in melody and harmony also breaks with this a subtle scenes memory Ex. g. the emotional violence in the opera. It carries of childhood: of 10th Picture. intensity the of the of poignance preceding a fond



Very quietly., not dragging.


%Cl. --


shypbeautiful and innocent in the first Niels the story. years of maturity, enters girl love. is devoted Gerda loves to her with a warm and sincere (who is her senior by many years) Niels with a childlike joyful The the news of their ends opera with admiration. betrothal. In the late trilogypDelius virtues with contact his completing a decade after middle-age, most unambiguous eulogy wrote thisphis Nielst to an intimate return of innocence. naturepto the comfort love#affirms spirits ' of childhood's that Deliusts did not give of






childlike and a mutual his vision of noblepfree life. in later cynicism

ambience faith in

way to


to the and Gerda may be seen as an epilogue had advanced to creative three operas through which Delius The span of f if teen years separating the composmaturity. ition of The Magic Fountain and Fennimore and Gerda is the in central period therefore, to find operas Mention Sea Drift life-It is not surprising, composer's the same theme as pervades these that is common to all and branches of his art. periods five was made in chapter of the nostalgic coda in the and of the inspiration Negro innocence which Delius Appalachia variations. declared


In the to be the of the first orchestral suite, the score of his career, the Florida dance of the Negroes in the third movement is as simple he exuberant any penned; the choruses a piece as of and in Irmelin are the precursors youths of the Negro work-songs in Koanga; and the broad viola melody in and dance-songs Romeo Parispan with A Village orchestral score contemporary and Juliet, Innocence". At the drasticallylas himself his to his has been described " turn of the as "opening a magic window to

life-style changed century, Delius's he withdrew to devote to Grez-sur-Loing work. The magic window of his music was now with the world of innocence. his awoke. poetic by his longing the dark fiddler. sentiment; to return Halfdan

main means of communicating The freedom he had known there utterances there. Sali Jebe were characterized reject alone.

and Vrenchen made his world'tour

33. Eric

Fenby: Delius





"Une note a MY



of Deliusts

Emerging Style






The manyodisparate in A Village converge of this


ending not actually an illusion, because not an illusion fulfilling a turning-pointpa


Of coursetthe to fifteen if years of development, It is can be rather misleading. A Village Romeo and Juliet was, indeed, of potential. technical abilities But the image of the

of Delius's Romeo and Juliet.



until a slowtsteady progress of threshold to artistic manhood is crossed is inaccurate. First lines Romeo which converge of allpthe on A Village have been far from straight. In Sakuntala and Juliet and Twilight self for in Fanciestalready a highly individual in the 1880s, Delius expressed himintimate lost voicepwhich was p to achieve the same results years while he tried several The orchestral beauty which characteron an operatic scale. (discussed in section izes the score of The Magic Fountain in Koanga to the colour threepbelow) was sacrificed of folk

And the effectiveness of music -inf luenc ed vocal writing. formspsuch Florida in the as were employed shortpepisodic followed by Vidderne Paa the melodrama were up and suite to his part little on Delius's suited adventures structural he became in the entangled more methods of composing: (it four)p is in section suggested of sonata principles he was with the end result. the less satisfied Secondlypit must be noted that the great advances in Deliusts extent art in the years 1894-9 were to a large the form a sense of artlikely that a sense directionpit istic more was purpose and in had to the most say emergence middle-age advancing of the turn the the around of mature style century. composer's of life One or two non-musical events in Delius's seem to to extra-musical bearing important had a particularly on his musical That his treatment time. this development of the theme at have due influences. Rather than


of his

innocence settling

-been noted. ized in this in

Romeo and Juliet by was affected in the late 1890s, has already at Grez-sur-Loing details This and other biographical are summarin section, before the advances Delius made in this

A Village

form and orchestration are examined. writing, period song is trend life Tn all his central workpone and areas of Delius more and more on the strength came to rely evident: of his own individuality. Paris at From the time he took up residence outside Ville to d'Avray in November in 1888 until 18959Deliusts and involvement artistic and social increased. circles In 1891 he moved he was a familiar attraction in the

seem to have steadily capital into the city. and by the following year Parisian the both at social figure aristocracy of events Mollard by held the informal the composer soir6es and at -' His increased in friends. for artistic participation society highly exacted productive its efficiency: on his creative years of 1881-1891 were succeeded in 1893 being particularly meagre. toll

the by leaner The

timesphis output Deliusts 1894-5 saw years circle friends. increase, Early left

with in 1895 Gauguin Paris for

Bohemian Mollardts to attachment Gauguin and Strindberg among his daily and soon syphilis contracted Later that year secondary good. Delius. Delius treatment at this received robbed experience His for a while. the financial crisis further this to support


in diagnosed was syphilis Although the medical time seems to have been s,uccessfulithe of his depression him energy

spirit and positive was not helpedoeitherpby being unwilling he was in, his family had notice. scant public achieved music whose wayward son the composer is imHow deeply these events affected becomes 1896 from there But an evident to assess. possible his desire devote to Deliusts about in utterances earnestness withdrawal his time to his art, and also a gradual

Deliusts fascinating This of 1. period in his Carley Lionel by described ably Years (London#1975)Paris

life has been admirThe monograph, Delius:





acquaintance duced by her

of wife, to the village of Grez-sur-Loing: "When Fred came to see me at Grezpwe rowed on the river, then running high. We extremely managed to get throl under the old stone bridge of Grez with great difficulty and struggled on until we got to the landing but lovely place of an old deserted garden belonging to the Marquis de Carzeaux, with but very cosy looking house an old rambling, at the top .... Delius was enchanted on this day with blue sky and fleeting cloudp spring it the grey pile and against of the big solid old church and on the other side the ruin medi-eval castle .... The garden of an early had run quite, wild. There were beautiful old little trees near the riverjand wild primin bloom. We roses and violets were already some and pressed them in Nietzsche's picked Wissenschaft1pand 'Frbhliche Fred said: tA place like is so beautiful this one could work inpit ' and quiet and unspoilt'll. In the summer he took his first in mountain holiday for years. 1897 saw Delius five that the first may be recalled back on Solana Grove. A desire to life in generalpand the attensocial It female were p. 112). that

circles. his future


that Jelka

year he made the Rosen, and was intro-

Norway part of

escape from Parisian tions of one persistent for among the reasons On his Jelka to return had bought the

in particular admirer (see CLL/l. that unusual trip learned France that summer. Delius house in Grez:

In healthpa

ItAnd then he camepas simply and naturally as and said: a little suitcase was his wontpwith fI suppose you can put me up&' .... He stayed back then to the went and only weekend over his music and a few clothes.... Paris to fetch So simply it was that my happy life at Grez began". 3 breakdown of the temporary these years following


Deliusts he determination personality: entered new before his everything elsevand ambition artistic now placed

2. Jelka Appendix

Delius: VII of

'Memories of Frederick P-411CLL/l -




3. ibid-opp-413-4.


recognized II flourish. to to Jelka:

the need for the From Christiania

right in

conditions the autumn

for of

art 1897 he wrote


"How is everything in the quiet haven? As soon as I come out of your garden at Grez everything seems to me to be in an uproar The strength in the garden of purpose he nurtured Grez


formed an essential no doubt already part of his charSupport for his strong had also been available will acter. That to him from one literary years. source for several his first to the garden at Grez should have visit _Deliuslon flowers Wissenschaft in Fr6hliche seems now ironic pressed -for, make the besides nature, it was Nietzsche who inspired him to powers. most of his creative "I have at last my life according arranged to my own nature and truth .... World Joy instead of World Woe 11.5 This declarationpin to Griegishows that as early a letter doctrine had heard in NietZ3che's of the as 1890 Delius

He had his to the own personality. a call superman will and during Also Zarathustra first across come sprach probably Sinding in 1889, and holiday Grieg his Norwegian and with (writing book Fenby later)pthe to years according he had devoured left his hands until "never It was the very book it from cover to cover. finding he had been seeking all alongpand book he declared to be one of the most that he Nor did his life. important rest events of he had read every work of content until 6 hands Nietzsche that he could lay his on". What was initially taken for philosophical substance discredited in had been in Nietzschets even widely work Delius's lifetime. Zarathustra_(to message of a very struck But in the urach , the poetical iration borrow spiritual resonant "pseudo-philosophical" Russellts Bertrand freedom chord in Also phrase)

and artistic aspthe young Delius.

from Delius to Jelka Rosenvl October 469 Ungubli shed letter 17 elius Trust archive). from Delius to Grieg, l April 1890. letter 5- Unpublished Delius and Norwaytt Quoted by Rachel Lowe in 'Frederick (ed. Redwood, Londonpl976)PP-177'A Delius Compani 6. Eric Fenby: Delius as I Knew Him (London, 1936)#P-171-


middle seemed to his Parisian of the 1890s, Delius *"a devoted disciple of Nietzsche"s with the doctrines '7' in his Zarathustra "deep-seated mind". of In 1896 it was a shared love of Also sprach Zarathustra (see Appendix CLL/1, VII, p. friendship Jelka his which won In the friends 408). Delius Her endeavours to interest so much in Nietzsche's fruit finally bore in he to that music some might set poems had settled Delius 18981after at Grez. Not only were four Mitter but forthcoming, the by Nietzsche, to also words songs solo, male chorus and into incorporated This short setting was later (1904-5)pthe Life Mass the eleven of of great Also from to texts extracted set of which are importance to Delius time of his over many years; Zarathustras for baritone

nachtslied orchestra. the finale

movements Zarathustra. sprach Nietzsche but it

of period decision a word) in the strong Artist Willothe the of glorification mid-1890spNietzschets for Deliusts Individual responsible was partly and the for his full and to a more powers, of realization advance his to vocation: attitude mature, more sober [Nietzsche] absorbed me so much that after his works - some again most of reading that the to conclusion came and again -I but a musician and I was not a philosopher 7ould have to restrict my powers to one of is a rotten word these two - Philosopher Nietzsche Reformer would be better was not but reformers a gigantic either a philosopher As I know yo$ chose poet.... and an enthusiast and music and nature". solitude

was of is probable that at the (crisis is perhaps too



de Lara:

Many Tales

of Many Cities to Philip

(London, 1928)o Heseltinevll May

from 8. Unpublished letter Trust archive). 1916 (Delius




Section "How




and Deliusts-Song have 4 becomellwrote

Style Grieg




Delius settings. settled harmonic to


one of his Verlaine It was perhaps had that, once Delius in Parisythe teutonic melodic and Griegian squareness traits of his songs would give way and folk colour the mid-1890sion receiving inevitable with Delius., the active life musical in his first the city (1888-9). year and, possibly f Gabriel in

new influences. His contact brought

probably the

acquaintance of Faure. In the following years he could count among musician Maurice Ravel and Florent friends in his artistic circle Schmittpwho were a few years younger than him. The restrained the temperament, which typified and refinement simplicity to French song tradition counterbalance were an important Already in his first Delius's influences. songs to earlier in delicacy rarely suggested elegance and an French The is in songs composer's evidence. works earlier his the much of permeated style which anticipate softer instrumental music from the end of the 1890s. and choral from November 1889, Deliusts Dating earliest surviving French texts Chanson de FortuniolOis contemporary with setting, The Norwegian his wordsimple syllabic settings. many of Furtherhis in however, is, music. quite unprecedented setting French
more, the rhythmic pattern content -C of the a single 7nDDJJ 45-bar song is confined JJJJ. j 3IJ 11 to

already Andre Messager

be a significant would which material of use economical an the The declamatory voice later of effect in scores. element is enhanced by a static accompanimentptalla line chordal (ex-lo P-301): recitativot

Quoted Delius. from Grieg to letter Unpublished 9. 67Carleyoop-cit., Lionel p. Carleytop. Lionel in facsimilepin cit., JO. Published

by 87-9. pp.


EX. l.


de Fortunio,



si stme wo"a ro?


#(.I- fe

3"_ .

1irav,w e. j'4



had already been employed of rhythmic cells in the Norwegian lullaby to good effect songs Slumber Song device was taken to an and Cradle Song But the hypnotic ,. in Delius's Nuages (1893)-11 extreme second French setting, J J cell A gentle is Ilento I. throughout the sustained, <1 40-bar by the mood is suggested song: the poet's reflective interest is directed slightest of meanspand the listener's to the colouristic effect of the chord combinations. For these two songs Delius chose words by de Musset and However, once Delius discovered Richepin. the work of Paul in the early 1890sphe set no other French Verlainelsometime ' I A. K. Holland., in his series of articles on Delius's author. that Verlainets were inclined principles song outputpargues "to the expression of those values which are the special concern of music. His is an art of suggestion, of correspondencespof analogyp interlacement of the subtle of evocation, of 111-3 the visual and auditory. Deliusts Verlaine to In a further specifically reference, has also summed up the composer's general songs, Holland attitude to the delicate moods of French verse: has educed from [the poems] music of "Delius order, the tones of which evocative a highly in monochrome. seem to be painted


90-2. in facsimileoibid. 11. Published )pP. French settings 12. Five further existpwritten 1895 and 1919. 'The Songs of DeliusIpMusical 13. A. K. Holland: (Nov. 1936), p. 119.

between Opinion


In approaching these poems, Delius seems to be conscious that they demand music which French in spirit is to some extent without being reminiscent French of any particular There is, for example, no trace of composer. Debussy, or any other composer who has set Verlaine poems, in these songs. But in the the tendency to recite on a single notepin compass of the vocal restricted comparatively in a certain tenuity phraseology, of substance in the use conciseness and, with thatpa greater the songs do suggest material, of the artistic a French atmosphere. ""' The two Verlaine of 1895 are among the finest settings dans mon coeur employs two Il pleure wrote. for its 36 bars, ex. 2(a) and (b), both of which carry forward the song's monorhythmic quaver flow, and vacillate between Db major and Bb minor: songs ideas Delius Ex. 2(a). Opening.
Con tristezza
VOICE 11 pleu re dans mon

C-J--L-i PIANO p

Con T&A



bruit doux de la pluie Par terre ei sur les


of earlier to the teutonic angular squareness contrast here begins in line contourst Delius soft melodic songsothe in deference itself, to the thematic asserting only gradually In content of the piano part.

14- ibid.

Opinion pMusical



le toit, though equally est, par-dessus sensitive A typical for the most part more conventional. a settingpis Delius is employed for expressive chromatic slide effect in the opening episode, and at the mention of 11un oiseaull is plaintively bird-song Grieg-like which outsidepa singing is heard. In his treatment of his It but poemts final to bare material the stanzaphowever, semibreve chords9 his he

Le ciel

the composer reduces focussing attention all harmonic has at and delicate lament over poignantly". vocabulary. his disposal,

on the evocative power of is, indeed, a powerful tool that it is handled

"Rarelyllin touch. happiness in lost "s

with a restrained Beecham's opinionpllcan a youth have been sung more


Bars 15-24-/

- meur - 11


de la



Qu'as - tu


I --


que voi - 1A,

Pleu - rant


ces - se,


qu'as - tu


molto ----= ruardando

fait, que voi - li, De La jeu nes




ritardando m ppe im >W


15. Beecham: Frederick


(London, 1959), p. 83,


Compared with these two French songs from 18959the dozen songs Delius remaining wrote between 1895 and 1900 They include are of varyingpand minorpinterest. generally the four Nietzsche songs and a group of seven Danish settings orchestra rather marked the Verlaine chords note for which both were written The Nietzsche versions. tnicht in voice/piano (1898) songs and voice/ mix together# They are styles. and rely, as did of block dottedteutonic

unsatisfactorilysdiffering 'Langsam? or either settingston expressive

Delius scnell'

sluggish progressions But, coupled to effect.

rhythms and angular melodic contours, the French delicacy The Danish settingsp of feeling seems terse and manneristic. between 1894 and 1897jare written uneven. The most well knownpIn Garden, captures the Seraglio the serene mood of Delius's is one mature nature-scapes; yetpsurprisinglypit the group. While never attaining best the their exquisite refinement of the French songspat Danish the trend set earlier towards a settings continue high between voice and accompaniment. level of integration of the earliest of the The culmination output song-writing Village Romeo and Juliet) this period came in 1900-2 of with of progress (contemporary in Delius's A with

individual three settings (Ludvig Autumn Danish Swedish Holstein), Black texts: and of (Drachmann). Landscape Summer Josephson) Roses (Ernst and Successfully the chromatic/diatonic contrasts combining in his opera with the sensitivity of his most perexplored beyond his influences. It moments, they carry Delius sonal is particularly with these songs in mind that Holland writes: his way towards a new "Delius was feeling in which of song-wtiting. style and poetic are merged indissolubly voice and instrument in which neither into can unitypand a single be made intelligible apart from each other. He no longer a vocal part with pianowrites forte the accompaniment, and while he enriches he increasthe relies voice, of use expressive ingly power of the instruon the suggestivhis poetic purpose. 11"' mental part to realise

16. A. K. Holland, op-cit.

Opinion(Februarypl937)#P-404. pMusical


The rich promise to be found in this music was never fulfilled. These songs were the last Delius wrote before 1910. In the early 1900s he finally in made a breakthrough first halls the concert England. of Germany, and later works)and accompaniment of the in his-output in the


works for voices with the full-blooded late-Romantic orchestra would dominate ensuing years.

Section In Magic said his


Use of



talk the world premiere radio preceding of The Threlfall by the B. B. C. in 1977pRobert Fountainpgiven the

work: thing It .... the first about and most convincing I the opera is the sound of the orchestra. time, think. when we heard it for the first it was the maturity of Deliusts of the skill that struck us most-It orchestration development that he is one of the anomalies It of Deliusts his in the to maturity of style much orchestral closer was instrumentation the inspired of his second opera of 1894-5 1897 or the Piano than he was in Koaniza, 1896-7pFolkeraadet, Concertool897Delius had that It has been noted earlier P-177) -see Bayreuth Wagnerts late the operas at of style absorbed The Opera in 1894, Munich Festival the working on while and That Wagnerts example would be an inspiration Magic Fountain. he turned again for even before to him was sensed by Delius from Munich that "I am really very glad I came homepwriting "It benefit be to mell. doubt herepit was of great no will The in his technique four that in operatic chapter shown The forward leap in Magic Fountain affected. clearly was the orchestral Wagner's of the opera skill texturespand perhaps the bright on star new in the by ip part also prompted was by those also to some extent Strauss. German scenepRichard


17. Letter

from Delius

to Jutta

Bell, 12 August 1894PCLL/l, p. 90.


The warmth of the wind timbre is among the most developments. The bass clarinet obvious and sarrusophone the lower end of the section, and are widely enrich used (for exampleat with subtlety "A phantom and intelligence quest"s v. s. p. 12). Solo melody passages are now only .. infrequently has a given to the oboe: the cor anglais (notably the opening New World theme), and the clarinet share has clearly displaced the oboe in the composer's affectionso mellower drama as the the lovers' Both the its tone first first wind chosen for such vital moments in the entry of Watawa at the close of Act I, and (v-s-P-150)kiss in Act III being

groupings in The frequence are given to

and brass sections are now used in solo band. to each other or to the string contrast with which chromatically the woodwindpand especially sliding progressions to a reed ensembles

but there is also abundant evidence weakens their ffect; Delius is now conceiving imaginative that passages with in mind (for instancesthe top of particular wind timbres v. s. p. 24PPP. 25-6 and the foot of P-115)While the four horns are, as ever in Delius's orchestral idleptrumpetsptrombones musicprarely and tuba are used sparbut with telling The lightweight ingly, texture effect. by the which characterizes much of Act I is achieved partly Wagnerian sonorexclusion of these instruments. forth from the brass, howeverpwhen the called (Act. be Indians IIpv. s. the is to suggested spirit of noble 86) 80 and p. and at the solemn moment when the fountain p. (Act IIIPP-178). in its is first splendour revealed all instances Striking though these individual of Delius's his instrumental real surprise are)the of spectrum widening Act II From the of onwards middle comes elsewhere. score near-total ities are can be seen example after fluid textures polyphonic to 1894 in example of a skill which the instrumental writing in scores up the instru-

hinted had rarely at. In many instances hinder timbres is might of ponderous which shorn mentation is not exclusively flight the weightless of the music, but this In the transformation music between Act IIpScenes the case. Act in the III to I and IIpthe prelude climax passionate Delius the love-duet in the up collects entire orchestra, and










chamber group. Act III of The Magic Fountain offers perhaps the most , fascinating consistently sequence of events in the composer's The large Delius operatic oeuvre. orchestral palette utilizes plays the various a fundamental part in delineating stages dd'houement. It is the of the almost bewilderingpunfurling enchantment of the everglades and the other-world magic of the fountain the composer's which inspire most memorable felicities bars III. the of instrumentation. Ex-4 (P-308) of everglade music in the The harp figurationispringing orchestral dotted-note shows the final to Act prelude figures in

in the wind and trilling are recurring strings elements dance movements of Delius's mature scores, such as Sali and Vrenchen's Romeo and wild game in Scene III of A Village Juliet, Its and the second dance-song Of A Mass of Life. weightlesspgossamer of the fountain-spirits: Invisible Spirits texture matched by the scene the chorus of Night-Mists and Fountain to an warnings sing their in flutepharp semiquavers and is later

accompaniment of (v. strings s. pp. 165-8, and PP-171-2). The fact before Deliusts that shortly orchestration came to an early the. composer had been peak in The Magic Fountain Physiologie Anatomie de treatise et active entitled on a Written in collaboration 110rchestre. may seem significant. with to in the Papuspand published in Paris in 1894#this reknowned 24-page document is testimonyphoweveromore extraordinary the Deliusts those result of absorption in the mysteries in symphonic orchestration. joint endeavour of this of Lionel the the occult than Carley sums up following way:

of the bubbling

is very much of Delius "One doubts if there Papus must have been one of the most in this. who ever lived .... More than writers prolific Delius his with acquaintanceship probably discuss to him the and opportunity gave buzzed develop theories which had already brainpand it .4as Deliusts his fertile through for him the composition to set out of part to lend a helpthe orchestra and generally ing hand. 'A Cabalist and a Musician' ran a r2ont-P-30q 'have booklet, for together blurb the come



r4, cw i


1w 21



-1 06dif

C,. )

4 P-cArs IV





! ?.

Ill -&M--I;;



Doti. 61AIS. &A41


bal com-faco4o)

1d.-kr 4W.
.4W. sbadA4





Ex. 6. The Magic Fountain, (Reproduced with

Act IIIpf-74a. of The Delius Trust)

the permission


to publish this thought: the original is analogous to a living orchestra being composed of a body, a doubly-polarised soul and a mind". It Rather than the numerical principles of the Cabala theorizing and the occult of Papuspit was no doubt the Delius in Bayreuth wholly practical underwent schooling and Munich ologiel in the brilliance of tendency the lanatomie which had most influenced et physiin The Magic Fountain. Furthermoret the orchestra towards polyphonic dexteritypensemble of melodypthere cantilena style Don tone poems of Strauss, notably Delius. influenced relatively sudden in The Magic Fountain so little bestpthe evidence instrumentin

are signs Juan, had possibly It is much easier the to explain flourishing skills of these orchestral than it is to understand why they are At its in Delius's next operasKoanga. ation in Koanga is the

and a soaring the early that

of the match for the gay colour is to that and vivid. sayslight and dance-songs work-songs (p. been has far, it To this already seen endpDelius went so 243)sas texturesas, Ex-7. to employ at Act banjos in a few scenes. original: after fig-10. The resulting ex-7vis IIP3 wholly bars

(7,, jtjie IThe

irh a hvlhicalckpp,

X Ohandil


Ia. k. l..




Ia. I.,



.., I..

.. " ... ...




... 1. ..


18. Lionel









no advance conventionally scored, making Paa Vidderne the the poem of 1890; symphonic transparent textures, admirably paniment while almost brought the But never to does of The Delius ensemble clared, display The Magic the

occur are on, for examplep main accomand economical$ Delius say that

imagination sparkling This Fountain. is not to

orchestral it

is at any time misjudged or shoddy. writing from Koanga the main apart somewhat place development reason the that for this of orchestral change with to This reserved may or also the of skills. heart is of the that vocal de-


Deliusts obvious than

was much more with all, the

concerned he wanted melody".


sound backdrop. keep still style "the

He had


negro character of for a less conventionalpless is generally A few evident. factors other in this is artistic

in the whole leaves room of writing than

which can

significance first two in the


may not have be considered. at during

some The home a

actspit Parisian


orchestratedpnot in Norway climatepbut

three-month steeping earlierphe isolated new

the In to contrast cottage. at stay from benefited had he in Wagnerian music-drama his from milieutand temporarily exiled was a mountain from external Delius the lack musical followed influences in The stimuli. have been Koanga may also he had had with earlier and had, in factpbeen acceptdropped

direction to efforts.

a reaction operatic ed for for

of success Fountain The Magic in Praguepbut it in any

performance reasons. is certain,

was subsequently that Deliusts by in

unknown What his


confidence the time The 1898.

in he

skills the


as Mitternachtslied

an orchestrator

was restored Zarathustras

Delius himself halted that Some suggest 19. commentators Fountain Weimar Magic in in The for of a production plans of the he was unhappy about the quality 18960because (see RL P-39)music


here continues writing more or less where The Magic Fountain left off; significantly, when it was A Mass of Life in 1904-5, practically into incorporated no alterations were made to the scoring. The influence is again evident in the of Strauss is a good point so this at for the importance which to consider of that influence Delius. Eric Fenby has recorded that the only full scores Delius Symphonies in the 1930S were "Beethovents possessed (many of the pages are still Faust Symphonie uncut)pthe (Liszt), (Wagner), Eulenspiegel, Don Juanjil Tristan Isolde und Zarathustras; Heldenleben, (Chabrier), Busoni's have Zarathustra (Strauss), Daphnis " That not their Rhapsodie et Chlod Strauss's La Mer(Debussy), Concerto. is Espagnole (Ravel); and music In their in should early a dialect of Mitternachtslied



to Delius appealed both men uttered careers learnt from Wagnerltheir their atic lyrical techniques melodic also


language musical Essential shared idol. textures styles, orchestral that source. Nietzsche's as important did in that poem of


come from

and chromAlso a part of Deliust same name

Zarathustra sprach life in Strauss's andlof in 1896.

played nearly around 1890-5 as it Strauss's tone coursepinspired


known. is not scores made a study'of in a letter He had heard Don Juan twice in 1891#commenting in it but some frightthings to Grieg that he found "splendid He Tannhauser Bacchanalia"* is not known the ful too of echoes 1900pwhen he wrote 'to have heard Strauss's works again before Eulenspiegel: of Till It is & "I like this more so more piece .... & so full & fantastic light of humor". 11 brilliance Howevervin the free structures of and orchestral 1898-9 scores La Ronde se_deroule Delius's and Paris, a When Delius Strauss's familiarity with Straussts music is suggested.


Fenby, op. cit.,

p. 196.

21. c

Unpublished P-55.


from Delius
to Jelka P-174

to Grieg.

Quoted in

from Deliu; 22. Letter 18 November 1900.. CL

Rosen and Ida


was adamant that his Mitternachtslied "has absolutely no relationship I consider Zarathustra, the Strauss a complete which with 'A3 failure"* Be this with Strauss's as it may, a relationship (1889) is evident. The important "theme Tod und Verklarung (a)sand bell? Strauss's in the Ideology"247 the work of artistts InterestinglygDelius (1898) Zarathustras motiff selves, in Mitternachtslied any close Zarathustras resemblance to (b) do notpin thembear each other:



fJ IrI



coda of

his initially


four notes only uses section)pStrauss , fashion identical in to them themejoverlapping a the of later the in bell-motif? Delius's ? of stages of recurrences Zarathustras: Mitternachtslied Ex. 8 (a). Tod und VerklHrungpp. ggpbar 4-

(the poem the first


(b). Zarathustra Mitternachtslied E-efore bars 2 Life., Mass of fig. 129)

225CLL/lpp. September 1903Griegp28 Delius to from Letter 23. Strausspvol. Richard Mar: Del j. Norman from The title 24. comes 81. (Londonplg6g)p p.


Strauss's as follows

concept by his

at the opening of the biographer Norman Del

coda is Mar:


"From the utter darkness in which everything is envelopedponly the infinitely deep strokes by of the tam-tam are heardpuntil very little the opening very little out of the obscurity figure theme .... emergesp of the Ideology first on the four horns in turn and then in close stretto to the grqdually spreading [I]t builds higher wind instruments up.... .... in an ever-increasing weight of glowing sound". Ex. g. Tod und Verkigrung
t. 2. Ki


p. 98.


Fag 1.'21.

K. -FAg

t. 2. H.

3.1. H.

3. Pos. . Tb.



I. We,

2. Hte.




25. ibid.,, p. 84


passage should be compared with the opening of the (that Mitternachtslied Zarathustras is to sayPP-174 of A Mass of Life). The roll 6n the timpani and entry of the harp in ex-9 are also echoed in Delius's music. Delius theme as he accumulates "an uses a subsidiary ever-increasing phrase)pbut along with Writing weight of glowing soundII(to at the climax, the 'bell-motif' Strauss's tam-tam (ex. 10PP-315). this time about Strauss's Strauss borrow sounds Del Mar's out,




Mar has commented that how many of "was totally unable to realize his most valuable he was characteristics in embracin fWagnerj the 'diom and sacrificing in so of his idol philosophy uncompromising a manner. " 21 Deliusphoweverpmade to put his influences a conscious effort behind him. As the new century beopened, the differences and Strauss's creative for feelings Delius's markedpand tween his mixed:
"His tragedy is '*Dick & Deutsch"127

aesthetics Strauss's

became more music rather more

dished up Wagner with twice "He's simply " half inspiration". devil the as much and not The return in to a vitaltimaginative orchestral style by Delius Mitternachtslied Zarathustras was probably also thatfin the two years with the fact connected had the rare opportunity to hear he had twice Over The Hills the overture sounded. actually was given Heiberg's in play Germanyvwhile Folkeraadet by the the incidental (fThe Pe6pleIs playwright noticeably orchestra since Koanga how his ideas

and Far Away music to Gunnar )Parliament'

commissioned Neither Christiania. The typical scoring.

Norwegian work is theatre

in was given in its adventurous Delius was compelled

26. ibid. pp. 118. from Delius to Grieg., 28 September 1903- CLL/l p. 22527. Letter 28. Quoted by Gerald Cumberland in 'Pen Portraits of Music(ed-Redwood, Companion Delius DeliusIpA Frederick ians Londonpl976), p. 21.


Ex. 10.

Mitternachtslied (A Mass oL Life,

Zarathustras fig. 119)


i7 ti



-y - p --


Vid i

g g i g pp=


am: Ez



=- 7
=: -




ul zi =. = k2 = pp

-p- ;

1 -.




. 0. Pp



- -2


Folk eraadet for music hardly allowed , Nevertheless too much experimentation. the chance was there p to have basic ideas and textures tested: soundly "At the theatre they are afraid that my music will cause trouble as I have emhymn. "What interests the National ployed is me the most is that the orchestration I it and sounds fine. just as I thought have had an orchester rehearsal alone and (only the two nowpconsidering orchester I cannot hope for horns and one bassoon) They managed to get four trombetter. bones. On the whole I am very Slad, very lad I came; I know now where I am: and ,, importance is of thq greatest this affair for my future work. 1''3* At roughly the same time as the Mitternachtslied Zarathustras symphonic poem La Ronde was composed#Delius'S in came into being. and given the title revised followed in and publication se deroule common a restless thematic estration; rapid of gested deroule Delius's for his succession rather Both the would of orchestral in (By 1901 it Lifets 1912). had been extensively Dance; final revision Those two works of brilliant of have orchhowever# the a patchwork being sug-





flashes with spirit is short-winded, material ideas giving the effect

imagination a lively notionsland by the fleeting than confirmed episodes. Zarathustras Mitternachtslied and La Ronde se 1899 in the of their concert parts play which marks Delius the turning-point proper organized


this concert skills. orchestral decided that a performance himselfphaving of his works in London - where his music had still not been heard - would his after be the best way to spend a small legacy received his from The death. of much work embraced programme uncle's (see three next page): the previous years

Deliusts The which surrounded 29. controversy extraordinary fairly is Norwegian now well anthem national use of the found be in Rachel Lowe: details A the can known. summary of (London# Companion tpA Delius Norwa Delius 'Frederick and l'f2-b. RL pp. and 1976), pp. 181-2; pp-2-5 also October 16 1897Jelka Rosen, Delius to from 30. Letter CLL/1 p. 120-1.


1. 2. 3456. Overture Id'gende Movements Six Danish Over for the

Hills and Far Away.

violin and orchestra. from Folkeraadet. (with

songs orchestra). La Ronde se d4roule Mitternachtslied Zarathustras

Part Koanga "I have (Excerpts learned from

Two Act of I and all a lot in of the Act last II).

shortly concertv" another may help me when I write by Delius in the Romeo and Juliet was written of A Village from him thereafter 1899, the music which poured autumn of and from his benefited having concert. showed every sign of the conthe six months or so immediately after his knowledge had Delius to good use new already put cert The work followed in Paris. a loose tone poem format, although it in this waypcalling the composer chose not to catagorize Paris City'. The Song Great 'Nocturne, the work simply a of a for ten years, and he prefaced Delius had excited by night But in the score with these lines: "Mysterious cityCity of pleasurest Of gay music and dancings Of painted womenand beautiful Wondrous city but to those who, Unveiling Shunning day# Live through the night home And return To the sound of awakening streets dawn. " And the rising


a devil the after

month", Delius things which practical 31Indeedpthe libretto opera".

Village Romeo 31- Quoted by Lionel Carley in his articles'A Delius Socity Journal Romeo and Juliet(1899-1901)fpThe Nctoberjlqbl)oP-l3-


Tender part, albeit cations of the work). the For four string arrived favour

moments of warmly amorous music have their the scheme of Paris, as do the evosmallpin (these tranquil early morning a open and close But for remembered first and foremost brilliance of its waltz episodes. orchestral from time, Delius extends his horn section Paris is numbers of PariS, then, he he would and instrumentation the With

spectacular the first to

six instrumentspand stipulates instruments the music demands. at for the the orchestral rest of his size career:

Ficc. 2-3-CA-.3. BsCl-3. Contra 6-3-3-1Timp. BD. Cym.Trgl. Tbno. Castanets-Glock. 2 Harps 16.16-12-12.12.
forces his The expansion prompted was probably orchestral of (although Delius by the tone poems of Strauss never followed demands him so far as to make the excessive and unreasonable instrumentStrauss's frequently symphonic characterize which 32Furthermore, himself Delius this reveals period) . of ation Strauss-like them textures with weaving of polyphonic master p hand. of and sureness skill Examples 11 and 12 show the central moments in respectfig. (which from joyous first ively the runs episode waltz (from fig. 28 to fig-33). The melody 8 to fig. 11) and the last ex. llpcarried than a definite in bravura the writing by the theme. around It brass, is itplike presence more a rhythmic lost in the gaiety of the quite in dancing up swept couple a lines ball-Three melodic a of one their is

mass of activity whirling briefly They 12. in at for merge all ex. prominence vie dancing in before (Ixf), themselves on collecting point individual manners.

Strauss's demands 11 these a of symptom Mar Del 32. considers in the face of towards over-protestation tendency growing (op. cit. p. 181). insecurity"


Ex. 11.


bars aft. er fig. 10.


Ex. 12. Parisp8

bars after


) P.rc, F F la, l lp --t-Af

.... ............. 4.0.







: a








q gM

1,: -

-0. v!.


F4-. 447-S. r i . ! i



Vc I. C.B.

l -A-4

, bo-f -, P



t -320

two years when he wrote Paris. Lionel Carley has summed up in the following way the significance of the score to the composer: EEarj, it may now be seen as a valedictory to the city gesture and to that whole rich he spent in it.... The Parisian interperiod lude - extensive both in terms of time as of artistic experience and development - was the years of virtually over .... Now followed stability and compositional maturity at Grezhis greatest sur-Loing, where nearly all works And as he turned to England were to be written. and to Germany for the success which had eluded him in France, Paris became a diversion The which was on the whole easily resisted. to play little city was henceforth part in life a creative which was to be dominated by the will For to compose in tranquility. 33 Deliuspyouth had and an epoch come to an end. " It is Romeo and Juliet in A Village that the orchestral fruition. Here they of the composer came to full to the evocation of a "city are not dedicated of pleasures,, of gay music and dancing"., but to the depiction of subtleties An astonishing of character, mood and emotion. variety of instrumental textures to a fertility resultsotestimony of imagination and advanced understanding of orchestral colour. skills The orchestration Romeo and Juliet of A Village shows The horns irL many ways its kinship with the earlier operas. (though usedpand represent now six in number) are liberally (for Nature in several instances the voice of crucial examplej and the curtain-rise opening of Scene III VI); Scene has fig-57 in Delius's the clarinet remained Wagnerian sonorities favourite typify much of the soloist; is harmony sliding always chromatically and writing; wind Scene Ipfig-3#the given music to is in his unprecedented wind band. Howevervquite the degree to which the orchestration of ideas message. The and conveys the dramatic carries the is remarkably suggestive and expressive.


had been in

Grez for

actually instrumentation

33- op-cit-pp-75-6.


To illustrate order to

this1four the reinforce to gradations

below; passages are considered that Delius's imagination point examples are taken the opening scene,


was alive of mood, these from one short sequence of events in between fig-4 and fig-26. (I).

Sun and high spirits. The entry of Manz, as the curtain by flourishes rises on Scene I, is accompanied of semiquaver in particular motifsptwo much of the material generating for In ex-13, which comes at the end the ensuing episode. two motifs of Manzt monologue)the are marked IxI and lyt. the two pleasure, music of high-spirited, carefree The between instruments. being passed playfully motifs dotted interplay in snatches of colour around of motifs orchestra texture: breaks the material up into a light)transparent It is


Ex. 13- Scene 1,6 bars after



(II). in the



into midday meallthe music settles material pace. The motivic consists of (see 13, ideapmotif tzf with a new along ex. to the fragmentary treatment oboe, bar 3)- In contrast ly' becoming quite in ex. 13pthe ideas are now broaderpeven is in the string The main differencephowever, lyrical. shade a more leisurely lyt from motif writing. strings oration, with the motifs, the merely toying basis the them elabof a melodic as upon now seize from their web; rhapsody a polyphonic spinning Rather than

work. to their

As both

Manz and Marti



Ex. 14- Scene IP3 bars after


fig. 20.


Ic j

a I


0 h9 1 W



a -2 --

4; i --;; - -j --A-A A " .

T7 RE - -- TEP kZr=-

The wind and forest. _[III). muted strings ex. 14-2the J. J. ), passing it ( cell This is down the section. fiddler dark the of entry below 15 Ex. 271). lpp. ex. episodepthe in a piano rhythmic cell transcriptionpthe



on after

rhythmic adopt a single suddenly in pianissimo phrases up and the the 'Pan? -music preparing (see in chapter described six shows the continuation JJjJnow being passage from bar of this Played 5 is


focus interest is the the sole of downwards and rising monotonously rhythm stepping repeated In its becomes instrumental colours, this again. material highly The bareness of wide-spaced intervals, expressive. effect meagre tone of muted stringspthe plaintive which instruments motif andsof coursep string give the rising timbre the the striking after contrast of a monochromatic in ex. 14 - all of these contribute to the rich complexity the fact that, in its context, the a mysterious appropriate mood of chill, to the drama; simplicity naked beauty. of ex. 15 conveys It is ideally


Ex. 15- Scene 1,6 bars after

fig. 20.

The dark _(_IV). dark fiddler the forest his appearance. suggests,

the The romance which surrounds from his intimate with derives associations from his directly personal the not windpand and Indeedpas the character-sketch given as ex. 16 fiddler. actual physical looks make him rather pathetic.


on his violin of the wood, playing a swaggering depict his hobbling Bassoon and deep strings vagabond air. the comical effect of his angular movements is gait, while hinted at by a xylophone: He limps out

Ex. 16. Scene 1,2 bars before


fig. 25-



Section the Paa Vidderne In years

Four which

Problems followed

of the


composition of the Sonata, symphonic poem and the B minor Violin Delius's instrumental that he went through works reveal in handling the problems of form. something of a crisis It may be recalled that in those two large scores of the 1890s he had achieved basis and early a solid structural through the use of modified coherence sonata The demands of thematic development were inadequately however: for this reasonpthe episodic scheme utilized the finale to of the Sonata seemed most appropriate formal form. metp in the

his material. composerts manner of treating The question of to what degree sonata-form principles became to his aims in instrumental were suited composition between 1895 and 1899. something of a dilemma for Delius the works of the period (probably Far Away fantasy Over Hills the and overture (1897) and the symphonic begun in 1895), the Piano Concerto (1898) La Ronde ddroule to all poem se were subjected substantial composerts their material. rhythmic he wrote in revision dissatisfaction that Hills ensuing with years on account of the the way he had developed fluid lyricism behind and him when themes The three large instrumental

Considering flexibility Over the

Delius of

had the

The Magic and Far




come as something rhythmic patterns of a surprise. and rigid in much the same spirit In factpthe as work is conceived figures bold fanfaric the two Paa Vidderne scorespwith (see Table Vp his tmountain dominating melody' an array of It seems that, without the stimuli PP-143-4)was unable at text passionsphe and dramatic ideas with any degree of rhythmic manipulate Over the Hills of the operatic that stage to freedom.

from solid blocks and Far Away is built A-B-C-D-C-A-B. Some form the pattern which of material, in is the two thematic attempted opening argument minimal heard in first tranquil 'wilderness, the motifs where sections, episode olute which fanfares introduces in the the work subsequent into are transformed resThe episodes 'Allegrol. are


With the recapitulation thematically unrelated. otherwise A and B, practically of the two contrasted unaltered, sections at the end of the work, a tripartite scheme is imposed upon the material. The overture likelihood, all presentsin some unknown programmeoin it describes one point works, Delius It is At the form of a series mountain used for the of a particular in the score has pencilled that tableaux: walk Delius the perhaps had made.



1899 concert of his "'& "sunshine clouds". remark Strauss's imagination also recognized", I am unable to set Strauss's to guide me". -15 in this seen later for Deliussalthough is have long

relied on external he wrote once, "that anything solutions


"I when composing a programme problems, it

down without to structural

a useful precedent section, provided he adopted in programmatic the extreme level of realism Tod und VerklHrung Till Eulenspiegel, works like and the Alpine Symphony was always of with foreign to Delius's Hills creative aesthetic. The published score in agreement essentially

Over the

and Far

Away is

the copyist's manuscript (no Delius 1899 the manuscript of original concert used at form of the work is Howeverpthis the work has survived). An earlier manuscript the second complete copyistts version. is Trust collection) from around 1895 (in the Delius dating 70 bars RL PP-43-4)A-section Afterthoughts about Over the insignificance into when compared in Concerto the Piano the to made The history shorter, (see lacking the extensive Hills with first recapitulation of the

and Far Away pale the great alterations ten years of its

the of of work and a comparison existence. by Robert Threldevelopment its are given stages of various 'The Early Versions in his fascinating of fall article 26However, t Piano Concerto ; Deliusts since the dilemma created by the problems transitional period for the composer in this is his form to finding never clearer material suitable a of

34- See RL P-4435. NormanDel Marlop. cit. p(vol-II)p. 272. (ed. 1976), 239-247RedwoodoLondon. pp. Companion A Delius 36.

than in this findings work, a summary of Threlfall's will be of value here. Three principal in the concerto's stages are evident evolution: 1). Begun during Delius's to Florida in return visit the early part of 1897pa Fantasy for piano and orchestra he had settled was completed after at Grez that summer. Though the Fantasy is cast in one movementpas is the published The thematic is very different. the layout concerto, material 2). the samephowever. substantially By the early 1900s a three-movement had come version into The first two movements contain existence. much in common with the exposition and second subject of the first the Concerto. of the the original The finalephoweverpis evolutionpits Fantasy nor publication work, restoring material the of published the it Piano to a work's is

Piano published to this peculiar stage being found in neither version. 3). Concerto Between in April



1906 and the the rewrote

form. The piano part was extensively one-movement reworked by a professional pianist. Despite this all effort#Delius was unhappy with the in later final the Piano Concerto years regarded resultspand as one of his failures. completely version of La Ronde se deroule first Deliuspbut this to go through workytoohad satisfied (see As noted earlier distinct three stages of development. in 1901pand revised score was original P-316)pthe a new title adding d4roule. given to the composer expanded to the essential A new ending in 1912. piece: the work's Lifets Dance. At this point the sectionpwithout thematic of La Ronde se material Life's Dance was was added before development The final

published for in last La Ronde se d4roule the many years work was With form. the Delius of sonata principles with wrestled which ideas to seek other means of binding his new determination difficult behind this him. togetherphe period put coherently He does not appear to have found either a single or a simple way forward, but in looking for structural principles which



to his methods of creating more suited music, he was to finish always more likely up with a more logicalsmore In the 1900s. Delius favoured satisfying two means whole. on a large scale$both of which formal principles which the his ideas. On the one hand were to fit forms adopted for his settings of

working when writing were infinitely variable composer might adjust the through-composed poetry. of Life of in the Ranging (1904-5) from


(1903-4)psuch poetry

a single short movement -as in A Mass, Sea length Drift the to substantial of form the in-built emotional works carried of contrast and reprise On the other hand was

the music the formal the obvious model whichsin retrospect1seems for a composer who had always tended towards episodic choice The Appalachia treatment: theme and variations. variations (1902-3) in the composer's represent real breakthrough (for large-scale, the construction most part) untexted of a mastery and total Delius to would go on from this point of his technique, (for Eventyr later forms in instancepin years explore new and would even have little and The Song of the High Hills), known. maturity for in penning three violin and concertos (1921). (1916) (1915)qviolin and cello cello from La Ronde se d4roule to the Delius's advance by Appalachia made was principally of confidence assured A In Village Romeo and Juliet the Paris and way of . form for is free-ranging 'Nocturnet, evident a orchestral the in the opera, the composer explored time; the first in inherent the use of motivic cells which possibilities for The sketches material. surviving substantial generate 31' indicate Paris that it was first as a suite. conceived difficulty Very little headway had been made in the individual movements composition. justly well The Brigg With Fair full variations (1907) are also

and, usuallypelements by the text. suggested

The eneric 37. The sketches are preserved in DT Vol-40 Delius gave the envisaged movements w; s IScines title He probably had in mind a final Parisiennes'. set of pieces (which 'Tropische Florida was the to subtitled suite similar Scenen? ).


the sketching themes. Many of a number of attractive form hereofound their of the ideas, in embryonic way into the single-movement work which emerged in 1899: Table Title VIII. of sketch IIDT folio f-la, f. lb f. 2b no. I Llheure de l'Absinthe. & joyHeureuse rencontre euse nuit. & fanCite mysterieuse tasque de joie & de tristesse aux crepuscules dtranges Position in full lished Fig. 1 Fig. 8 pubscore


11 -

f-5b f-3a "Tempo of a grand waltz"

6 bars before fig. 19

(Amours feroces et tendres Deleted by Delius) Ville dfamour et de feroces & aux plaisirs amours tendres Episodes & Aventures

f-7a - f. 8b "very slow"

Fig. 27 (and subsequent tAdagio moltol Section)"' This motif enters first at fig. 11; used extensively later.

f-17a - f. l9a working of motif:

f . 20b


both in herejand interest Paris Two aspects of are of close the shadow of Strauss seems to be hovering instances learnt has Fenby First remarkedpDelius to Delius. of al1jas 40 how to "construct from Strauss on an extended time-scale".

in is an The 38. presented melody which is Parispand theme of is the second main (after the work in a much simpler version (with the for strings only pointpscored as the slow it is more easily recogniz6d Hiawatha (see Table Ipp. 25ptheme Ict).

fashion here elaborate in found earlier At this fig-13). melody in the viola), movement theme of

in Deliusts later part major onea This play 39. cell would (1901-2). Rouge lifepMargot-la Paris act opera about seedy

40. Eric

Fenby: Delius



Nowhere the constitute to 80sthe


this the


extended introduction

time-scale to Paris --

more evident The 16 bars

than which


marvellous 4-7), enlarging from the

in the sketches slow prelude are expanded initial tranquil mood blossoming out into a broad conception for the full (fig. orchestra the is while on the opening motif. in form. Apart a free fantasia

all SecondlypParis return

in the coda, extensive of opening material The ideas seem to grow natis not evident. recapitulation urally out of the energetic cells motivic which the composer has before him; indeedpit is the sheer exuberance with his subject which Delius which seems to carry approaches The stranglehold the music on its course. on free imaginformed ation instrumental said composer's preconceptions of how be loosened. organized was finally should scores For all this. the structural plan of Paris can not be It is not an organized to be successful. scorepwith by the

the composer is determined# argument: a symphonically presented the ideas he has in handland to find a place for all rather, bridge fashioned passages and well even with beautifully Strauss's is no overall coherence. sectionspthere contrasted (of is free fantasia which Also sprach Zarathustra works degenerate into shapelessnever example) probably in for his traditional thorough symphonic ness, grounding him with a fine forms had provided sense of architectural In Paris he seems to Delius lacked training. balance. this but paid little free fantasia, the Strauss have adopted the best attention to overall unity.
Strauss's been the reactions recorded. work with on reading In a letter intercoincidence have the score through of Paris he says he has studied to Delius est., but By a happy

to development too "the seems symphonic 41 friend letterpthis time to further in a of a and, scant"; the work shows evidence he addst"Nevertheless of Delius, & little is does the it if a subject exhaust not talentoeven thin from a thematic viewpoint" . 4"2

great me to be

from Strauss 41. Letter from Strauss 42. Letter Quoted in CLL/l. p. 199,

to DeliusO2 March 1902. CLL/lop. 199. to Ida Gerhardi, 23 May (1902? ).


In demanded generation emotional intimacy

contrast of

to the



a composer of material

by abstract from motivic

mental discipline development, thematic cells requires an

else, an above all sympathy with the material between the creator and the tools with which he Delius's to ideally Motif suited was works. generation Vidderne Paa the early as even as creative methods, and Sonata Violin (1890-1) B the minor and poem symphonic (1892) it to permeate rhythms and shapes motivic of music this the of them. A growing appropriateness of realization is developing his technique evident to method of working Romeo and Juliet. in A Village Fountain is Magic The from forward A significant step leitmotifs of network no seen Juliet. A Romeo Village in and associations with special infiltrate handful or generate Instead, of phrases a small Tristan (a to that of technique closer much of the material in the fact that there is than at all the Ring cycle). It is the crucial moments in the presence drama that of these sustains Three protean motifs the evidently by allbwing came easily to him to unify large areas

in the opera. poetry and romance mood Pf already out dominate the are given opera whole cells-which It is I). bars prelude(Scene in the opening of orchestral basic this contains that material no coincidence probably (C) fallingp(B) rotating and rising intrinsic contrastp(A) The (see IXPP-333). Table answering note. around a central (A) be bar fourth forms third can the of and phrase which the of extension and most regarded (E)Iwhich Motif 2. 1 bars plays in and motif prime opera's into has the it drama in entered the once role a crucial bars. the derivative opening IIpis of Scene in a also music as the first important







A Village

Romeo and



Bar 1.

11--1 r- .

f ig. 1.

(B) 3 bars af ter

A I, - Ii

10 -1

f ig. 2 (D) Scene II, fig-2

af ter

(C) 3 bars n

A (z

(E) Scene II.. f ig. 21

Example Scene (A)pit IIIpis



transition tranquil,

from lyrical

Scene II


a predominantly in be much very seenpis will II Scene the which love-music nature-music and ends which these illustrations the Additiona III. use of S-cene of opens from the by the examples is all practically provided cells opera which Of particular pp. 288-290. is derived have been given earlier is the final interest The hypnotic from a small rhythm other connections. love duet, given on the Ixt duet in floats Table IX). in

Motif episode. in the evidencepboth

of unit Paradise Walk to the known the The motivic well of material VI is V Scenes between also exclusively and intermezzo Garden (C). (A) to from derived motifs

upon which (A) (marked



Scene 1194 bars after

fig. 18,


A '"



(Ex-17. cont. )

a 14-

l F i l













ld z 422Leh= --ife- -- =--


f, tkt-Tr

e-, w a. / @L, AAyet

f j0 :; MR

lb. memo
' A'* ---W V 11-7 -v


-.. w





An Individual






as a composer was directly connected to the faith the validity of his intuitionpfeelings and personality. In an extreme wayphe turned inwards, himself closing off to a great extentpnot only to new impulses, but also to criticism. In this waypDelius also locked into his style defects the total which undermine maturing he had in Two weaknesses in particular value of his art. seem to be a result he adopted once of the narcissistic attitude he had settled at Grez: harmonic mannerismpand structural incoherence. It that is in Deliusts often but least to the of Delius's inspiredpleast harmonic truism original No that works he most resorts beyond


a least inspired considerable number and least original are also among his most well known. compositions In comparison harmonic freshness with the almost unfailing Song vigour and imaginative of An Arabesque, AppalachiapThe is an unmotand parts of the High Hills of the Requiempit ivated Delius that is heard in Summer Night on the River, On Hearing others. But the this First Cuckoo in is Spring. Air and Dancepamong made very rarely. For the commentator on Delius who would make a reasin degree harmonic the mannerism one of of onable criticism in Delius difficulties the his commonly way. are worksptwo of jaded when he was writing could not recognize probably for him, He the to too and, music;.. was close progressions. comparison mannerism Subsequently# thought. in moment of sincere a pure vocabulary himpwithin him, that with the sincerity moment remains of into the music. Thuspthere but does not always come through indifferentj his is in practically and works, goodpbad all of ideas intensity of which and complexity a This aspect of mannerism inspiredpmotivated effort. by Arnold Sch6nberg in the following been described harmonic (see next page): resembles has way each had at some point been brought into his


mannerism. is the fact


is inseparable "Though originality from exists also a kind of personalitypthere from which does not derive originality Products profound personality. of such distinguished by a are often artists true which resembles unique appearance Certainly there was inventoriginality. iveness at work when the striking changes elements were accompof some subordinate for the first Subsequently, lished time. achieved an aspect used consciouslypthey from not derived profoundly of novelty This is Imannerismt,, not basic ideas. 1"4,3 originality. from the fact that The second difficulty arises piece of in certain any Delius unoriginalpself-derivative circumstancesphave work harmonic immense power. by the harmonic

writing can, In isolationp

richness of his characterized language the listener as may strike matured chromatic for this language has as its source the deeply poignant; being in into order to came which procedures post-Wagnerian (At bestp its fashion. in this listener the precisely strike Delius's it is music assembled is derived from that source; set for at its worsto a given within instance)por dramatic context (A Song Before title by introduced suggestive a poetically favourably have Sunrise. for instance)pa already may work before idiom its towards a listenerts disposed emotions a note is heard. fairness of can, of course, of only a wide range of difficulties casepthe a composer's be ensured by works. Yetpin many of his the years to Critical knowledge Deliusts finest Furthermore, from it). (the Hassan Serenade,

their exoticismshas workspor his based the most popular being of merits judgements on the Elgarts If assessed were on achievement creative pieces. DebuS3Y13 Circumstance Pomp marches, the and of strength de lint fille tLa and cheveux aux the of strength on Polkalp Circus the of strength on 'Minstrelstp3travinskyts inadequate. be equally would the results

performing led over





and Idea

(New York)1950)PPP-133-4-


form, completely different laws come into force. Whereas in his harmonic language Delius had repeated certain 'ad nauseamlothe his procedures structural plans of all large-scale from about 1898 onwards are highly compositions be judged Each mustotherefore, and unorthodox. by its Wide extremes of critical effectiveness. opinion have also arisen herephoweverofor the same reasons as with harmony.: the specific is taken to be true for the general. Both based Deliusts their admirers arguments had a well-nigh "Delius 4Eric Fenby's he had to say'll. and detractors on the evidence perfect have all of too frequently one or two scores. sense of form for what individual


insight into the striking been has open to misinterpretprocesses creative composer's Delius's less It has to the of objective suggested ation. in that the. compatibility of form and content commentators his music such an may notlindeedpbe works this Concerto Violin In the and as works such claim. exaggerated In a Summer Garden the evolution and of ideas is so natural is imposition the that of a superstructure so subtly graded form. In Herepcontent is or unnecessary. unnoticed either composerts this of thought the majority unity worksphowever, of Delius in is not sustained over whole scores - ideas are presented finest But in the distinguishable of also episodes. clearly (Sea Song of the ArabesquepThe DriftpAn these compositions gigh Hillspfor instance) the level of the of organization the logic the degree argumentprenders of of materialpor of the whole satisfying. Delius has implicationsphoweverpwhich Fenby's statement What those less to about acknowledge. ready are enthusiasts Delius "had to the say" wastin what of substance works where be instancespit In these should realizedp factppretty meagre? the the does form content: match structure still the sense of effect flimsypthe (if argument is exampleswhat developed not material there is one) is incoherent. had to say amounted Delius is or to sustainedothe In Parispfor no more than resulted finest always in perfect structures. In the

44. Eric

Fenby: Delius

As I Knew Him (London, 1937), P. 198.


"Paris the content intends to


a city


many faces". concept will is essentially

Attempts fail


a unifying of the piece

read here, because


into the

disparate. Delius

The composer looked and

no more or less. Unlike many of his

resultedpon own sensibilities a formed few occasionsvin individualpsatisfyingly a remarkably in a more or few occasions it resulted On composition a . less amorphous whole no greater than the sum of its parts.

pre-ordained patterns His reliance on his order.

contemporaries, for means of

rarely logic imposing


Harold the pianist the mid-1890s Paris. He was introduced to Deliuswho In to fame":

Bauer was living was then "totally


"I did not care very much for the compositions found them loose in conhe showed me, for-I in deficient contrapuntal and struction We discussed these things very writing. he criticized franklypand as my attitude that he was not being unduly academicpsaying in the style in writing interested of the he disliked This did that mean not ancients. the music of any one of the great composers; in tastes the art were as contraryphis on but be imagined; liberal as could wide and feeling that the first he had the strongest duty of any artist was to find ways in be his expressed# could own personality which to the conformed process not or whether Deliusp 'An artistfpsaid traditional methods. be judged by that and nothing finally ?will hesitated he here havet He and must else. found the expression finally of his thought 1146 in French - fune note a luit.

(New York)1948)sP-59. Book His Bauer: 45. Harold




"And then

ell comes SpEjagti Lm _

"I believe myselflin no doctrine whatever but in Nature and the and in nothing forces believe Nature in of great -I annihilation as far as our complete consciousness personal goes ". -I were offered a life of freedom by the They had to vagabondsproving with them in the mountains. turn them down. it may be recalledpfor the sexual licence of the vagabond life-style would rob the love of the two young being at liberty to people of its romance. Furthermorepin Sali and Vrenchen waypthey would in their impossible existences: Sali and Vrenchen for each other. their deaths in To all hallmark of 'Liebestodet into the old enjoy Either each other their very love be deprived and passion would dissolve. of the one saving grace longing the poetry of their chose instead to go to

arms. one another's denouement has the intents this and purposes in a post-Tristan era when one more 'Liebestodt But in composers. vogue among opera much were bottle Delius

pours new wine. In the textual becomes final it the details scene of working and musical A Village in loverst the the that of suicide manner clear from being a rejection Romeo and Julietpfar of or negation In the intended lifepwas of affirmation. as a statement fundthe aesthetic and creative moral pages closing opera's amental is life to Deliusts clearly artistic expressed dramatic utterances for the first time. in A Village notion Fountainpis the for the rest of his

The prirftary The Magic Irmelin in and as In loveplonging characters. unending perfect a part ofphuman Fountain the transience state longing of for of

Romeo and Juliet, longing of the for is an also The Magic by the

the desire expresses It symbolizessand love. unending love and life life. In

was overcome

letter 1. Unpublished 23 June 1912 (Delius

from Trust

Delius to archive).




classic with ution rung the

'Liebestod? As Delius doctrine took



of life's hollow. Thus, in

more and more Nietzsche, the of in a perfect troubles A Village

an after-life his to heart quasi-religious

existence. sympathies resolmust have it is made deaths

after-life Romeo and Juliet

Sali that clear and Vrenchen expect nothing of their but Howpthenpis love/life-longing extinction. resolved? How do the lovers achieve a triumph over transiencepwithout longing is meaningless? their which Sali's by being and resolved from Vrenchen's at the longing for love evades



self-evident: being resolved indivisible is of achieved life-longing the Self.

the two events moment of death. with The wider implications are each other. longing for life by their transience evades at the each is moment other. of of deathpwith The resolution the of two events love-longing The resolution Naturepannihi-


by the

moment achieved

physical ecstasy. by a merging with



The curtain Paradise Garden.


on Scene VI to reveal





little To the right an old dilapidated high verandah house with a rather country beautiful in a garden run wild. situated bygone beauty. Everything traces of shows It is now used as an inn. In the backby barge full flows and a a river ground The bank. hay is to the garden moored of through which the a long valley overlooks In distance the its the Way. winds river snow mountains. (Scene VI, v. s. p. 192) here on Keller's has elaborated original Delius suggestion beauty" "bygone he house, the sees of a somewhat run-down transience. implying the in the power of scene everywhere the option the moment Sali and Vrenchen reject Howevervat of transformed following the vagabondspthe (see next page): whole scene is magically


Whilst Vreli kisses Sali a beautiful change the rising comes over the Paradise garden; the distant moon floods valley with-a soft It seems as if something and mellow light. beautiful had touched the mysteriously garden by enchantment. What has happened to the garden is that it has ceased to be It has been transformed into the a symbol of transience. in arena in which transience shall idation and decay gives way on all Nature. The truest with the distant is no intimation introducing has magic of this song of the of bargemen fact be overcome: delapsides to the beauty of

transformationphoweverpcomes bargemen on the river. There in Keller's the narrativelDelius he resistnew attitude In earlier opera. his characters' which after-life

adopted operas the composer had made much of hopes of ance to nature. and of their The joyful sympathy with the life-cycle voice is a new path for him:

them as the spokesmen of in the denouement of his

existence. the bargemen

Halleot "Halleol in the woods the wind is sighing Halleol Halleol down the stream our bark is gliding.... Our home is ever changing by. " travellers we a-passing (see ex-lpP-343) Vrenchenpmomentarily waterpthinks heavenly choir, of the reality the bargemen's bargemen in their the by these songs across confused them beautiful enough to be sung by a Saliphowevervis not only aware of the but to the message also receptive lifelthe the river represents its flow who have found peace


song contains: in fleeting points

oneness with nature; Vrenchen: 11ah yest Now I understandt This is the garden of Paradisetlistentthe angels are singing" bargemen on the river "Nayp'tis Sali: by" Travellers we a-passing


Ex. l.

6 bars VI, Scene



Erster Schiffer. Arxt barfeman.

t In der Ferne und langsam naher kommend) (In Me dsstance andgradwally approaching. )

1141 - le - o!

Hai-(O - 0!

Hat-In -of


den Blt - tern wpht

ehe sooode the wind

der Wind.
i# 8if4 inr



I rff

t=; -, ......... C;




Ab - wirts Me dogm glej


Hal - Is - 01 11al - le -0
C, j

le Hal - of Nat -k-a



ff -F-1-


Cr -


-15-: 00, .




They both of this


become suddenly aware of the appropriateness to their own predicament: philosophy Sali: "Shall down the river? " we also drift Vrenchen: "And drift away for evert Oh#Sali, how I love you. I've had that thought this many a day but never dared to ask you. We can never be united and without you I could not live oh let me then die with you. t' "Aye let us die together" Sali: that in embracing death at the is Sali who perceives

before dissolvespthey would passion moment-of ecstasyand triumph over transience: "to be happy one short moment die, to then and joy? " were not that eternal final duetowhich in Now follows their was described (pp-287-290). This great lyrical expresses climax chapter six in the beauty of their deep pleasure both the lovers' anticifulfill it. It longing intense to destinypand their pated that is harmonic tension be the not resolved recalled will herepbut onwards. stretched joy erupts Unbridled physical as their union is prepared. filled boat Vrenchen their the Sali marriage-bed spy and fiddler dark hay the an earlier reappearspkeeping and with be the he would promise from the Sali the plug pulls beside down As he sinks off. that final drop fiddler bottom Vrenchen at of their the the wedding. boat and casts

music makes its B and settles onto major. modulation poignant frames it against As the boat goes underpDelius a backSpring renewal: and eternal just down the The boat drifts river and slowly Wildlandpnow front the in it of arrives as sinks., growthfit crowned with luxuriant


2. Full scoreyPP-174-5. in the vocal score.

The stage direction

is not










moment was to be enjoyed, and utilized. In all his in all descriptions and writings. of him and in all the decisions he took in his life he manifests a spirit of whole-hearted affirmation: "I should certainly like to enjoy good health for 3 or 400 years at and live 3 least Life is interesting to me". so His personal love for aesthetic was based on fundamental living, joy flows this and not infrequently positive over into his writing: in the Paa Vidderne symphonic poemp at the opening Dance Rhapsody and conclusion of A Mass of Life, othe end of No. 20the climax the final of Eventyr choral , variation of Appalachia,, the dance-songs Of Koanga and in 'JoyoShipmatepJoyl in the Songs of Farewelloto mention but For. all thatoDel'iusts art is

every letters

a few. first associated and foremost with an emotional common to moods of nostalgia poignance for bygone innocence past passionsofaded youtholost and here. Foroin his musicp summers. There is no contradiction longing is itself When he longst a statement of affirmation. hear the Negro music he heard at Solana Groveo exampleoto is not the Negro musicpbut his capacity values what Delius The poignance from to long for it. caused by his distance that timeothat place and that person he was is much more important itself. There is to him than the old experience Delius, the pleasure he found in life no doubt thatpfor and his grasp on existencepderived the joy with which he affirmed from his personal longings. directly from other men. He This makes him in no way different only he let longing The dedication temps perdu' The following have is different from permeate other all artists levels in of his to Ila the degree to which creative aesthetic. du recherche creation. equally to applied for

endeavour of artistic isoafter allofundamental Marcel

of wordsowritten been written of Deliuspand

to meaningful Proust, might

can., indeedpbe

from Delius to Philip 3- Unpublished letter 22 August 1912 (Delius Trust archive).




art: "Longing is what makes art possible: for Proustpthis is the same as saying that longing is what gives sense to living. "A"
"This theorypthat from creation springs longing depends on deprivand therefore to Proust: ationjis central and it is It is an not merely a theory of art. to his belief that love obvious parallel depends on separation and is destroyed is when the possibility of fulfillment It is a theory that covers all offered. human experience-11-5' Whitman. whose poetry inspired much fine music

Walt Delius ship similar


after between to

1900, expressed a mystic vision of the relationhuman longing and the forces of nature very that of Delius:


utterances basict due to their than to their or eccentricity originality individual of style. perceptions Many of the changes in Delius's personality and music his advance to mastery have been examined in this during Yets the compulsion to create which he had seems to study. altered beliefs that and that have very little. being inspired by fundamental in longing In is life, longing. is longing2that much of life frames and defines that nature

"I think the soul will never stop, or attain to any growth beyond which it shall not go When I by the sea shore walked night at and looked up at the countless starsNI it would be filled asked of my soul whether and satisfied when it should become god enfolding all these, and open to life and delight in them and knowledge of everything to me or of them; and the answer was plain water on the sands at my at the breaking feet: the answer was, No, when I reach therev I shall " want to go further still. ProustjWhitman their and Delius should confine is less to this source of inspiration germinal


The Uses of Nostalgia. Lerner: 4. Laurence T-pp-. 57. (London Poetry 1972 Pastoral p 5. ibid-pp-55




harmonic up from essential was built Delius's ambiguity, work is easy to misunderstand or misinterBut, at the core of his art, for those who are willing pret. to penetrate that far, there is a remarkablelaffirmative a musical language which spirit: "The yet on the mountainsp snow lingers but yonder in the valleys the buds and hedges. on the trees are breaking branches Golden the willow and red the almond blossoms. birds full-throated The little begun their have already singing. for But hearkenpthey very joy cease cannot from singing a song whose name is Spring-time. The woods and forests are full and silence, of coolness brooklets and silvIry borders. their round prattle The golden corn awaits the hand ripeness of the reaperpfor bids death come. Eternal on earth everything renewing; again. return will SpringtimepSummerpAutumn and Winter: And then comes Springtime and then new Springtime. (From the Requiem)

Apehdix' The lov e-duetpThe . Magic Fountain, Act IIIYPP-154-64-



11 Q'i


I I, -" it, tfttl ItLt ,i4.a 4*64




4" If.




- -I


Iljr: l SE5:








rf0 ..

WaAl .7

s I


4 2q














-l r--,














A-L -



..... ..... ....

to 0w-'9 - ti-





ILt Aut


4A 1. "4






0i ILL,


6 ir
pm I


___ ____




Lvtr, %,,, wta " a &4

1 A6-4











Appendix Deliusts Compositions



EThe category and number of each work, given in parenth6sisp fOllOW3 the listing in Robert Threlfall: A Catalogue of the (LondonplqYYA Compositions Delius of Frederick

1880-1887 When other Over Zwei the lips shall (Bunn)psong speak, (V/1) (V/2 )1880 Presumed lost

(Bjernson)psong high mountains brgune Augen (Andersen), song (V2)

Polkalpiano (Heine), (IV/1) solo solo song (IX/1) (IX/2) NO M61odieuses)piano


Zum Carnival Pens6es Der Six

1885 prob-1885

Fichtenbaum part-songs

Presumed 1885 lost 1886





4. Ave Maria (? ) - March 1887 g - Sonnenscheinlied (Bjarnson) 1887-8 prob. (Bjornson) FrUhlingsanbruc 1887-8 prob. o
for orchestra (VI/1)

2. Ohl Sonnenschei 1886-7 prob. 3- Durch den Wald (von Schreck) - prob-1886-7

1885 poss. (Reinick)



ENorweian Sleigh Ridej, piano 1887 IX/3) solo +

1887 -


Hiawatha. Five tone (VI/2) poem (lbsen), melodrama the

Paa Vidderne 1. 2. 345Swedish


Songs from

(V/5) Norwegian Slumber So g (Bjernson) ) (Kjerulf? The Nighti alB fPaulsen) Summer Eve (Kjerulf) ong-ing (Munch) arrangement (Ibsen), song (X(i)l) (V/6) Presumed lost




(1888 - cont. )
(V/6) (von 0 schneller, Rosst Geibel), mein song (Bulwer Lytton)pincidental (I/1) Unfinished Zanoni music (VII/1) Suite for violin orchestra and Rhapsodische Three String Variationen pieces for string (VIII/1) Quartet

orchestra (VIA) orchestra



Unfinished Presumed lost. -

(Drachmann), for tenor and orch-(11112) Sakuntala Seven Songs from the Norwegian (V/9) 1. Cradlp Song (Ibsen) 2. The Homeward Journay (Vinje) 3- Twilight Fancies (Bjarnson) 7- The Bird's Story (Ibsen) (VI/1) Florida Revision least two of at movements suite (VIII/2) Romance for violin and piano Two piano pieces (IX/5) (VI/5) - Presumed lost Idylle de Printempspfor orchestra ISmall piece? composed by Grieg, Sinding and Delius Wi)3) Presumed lost Draft piece orchestral (Musset), Chanson de Fortunio (VI/6) Suite. d'Orchestre 1. 2. 3. (X(ii)3) Incomplete (V/8) song

Marche Caprice La Quadro ne (Ra sodie Berceus


4- Scherzo 5. Th6me et Variations



(V/9) the Norwegian (Bjornson) 4- Sweet Venevil (Ibsen) Minstre (Bjjarnson) Love Concealed Irmelin, Begun opera (1/2) Three Small Tone Poems (VI/7)
1. Summpr Evenin

Seven Songs from

NjZJID LSleigh Ride3 Morni gPresumed lost (VI/8) A l'Amoreporchestral fragment 2. Wi nter 3- 5pri-ng Suite Petite L6gendes Skogen Four gir Heine (VI/9) dfOrchestre (Sagen), for piano and orchestra susendeplangsom Songs (V/11) besked (VII/2)


-Draft incomplete (VIO) song

blauen A g= Stern N eht auf in-meiner Liedchen klingan Augen fliessen meine Liede (VI/10) Paa Viddernepsymphonic poem

1. Mit deinen 2. Ein schner 3. Hrlich das 4. Aus deinen

Irmelinpopera (1/2) tenor Continued (111/3)

and orchestra 1. 'Birds in the high Hall-garden' 2. '1 was walking a mile? 3- 'Go not happy dayt 4- 'Rivulet crossing my groundf 5- 'Come into the GardenpMaud' Songs (V12) Three Shelley Love Son Indian Philosopby Love's To the Queen of gly_iLeart (Drachmann), song (V/13) Na? tter 1. 2. 3.

Maud (Tennyson))for



Completed Sonata in B major for violin and piano (VI1I/3) (VII/3) Possibly L(gendepfor in the violin and orchestra form of a work for violin and pianopand orchestrated in 1895 (VIII/4) String Quartet Presumed lost +++



Jez Seliefloyte havde en nyskaaren (V/15) Nuages (Richepin), song




The Magic-Fountain, opera


Begun -

The Deux Magic Fountaintopera (V/16) (1/3) Completed

songs (Verlaine) dans mon coeur leure 1. Il (Verlaine) le 2. Le , iel toit est, par-dessus (V/17) (Jacobsen), tower The Page sat in the lofty song (VI/11) Awa Far Over the Hills oyerture and )fantasy



1896 Koangavopera (1/4) Begun Rhapsody for Orchestra (VIII/5) (VI/12) AppalachiatAmerican Romance for cello Badinageppiano

and piano (IX/4) date? solo +++


Completed Koanga., opera (1/4) Piano Concerto in C minor (first version, entitled orchestra and pianoforte) Folkeraadetpincidental. music (1/5) Seven Danish 1. 2. 348.0 7-

Fantasy for (VII/4) (111/4)

Songs, with orchestral or piano accomp. Shoes (Jacobsen) Silken Irmelin Rose (Jacobsen) Summer Nigh_t-Z (On the Sea Shore)(Drachmann) (Jacobsen) In the Str af lio Garden 1 Wine Roses Jacobsen) Red Roses-(Jacobsen) (Jacobsen) Let the come, priLngtime






1. Nach neuen Meeren 2. Der-Wande rer 3. Der Einsame 4. Der Wanderer und sein Zarathustras, Mitternachtslied Traum Rosen Im Glck wir (Heinitz), lachend song gingen symphonic

Schatten solo, male (IIi1) (V/20) chorus

for baritone and orchestra (V/18) (Drachmann),

La Ronde se d4roule

song (VI/13) poem

(The Song of a great City)pfor ParispNocturne. orchestra (1/6) Begun Juliet. Romeo Village A opera and +++



A Village The Violet Autumn Romeo and (Holstein), Juliet, opera (V21) (1/6) Continued (comp. 1901)


song (V/21) song



A. Literature AbrahamoGerald: 'Delius (April,


Delius Music

Sources' in and His Literary 1929), pp. 182-8. and Letters Bauer)Harold: Harold Bauer: His Book (New York. 1948). (Londonpl959)Beecham, Sir Thomas: Frederick Delius Boyle, Andrew J.: The Music f,A Mass of Life and its "Bell-Motif"' Review (February, 1982)opp-44-51in Studia


Hillst Song High the of -----'The (1982)PPP-143-8. Norvegica


Carley, Lionel: 1983)-


A Life

in Letters

(Vol. 1) (Londonp

Anglo-Norse Review Suite"t in "Norwegian -----'Deliusts (Decemberyl978), pp. 12-14(London2l975)Paris Years Delius: The ----in Frederick Hardangervidde-mant English-American -----'An (ed. Eggum Biernstad), Edvard Munch Delius and q. v. og pp. 29-33Music Pioneert Prophet in Deliusls Haym: 'Hans and and ----(Januarypl973)opp. 1-24Letters --------lImpulsive Friend: Companion Grainger (1899-1901): A Brief Account Romeo and Juliet tA Village from Its Inception Operatic Masterpiece to of Delius's Society Journal Performance' in The Delius Its First (Octoberplg8l), -----and donpl977)ChoppMax: pp. 11-16. Delius: ThrelfalloRobert:. Frederick Delius A Life in Pictures (LonThe Percy Delius' in Grainger and (ed. Foreman)(London#1981)PP-31-50-

(Berlinpl907)in The List-

Cooke, Deryck: 'DeliuspDebussy and Pure Creationt (1 February, 1962), p. 233ener in The Listener Evaluation' Centenary -----'A 1962)PPP-195-6.

(25 January


Craig,, Douglas

Andrew: Page, 'Preface and Libretto of Koangat in vocal score (Londonpl974)PPP-iii-viiiFrederick Clare: (London. 1935)Frederick: (September, tAt Delius: the Memories

to of

the Revised Koanga

Delius. Delius..

of My Brother The Sackbut




and Papus: (Paris)1894)-

1920), pp. 205-208. Anatomie et Physiologie

de ltOrchestre

EggumjArne and Biornstad, Sissel: eds. Frederick Delius og Catalogue)(0slOP1979)Edvard Munch (Exhibition Fenby)Eric: Delius (London)1971)(London. 1936)Him I Knew as -----Delius Grainger, Percy: tThe Personality of Frederick Deliust in The Australian Musical News (1 July 1934). Reprinted in A Delius Companion (ed. Redwood)q.v. #PP-117-29. GraypCecil: Musical Chairs (London. 1948)Frederick Delius (Londonpl923)HeseltineyPhilip: Keith: tThe Songs of Deliust in Musical Holland)Arthur Opinion (five parts, October 1936-June 1937)HullpRobert H.: tThe Quintessence of Deliust in The Musical Times (1 June 1927)PPP-497-500Hutchings, Arthur: tThe Chamber Works of Delius' in The Musical Times (four partspJanuary 1935-May 1935)(London)1948). -----Delius Letters Music in Delius' 'NietzschepWagner and and ----(1941)ppp. 234-247'The Music-Maker of Solano Grovet in her JahodatGloria: The Other Florida (New York, 1967)ppp. 246-69. Delius and His Music Frederick Samarkand: Road to -----The (New Yorkpig6g). Jefferson. Alan: Delius (Londonpl972). KleinpJohn WO: tDelius as a Musical Dramatistt in The Music Review (November 1961)2pp. 294-301. (Londonol928). Many Cities Tales Many de: Lara, Isidore of in The Daily Telegraph LeggepRobin H.: tDelius Festivalt (12 October 1929)pp. 6.


Performance' First 'Delius's in The Musical Times (March, 1965), pp. 190-2. Descriptive Catalogue Checklists Letters the with of -----A Documents in the Delius Collection and Related of the Museum, University Grainger of Melbourne, Australia. (Londonpig8l). Lowe, Rachel: --------in Music Delius 'Frederick and Norway? in Studies (1972 )p pp. 27 -41 A Catalogue 1862-1934: Frederick Delius of the Music (Londonpl974)TrustpLondon Archive Delius the of Donald: 'Delius and Operat Years After' in in The Listener The Listener (23 Jan(12 June uarypl958)#P-177Twenty 'Delius 1958)PP-993OrrpC. W.: Recollections' Some Personal Delius: (August 1934) and Making Music Opinion in Musical Companion (ed. (Summer 1955)- Reprinted in A Delius 'Frederick



Redwood)q. v. PPP-55-63in Music 'Delius PalmerpChristopher: and Poetic Realismt (October 1970)PPP-404-14Letters and (London. 1976) Cosmopolitan Portrait Delius: of a ----(London,, 1973) Music in Impressionism ----in The Virginia Delius in Americat 'Frederick RandelpWilliam: (July 1'971)PPP-349Biograph Magazine of History and Companion (ed. Redwood)q. v., in A Delius 366. Reprinted pp-147-66. -----t"Koangall 1971)ppp. and Its 141-58. Libretto' in Music and Letters (April

(Londonpl976)9 A Companion Delius RedwoodsChristopher: ed. in The Musical DeliuspComposert Runciman, John F.: tFritz , Companion (18 March 1903). Reprinted in A Delius Courier (ed. Redwood)q. v. PPP-l3-l8Delius Boulton: 'Frederick SmithpJohn and Edvard Muncht (ed. Edvard Munch Eggum and Delius Frederick og Biornstad)q. v. ppp. 9-27--------Frederick and Their 'Portrait Deliust Friendship and Edvard Munch. Their (Rickmansworth. 1983)Correspondence Edvard Munch Frederick Friendship: and a of (January 1966)PPP-38-47in Apollo Delius in


ThrelfallpRobert: Frederick ------------'Delius: Musical ?Delius

,A Delius.

Catalogue Sources


the Compositions of (Londonpl977)and References. Two Famous Scores' in The in

A Fresh Glance at Times (June 1934)-

0 Early Versions Delius's Piano Concertot in of -----'The (August 1970)PPP-579-81. Musical Opinion Revised and in A Delius Companion (ed. Redwood)q. v.,, pp. reprinted 239-47-----ILate Swallows in Florida? in Composer (Spring, 1974)p pp. 25-7-

Music Manuscripts Music (1973), pp. 69-76. fDelius's Unknown Opera: in Music (1977)ppp. 60-73




Studies in

The Magic



B. Background AbrahampGerald: Chopin's


Grieg: ed. ----BarzunpJacques: Berlioz (New York, 1969). Beach. J. W.: English BenestadpFinn

(London. 1939)Musical Style A Symposium (Westport. 1971)and the Romantic Centuryp2. vols. p

The Concept of Nature in (New York, 1966) Poetry


Edvard Griegmennesket and Schjelderup-EbbepDag: (Oslo 1980). og kunstneren (London. 1976). Percy Grainger BirdpJohn: Digte og sange (ed-Francis BjornsonpBj. ornstjerne: Bull)

Borup,, Morten: BrownpSterling: CablepGeorge ed-J. P. Jacobsen, Samlede The Negro in American Washington: World The Last End: of V. -erker Fiction (Copenhagen, 1928). (New York, 1969). fRing,

The Grandissimes A Study the

(New Yorkpl880). of Wagnerfs

I Saw the CookepDeryck: (London., 1979)Cooper, James Fenimore: 1859)----The Pathfinder


(New York,

(New Yorkp1860).


DahlhauspCarl: of Music Fairchild, Hoxie

Wagner' 'Richard (Londonpl98O)pvol. Neale:


The New Grove Dictionary

(New York. 1928).. Foreman. Lewis: Companion (London. 1981). ed. The Percy Grainger (London. 1934)Peter Warlock GraypCecil: Jacobsen, J. P.: Niels Lvhne (Copenhagen, 1880). Jones, A. M.: Jones, John: Studies 'Postscript in African Musicp2 on Romantic (London, 1969)ppp. 270-295Dream of Truth (Londonpl898)o Keary. C. F.: The Journalist KermanpJoseph: Kurth., Ernst: "Tristan" LelandjCharles Lerner, Laurence: Poetry Longfellow, vols. Feeling' (London. 1959)in John Keatsts

20, pp. The Noble Savage

Opera as Drama (New YorkP1956). Romantische Harmonik und Ihre Krise (Berlin, 1923)G.: The Gypsies (Boston, 1832). Studies The Uses of-Nostalgia. (London, 1972). W.: The Poetical Negro in 'The Images





Henry in

McDowellyTremaine: to 1850' (ed-Gross Mellers, Wilfrid 1971)Meyer. Leonard NicholsonpMarjorie B.:

Works, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1856). Novel Prior the Southern

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