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Finals Reviewer


A new command I give you: Love one another.
As I have loved you, so you must love one another
By this everyone will know that you are my disciples,
if you love one another.
John 13: 34-35

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!"#$%&' $$$) *$&& +, "$-.#/

#0122 345216 47 84921:;2:<
1. LmlnenL uomaln
2. ollce ower
3. 1axaLlon

,=:><?4: 47 <02 *?@@ 47 "?80<6
CuaranLees LhaL Lhere are cerLaln areas of a person's llfe, llberLy and properLy whlch
governmenLal power may noL Louch. All Lhe powers of governmenL are llmlLed by Lhe 8lll of

/'%#$+A BC
A4 32164: 60D@@ E2 F231?92F 47 @?72G @?E21<H 41 314321<H 5?<04=< F=2 314>266 47 @D5G :41
60D@@ D:H 32164: E2 F2:?2F <02 2I=D@ 314<2><?4: 47 @D56C

$C JK2164:L 127216 <4)
1. naLural persons
2. !urldlcal persons
3. ollLlcal subdlvlslons

$$C "?80< <4 @?72
"?80< <4 D 62>=12 @?72
noL [usL a proLecLlon of Lhe rlghL Lo be allve or Lo Lhe securlLy of one's llmb agalnsL
physlcal harm. lL's also Lhe rlghL Lo a good llfe.

"?80< <4 31?9D>H
8lghL Lo llfe also lncludes Lhe rlghL Lo prlvacy whose essence ls Lhe rlghL Lo be
alone" +3@2 9C #41126
o 1he rlghL Lo prlvacy does noL bar all lncurslons lnLo lndlvldual prlvacy. 1he
rlghL ls noL lnLended Lo sLlfle sclenLlflc and Lechnologlcal advancemenLs LhaL
enhance publlc servlce and Lhe common good. lL merely requlres LhaL Lhe

F"AGHI2 B: 1;02A3J 3:F:J K@+ 7LMN O@$($PP$&+ /-&Q*$*C*$-&R A /-.P#+@+&Q$S+ 0+S$+T+# 5U 45677 +<:9
law be narrowly focused and a compelllng lnLeresL [usLlfles such lnLruslons.
lnLruslons lnLo Lhe rlghL musL be accompanled by proper safeguards and
well-deflned sLandards Lo prevenL unconsLlLuLlonal lnvaslons. We relLeraLe
LhaL any law or order LhaL lnvades lndlvldual prlvacy wlll be sub[ecLed by
Lhls CourL Lo sLrlcL scruLlny.

$$$C "?80< <4 @?E21<H
.deemed Lo embrace Lhe rlghL of man Lo en[oy Lhe faculLles Lo whlch he has been
endowed by hls CreaLor, sub[ecL only Lo such resLralnLs as are necessary for Lhe
common welfare."

$MC "?80< <4 K14321<H
lncludes all klnds of properLy deflned ln Lhe Clvll Code. Also lncludes vesLed rlghLs
(e.g. perfecLed mlnlng clalm, flnal [udgmenL).
"?80< <4 31D><?>2 4:2N6 3147266?4:
o 8lghL Lo properLy also lncludes Lhe rlghL Lo work and earn a llvlng.
o A professlon, Lrade or calllng ls a properLy rlghL wlLhln Lhe meanlng of our
consLlLuLlonal guaranLees. Powever, no rlghL ls absoluLe and Lhe proper
regulaLlon of such professlon has always been held as a leglLlmaLe sub[ecL
of a valld exerclse of Lhe pollce power of Lhe sLaLe.

Llcenses are mere prlvlleges and noL properLy rlghLs (wlLh excepLlons) (O?PD126 9C
o A llcense ls merely a permlL or prlvllege Lo do whaL oLherwlse would be
unlawful...lL ls nelLher a properLy or a properLy rlghL, nor does lL creaLe a
vesLed rlghL R#D: 9C S?1C +7 ,4126<1HQ

MC .?21D1>0H 47 "?80<6
1hose LhaL are menLloned earller ln Lhe enumeraLlon are preferred buL all Lhe rlghLs
are lmporLanL noneLheless. 1o proLecL properLy ls Lo proLecL llfe.
! K0?@?33?:26
*@44;?:8 O?@@6 ';3@4H226 +18D:?TD<?4: 9C K0?@?33?:2 *@44;?:8 O?@@6 %4CG $:>.

0C=$ S: O#-S$&?$'( 1-'#< -, )$&<-#-J B:0: 2-: V87W6NMJ )'#?@ NJ 7L7L
F)) O#-.-*$-& '&< )'&'%+.+&*J I&?: S: /-C#* -, APP+'(QJ B:0: 2-:7566LUJ AC%CQ* UJ 7LLX
F"AGHI2 B: 1;02A3J 3:F:J K@+ 7LMN /-&Q*$*C*$-& -, *@+ 0+PC=($? -, *@+ O@$($PP$&+QR A /-..+&*'#> 775 4566L +<:9
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

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M$C #54 !632><6 47 S=2 K14>266
1. K14>2F=1D@ ! law whlch hears before lL condemns"
, proper procedure musL be
allowed before a person ls deprlved of llfe, llberLy and properLy, procedural
2. /=E6<D:<?92 ! Lalks abouL Lhe subsLance of Lhe law, guaranLee agalnsL
arblLrarlness (#=3D6 9C %!Q

/2><?4: B of Lhe *?@@ 47 "?80<6 R!1<?>@2 UQ sLaLes no person shall be deprlved of llfe, llberLy, or
properLy wlLhouL due process of law."
! 2 condlLlons Lo fall wlLhln proLecLlon of Lhe provlslon:
1. 1here ls a deprlvaLlon
2. ueprlvaLlon ls done wlLhouL proper observance of due process.
! rocedural due process v. SubsLanLlal due process.

K14>2F=1D@ S=2 K14>266 /=E6<D:<?D@ S=2 K14>266
MeLhod or manner by whlch law ls
1he law lLself (noL merely Lhe procedures by
whlch Lhe law would be enforced) ls falr,
reasonable, and [usL.

Y'&$+( Z+=Q*+# 'Q [C-*+< $& V-P+D S: Y$#+?*-# -, V'&<Q
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

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!"#$% '()*!+*,)- ). %$/0

,1 0*$-2$(20 *) +)-.)(3 *) !'% 405+!6 476 '89:;8 <1 +=>=?
1. 8esL on !"#!$%&$'%( dlsLlncLlons
2. 8e )*+,%&* Lo Lhe purpose of law
3. noL be llmlLed Lo exlsLlng -.&/'$'.&!
4. Apply *0"%((1 Lo all members of Lhe same class

,,1 58@8A=; '9B@?C
ConsLlLuLlonal guaranLee of Lhe !DE=;B?> 9F ?G8 '8AC9@
LquallLy guaranLees: ;8H=; 8DE=;B?> or 8DE=;B?> 9F =;; :8AC9@C E@I8A ?G8 ;=J
Pere, each lndlvldual ls dealL wlLh as an equal person ln Lhe law, whlch does noL LreaL
Lhe person dlfferenLly because of who he ls or whaL he ls or whaL he possesses.

,,,1 .,(0* (!"#,0,*!K 0#L0*$-*,$% 2,0*,-+*,)-0
!'+ BC @9? =MC9;E?8 ! Lhe sLaLe ls glven Lhe power Lo classlfy
o lL does noL deny Lhe sLaLe Lhe power Lo recognlze and acL upon facLual
dlfference beLween lndlvlduals and classes.
no valld classlflcaLlon can be made wlLhouL Lhe presence of a subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon.
47N6 (8H=;= <1 0=@IBH=@M=>=@O 2BP=:9A9 <1 Q(!*O LBA=9H9 <1 '*+O -'+ <1 'B@=?EM9

,R1 0!+)-2 (!"#,0,*!K 5!(3$-! *) *Q! '#(')0! ). *Q! %$/
1he provlso of Lhe sald law vlolaLes Lhe LC because Lhere ls no subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon
presenL and such classlflcaLlon ls noL germane Lo Lhe purpose of Lhe law 50,0 <1

R1 *Q,(2 (!"#,0,*!K -)* %,3,*!2 *) !T,0*,-5 +)-2,*,)-0
Laws (ln Lhls case an ordlnance) should noL LargeL a slngle and excluslve company ln a
way LhaL subsequenL companles of Lhe same naLure shall noL be affecLed by Lhe law
4N6 )AP9S 0EH=A +8@?A=; <1 )AP9S +B?>

R,1 .)#(*Q (!"#,0,*!K 3#0* $''%U !"#$%%U *) $%% 3!3L!(0 ). *Q! 0$3! +%$00
Allkes cannoL be LreaLed as unllkes %99@H <1 +)3!%!+

+$0! %$/
71 $;B8@=H8
Allenage ls a reasonable classlflcaLlon ln Lhe exerclse of pollce power. 1here ls
subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween allens and non-allens. 4V6 ,SG9@H <1 Q8A@=@I8W
A subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon should be made among allens who are engaged ln dlfferenL
occupaLlons and Lherefore are noL on equal fooLlng 4X6 RB;;8H=C <1 QBE +G9@H

V1 !;8S?B9@
1here ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween a reLlree and young blood ln Lerms of
governmenL work 4Y6 2EP;=9 <1 +)3!%!+
CCMLLLC has Lhe consLlLuLlonally granLed power Lo enforce and admlnlsLer all laws
and regulaLlons relaLlve Lo Lhe conducL of an elecLlon, lL cannoL be resLrlcLed by mere
procedural rules 47Z6 -9;=CS9 <1 +)3!%!+
Conslderlng lncumbenL offlclals reslgned from Lhelr offlce upon flllng a CCC for
anoLher poslLlon ls noL a vlolaLlon of Lhe LC because lL ls germane Lo Lhe purpose of
Lhe law 4VZ6 $HEB@=;I9 <1 +)3!%!+
CCMLLLC may asslgn elecLlon offlcers Lo oLher sLaLlons afLer 4 years Lo avold
corrupLlon LhaL mlghL Lake place 4XV6 28 5EWP=@ [A1 <1 +)3!%!+
AppolnLlve offlclals musL be removed from Lhelr poslLlon lf Lhey choose Lo run for
elecLlons slnce Lhey are prohlblLed by law Lo engage ln parLlsan pollLlcal acLlvlLles 4X\6
.=AB]=C <1 !^8SE?B<8 08SA8?=A>
1here ls subsLanLlal dlfference beLween appolnLlve and elecLlve offlclals as Lhe former
hold Lhelr offlce by vlrLue of Lhelr deslgnaLlon LhereLo by an appolnLlng auLhorlLy
whlle Lhe laLLer occupy Lhelr offlce by vlrLue of Lhe mandaLe of Lhe elecLoraLe 4_Y6
"EB@?9 <1 +)3!%!+

X1 08^E=; 2BCSABPB@=?B9@
Sexual dlscrlmlnaLlon may be made lf Lhe purpose ls ln Lhe naLure of Lhe exerclse of
pollce power (ln Lhls case, proLecLlon of women) 4_6 598C=A? <1 +;8=A>

Y1 59<8A@P8@? '9J8AC` '9;BS8 '9J8A
1he law can creaLe a valld classlflcaLlon beLween acLlvlLles conLrolled and regulaLed
by law and Lhose whlch are noL (ln Lhls case, games of chance) 4a6 L$0+) <1 '$5+)(
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
lor Lhe purpose of Lhe general welfare of people (moreover Lhose who are ln Lhe
need) and exacLlng soclal [usLlce, Lhe sLaLe can use lLs pollce power Lo creaLe a
classlflcaLlon beLween Lhe poor and oLhers 4Z6 LB@=> <1 29PB@H9
A gambllng franchlse ls always sub[ecL Lo Lhe exerclse of pollce power for Lhe publlc
welfare 47Y6 %BP <1 '=SDEB@H
1he governmenL may requlre broadcasLlng sLaLlons Lo allow Lhem Lo communlcaLe Lo
Lhe publlc. 1hls ls parL of Lhelr responslblllLy under (1$1 aV_V 4V_6 *!%!L$' <1
1he vlA does noL vlolaLe Lhe LC because Lhe cerLaln exempLlons and prlvlleges glven
Lo uS mlllLary personnel are [usL Lo serve ouL Lhe agreemenL's purpose of promoLlng
muLual LrusL and peace among Lhe Lwo counLrles 4XX6 L$U$- <1 b=P9A=
1here ls subsLanLlal basls for a dlfferenL LreaLmenL of a member of a forelgn mlllLary
armed forces allowed Lo enLer our LerrlLory and all oLher accused 4_c6 -BS9;=C <1
A moLorcycle, glven lLs raLher fraglle characLerlsLlcs, may be slngled ouL by law LhaL
lnLends Lo proLecL Lhe safeLy of Lhe publlc 4YX6 3BA=C9; <1 2'/Q
Clven Lhe presence of LerrorlsL acLlvlLy, oll depoLs have a subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon
agalnsL oLher lndusLrles because of Lhe severlLy of damage Lhey may cause 4Ya6 0[0 <1
1he clLles enumeraLed ln Lhe clLyhood laws have subsLanLlal dlfference agalnsL Lhose
noL enumeraLed glven Lhelr capablllLy Lo become componenL clLles of Lhelr respecLlve
provlnces 4_X6 %8=HE8 9F +B?B8C <1 +)3!%!+

_1 *=^ +;=CCBFBS=?B9@
CreaLlng classlflcaLlons for Lhe purpose of LaxaLlon ls lnherenL ln Lhe Laxlng power of
Lhe SLaLe 4776 *9;8@?B@9 <1 08S1 9F .B@=@S8O 47a6 0BC9@ [A1 <1 $@SG8?=O 4__6 +(!L$ <1
1he Congress, Lhrough lLs Laxlng power can deLermlne Lhe exLenL of Lhe Laxlng power
of LCus as long as lL ls conslsLenL wlLh Lhe pollcy of local auLonomy 4Xa6 'Q,%(!+$ <1
08S1 9F 2,%5

N1 +ABPB@=; %=J` %B?BH=?B9@
1here ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween Lhose who dld noL commlL any acLlonable
wrong agalnsL Lhose who lnsLlgaLed and commlLLed such wrongs 4\6 (8:EM;BS <1
0=@IBH=@M=>=@ 8? =;1
1here ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween crlmlnally accused pollcemen and crlmlnally
accused oLher persons lnsofar as Lhe former, Lhrough Lhelr weapons and poslLlon, can
lnLlmldaLe prospecLlve wlLnesses 47V6 QBP=H=@ <1 '89:;8
1here ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween Lhose who have pendlng crlmlnal charges
agalnsL Lhose who have none 47\6 3=AS9C <1 +$
Crlmlnal lmmunlLy under 08S?B9@ _ ls granLed only Lo wlLnesses agalnsL an accused ln
an lll-goLLen wealLh case. 1hls provlso glves rlse Lo a subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween
prlnclpal defendanLs and wlLnesses ln such cases 4VY6 +G=<8W <1 '+55
1here ls a subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween cases where Lrlal already begun agalnsL
Lhose where lL has noL yeL sLarLed. 4Va6 %=SC9@ <1 !^8SE?B<8 08SA8?=A>
1he granL of probaLlon does noL requlre flnanclal capablllLy on Lhe parL of Lhe
granLee. Powever, paymenL of clvll damages may be valldly made as a condlLlon for
Lhe conLlnued en[oymenL of such probaLlon 4V\6 09AB=@9 <1 +$
$A?BS;8 VNa of Lhe 8C does noL vlolaLe Lhe 8C glven LhaL anyone may commlL Lhe
crlmes enumeraLed Lhereln and be punlshed wlLh Lhe same penalLy 4XY6 '89:;8 <1
An elecLlve offlclal who commlLLed a crlme punlshed by a perlod LhaL goes beyond
Lhelr prlvlleged-from-arresL exempLlon has no subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon from oLher
prlsoners who commlLLed crlmes punlshed by Lhe same penalLles 4X_6 '89:;8 <1
enal sLaLues do noL go agalnsL Lhe LC as Lhey do noL punlsh people for who Lhey
are, raLher whaL ls punlshed ls whaL Lhey do or how Lhey conducL Lhemselves 4_V6
'89:;8 <1 0B?9@

a1 !P:;9>P8@?
1here ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween land-based and sea-based workers ln Lerms
of work envlronmenL and accesslblllLy Lo several Lypes of acLlvlLles 47_6 3=AB?BP8
3=@@B@H $H8@SB8C` ,@S1 <1 ')!$
1here ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween people who geL lncome Lhrough Lhe exerclse
Lhelr professlon (Laxable neL lncome) and Lhose who have a flxed lncome (Laxable
compensaLlon lncome) 47a6 0BC9@ [A1 <1 $@SG8?=
1here ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween non-resldenL allens and resldenL allens when
whaL ls ln quesLlon ls Lhe lssuance of employmenL permlLs 4VV6 53+ <1 *9AA8C
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
eople who work wlLh subsLanLlally equal quallflcaLlons, sklll, efforL and
responslblllLy, under slmllar condlLlons, should be pald slmllar salarles (wheLher Lhey
are llllplno or noL) 4X76 ,@?8A@=?B9@=; 0SG99; $;;B=@S8 9F !IES=?9AC <1 "EBCEPMB@H
ulfferenL classlflcaLlons of employees ln Lerms of Lhelr respecLlve wage sLrucLures
vlolaLes Lhe LC lf no subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlons are shown beLween Lhe groups 4YV6
+8@?A=; L=@e !P:;9>88C $CC9SB=?B9@ <1 L0'
1here ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween obese cabln aLLendanLs agalnsL oLhers glven
LhaL Lhe former's lmmoblllLy can lmpeded passengers from evacuaLlon Lhe alrcrafL ln
cases of emergency 4YN6 UA=CE8HB <1 '$%
Lven lf a law seeks Lo allevlaLe Lhe burden of anoLher secLor of socleLy, lf lL Lransfers
such un[usL and dlscrlmlnaLory burden on oLhers (ClWs), lL ls conLrary Lo law 4_76
08AA=@9 <1 5=;=@? 3=AB?BP8 08A<BS8C ,@S1

\1 '8APB?C` L8@8FB?C =@I 'AB<B;8H8C
A valld classlflcaLlon wlLh regard Lo prlvlleges musL admlL of subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlons
beLween Lhe groups concerned for lL Lo be consldered consLlLuLlonal. 1here ls no
subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween branches of governmenL 4Vc6 'GB; [EIH8C <1 'A=I9
1he Mayor does noL have unbrldled dlscreLlon ln granLlng buslness permlLs. 1o make
a valld classlflcaLlon, Lhe requlremenLs of Lhe LC musL sLlll be coplled wlLh. 4V76
);B<=A8W <1 0=@IBH=@M=>=@
1here ls subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlon beLween non-resldenL allens and resldenL allens when
whaL ls ln quesLlon ls Lhe lssuance of employmenL permlLs 4VV6 53+ <1 *9AA8C
Lawmakers have Lhe dlscreLlon Lo granL beneflLs Lo speclflc areas only whlch have Lhe
capablllLy of lurlng ln blg lnvesLmenLs and many employmenL opporLunlLles for
llllplnos 4VN6 *BE <1 +$
lf Lhere ls subsLanLlal equallLy ln Lhe roles people from dlfferenL poslLlons play ln Lhe
[udlclary, classlflcaLlon for cerLaln beneflLs and prlvlleges wlLh regard Lo
compensaLlon ls prohlblLed 4YY6 ,@ A8 (8DE8C? 9F $+$

Z1 )FFBS8 9F ?G8 )PMEICP=@ f !'+ BC -)* =::;BS=M;8
1he Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman can choose Lo acL on any complalnL flled ln any manner
(no need for verlfled complalnLs, sworn sLaLemenLs and full dlsclosure of ldenLlLy)
agalnsL publlc offlclals 47X6 $;P9@?8 <1 R=CDE8W
1he Cfflce of Lhe Cmbudsman has Lhe sole dlscreLlon of wheLher or noL Lo pursue
prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon and furLher proceedlngs ln cases lL handles 4Y_6 2BP=>EH= <1
1he Cmbudsman may lmpose suspenslon Lo prevenL accused publlc offlcers from
commlLLlng acLs LhaL would elLher affecL Lhe case or Lhose LhaL could creaLe more
harm 4VX6 08H9<B= <1 0=@IBH=@M=>=@O 4YZ6 59M8@SB9@H <1 +$

47Y6 %BP <1 '=SDEB@H
lranchlse ls noL a slmple conLracL buL a mere prlvllege whlch ls wlLhln Lhe
governmenL's power Lo regulaLe and even prohlblL Lhru Lhe exerclse of pollce power.
A gambllng franchlse ls always sub[ecL Lo Lhe exerclse of pollce power for Lhe publlc

4VX6 08H9<B= <1 0=@IBH=@M=>=@
lLs dlscreLlon lles only durlng Lhe pre-suspenslon hearlng where lL ls requlred Lo
ascerLaln wheLher or noL
(1) 1he accused had been afforded due prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon prlor Lo Lhe fllllng of
Lhe lnformaLlon agalnsL hlm,
(2) 1he acLs for whlch he was charged consLlLuLe a vlolaLlon of Lhe provlslons of
8epubllc AcL. no. 3019 or of Lhe provlslons of LlLle 7, 8ook ll of Lhe revlsed enal
Code, or
(3) 1he lnformaLlon agalnsL hlm can be quashed, under any of Lhe grounds provlded
ln SecLlon 2, 8ules 117 of Lhe 8ules of CourL. 23*.4(* 6!7 8(#%&%9 *$-79 %$ %(7 :"4+%9 ;&7

!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9

I. Iud|c|a| roceed|ngs
A. kequ|s|tes for [ud|c|a| proceed|ngs: CI-CI
8anco Lspao| I|||p|no v. a|anca, State rosecutors v. Muro, eop|e v. 1eehankee, Ang
1|bay v. CIk
1. Court Lrlbunal cloLhed wlLh [udlclal power
2. Iur|sd|ct|on lawfully acqulred over person or properLy
3. uefendanL musL be glven an opportun|ty Lo be heard
4. Iudgment musL be rendered upon lawful hearlng

II. Adm|n|strat|ve and uas|-Iud|c|a| roceed|ngs
A. kequ|s|tes for adm|n|strat|ve proceed|ngs, |n genera| [nLDS8Ik]
Ang 1|bay v. CIk
1. 8lghL Lo a hear|ng and Lo submlL evldence
2. 1rlbunal musL conslder Lhe ev|dence
3. Dec|s|on musL have someLhlng Lo supporL lLself
4. Lvldence musL be substant|a|

3. ueclslon musL be based on Lhe evldence presenLed ln Lhe hearlng
6. 1rlbunal acLs on lLs own |ndependent conslderaLlon of Lhe law and facLs
7. 1he Lrlbunal should render lLs declslon ln such manner LhaL Lhe parLles know Lhe
varlous lssued lnvolved and Lhe reason for Lhe declslon

8. Iur|sprudence on due process |n spec|a| adm|n|strat|ve proceed|ngs:
1. LxLradlLlon Government of nong kong v. C|a||a

III. Academ|c D|sc|p||ne
A. M|n|mum standards for |mpos|t|on of d|sc|p||nary sanct|ons |n schoo|s (IA-IAC), ADMU
v. Capu|ong
1. SLudenLs musL be |nformed of Lhe naLure and cause of any accusaLlon agalnsL Lhem
2. 8lghL Lo answer Lhe charges, wlLh asslsLance of counsel lf deslred

3C=F*'&*$'( +G$<+&?+ ! #+'F-&'=(+ +G$<+&?+ 'F ' #+'F-&'=(+ .$&< .$%@* '??+H* 'F '<+IC'*+ *- FCHH-#* '
3. Informed of Lhe evldence agalnsL Lhem
4. 8lghL Lo adduce evldence on Lhelr own behalf
3. Lvldence musL be duLy cons|dered by Lhe lnvesLlgaLlng body.

IV. Deportat|on Lao G| v. CA
A. L|ements of Due rocess |n Deportat|on roceed|ngs (S-k)
1. Charges agalnsL an allen musL spec|fy Lhe acLs or omlsslons complalned of
2. re||m|nary |nvest|gat|on musL be conducLed Lo deLermlne lf Lhere ls sufflclenL
cause Lo charge respondenL wlLh deporLaLlon
3. ku|es of Crlmlnal rocedure should be followed (wlLh respecLs Lo warranLs, ball,
moLlon Lo quash, Lrlal).
4. r|vate prosecuLors should noL be allowed Lo lnLervene.

V. kegu|at|ons: I|x|ng of kates and kegu|at|ons of rofess|ons
A. I|x|ng of kates Maceda v. Lk8
ulsLlngulshlng Cuasl-leglslaLlve and quasl-[udlclal funcLlons
o Cuasl-leglslaLlve ! affecLs Lhe general publlc.
o Cuasl-[udlclal ! affecLs only Lhe parLles Lo Lhe case.
CLher cases: Clobe 1elecom v. n1C, Corona v. uPA

8. kegu|at|on of rofess|ons Corona v. UnA
rofesslon ls a properLy rlghL buL lL's noL a vesLed one.
As a general rule, noLlce and hearlng as fundamenLal requlremenLs of procedural
due process, are noL essenLlal when an admlnlsLraLlve body exerclses lLs execuLlve
or quasl-[udlclal funcLlon. ln Lhe performance of lLs execuLlve or leglslaLlve
funcLlons, such as lssulng rules and regulaLlons, an admlnlsLraLlve body need noL
comply wlLh Lhe requlremenLs of noLlce and hearlng.

VI. D|sm|ssa|s, Suspens|ons, ke|nstatements, etc.
A. D|sm|ssa| |n Government 8oards and Comm|ss|ons Aba|os v. CSC
arL of procedural due process ls Lo be accorded Lhe rlghL Lo be heard, and Lo
presenL evldence of one's lnnocence.

8. D|sm|ssa| |n r|vate Sector Sa|aw v. NLkC
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
noLlce and Pearlng ! 8C1P musL be glven Lo Lhe employee, oLherwlse, Lhe
dlsmlssal ls lllegal.

C. revent|ve Suspens|on A|onzo v. Capu|ong
urpose of revenLlve Suspenslon: 1o prevenL Lhe accused from uslng hls poslLlon
or offlce Lo lnfluence prospecLlve wlLnesses or Lamper wlLh Lhe records whlch may
be vlLal ln Lhe prosecuLlon of Lhe case agalnsL hlm.
rlor noLlce and hearlng was noL requlred. lL ls now seLLled LhaL Lhe prevenLlve
suspenslon of a clvll servlce employee or offlcer can be ordered even wlLhouL a
hearlng because such suspenslon ls noL a penalLy buL only a prellmlnary sLep ln an
admlnlsLraLlve lnvesLlgaLlon.

VII. Crd|nance]Statute]Memo CIk]ku|es
A. Cha||enges to the va||d|ty of pena| |aws]ord|nances
Vo|d for Vagueness Doctr|ne ! a sLaLuLe or acL ls sald Lo be vague when lL lacks
comprehenslble sLandards LhaL men of common lnLelllgence musL necessarlly
guess aL lLs meanlng and dlffer as Lo appllcaLlon. eop|e v. Nazar|o
vague laws are repugnanL Lo Lhe ConsLlLuLlon ln Lwo ways:
o vlolaLes due process for fallure Lo lnform and glve falr noLlce Lo persons of
Lhe conducL Lo be avolded.
o Leaves law enforcers unbrldled dlscreLlon ln carrylng ouL lLs provlslons and
becomes an arblLrary flexlng of governmenL muscle. eop|e v. Nazar|o,
Lstrada v. Sand|ganbayan
CLher noLes on LsLrada v. Sandlganbayan
o CverbreadLh uocLrlne ! a governmenL purpose may noL be achleved by
means whlch sweep unnecessarlly broadly and Lhereby lnvade Lhe area of
pollLlcal freedoms
o CverbreadLh and vagueness docLrlnes (faclal challenge" have speclal
appllcaLlon only Lo free speech cases.
1o lnvalldaLe a penal sLaLuLe, an as applled" challenge ls needed.

VIII. Suretysh|p Strongho|d Insurance v. CA
uue rocess and Lhe 8lghL Lo be Peard ! uue rocess ls noL vlolaLed where a
person ls noL heard because he has chosen, for whaLever reason, noL Lo be heard. lf
he opLs Lo be sllenL where he has a rlghL Lo speak, he cannoL laLer complaln LhaL he
was unduly sllenced.

Ik. 1ar|ff and Customs Code Ieeder v. CA
uue rocess lnvolves Lhe rlghL Lo be presumed lnnocenL unLll proven gullLy !
eLlLloner, whlch ls a corporaLe enLlLy, has no personallLy Lo lnvoke Lhe rlghL Lo be
presumed lnnocenL, whlch rlghL ls only avallable Lo an lndlvldual who ls an accused
ln a crlmlnal case.

k. C|osure roceed|ngs C8 v. CA
ln closure proceedlngs, due process does noL necessarlly requlre a prlor hearlng, a
hearlng or an opporLunlLy Lo be heard may be subsequenL Lo Lhe closure.

kI. Cance||at|on of roperty k|ghts]r|v||eges
A8AkADA v. Lrm|ta
uue process: lnpuL Lax ls noL a properLy rlghL buL a sLaLuLory rlghL.
lnpuL Lax ! Lax LhaL ls passed on Lo consumers by manufacLurers or producL
8r|t|sh Amer|can 1obacco v. Camacho
LlemenLs of esLoppel, as relaLed Lo Lhe parLy Lo be esLopped, are:
1. ConducL amounLlng Lo false represenLaLlon or concealmenL of maLerlal facLs, or aL
leasL calculaLed Lo convey Lhe lmpresslon LhaL Lhe facLs are oLher Lhan, and
lnconslsLenL wlLh, Lhose whlch Lhe parLy subsequenLly aLLempLs Lo asserL,
2. lnLenL, or aL leasL expecLaLlon LhaL Lhls conducL shall be acLed upon by, or aL leasL
lnfluence, Lhe oLher parLy, and
3. knowledge, acLual or consLrucLlve, of Lhe real facLs."

kII. Adm|n|strat|ve and re||m|nary Invest|gat|on - Cmbudsman
1here ls noL consLlLuLlonal rlghL Lo prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon

kIII. ub||cat|on kequ|rement
lnLernal rules and regulaLlons need noL be publlshed. Powever lf lL affecLs Lhe rlghLs
of Lhe publlc, noLlflcaLlon ls lndlspensable. (22) |||p|nas kao v. CA
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NBS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)

ke|evance: a guaranLee agalnsL Lhe exerclse of arblLrary power even when Lhe
power ls exerclsed accordlng Lo proper forms and procedure

rlmarlly a safeguard agalnsL pollce power. 1he sLandards for subsLanLlal due process
are Lhe sLandards for valld exerclse of pollce power.

I. o||ce ower
A. Genera| o|nts
ollce power ls concerned wlLh Lhe:
o LeglLlmaLe governmenLal funcLlons
o reservaLlon of Lhe SLaLe
o ubllc healLh, welfare, and morals

1he mosL essenLlal, lnslsLenL and Lhe leasL llmlLable of powers, exLendlng as lL does
Lo all Lhe greaL publlc needs"

Lxerclsed by Lhe leglslaLlve buL can be delegaLed, wlLhln llmlLs, Lo local
A power Lo regulaLe or Lo prohlblL.
ubllcaLlon ls necessary for due process. lnLernal rules and regulaLlons need noL be
publlshed. Powever lf lL affecLs Lhe rlghLs of Lhe publlc, noLlflcaLlon ls lndlspensable.
(23) |||p|nas kao, Inc. v. Court of Appea|s

8. kequ|s|tes of o||ce ower

1. Legal Sub[ecL ! 8equlred by Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe publlc
2. Legal MeLhod ! Means used are reasonably necessary
(1) US v. 1or|b|o, (2) Church||| v. kafferty, (3) eop|e v. Ia[ardo, (4) Lrm|ta-Ma|ate note|
and Mote| Cperators Assoc|at|on, Inc. v. Mayor of Man||a, (S) not v. Intermed|ate
Appe||ate Court, (6) 8a|acu|t v. CII of Agusan de| Norte, (7) Nat|ona| Dev't Corp. and
New Agr|x, Inc. v. h|||pp|nes Veterans bank, (8) ACCIA v. CUGCC, (9) Agust|n v. Ldu,
(10) Maranaw note| v. NLkC, (11) Magta[as v. ryce ropert|es Corporat|on

}0AQ0IN u, BERNAS, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy 118 (2uu9 eu.)
}NN Piomotion anu Nanagement, Inc. v. Couit of Appeals, u.R. No.12uu9S, August S, 1996
Eimita-Nalate Botel anu Notel 0peiatois Association, Inc. v. Nayoi of Nanila, u.R. No. L-2469S, }uly S1, 1967
0S v. Toiibio, 1S Phil. 8S (191u)

C. Scope of o||ce ower (Lawfu| Sub[ects)
Scope of ollce ower: ubllc healLh, safeLy, morals, comforL or general welfare of Lhe
communlLy (2) Church||| v. kafferty
ollce power however cannoL lnfrlnge on consLlLuLlonal rlghLs such as permanenLly
deprlvlng an lndlvldual use of hls properLy such as land (3) eop|e v. Ia[ardo, or
leglLlmaLe buslnesses such as movles houses or hoLels (6) 8a|acu|t v. CII Agusan de|
Norte, (4) Lrm|ta-Ma|ate note| and Mote| Cperators Assoc|at|on, Inc. v. Mayor
of Man||a, (S0) Wh|te L|ght Corporat|on v. C|ty of Man||a
o roperLy rlghL has Lo be a vesLed rlghL (38) Lsp|noc|||a v. 8agong 1anyag
rofesslon as a properLy rlghL may be valldly regulaLed especlally lf lL concerns publlc
healLh, morals or welfare (14) IMM romot|on and Management, Inc. v. Court of
Appea|s, (4) St. Luke's v. NLkC, Corona v. UnA
ollce power cannoL lnLrude Lo Lhe exLenL of lnLrudlng a person's rlghL Lo prlvacy (16)
Cp|e v. 1orres, (3S) kMU v. D|r. Gen.
Compulsory llcenslng of lnLellecLual properLy ls for Lhe beneflL of Lhe publlc and
Lherefore a lawful sub[ecL for Lhe exerclse of pollce power (20) Sm|th k||ne v. CA
8egulaLlon of flrearms have long been held as a valld sub[ecL for Lhe exerclse of pollce
power (2S) Chavez v. komu|o
8egulaLlon of penslon ls posslble buL lL musL be wlLhln lawful means (e.g. prevenL
deaLhbed marrlages) (26) GSIS v. Montescar|os
rlvaLe buslnesses (e.g. commerclal blood banks) musL glve way Lo publlc healLh
whlch Lhe sLaLe has Lhe auLhorlLy Lo regulaLe (30) 8e|tran v. Secretary of nea|th
1rafflc congesLlon ls a lawful sub[ecL of pollce power. Powever, lL ls noL Lhe
Lermlnals buL Lhe lndlscrlmlnaLe loadlng and unloadlng whlch musL be addressed.
(32) Lucena Grand 1erm|na| v. IAC L|ner, (43) MMDA v. V|ron
use of publlc hlghways may be valldly regulaLed (36) M|raso| v. DWn and 1o||
kegu|atory 8oard
CompuLer daLa ls wlLhln Lhe bounds of Lhe exerclse of pollce power. lL ls ouLslde of
lLs bounds only when Lhere ls reasonable expecLaLlon of prlvacy on Lhe parL of Lhe
offended parLy (SS) o||o v. kar|na Constant|no

II. Va||d|ty of Loca| Crd|nances
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NBS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
A. kequ|s|tes for the va||d|ty of Loca| Crd|nances

1. MusL noL conLravene Lhe ConsLlLuLlon or any sLaLuLe
2. MusL noL be unfalr or oppresslve
3. MusL noL be parLlal or dlscrlmlnaLory
4. MusL noL prohlblL buL may regulaLe Lrade
3. MusL be general and conslsLenL wlLh publlc pollcy
6. MusL noL be unreasonable
(11) Magta[as v. ryce ropert|es Corporat|on, (12) 8enn|s v. M|ch|gan, (13) Cruzan v.
D|rector, M|ssour| Dept. of nea|th

III. Doctr|ne of Informed Consent

A. Genera| o|nts
State Interest v. Ind|v|dua| Interest
under Lhe uue rocess Clause, all compeLenL persons have Lhe rlghL Lo refuse
medlcal LreaLmenL. 8uL Lhls ls sub[ecL Lo Lhe balanclng of lnLeresLs of Lhe sLaLe
agalnsL Lhe lndlvlduals' lnLeresL (e.g. A person may noL refuse smallpox vacclnaLlon
lf Lhe sLaLe lnLends Lo ellmlnaLe lL).
Informed Consent for the Incapac|tated]Incompetent
lf Lhe person ls lncompeLenL, a surrogaLe can exerclse Lhls rlghL. SurrogaLe's acLlons
musL be proven, wlLh clear and convlnclng evldence, LhaL Lhey conform Lo Lhe
paLlenL's wlshes whlle he/she was sLlll compeLenL.
(13) Cruzan v. D|rector, M|ssour| Dept. of nea|th

8. Standards to determ|ne k|sk of Lrror
1he level of proof ls Lo dlsLrlbuLe beLween Lhe llLlganLs Lhe rlsk of error
o lf courL granL Lhe LermlnaLlon of llfe, and lL Lurns ouL Lo be erroneous lL
would be permanenL already
o lf courL does noL granL lL, and lL Lurns ouL Lo be erroneous, oLher evenLs
could sLlll happen Lo correcL sald error (e.g. evenLual naLural deaLh of
paLlenL, developmenL ln medlclne, eLc.)

IV. r|nc|p|es on Iud|c|a| kev|ew

Nagtajas v. Piyce Piopeities Coipoiation,
Ciuzan v. Biiectoi, Nissouii Bept. of Bealth
A. kequ|s|tes for [ud|c|a| rev|ew:
1. AcLual and approprlaLe case or conLroversy
2. Locus sLandl-personal and subsLanLlal lnLeresL
o A consLlLuLlonal rlghL musL be belng vlolaLed ln order for Lhe law Lo be
enLlLled Lo a [udlclal revlew (18) 1an v. eop|e
3. 8roughL aL Lhe earllesL opporLunlLy
4. 1he conslLuLlonal quesLlon musL be Lhe lls moLa of Lhe case

8. 1he fo||ow|ng acts of Congress are not sub[ect to [ud|c|a| restra|nt (|n short, the |nterna|
processes of the Congress):
1. llllng of bllls by any member of Congress
2. Approval of Lhe bllls by Lhe members of Congress
3. 8econclllaLlon by Lhe 8lcameral conference commlLLe
4. Approval of Lhe reconclled blll by each chamber of Congress

C. Wr|t of Amparo (44) Sec. of DND v. Mana|o, (S3) koxas v. Macapaga| Arroyo
Amparo ls a remedy for any deprlvaLlon of llfe, llberLy, or properLy.
WrlL of Amparo seeks for Lhe producLlon of speclflc lLems (noL [usL lnformaLlon) Lo
be produced or reLurned.
Amparo provldes for !"#$"% '"(" whlch would allow more quesLlons/demands:
o remlses
o lnformaLlon
noL Lhe same as search and selzure

D. Wr|t of nabeas Data (S2) MLkALCC v. L|m, (S3) koxas v. Macapaga| Arroyo
Pabeas uaLa ls relaLes generally Lo lnformaLlon of any form.
1apuz v. del 8osarlo ! wrlLs of amparo and habeas daLa wlll nC1 lssue Lo proLecL
purely properLy or commerclal concerns nor when Lhe grounds lnvoked ln supporL of
Lhe peLlLlons Lherefor are vague or doubLful. LmploymenL consLlLuLes a properLy rlghL
under Lhe conLexL of Lhe due process clause of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon.

V. Lqua| rotect|on C|ause (LC)
A. Genera| o|nts

Nontescailos v. C0NELEC, }uly 9, 2uu2
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NBS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
(14) IMM romot|on and Management, Inc. v. Court of Appea|s
LC does noL requlre absoluLe equallLy buL merely equal LreaLmenL of persons
under Lhe same condlLlons.
lL does noL forbld classlflcaLlon for as long as such ls based on real and subsLanLlal
dlfferences havlng a reasonable relaLlon Lo Lhe sub[ecL of Lhe parLlcular leglslaLlon.
lf classlflcaLlon ls Lhe germane purpose of Lhe law, Lhen Lhe quallflcaLlon does noL
vlolaLe Lhe LC.
(21) eop|e v. De |a |edra
1he presumpLlon ls LhaL Lhe prosecuLlng offlcers regularly performed Lhelr duLles, and
Lhls presumpLlon can be overcome only by proof Lo Lhe conLrary, noL by mere
1he prosecuLlon of one gullLy person whlle oLhers equally gullLy are noL prosecuLed, ls
noL, by lLself, a denlal of Lhe equal proLecLlon of Lhe laws. 1he unlawful admlnlsLraLlon
by offlcers of a sLaLuLe falr on lLs face, resulLlng ln lLs unequal appllcaLlon Lo Lhose
who are enLlLled Lo be LreaLed allke, ls noL a denlal of equal proLecLlon unless Lhere ls
shown Lo be presenL ln lL an elemenL of lnLenLlonal or purposeful dlscrlmlnaLlon. 8uL
a dlscrlmlnaLory purpose ls noL presumed, Lhere musL be a showlng of clear and
lnLenLlonal dlscrlmlnaLlon.

8. kequ|s|tes

(1S) Dans Ir. v. eop|e
A law ls noL vague lf lL clearly deflnes and/or answers Lhe baslc querles
(21) eop|e v. De |a |edra
uue process requlres LhaL Lhe Lerms of a penal sLaLuLe musL be sufflclenLly expllclL Lo
lnform Lhose who are sub[ecL Lo lL whaL conducL on Lhelr parL wlll render Lhem llable
Lo lLs penalLles.
A sLaLuLe may be sald Lo be overbroad where lL operaLes Lo lnhlblL Lhe exerclse of
lndlvldual freedoms afflrmaLlvely guaranLeed by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon, such as Lhe
freedom of speech or rellglon.
A generally worded sLaLuLe, when consLrued Lo punlsh conducL whlch cannoL be
consLlLuLlonally punlshed ls unconsLlLuLlonally vague Lo Lhe exLenL LhaL lL falls Lo glve
adequaLe warnlng of Lhe boundary beLween Lhe consLlLuLlonally permlsslble and Lhe
consLlLuLlonally lmpermlsslble appllcaLlons of Lhe sLaLuLe.

Cther 1erms]o|nts
(1S) Dans Ir. v. eop|e
Demurrer to ev|dence ! afLer Lhe prosecuLlon resLs lLs case, Lhe accused may flle
Lhls moLlon Lo dlsmlss Lhe case on Lhe ground LhaL Lhere ls no sufflclenL evldence Lo
prove one's gullL
8ellef: blll of parLlculars - defendanL may move for or demand a more deflnlLe
sLaLemenL of any maLLer whlch ls noL clear for hlm Lo properly prepare for Lrlal
LesLlmonlal evldence ls "formally offered" once Lhe wlLness ls called Lo Lhe sLand
(22) |||p|nas kao v. CA
lnLernal rules and regulaLlons need noL be publlshed. Powever lf lL affecLs Lhe rlghLs
of Lhe publlc, noLlflcaLlon ls lndlspensable.
CkL8A v. komu|o
ulfference beLween Lax avoldance and Lax evaslon
Southern nem|sphere v. A1C
Puman SecurlLy AcL
1errorlsm ! sowlng Lerrorlsm + predlcaLe crlme = glve ln Lo unlawful demand
o||o v. Constant|no-Dav|d
1est for expectat|on for pr|vacy: (r|vacy r|ght |s two-fo|d)
1. A person has a reasonable expecLaLlon of hls personal prlvacy.
2. SocleLy musL percelve such expecLaLlon as reasonable.
CovernmenL Cfflce rlvaLe Cfflce
Cfflce Pome
CovL. compuLer ! 1here
should be speclflc sLandards
by whlch govL. offlces may
Lake acLlon before openlng
anoLher's compuLer.
rlvaLe compuLer ln govL.
offlce ! SLlll need

!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NBS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)

!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
1he r|ght of the peop|e to be secure |n the|r persons, houses, papers and effects aga|nst
unreasonab|e searches and se|zures of whatever nature and for any purpose sha|| be
|nv|o|ab|e, and no search warrant or warrant of arrest sha|| |ssue except upon probab|e
cause to be determ|ned persona||y by the [udge after exam|nat|on under oath or
aff|rmat|on of the comp|a|nant and the w|tnesses he may produce, and part|cu|ar|y
descr|b|ng the p|ace to be searched and the persons or th|ngs to be se|zed.

I. What |s a "search"?
kout|ne checkpo|nt. SLop lnvolves only a brlef deLenLlon of Lravellers durlng whlch
Lhe vehlcle's occupanLs are requlred Lo answer a brlef quesLlon or Lwo. lor as long
as Lhe vehlcle ls nelLher searched nor lLs occupanLs sub[ecLed Lo a body search, and
Lhe lnspecLlon of Lhe vehlcle ls llmlLed Lo a vlsual search, sald rouLlne checks cannoL
be regarded as vlolaLlve of an lndlvldual's rlghL agalnsL unreasonable searches.

Stand|ng. 1he consLlLuLlonal rlghL agalnsL unreasonable searches and selzures ls a
personal rlghL lnvocable only by Lhose whose rlghLs have been lnfrlnged or
LhreaLened Lo be lnfrlnged. 1hey musL be acLual parLles ln lnLeresL. (1) SIS v. DD8
kequ|s|tes of Stand|ng (I1k)
1. Pe has suffered some acLual or LhreaLened ln[ury as a resulL of Lhe allegedly
lllegal governmenL conducL.
2. ln[ury ls falrly Lraceable Lo challenged acLlon
3. ln[ury ls llkely Lo be redressed by a favorable acLlon
ku|e on stand|ng can be re|axed. lor non-LradlLlonal plalnLlffs, llke ordlnary
clLlzens, Laxpayers and leglslaLors when Lhe publlc lnLeresL requlres, such as when
Lhe maLLer ls of LranscendenLal lmporLance, of overarchlng slgnlflcance Lo socleLy of
paramounL publlc lnLeresL.

II. kequ|s|tes of a va||d warrant
Statutory construct|on. SLaLuLes auLhorlzlng searches and selzures or search
warranLs musL be sLrlcLly consLrued. (3) A|varez v. CII
keasonab|eness of a search and se|zure |s pure|y a [ud|c|a| quest|on. ueLermlned
from Lhe clrcumsLances lnvolved, such as Lhe manner lL was made, place or Lhlng
searched, characLer of arLlcles procured. (2S) eop|e v. CII k|za|

F'(.-&*+ G: H+ F$(('
kequ|s|tes of va||d search warrant (kev|sed ku|es on Cr|m|na| rocedure, ku|e 126)
1. robable cause
2. ueLermlned personally by a [udge
3. LxamlnaLlon upon oaLh or afflrmaLlon of Lhe complalnanL and Lhe wlLnesses
he may produce
4. arLlcularly descrlblng Lhe place Lo be searched and Lhe Lhlngs or persons Lo
be selzed.

A. robab|e Cause
uefloeJ. Such reasons, supporLed by facLs and clrcumsLances, as wlll warranL a
cauLlous man ln Lhe bellef LhaL hls acLlons, and Lhe means Laken ln prosecuLlng lL,
are legally [usL and proper. (9) Corro v. L|s|ng.
o When Lhe search warranL applled for ls dlrecLed agalnsL a newspaper
publlsher or edlLor ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe publlcaLlon of subverslve maLerlals,
as ln Lhe case aL bar, Lhe appllcaLlon and/or lLs supporLlng affldavlLs musL
conLaln a speclflcaLlon, sLaLlng wlLh parLlcularlLy Lhe alleged subverslve
maLerlal he has publlshed or ls lnLendlng Lo publlsh. Mere generallzaLlon wlll
noL sufflce. (8) 8urgos v. AI Ch|ef of Staff
Ooe 5peclflc Offeose. under Lhe rules of CourL: no search warranL shall lssue for
more Lhan one speclflc offense
o Scatter-shot warrant ! warranL lssued for more Lhan one speclflc offense
(23) Va||e[o v. CA
5ommoty ltoceeJloq. ueLermlned ln summary manner because lL merely lmplles
probablllLy of gullL and low quanLum and quallLy of evldence ls requlred (16) Webb
v. De Leon
Appeol of floJloq. An appeal/moLlon of relnvesLlgaLlon from a resoluLlon flndlng a
probable cause shall noL hold Lhe flllng Lhe lnformaLlon ln courL (16) Webb v. De
5opteme cootts kole. 1he CourL's duLy ln Lhese cases ls conflned Lo Lhe lssue of
wheLher Lhe execuLlve or [udlclal deLermlnaLlon of probable cause was done wlLh
grave abuse of dlscreLlons amounLlng Lo lack or excess of [urlsdlcLlon. (18) koberts
v. CA
o 1hls ls conslsLenL wlLh Lhe general rule LhaL crlmlnal prosecuLlon may noL be
sLayed by ln[uncLlon. (18) koberts v. CA
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
o xceptloos.
1. 1o afford adequaLe proLecLlon Lo Lhe consLlLuLlonal rlghLs of Lhe
2. When necessary for Lhe orderly admlnlsLraLlon of [usLlce or Lo avold
oppresslon or mulLlpllclLy of acLlons
3. When Lhere ls pre-[udlclal quesLlon
4. When Lhe acLs of Lhe offlcer are wlLhouL or ln excess of auLhorlLy
3. Where Lhe prosecuLlon ls under an lnvalld law, ordlnance or
6. When double [eopardy ls clearly apparenL
7. Where Lhe courL has no [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe offense
8. Where lL ls a case of persecuLlon raLher Lhan prosecuLlon
9. Where Lhe charges are manlfesLly flase and moLlvaLed by Lhe lusL
for vengeance
10. When Lhere ls clearly no prlma facle case agalnsL Lhe accused and a
moLlon Lo quash on LhaL ground has been denled.

8. uantum of ev|dence requ|red to estab||sh probab|e cause to arrest or search. (16)
Webb v. De Leon
5eotcb coses. 1haL Lhe lLems soughL are ln facL selzed by vlrLue of belng connecLed
wlLh crlmlnal acLlvlLy, and LhaL Lhe lLems wlll be found ln place Lo be searched. lL ls
noL also necessary LhaL a parLlcular person be lmpllcaLed.
Attest coses. 1here musL be probable cause LhaL a crlme has been commlLLed and
LhaL Lhe person Lo be arresLed commlLLed lL, whlch of course can exlsL wlLhouL any
showlng LhaL evldence of Lhe crlme wlll be found aL premlses under LhaL person's

C. After exam|nat|on upon oath or aff|rmat|on of the comp|a|nant and the w|tnesses he
may produce
Ootb. Any form of aLLesLaLlon by whlch a parLy slgnlfles LhaL he ls bound ln
consclence Lo perform an acL falLhfully and LruLhfully, and ls someLlmes deflned as
an ouLward pledge glven by a person Laklng lL LhaL hls aLLesLaLlon or promlse ls
made under an lmmedlaLe sense of hls responslblllLy Lo Cod. (3) A|varez v. CII
ltobloq ooJ xboostlve. LxamlnaLlon musL be problng and exhausLlve, noL merely
rouLlne or pro forma. Search warranLs are noL lssued on loose, vague or doubLful
basls of facL, nor on mere susplclon or bellef. lf Lhe [udge ls saLlsfled wlLh Lhe affldavlL
of Lhe complalnanL, he may dlspense wlLh LhaL of Lhe wlLnesses. (22) Uy v. 8Ik
letsoool koowleJqe. 1he oaLh requlred musL refer Lo Lhe LruLh of Lhe facLs wlLhln
Lhe personal knowledge of Lhe peLlLloner or hls wlLnesses, because he ls Lo convlnce
Lhe maglsLraLe, noL Lhe lndlvldual seeklng lssuance of Lhe warranL, LhaL probable
cause exlsLs. (22) Uy v. 8Ik
neotsoy vlJeoce. When Lhe appllcanL's knowledge of Lhe facLs ls mere hearsay, Lhe
affldavlL of one or more wlLnesses havlng a personal knowledge of Lhe facL ls
necessary. (3) A|varez v. CII
letsoool exomlootloo oooecessoty. 1he [udge ls noL requlred Lo personally examlne
Lhe complalnanL and hls wlLnesses. (10) So||ven v. Makas|ar dlcLaLes LhaL Lhe [udge
o ersonally evaluaLe Lhe reporL and Lhe supporLlng documenLs submlLLed by
Lhe flscal regardlng Lhe exlsLence of probable cause and, on Lhe basls
Lhereof, lssue a warranL of arresL
o Cr lf on Lhe basls Lhereof he flnds no probable cause, he may dlsregard Lhe
flscal's reporL and requlre Lhe submlsslon of supporLlng affldavlLs or
wlLnesses Lo ald hlm ln arrlvlng aL a concluslon as Lo Lhe exlsLence of
probable cause. (7) |acer v. V|||anueva

D. art|cu|ar|y descr|b|ng the p|ace to be searched and the person or th|ngs to be se|zed
lotpose of tepoltemeot. 1o llmlL Lhe Lhlngs Lo be selzed Lo Lhose, and only Lhose,
parLlcularly descrlbed ln Lhe search warranL - Lo leave Lhe offlcers of Lhe law wlLh
no dlscreLlon regardlng whaL arLlcles Lhey shall selze, LhaL abuses may noL be
commlLLed. (6) 8ache & Co. v. ku|z
lottlcolotlty. A search warranL may be sald Lo parLlcularly descrlbe Lhe Lhlngs Lo be
selzed when: (21) ousef A| Ghou| v. CA
o 1he descrlpLlon Lhereln ls as speclflc as Lhe clrcumsLances wlll ordlnarlly
o 1he descrlpLlon expresses a concluslon of facL - noL of law - by whlch Lhe
warranL offlcer may be gulded ln maklng Lhe search or selzure.
o SubsLanLlal slmllarlLy of Lhose arLlcles descrlbed as a class or specles would
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
o 1he Lhlngs descrlbed are llmlLed Lo Lhose whlch bear dlrecL relaLlon Lo Lhe
offense for whlch Lhe warranL ls belng lssued.
Not lottlcolot. Selzure of lLems noL speclfled ln Lhe warranLs cannoL be [usLlfled by
Lhe dlrecLlve Lo selze and Lake possesslon of oLher properLles relaLlve Lo such
vlolaLlon," whlch ln now way can be characLerlzed as a parLlcular descrlpLlon of Lhe
Lhlngs Lo be selzed. (22) Uy v. 8Ik
lloce. A descrlpLlon of a place Lo be searched ls sufflclenL lf Lhe offlcer wlLh a
warranL can, wlLh reasonable efforL, ascerLaln and ldenLlfy Lhe place lnLended. (2)
eop|e v. Ve|oso
o 1he conLrolllng sub[ecL of search warranLs ls Lhe place lndlcaLed ln Lhe
warranL lLself and noL Lhe place ldenLlfled by Lhe pollce. (20) eop|e v.
kole of lollce/Aqeots. 1he place cannoL be changed, enlarged, or ampllfled by Lhe
pollce. 1he parLlcularlzaLlon of Lhe descrlpLlon of Lhe place Lo be searched may
properly be done only by Lhe !udge, and only ln Lhe warranL lLself. A search warranL
ls noL a sweeplng auLhorlLy empowerlng a readlng parLy Lo underLake a flshlng
expedlLlon Lo selze and conflscaLe any and all klnds of evldence or arLlcles relaLlng
Lo a crlme. (20) eop|e v. Iranc|sco
ICnN DCL Warrant. MusL conLaln Lhe besL Jesctlptloo petsoooe posslble Lo be
obLalned of Lhe person or persons Lo be apprehended, and Lhls descrlpLlon musL be
sufflclenL Lo lndlcaLe clearly Lhe proper person or persons upon whom Lhe warranL
ls Lo be served, and should hls personal appearance and pecullarlLles, glve hls
occupaLlon and place of resldence, and any oLher clrcumsLances by means of whlch
he can be ldenLlfled. (2) eop|e v. Ve|oso
Search made at n|ght. Sect|on 101 of Genera| Crders, No. S8 auLhorlzes LhaL Lhe
search be made aL nlghL when lL ls poslLlvely asserLed ln Lhe affldavlLs LhaL Lhe
properLy ls on Lhe person or ln Lhe place ordered Lo be searched (3) A|varez v. CII
Genera| Warrants. Ceneral search warranLs are ouLlawed because Lhey place Lhe
sancLlLy of Lhe domlclle and Lhe prlvacy of communlcaLlon and correspondence aL
Lhe mercy of Lhe whlms, caprlce, or passlon of peace offlcers (4) Stoneh||| v. D|okno

III. Lxc|us|onary Doctr|ne
Lxc|us|onary ku|e. All evldence obLalned from lllegal searches and selzures are
deemed lnadmlsslble.
o xceptloo. Cfflcers of cerLaln corporaLlons cannoL valldly ob[ecL Lo Lhe use
ln evldence agalnsL Lhem of Lhe documenLs, papers, and Lhlngs selzed from
Lhe offlces and premlses of Lhe corporaLlons slnce Lhe rlghL Lo ob[ecL Lo
Lhelr admlsslon ln evldence belongs excluslvely Lo Lhe corporaLlons, Lo
whlch Lhe selzed effecLs belong, and may noL be lnvoked by Lhe corporaLe
offlcers ln proceedlngs agalnsL Lhem ln Lhelr lndlvldual capaclLy.
Corporat|ons are protected by Sect|on 2. lL ls an assoclaLlon of lndlvlduals under an
assumed name and wlLh a dlsLlncL legal enLlLy. ln organlzlng lLself as a collecLlve
body, lL walves no consLlLuLlonal lmmunlLles approprlaLe Lo such body. lLs properLy
cannoL be Laken wlLhouL compensaLlon. lL can only be proceeded agalnsL by due
process of law, and ls proLecLed agalnsL unlawful dlscrlmlnaLlon. (6) 8ache & Co. v.
C|osure of a pub||sh|ng house |n search warrant |ssuances |s anathema to a
democracy. [s]uch closure ls ln Lhe naLure of prevlous resLralnL or censorshlp
abhorrenL Lo Lhe freedom of Lhe press guaranLeed under Lhe fundamenLal law, and
consLlLuLes a vlrLual denlal of peLlLloners' freedom Lo express Lhemselves ln prlnL.
1hls sLaLe of belng ls paLenLly anaLhemaLlc Lo a democraLlc framework where a free,
alerL, and even mlllLanL press ls essenLlal for Lhe pollLlcal enllghLenmenL and growLh
of Lhe clLlzenry." (8) 8urgos v. AI Ch|ef of Staff

IV. Lxcept|on to the Genera| ku|e that prosecut|on bod|es are bereft of the ab|||ty to |ssue
warrants of arrest: 1he arrest of a||ens for deportat|on
kLSIDLN1 may |ssue WAkkAN1 CI AkkLS1 of a||ens for deportat|on. 1he power
Lo deporL an allen ls a pollce measure agalnsL undeslrable allens whose presence ln
Lhe counLry ls found Lo be ln[urlous Lo Lhe publlc good and domesLlc LranqulllLy of
Lhe people.
ower of Comm|ss|oner of Imm|grat|on. Imm|grat|on Act of 1940: Sect|on 37(a).
1he followlng allens shall be arresLed upon Lhe warranL of Lhe Commlssloner of
lmmlgraLlon or of any oLher offlcer deslgnaLed by hlm for Lhe purpose and deporLed
upon Lhe warranL of Lhe Commlssloner of lmmlgraLlon oftet o Jetetmlootloo by tbe
8ootJ of commlsslooet of tbe exlsteoce of tbe qtoooJ fot Jepottotloo os cbotqeJ
oqolost tbe olleo" (12) 8oard of Comm|ss|oners (CID) v. De|a kosa
o 1he Commlssloner of lmmlgraLlon may lssue warranLs of arresL only afLer a
deLermlnaLlon by Lhe 8oard of Commlssloners of Lhe exlsLence of Lhe ground
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
for deporLaLlon as charged agalnsL Lhe allen.
o 1he warranL of arresL musL be for Lhe sole purpose of execuLlng a flnal order
of deporLaLlon. A warranL of arresL lssued by Lhe Commlssloner of
lmmlgraLlon for purposes of lnvesLlgaLlon only, as ln Lhe case aL bar, ls null
and vold for belng unconsLlLuLlonal.
1wo types of re||m|nary Invest|gat|on (13) L|m Sr. v. Iudge Ie||x
1. rellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon proper ! made by Lhe flscal, execuLlve ln naLure, Lo
deLermlne probable cause for knowlng wheLher or noL Lo flle a case.
2. rellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon Lo lssue warranL ! made by Lhe [udge, [udlclary ln
naLure, Lo deLermlne probable cause wheLher or noL Lo lssue a warranL.
art|a||y Defect|ve Warrant. lL remalns valld as Lo Lhe lLems speclflcally descrlbed ln
Lhe warranL. A search warranL ls severable, Lhe lLems noL sufflclenLly descrlbed may
be cuL off wlLhouL desLroylng Lhe whole warranL.
Supersed|ng Warrant. Where Lhe apparenL lnLenL ln lssulng anoLher warranL was Lo
supersede an earller warranL, Lhe laLLer should be deemed revoked by Lhe former.
lndeed lL would be absurd for Lhe [udge Lo lssue on a slngle occaslon Lwo warranLs
auLhorlzlng Lhe search of a slngle place for a slngle offense.
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)

I. Lxcept|ons to the search warrant requ|rement: (IM-C-WLS)
1. Search lncldenLal Lo an arresL
2. Search of movlng vehlcles
3. Selzure of evldence ln plaln vlew
4. CusLoms searches
3. Where Lhere ls a walver of Lhe rlghL
8are excepLlons are Lhe rules on:
6. LxlgenL clrcumsLances (24) Mn Garments v. CA
7. SLop and frlsk

1he requlslLe of probable cause musL sLlll be saLlsfled before a warranLless search and
selzure can be lawfully conducLed. robable cause musL be based only on reasonable
ground of susplclon or bellef LhaL a crlme has been or abouL Lo be commlLLed. 1hls ls
declded noL by a [udge buL by a searchlng offlcer.

A. Search |nc|denta| to an arrest
revalllng docLrlne ls from Lhe case of (27) No|asco v. ao, where Chlef !usLlce
1eehankee oplned LhaL searches lncldenLal Lo an arresL should be a 'sLrlcL appllcaLlon
of Lhe excepLlon provlded ln ku|e 126, Sect|on 12 and llmlLed Lo dangerous weapons
or anyLhlng whlch may be used as proof of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense'. 1hls
excludes searches ln places oLher Lhan Lhe place of arresL.

8. Search of mov|ng veh|c|e. (2S) eop|e v. CII k|za|
lrom Lhe leadlng case Carrol v. u.S. rose a porLlon of Lhe volsLead AcL allowlng
warranLless arresLs where lL ls noL pracLlcable Lo secure a warranL because Lhe
vehlcle can be qulckly moved ouL of Lhe locallLy or [urlsdlcLlon ln whlch Lhe warranL
musL be soughL."
1hls excepLlon musL be dlsLlngulshed from cusLoms searches.
robable cause ls sLlll requlred for a reasonable search of movlng vehlcle.

}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy 2uS (2uu9 eu.)
Iu., p. 192.
o As shown ln eople v. MalmsLedL, pollce checkpolnLs can also be a slLuaLlon
where a movlng vehlcle can be searched. (30) eop|e v. Ma|mstedt
o An exLenslve search wlLhouL warranL could only be resorLed Lo lf Lhe offlcers
conducLlng Lhe search had reasonable or probable cause Lo belleve before
Lhe search LhaL elLher Lhe moLorlsL was a law offender or LhaL Lhey would flnd
Lhe lnsLrumenLallLy or evldence perLalnlng Lo Lhe commlsslon of a crlme ln
Lhe vehlcle Lo be searched. (32) An|ag v. CCMLLLC

C. Lv|dence |n p|a|n v|ew
Parrls v. u.S. deflned Lhls excepLlon as ob[ecLs falllng ln Lhe plaln vlew of an offlcer
who has Lhe rlghL Lo be ln poslLlon Lo have LhaL vlew are sub[ecL Lo selzure and may
be lnLroduced as evldence."
1hls was modlfled ln Coolldge whlch sald LhaL Lhe dlscovery musL be lnadverLenL". lL
ls noL lnadverLenL lf Lhe evldence was dlscovered by an offlcer afLer poklng around.

kequ|s|tes needed under the |a|n V|ew Doctr|ne: (38) Ia[ardo v. eop|e
1. Law enforcer ln search of Lhe evldence has a prlor [usLlflcaLlon for an lnLruslon or ls ln
a poslLlon from whlch he can vlew a parLlcular area
2. ulscovery of Lhe evldence ln plaln vlew ls lnadverLenL and
3. lL ls lmmedlaLely apparenL Lo Lhe offlcer LhaL Lhe lLem he observes may be evldence
of a crlme or sub[ecL Lo selzure

D. Customs Searches (28) apa v. Mago
An lndlvldual depuLlzed by Lhe Commlsslon of CusLoms for Lhe purpose of enforclng
cusLoms and Larlff laws may valldly search conLalners wlLhouL a warranL lf Lhere ls
reasonable cause Lo suspecL Lhe presence of duLlable arLlcles.
1he 1arlff and CusLoms Code auLhorlzes persons havlng pollce auLhorlLy Lo enLer and
search any land, dwelllng, warehouse, sLore or bulldlng, noL belng a dwelllng house,
and lnspecL ay vessel or alrcrafL suspecLed of holdlng duLlable or prohlblLed arLlcles.

L. Wa|ver of k|ght
8lghL agalnsL unreasonable searches may be walved expressly or lmplledly. Walver
can be shown by fallure Lo make an ob[ecLlon or proLesL.

Iu., p. 197
Iu., p. 198
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
A walver musL be undersLood Lo cover only whaL ls lncluded wlLhln Lhe Lerms of Lhe

kequ|s|tes of a va||d wa|ver (44) eop|e v. 8urgos
1. 1he rlghL exlsLs
2. 1he person lnvolved has knowledge, acLual or consLrucLlve, of Lhe exlsLence of such
3. 1he ald person had an acLual lnLenLlon Lo rellnqulsh Lhe rlghL

I. Lx|gent C|rcumstance
Came abouL durlng aLLempLs Lo overLhrow resldenL Cory Aqulno's admlnlsLraLlon. ln
eople v. ue Cracla, a survelllance Leam was flred upon by a group of men comlng ouL
of a bulldlng belleved Lo be used as headquarLers of 8AM.

G. Stop and Ir|sk ku|e
SLop and lrlsk" (1erry vs. Chlo): "a pollce offlcer may ln approprlaLe clrcumsLances
and ln an approprlaLe manner approach a person for Lhe purpose of lnvesLlgaLlng
posslble crlmlnal behavlour even Lhough Lhere ls no probable cause Lo make an
arresL." ln such a slLuaLlon, lL ls reasonable for an offlcer raLher Lhan allow a crlme Lo
occur, Lo sLop a susplclous lndlvldual brlefly Lo deLermlne hls ldenLlLy or malnLaln Lhe
sLaLus quo whlle obLalnlng more lnformaLlon." (31) osadas v. CA
SLop and lrlsk rule serves a Lwo-fold lnLeresL:
1. LffecLlve crlme prevenLlon and deLecLlon - under approprlaLe clrcumsLances and
manner, a pollce offlcer may approach a person Lo lnvesLlgaLe posslble crlmlnal
behavlor even wlLhouL probable cause. (48) Mana|||| v. CA
2. SafeLy and self-preservaLlon - for an offlcer Lo assure hlmself LhaL Lhe person he ls
deallng wlLh ls noL armed wlLh a deadly weapon LhaL can be faLally used agalnsL hlm.

II. Susp|c|on-|ess drug tests
1wo uS declslons (vernonla School ulsLrlcL v. AcLlon and 8oard of LducaLors v. Larls)
upheld Lhe pollcy of requlrlng drug LesLs for sLudenLs. 1he laLLer case lndlcaLed LhaL
whaL ls essenLlal are Lhe school's cusLodlal responslblllLy and auLhorlLy, naLure of
lnLruslon, confldenLlallLy of LesL resulLs, and leglLlmaLe governmenL lnLeresL.

Iu., p. 2uu

I. Arrests w|th warrant
A case Amarga v. Abbas held LhaL boLh search warranLs and warranLs of arresL musL
saLlsfy Lhe same requlremenLs as Lo probable cause and manner of lLs deLermlnaLlon.
A [udge musL personally examlne Lhe complalnanL and wlLnesses ln wrlLlng and under
oaLh before deLermlnlng probable cause and lssulng a warranL of arresL.

II. Warrant|ess Arrest
LxcepLlons Lo Lhe requlremenL of an arresL warranL are dlscussed ln Sect|on S, ku|e
113, ku|es on Cr|m|na| rocedure.

Sect|on S. !""#$% '(%)*+% , ',"",-%. ')#- /,'0+/ 1 A peace offlcer or prlvaLe
may wlLhouL a warranL, arresL a person:
a. When hls presence, person Lo be arresLed has commlLLed, ls acLually
commlLLlng, or aLLempLlng Lo commlL an offense,
b. When an offense has been commlLLed, and he has personal
knowledge of facLs lndlcaLlng LhaL person Lo be arresLed has
commlLLed lL,
c. When Lhe person Lo be arresLed ls a prlsoner who has escaped from
penal esLabllshmenL or place where he ls servlng flnal [udgmenL or
Lemporarlly conflned whlle hls case ls pendlng, or has escaped whlle
belng Lransferred from one conflnemenL Lo anoLher.

ln cases falllng under paragraphs a and b hereof, Lhe person arresLed wlLhouL
a warranL shall be forLhwlLh dellvered Lo Lhe nearesL pollce sLaLlon or [all, and
he shall be proceeded agalnsL ln accordance wlLh ku|e 112, Sect|on 7.

A. I|agrante De||cto
8elng caughL of possesslon of shabu or heroln Lhrough a rouLlne alrporL lnspecLlon ls
a valld arresL. (17) eop|e v. Woo|ock, (37) eop|e v. Canton
A buy-busL operaLlon ls a form of enLrapmenL where Lhe offlcer poses as a buyer. Pe
doesn'L lnsLlgaLe Lhe accused Lo commlL a crlme because Lhe seller" has already
declded Lo commlL a crlme. 1he offense happens ln hls presence, so Lhere ls no longer
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
a need for a warranL of arresL or for selzure of goods.

1he Lype of enLrapmenL forbldden by law ls lnduclng of anoLher who ls oLherwlse an
lnnocenL person Lo vlolaLe Lhe law. 1he crlmlnal lnLenL orlglnaLes ln Lhe mlnd of Lhe
enLrapplng person and Lhe accused ls lured lnLo commlLLlng Lhe offense.

Where Lhe crlmlnal lnLenL orlglnaLes from Lhe accused and Lhe crlmlnal offense ls
compleLed, a person acLlng as a decoy for Lhe sLaLe, or alded ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme Lo secure evldence, Lhere ls no enLrapmenL and Lhe accused musL be

8. When the off|cer has persona| know|edge of (1) the offense comm|tted or to be
comm|tted and (2) the |dent|ty of perpetrator
When Lhe knowledge of Lhe offlcer came enLlrely from anoLher, and aL Lhe Llme of
Lhe arresL Lhe defendanL was noL commlLLlng a crlme nor seemed Lo be ln Lhe process
of commlLLlng a crlme, Lhe warranLless arresL ls lnvalld. (44) eop|e v. 8urgos
ln warranLless arresLs, Lhe law LllLs ln favor of Lhe auLhorlLy.

ln conLlnulng crlmes", Lhe accused ls assumed Lo be always commlLLlng Lhe offense
even when asleep. Pence, he may be arresLed any Llme he may be encounLered.

V. When to cha||enge the va||d|ty of arrest
Sect|on 26, ku|e 114, kev|sed ku|es |n Cr|m|na| rocedure says LhaL an appllcaLlon for
ball or admlsslon Lo ball by an accused ls noL consldered a walver of hls rlghL Lo assall
Lhe warranL lssued for hls arresL or Lhe legallLles or lrregularlLles Lhereof.

VI. ASSCs and res|dent|a| Comm|tment Crders (CC)
ArresL, Search and Selzure Crders (ASSC) generally lssued by Lhe MlnlsLer of uefense
by vlrLue of Ceneral Crder no. 2-A lssued by Lhe resldenL pursuanL Lo Lhe
proclamaLlon of marLlal law. Search and selzures by Lhe mlllLary of persons suspecLed
Lo be parL of Lhe revoluLlonary groups used ASSC.
AfLer llfLlng marLlal law came Lhe resldenLlal CommlLmenL Crder (CC). lL was an

}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy 2uS (2uu9 eu.), p. 2u9
Iu., p. 21u.
Iu., p. 211
order for prevenLlve deLenLlon lssued by Lhe presldenL as Commander-ln-Chlef.

VII. Cther Cons|derat|ons |n determ|n|ng the va||d|ty of warrant|ess searches and arrests
1lme beLween Lhe recelpL of lnformaLlon and Lhe perlod where rald or arresL was Lo
be conducLed (24) Mn Garments v. CA, (43) eop|e v. Am|nnud|n
WheLher or noL Lhe person Lo be arresLed or Lhe placed Lo be searched ls known (3S)
eop|e v. Aruta, (36) Asunc|on v. CA
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
(1) 1he pr|vacy of commun|cat|on and correspondent sha|| be |nv|o|ab|e except upon
|awfu| order of the court, or when pub||c safety or order requ|res otherw|se as
prescr|bed by |aw.
(2) Any ev|dence obta|ned |n v|o|at|on of th|s or the preced|ng sect|on sha|| be
|nadm|ss|b|e for any purpose |n any proceed|ng.

!"#$%&'" ') *'++,"&*$-&'" $". *'//0%1'".0"*0 &% '"0 2&". ') %0$/*34

67'++,"&*$-&'" $". *'//0%1'".0"*08 &% -' 90 ,%0. &" &-% :0"0/$; %0"%04 <3,%= &-
*'#0/% $;; )'/+% ') *'++,"&*$-&'" %,*3 $% ;0--0/%= 13'"0 *$;;%= $". 0#0" 0;0*-/'"&*
*'++,"&*$-&'" ;&20 0+$&;= -0>- +0%%$:&":= 0-*4 ?1) Sa|cedo-Crtanez v. CA, (2)
2u|ueta v. CA
@$/- ') $ 10/%'"A% 1/&#$*B &% 3&% /&:3- -' 2001 *0/-$&" &")'/+$-&'" $9',- 3&+%0;)
1/&#$-04 C;-3',:3 &) %,*3 &")'/+$-&'" &% 1,9;&* $". +$.0 $#$&;$9;0 9B -30 10/%'"
1/&'/ -' -30 :'#0/"+0"-A% &"%-&-,-&'" ') $ 1';&*B $%2&": )'/ %,*3 &")'/+$-&'" -' 90
+$.0 1,9;&*= -30" %,*3 &% "'- $ #&';$-&'" ') '"0A% 1/&#$*B4 (S) kMU v. NLDA

<30 1/0%0"- )'/+ ') -30 0>*;,%&'"$/B /,;0 D$% $" $.$1-$-&'" ') -30 6)/,&- ') -30
1'&%'"0. -/008 .'*-/&"0 0","*&$-0. &" E-'"03&;; #4 F&'2"'4 !- D$% &"*'/1'/$-0. &"-'
-30 5GHI 7'"%-&-,-&'" $". -30" &"-' -30 5GJH 7'"%-&-,-&'"4 <3,%= &- &% "' ;'":0/
%,9K0*- -' -30 #$:$/&0% ') $ );,*-,$-&": K,.&*&$; *;&+$-04
(1) Sa|cedo-Crtanez v. CA
!" -30 $9%0"*0 ') :'#0/"+0"- &"-0/)0/0"*0= *'"%-&-,-&'"$; /&:3-% *$""'- 90 &"#'20.
$:$&"%- -30 %-$-04 <30 M&;; ') N&:3-% .'0% "'- 1/'-0*- *&-&O0"% )/'+ ,"/0$%'"$9;0
%0$/*30% $". %0&O,/0% 10/10-/$-0. 9B 1/&#$-0 &".&#&.,$;% ?$;-3',:3 %,*3 $*- +$B
/0%,;- &" *&#&; '/ */&+&"$; ;&$9&;&-&0%P4 !" Q$;20/ #4 E-$-0= &- D$% 30;. -3$- -30 %0$/*3
$". %0&O,/0 *;$,%0% $/0 /0%-/$&"-% ,1'" -30 :'#0/"+0"- $". &-% $:0"-%= "'- ,1'"
1/&#$-0 &".&#&.,$;%. (3) eop|e v. Mart|
@/'*0.,/$; .,0 1/'*0%% /0R,&/0% -3$- $" 0+1;'B00 90 $11/&%0. ') -30 *3$/:0
$:$&"%- 3&+= :&#0" /0$%'"$9;0 -&+0 -' $"%D0/ -30 *3$/:0= $;;'D0. $+1;0

}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy 2uS (2uu9 eu.), p.217
Iu., p. 229
'11'/-,"&-B -' 90 30$/. $". .0)0". 3&+%0;)= $". $%%&%-0. 9B $ /01/0%0"-$-&#0 &) -30
0+1;'B00 %' .0%&/0%4 C+1;0 '11'/-,"&-B *'""'-0% 0#0/B 2&". ') $%%&%-$"*0 -3$-
+$"$:0+0"- +,%- $**'/. -30 0+1;'B00 -' 0"$9;0 3&+ -' 1/01$/0 $.0R,$-0;B )'/
3&% .0)0"%0= &"*;,.&": ;0:$; /01/0%0"-$-&'"4 (4) Waterous Drug Corp. v. NLkC

<30 *'"%-&-,-&'"$; &++,"&-B )/'+ ,"/0$%'"$9;0 %0$/*30% $". %0&O,/0%= 90&":
10/%'"$; '"0= *$""'- 90 D$&#0. 9B $"B'"0 0>*01- -30 10/%'" D3'%0 /&:3-% $/0
&"#$.0. '/ '"0 D3' &% 0>1/0%%;B $,-3'/&O0. -' .' %' &" 3&% '/ 30/ 903$;)4 (6) eop|e
v. Damaso
7'"%0"- -' $ %0$/*3 &% $ D$&#0/ -' -30 0>-0"- -3$- -30 *'"%0"- &% :&#0"4 (7) Veroy v.
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
No |aw sha|| be passed abr|dg|ng the freedom of speech, of express|on, or of the press, or
of the r|ght of the peop|e peaceab|y to assemb|e and pet|t|on the government for redress
of gr|evances.

I. Genera| r|nc|p|es
Iree speech and free press. 1he llberLy Lo dlscuss publlcly and LruLhfully any maLLer
of publlc lnLeresL wlLhouL censorshlp and punlshmenL. 1here ls Lo be no prlor
resLralnL on Lhe communlcaLlon of vlews or subsequenL llablllLy wheLher ln llbel
sulLs, prosecuLlon for sedlLlon, or acLlon for damages, or conLempL proceedlngs
unless Lhere be a clear and presenL danger of subsLanLlve evll LhaL Congress has a
rlghL Lo prevenL. (6) Newsounds v. Dy
Iree speech |s accorded the status of preferred freedom. (1S) Ad|ong v. CCMLLLC
o 1hls sLaLus arlses from Lhe facL LhaL lL ls an lndlspensable condlLlon Lo of
nearly all oLher freedoms.
Ireedom of Speech, Lxpress|on, and of the ress. (Chavez v. Gonza|es)
o 1he ldeas expressed under Lhls freedom are conflned noL only Lo Lhose who
are convenLlonal and accepLable Lo Lhe ma[orlLy buL also Lhose LhaL presenL
Lhe arLlculaLlon of Lhe unorLhodox vlew LhoughL lL be hosLlle Lo or derlded
by oLhers.
o 1he scope of freedom of expresslon ls so broad LhaL lL exLends proLecLlon Lo
nearly all forms of communlcaLlon.
D|chotomy of Iree ress: r|nt v. 8roadcast Med|a (Chavez v. Gonza|es)
o u.S. CourLs have excluded broadcasL medla from Lhe appllcaLlon of Lhe
sLrlcL scruLlny sLandard because of Lhree ma[or reasons (lnsLead Lhe
lnLermedlaLe approach applles):
! ScarclLy of Lhe frequencles by whlch Lhe medlum operaLes.
! ervaslveness as a medlum.
! unlque accesslblllLy Lo chlldren.
o Powever, ln Lhls [urlsdlcLlon, cases show Lwo dlsLlncL feaLures of Lhls
! 1he dlfference ln LreaLmenL ls ln Lhe regulaLory scheme applled Lo
broadcasL medla LhaL ls noL lmposed on LradlLlonal prlnL medla, and
narrowly conflned Lo unproLecLed speech (e.g. obscenlLy,
pornography), or ls based on compelllng governmenL lnLeresL LhaL
also has consLlLuLlonal proLecLlon, such as naLlonal securlLy of Lhe
elecLoral process.
! 8egardless of Lhe regulaLory schemes LhaL broadcasL medla ls
sub[ecLed Lo, Lhe CourL has conslsLenLly held LhaL Lhe clear and
presenL danger LesL applles Lo conLenL-based resLrlcLlons on medla,
wlLhouL maklng a dlsLlncLlon as Lo LradlLlonal prlnL or broadcasL

II. D|fferent|at|on: L|m|ts and kestra|nts of Iree Speech. (Chavez v. Gonza|es)
3 LesLs LhaL deLermlne Lhe valldlLy of resLralnLs on freedom of speech and
expresslon (D8C)
1. !"#$%&'() +%#,%#-. !'-/&0#%1 ermlLs llmlLaLlons once a raLlonal connecLlon has
been esLabllshed beLween Lhe speech resLralned and Lhe danger conLemplaLed.
o Such LhaL lf Lhe words uLLered creaLe a dangerous Lendency whlch Lhe
sLaLe has a rlghL Lo prevenL, Lhen such words are punlshable." lL ls noL
necessary LhaL some deflnlLe or lmmedlaLe acLs of force, vlolence, or
unlawfulness be advocaLed. lL ls sufflclenL LhaL such acLs be advocaLed ln
general Lerms. (9) Gonza|ez v. CCMLLLC
2. 2"3"#-0#$ '4 5#/%&%)/) +%)/1 used when Lhere ls a need Lo balance confllcLlng soclal
values and lndlvldual lnLeresLs, requlres a consclous and deLalled conslderaLlon of
Lhe lnLerplay of lnLeresLs observable ln a glven slLuaLlon.
3. 63%"& "#, 7&%)%#/ !"#$%& 8(3%1 Speech may be resLralned because Lhere ls
subsLanLlal danger LhaL Lhe speech wlll llkely lead Lo an evll Lhe governmenL has Lo
prevenL (subsLanLlve, exLremely serlous danger where Lhe degree of lmmlnence ls
really hlgh). (8) Denn|s v. US
o Clear and presenL danger" does noL mean Lhe governmenL may noL acL unLll
Lhe uLsch (uprlslng"/"revolL") has been ploLLed and on ls Lhe verge of belng
execuLed. (8) Denn|s v. US

III. Anatomy of kestr|ct|ons: r|or kestra|nt, Content-Neutra| and Content-8ased
kegu|at|ons (Chavez v. Gonza|es)
7&0'& 8%)/&"0#/1 Cfflclal governmenL resLrlcLlons on Lhe press or oLher forms of
expresslon ln advance of acLual publlcaLlon or dlssemlnaLlon, deLermlned on a case-
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
Lo-case basls, always LesLed by scruLlnlzlng Lhe governmenLal lssuance or acL agalnsL
Lhe clrcumsLances ln whlch Lhey operaLe, and Lhen deLermlnlng Lhe approprlaLe LesL
wlLh whlch Lo evaluaLe.
6'#/%#/9:%(/&"3 8%$(3"/0'#1 Merely concerned wlLh Lhe lncldenLs of Lhe speech, or
one LhaL merely conLrols Lhe Llme, place or manner, and under well deflned
o 8egulaLlons of Lhls Lype are noL deslgned Lo suppress any parLlcular
message, Lhey are noL sub[ecL Lo Lhe sLrlcLesL form of [udlclal scruLlny by an
lnLermedlaLe approach (somewhere beLween Lhe mere raLlonallLy LhaL ls
requlred of any oLher law and Lhe compelllng lnLeresL sLandard applled Lo
conLenL-based regulaLlons).
o C'8r|en 1est (CSUL) " Lhls LesL provldes LhaL a governmenL regulaLlon ls
sufflclenLly [usLlfled lf: (18) SWS v. CCMLLLC
1. lL ls wlLhln Lhe consLlLuLlonal power of Lhe governmenL.
2. lL furLhers an lmporLanL or subsLanLlal governmenLal lnLeresL.
3. 1he governmenLal lnLeresL ls unrelaLed Lo Lhe suppresslon of free
4. 1he lncldenL resLrlcLlon on alleged llrsL AmendmenL freedoms ls no greaLer
Lhan ls essenLlal Lo Lhe furLherance of LhaL lnLeresL.
6'#/%#/92")%, 8%)/&"0#/ '& 6%#)'&);0<1 8esLrlcLlon based on Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of
Lhe uLLerance or speech.
o lL has Lo pass Lhe clear and presenL danger rule for lL Lo be accepLed.

IV. Gu|de||nes for |nfer|or courts and quas|-[ud|c|a| adm|n|strat|ve tr|buna|s (6)
Newsounds v. Dy
1. 1he seven requlslLes of admlnlsLraLlve proceedlngs ln Ang 1lbay v. Cl8 should be
followed before a broadcasL sLaLlon ls closed or lLs operaLlons curLalled.
o 8lghL Lo a hearlng (lncludes rlghL Lo presenL one's case and submlL evldence
ln supporL Lhereof)
o 1rlbunal musL conslder Lhe evldence presenLed
o ueclslon musL have someLhlng Lo supporL lLself
o Lvldence musL be subsLanLlal
! SubsLanLlal evldence: reasonable evldence as a reasonable mlnd
mlghL accepL as adequaLe Lo supporL a concluslon
o ueclslon musL be based on Lhe evldence presenLed aL Lhe hearlng (aL leasL
conLalned ln Lhe record and dlsclosed Lo Lhe parLles affecLed)
o 1rlbunal, body or any of lLs [udges musL acL on lLs or hls own lndependenL
conslderaLlon of Lhe law and facLs of Lhe conLroversy and noL slmply accepL
Lhe vlews of a subordlnaLe
o 1he board or body should render lLs declslon ln such a manner LhaL Lhe
parLles Lo Lhe proceedlng can know Lhe varlous lssued lnvolved and Lhe
reasons for Lhe declslon rendered.
2. Whlle Lhere ls no conLrolllng and preclse deflnlLlon of due process, lL furnlshes an
unavoldable sLandard Lo whlch governmenL acLlon musL conform ln order LhaL any
deprlvaLlon of llfe, llberLy, or properLy, ln each approprlaLe case, may be valld.
3. Medla ls enLlLled Lo Lhe broad proLecLlon of freedom of speech and expresslon
clause. 1he LesL for llmlLaLlons on freedom of expresslon ls Lhe clear and presenL
danger rule (LhaL words are used ln such clrcumsLances and are of such naLure as Lo
creaLe a clear and presenL danger LhaL Lhey wlll brlng abouL Lhe subsLanLlve evlls
LhaL Lhe lawmaker has a rlghL Lo prevenL).
4. 8roadcasLlng has Lo be llcensed. 1he freedom of Lelevlslon and radlo broadcasLlng ls
somewhaL lesser ln scope Lhan prlnL medla. 1hls ls because (1) broadcasL medla ls
more pervaslve and (2) easlly accesslble Lo chlldren. 8ecause of lLs pervaslveness,
Lhe lmpacL of lnflammaLory or offenslve speech on people would be dlfflculL Lo
monlLor or predlcL. unllke readers of Lhe prlnLed work, Lhe radlo (and Lelevlslon)
audlence has lesser opporLunlLy Lo coglLaLe, analyze and re[ecL Lhe uLLerance."
3. 1he clear and presenL danger LesL musL Lake Lhe parLlcular clrcumsLance of
broadcasL medla lnLo accounL. 1here has Lo be a balance beLween Lhe governmenL's
rlghL Lo be proLecLed agalnsL broadcasLs whlch lnclLe llsLeners Lo overLhrow lL, and
Lhe people's rlghL Lo be lnformed.
6. 1he freedom Lo commenL on publlc affalrs ls essenLlal Lo Lhe vlLallLy of a
represenLaLlve democracy.
7. 8roadcasL sLaLlons deserve Lhe speclal proLecLlon glven Lo all forms of medla by Lhe
due process and freedom of expresslon clauses of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon (Sect|on 1 and
Sect|on 4, Art|c|e 3, 1987 Const|tut|on).

V. Iree ress and Speech v|s--v|s Ind|v|dua| r|ghts (e.g. r|ght to pr|vacy)
A. ress (Newspapers and er|od|ca|s)
lreedom of Lhe ress (Chavez v. Gonza|es)
o MosL pervaslve and powerful vehlcle of oplnlon on publlc quesLlons.
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
o WlLhouL a vlgllanL press, Lhe mlsLakes of every admlnlsLraLlon would go
uncorrecLed and lLs abuses unexposed.
o Clven lLs conLrlbuLlons Lo Lhe publlc, Lhe press deserves exLra proLecLlon.
1he llberLy of Lhe press, and of speech, ls wlLhln Lhe llberLy safeguarded by Lhe due
process clause of Lhe 14
AmendmenL from lnvaslon by sLaLe acLlon (1) Near v.
o 1hls lmmunlLy from prevlous resLralnL, however, ls noL absoluLe.
! Lxample: ln Llmes of war, Lhere are some Lhlngs whlch Lhe press
cannoL reporL on lesL lL [eopardlze mlllLary operaLlons.
o Ln[olnlng press upon mere proof of publlcaLlon ls lnvalld prlor resLralnL. 1he
proper remedy for such klnd of publlcaLlons ls a llbel case flled agalnsL Lhe
publlshers, noL an ln[uncLlon. ln a llbel case, Lhe facLual bases of Lhe
publlcaLlons are examlned.
o 1he burden of proof ls upon Lhe governmenL Lo show cause as Lo why such
arLlcles should noL be publlshed (3) N 1|mes v. US
Llbel laws proLecL Lwo separaLe lnLeresLs of Lhe lndlvldual (2S) kosenb|oom v.
1. Pls deslre Lo preserve prlvacy from lnLruslon
2. 1o preserve hls good name and repuLaLlon.
1he lmmunlLy en[oyed by Lhe press presupposes LhaL Lhe derogaLory lnformaLlon
Lhey publlsh are boLh /&(% "#, 4"0&= "#, >",% 0# $'', 4"0/; wlLhouL any commenLs
or remarks. (22) o||carp|o v. Man||a 1|mes
1reat|se of Newe|| on S|ander and L|be|: ubllcaLlon of a person's phoLograph ln
connecLlon wlLh an arLlcle llbelous of a Lhlrd person, ls a llbel on Lhe person whose
plcLure ls publlshed, where Lhe acLs seL ouL ln Lhe arLlcle are lmpuLed Lo such
person." (23) Lopez v. CA
8eLracLlon or correcLlon does noL wlpe ouL Lhe responslblllLy arlslng from Lhe
publlcaLlon of Lhe flrsL arLlcle. lL merely mlLlgaLes lL. (22) o||carp|o v. Man||a 1|mes
ln cases of reLracLlon or correcLlon: (23) Lopez v. CA
o newspaper: should noL be held Lo accounL Lo a polnL of suppresslon for
honesL mlsLakes or lmperfecLlon ln Lhe cholce of words" because lL ls under
pressure of a dally deadllne.
o Magazlne: Lhere ls no such pressure so correcLlons do noL wlpe ouL Lhe
llablllLy for Lhe flrsL mlsLake.
A publlcaLlon ls 30?%3'() <%& )% lf Lhe words Lend Lo ln[ure a person ln hls repuLaLlon
or Lo brlng hlm lnLo publlc conLempL. Cnce llbel per se has been esLabllshed, Lhe
defendanL has no defense as Lo sLaLed facLs unless he can persuade Lhe [ury LhaL
Lhey were Lrue ln all Lhelr parLlculars. (24) New ork 1|mes Co. v. Su|||van
1. A rule compelllng Lhe crlLlc of offlclal conducL Lo guaranLee Lhe LruLh of all
hls facLual asserLlons - and Lo do so on paln of llbel [udgmenLs vlrLually
unllmlLed ln amounL - leads Lo a comparable self-censorshlp".
2. 1he consLlLuLlonal guaranLees requlre a federal rule LhaL prohlblLs a publlc
offlclal from recoverlng damages for a defamaLory falsehood relaLlng Lo hls
offlclal conducL unless he proves LhaL Lhe sLaLemenL was made wlLh "-/("3
>"30-% l.e. wlLh knowledge LhaL lL was false or wlLh reckless dlsregard of
wheLher lL was false or noL.

8. Mot|on |cture]1V]kad|o
1he freedom of fllms, Lelevlslon and radlo broadcasLlng ls somewhaL lesser ln scope
Lhan Lhe freedom accorded Lo newspapers and oLher prlnL medla, slnce Lhe medlum
ls more pervaslve (Chavez v. Gonza|es)
noLhlng ln naLlonal law exempLs medla enLlLles from belng requlred Lo obLaln
permlLs or llcenses from local governmenLs ln Lhe same manner as oLher buslnesses
are expecLed Lo do so, so long as such requlremenL has been duly ordalned Lhrough
local leglslaLlon and conLenL-neuLral ln characLer. no oLher resLralnLs are allowed by
law. (6) Newsounds v. Dy
A noncrlmlnal process whlch requlres Lhe prlor submlsslon of a fllm Lo a censor
avolds consLlLuLlonal lnflrmlLy only lf lL Lakes place under procedural safeguards
deslgned Lo obvlaLe Lhe dangers of a censorshlp sysLem. (2) Ireedman v. Mary|and
Censorshlp musL show proof of a clear and presenL danger of a subsLanLlve evll. (31)
Gonza|es v. ka|aw-kat|gbak
1hree guldellnes as adequaLe safeguards Lo proLecL agalnsL Lhe undue lnhlblLlon of
proLecLed expresslon" (2) Ireedman v. Mary|and
1. lace Lhe burden of provlng Lhe fllm ls unproLecLed expresslon upon Lhe
2. 8equlre [udlclal deLermlnaLlon Lo lmpose a valld deLermlnaLlon, and
3. 8equlre prompL deLermlnaLlon wlLhln a speclfled Llme perlod."
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
ower of Lhe [censorshlp] 8oard ls llmlLed Lo Lhe classlflcaLlon of fllms, buL lL cannoL
lmpose a censorshlp ln Lhe producLlon of movles, whlch would consLlLuLe a prlor
resLralnL. (31) Gonza|es v. ka|aw-kat|gbak
Congress can granL an admlnlsLraLlve body quasl-[udlclal power Lo prevlew and
classlfy 1v programs and enforce lLs declslon sub[ecL Lo revlew by our courLs (28)
INC v. CA (Sect|on S)
o resumpLlon ls ln favor of Lhe correcLness of hls acLlon and courLs wlll noL
lnLerfere wlLh hls declslon unless clearly of oplnlon LhaL lL was wrong.

C. r|vacy of pr|vate and pub||c f|gures]cr|t|c|sm of courts:
1he proLecLlon of Lhe rlghL of lndlvldual persons Lo prlvaLe repuLaLlon ls also a
maLLer of publlc lnLeresL and musL be reckoned wlLh as a facLor ln ldenLlfylng and
laylng down Lhe norms concernlng Lhe exerclse of press freedom and free speech.
ub||c I|gures
o ubllc llgure" " erson who, by hls accompllshmenLs, fame, or mode of
llvlng, or by adopLlng a professlon or calllng whlch glves Lhe publlc a
leglLlmaLe lnLeresL ln hls dolngs, hls affalrs, and hls characLer. Pe ls oLher
words a celebrlLy. Pe has achleved some degree of repuLaLlon by appearlng
before Lhe publlc. 1he publlc aLLenLlon ls focused upon hlm as a person. (11)
Ayer roduct|ons v. Capu|ong
o 1he rlghL of prlvacy or Lhe rlghL Lo be leL alone, llke Lhe rlghL of free
expresslon, ls noL an absoluLe rlghL (11) Ayer roduct|ons v. Capu|ong
! A llmlLed lnLruslon lnLo a person's prlvacy has long been regarded as
permlsslble where:
1haL person ls a publlc flgure
1he lnformaLlon soughL Lo be ellclLed from hlm or Lo be
publlshed abouL hlm consLlLuLe of a publlc characLer.
! 1he lnLeresL soughL Lo be proLecLed by Lhe rlghL of prlvacy ls Lhe
rlghL Lo be free from unwarranLed publlclLy, from Lhe wrongful
publlclzlng of Lhe prlvaLe affalrs and acLlvlLles of an lndlvldual whlch
are ouLslde Lhe realm of leglLlmaLe publlc conern.
o ubllc flgures may hold a speaker llable for Lhe damage Lo repuLaLlon
caused by publlcaLlon of a defamaLory falsehood, buL only lf Lhe sLaLemenL
was made wlLh knowledge LhaL lL was false or wlLh reckless dlsregard of
wheLher lL was false or noL (l.e. acLual mallce)." (27) nust|er Magaz|ne v.
! ubllc flgures and publlc offlclals may noL recover for Lhe LorL of
lnLenLlonal lnfllcLlon of emoLlonal dlsLress by reason of publlcaLlons
such as Lhe one here aL lssue wlLhouL showlng ln addlLlon LhaL Lhe
publlcaLlon conLalns a false sLaLemenL of facL whlch was made wlLh
acLual mallce." (27) nust|er Magaz|ne v. Ia|we||
r|vate Ind|v|dua|s (26) Gertz. v. We|ch
o A publlsher or broadcasLer of defamaLory falsehoods abouL prlvaLe
lndlvldual flgures may noL clalm Lhe new ?ork 1lmes proLecLlon agalnsL
llablllLy for defamaLlon on Lhe ground LhaL Lhe defamaLory sLaLemenLs
concern an lssue of publlc or general lnLeresL, because Lhey are noL.
o ulfferences beLween prlvaLe and publlc lndlvlduals
ub||c I|gure r|vate Ind|v|dua|
ubllc flgures usually en[oy slgnlflcanLly
greaLer access Lo Lhe channels of effecLlve
communlcaLlon and hence have a more
reallsLlc opporLunlLy Lo counLeracL false
sLaLemenLs Lhan prlvaLe lndlvlduals normally
rlvaLe lndlvlduals are more vulnerable Lo
ln[ury, and Lhe sLaLe lnLeresL ln proLecLlng
Lhem ls correspondlngly greaLer.
A publlc flgure runs Lhe rlsk of closer publlc
scruLlny as a necessary consequence of LhaL
lnvolvemenL ln publlc affalrs. 1hose who
aLLaln Lhe sLaLus of a publlc flgure have
assumed roles of especlal promlnence ln Lhe
affalrs of socleLy and by LhaL reason Lhey
lnvlLe aLLenLlon and commenL.
A prlvaLe lndlvldual has rellnqulshed no parL
of hls lnLeresL ln Lhe proLecLlon of hls own
good name, and consequenLly he has a more
compelllng call on Lhe courLs for redress of
ln[ury lnfllcLed by defamaLory falsehood.
Cr|t|c|sm of the courts
o Pls leLLer ls full of conLempLuous remarks Lendlng Lo degrade Lhe dlgnlLly of
Lhe Supreme CourL (SC) and erode publlc confldence LhaL should be
accorded lL. SC does noL prohlblL a lawyer Lo be crlLlcal of Lhe courLs and
[udges as long as Lhey are made ln properly respecLful Lerms and Lhrough
leglLlmaLe channels (12) koxas v De 2uzuarregu|
o !udges volunLarlly sub[ecL Lhemselves Lo norms of conducL, whlch embody
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
more sLrlngenL sLandards of honesLly, lnLegrlLy, and compeLence Lhan are
requlred from prlvaLe persons (28) In re Iurado
! 1hey have no forfelLed any rlghL Lo prlvaLe honor and repuLaLlon
! 1he polnL of ad[usLmenL or accommodaLlon beLween Lhese Lwo
leglLlmaLe lnLeresLs ls found ln Lhe norm whlch requlres Lhose who,
lnvoklng freedom of speech, publlsh sLaLemenLs whlch are clearly
defamaLory Lo ldenLlflable [udges or oLher publlc offlclals Lo exerclse
bona flde care ln ascerLalnlng Lhe LruLh of Lhe sLaLemenLs Lhey
Cther Concepts: (29) 8or[a| v. CA
o Abso|ute pr|v||eged commun|cat|ons are Lhose noL acLlonable even lf Lhe
auLhor of such communlcaLlon ls ln bad falLh.
o ua||f|ed|y pr|v||eged commun|cat|ons are Lhose conLalnlng defamaLory
lmpuLaLlons LhaL are non-acLlonable unless Lhey are found Lo be mallclous
and false.
o Doctr|ne of Ia|r Comment: Whlle Lhe general rule sLaLes LhaL every
dlscredlLable lmpuLaLlon agalnsL a person ls deemed false, Lhe excepLlon
sLaLes LhaL lf Lhe lmpuLaLlon ls dlrecLed agalnsL a publlc offlclal, lL ls noL
necessarlly acLlonable. lL musL be proven Lo be a false allegaLlon based on a
false supposlLlon. lf Lhe commenL ls a mere oplnlon based on esLabllshed
facLs, Lhen lL ls lmmaLerlal LhaL Lhe oplnlon be mlsLaken, as long as lL may be
reasonably lnferred from Lhe facLs.
Cther Notes (from Dean Cade|ar|a's d|scuss|on)
ln crlLlclzlng courLs:
o SLrlcLer sLandards wlLh Lhe SC, belng Lhe hlghesL courL of Lhe land
o Lower courL [udges are open Lo crlLlclsm
o rlvaLe ersons - compleLe proLecLlon
o ubllc Cfflclal
! rlvaLe llfe - proLecLed
! ubllc llfe - more open Lo scruLlny
o A publlc flgure ls noL always necessarlly a publlc servanL (llke Manny
acqulao)l buL a publlc servanL ls always necessarlly a publlc flgure.

VI. Speech and L|ectora| rocess
A. Genera| o|nts
A clear and presenL danger musL be shown Lo effecL a conLenL-based regulaLlon (1S)
Ad|ong v. CCMLLLC
8egulaLlon of elecLlon campalgn may noL pass Lhe LesL of valldlLy lf lL ls Loo general
ln lLs Lerms or noL llmlLed ln Llme and scope ln lLs appllcaLlon, lf lL resLrlcLs one's
expresslon of bellef ln a candldaLe or one's oplnlon of hls or her quallflcaLlons, lf lL
cuLs off Lhe flow of medla reporLlng, and lf Lhe regulaLory measure bears no clear
and reasonable nexus wlLh Lhe consLlLuLlonally sancLloned ob[ecLlve. (14) Nat|ona|
ress C|ub v. CCMLLLC
rohlblLlon on columnlsLs, commenLaLors, and announcers Lo use Lhelr column,
radlo or Lelevlslon Llme Lo campalgn for or agalnsL pleblsclLe lssues on pleblsclLe day
ls conLenL-based. Pere Lhe CCMLLLC has acLed beyond lLs power and such
resLrlcLlon ls noL saLlsfled by Lhe LesL. (13) San|dad v. CCMLLLC
A 13- and 7-day walL perlod for Lhe release of survey resulLs ls more Lhan necessary
Lo furLher Lhe governmenLal lnLeresL. 1hls falls Lhe C'8rlen 1esL for conLenL-neuLral
resLrlcLlons (18) SWS v. CCMLLLC

8. Not Content-8ased kestr|ct|on (14) Nat|ona| ress C|ub v. CCMLLLC
lL does noL purporL ln any way Lo resLrlcL Lhe reporLlng by newspapers or radlo or
Lelevlslon sLaLlons of news or news-worLhy evenLs relaLlng Lo Lhe elecLlons.
lL does noL reach commenLarles and expresslons of bellef or oplnlon by reporLers
or broadcasLers or edlLors or commenLaLors or columnlsLs xxx so long aL leasL as
such commenLs, oplnlons and bellefs are noL ln facL adverLlsemenLs for parLlcular
candldaLes coverLly pald for."

C. Content-8ased kestr|ct|ons
1he prohlblLlon use of properLy Lo campalgn would noL only deprlve Lhe owner -
who consenLs Lo such posLlng - Lhe use of hls properLy buL more lmporLanL, ln Lhe
process, lL would deprlve Lhe clLlzen of hls rlghL Lo free speech ln LhaL he cannoL
supporL, uslng hls properLy, Lhe candldaLe whom he wlshes Lo be elecLed. (1S)
Ad|ong v. CCMLLLC
Lx|t po||s generaLe lmporLanL research daLa whlch may be used Lo sLudy lnfluenclng
facLors and Lrends ln voLlng behavlor. (17) A8S-C8N v. CCMLLLC
o An absoluLe prohlblLlon of such would Lhus be unreasonably resLrlcLlve.
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
! revenLs elecLlon-day pro[ecLlons.
! revenLs long-Lerm research.

VII. Commerc|a| Speech
Commerclal speech " speech LhaL concerns only commerclal or economlc acLlvlLy.
o CovernmenL's rlghL Lo regulaLe commerclal speech ls greaLer Lhan lLs rlghL
Lo regulaLe non-commerclal speech, buL lL musL esLabllsh a reasonable flL
beLween lLs regulaLlon an Lhe goals soughL Lo be achleved. (20) C|nc|nnat| v.
D|scovery Network
Centra| nudson 1est. 1esL Lo deLermlne wheLher a resLrlcLlon on commerclal
speech passes Lhe scruLlny of Lhe llrsL AmendmenL prohlblLlon (LSun).
1. Commerclal speech musL concern lawful acLlvlLy and ls noL mlsleadlng
2. 1here ls subsLanLlal governmenL lnLeresL
3. 1he regulaLlon dlrecLly advances Lhe asserLed governmenL lnLeresL.
4. WheLher lL ls noL more exLenslve Lhan necessary Lo serve LhaL lnLeresL.
8ann|ng s|gns a|together |s content-based. A Llme, place and manner resLrlcLlon ls
permlsslble (conLenL-neuLral), buL such resLralnLs lmposed such as Lo ban a mode of
expresslon wlLhouL leavlng an alLernaLlve medlum ls conLenL-based. lL was noL Lled
Lo a harm LhaL pollce power could prevenL. (21) C|ty of Ladue v. G|||eo

VIII. Cbscen|ty
CbscenlLy ls noL proLecLed by Lhe llrsL AmendmenL. (30) M|||er v. Ca||forn|a
o nudlLy " Lhe showlng of Lhe human male or female genlLals, publc area, or
buLLocks wlLh less Lhan a fully opaque coverlng, Lhe showlng of Lhe female
breasL wlLh less Lhan a fully opaque coverlng of any parL of Lhe nlpple, or
Lhe showlng of Lhe covered male genlLals ln a dlscernlbly Lurgld sLaLe. (33)
8arnes v. G|en 1heater
8as|c gu|de||ne for the tr|er of fact (V) - U.S. Standards
1. WheLher Lhe average person, applylng conLemporary communlLy sLandards
would flnd Lhe work, Laken as a whole, appeals Lo Lhe <&(&0%#/ 0#/%&%)/1
2. WheLher Lhe work deplcLs or descrlbes, ln <"/%#/3. '44%#)0@% A".= sexual
conducL speclflcally deflned by Lhe appllcable sLaLe law.
3. WheLher Lhe work, Laken as a whole, lacks serlous llLerary, arLlsLlc, pollLlcal,
or sclenLlflc @"3(%1
Cffens|veness of the mater|a| Lo be deLermlned on communlLy and noL naLlonal
sLandards. (30) M|||er v. Ca||forn|a
1est to determ|ne obscen|ty (h|||pp|ne Standards). WheLher Lo Lhe average
person, applylng conLemporary communlLy sLandards would flnd Lhe work, Laken as
a whole, appeals Lo Lhe <&(&0%#/ 0#/%&%)/1 (31) Gonza|es v. ka|aw-kat|gbak

Ik. Assemb|y and et|t|on
A. Assemb|y
k|ght to peaceab|e assemb|e |s ||m|tab|e. 1he rlghL Lo peaceably assemble and
peLlLlon for redress of grlevances en[oys prlmacy ln Lhe realm of consLlLuLlonal
proLecLlon. Powever, Lhe exerclse of Lhose rlghLs ls noL absoluLe for lL may be so
regulaLed under Lhe exerclse of soverelgn pollce power, upon showlng of a clear
and presenL danger of subsLanLlve evll LhaL Lhe SLaLe has a rlghL Lo prevenL. (43)
8ayan v. Lrm|ta
o 1he governmenL has Lhe rlghL Lo regulaLe Lhe Llme and manner of an
assembly Lo allow for mlnlmal dlsrupLlon of socleLy's dally llfe. (34) Navarro
v. V|||egas
o lreedom of speech and assembly cannoL be unduly llmlLed. 1he only
[usLlflable resLrlcLlon on Lhese fundamenLal llberLles ls a sLrong showlng of a
clear and presenL danger of a subsLanLlve evll LhaL Lhe sLaLe has Lhe rlghL
Lo prevenL". (41) I8L keyes v. Mayor 8agats|ng
1he rlghL Lo assemble ls noL sub[ecL Lo prevlous resLralnL or censorshlp. lL may noL
be condlLloned upon Lhe prlor lssuance of a permlL or auLhorlzaLlon from Lhe
governmenL auLhorlLles excepL lf Lhe assembly ls lnLended Lo be held ln a publlc
place, a permlL for Lhe use of such place, and noL for Lhe assembly lLself, may be
valldly requlred (Chavez v. Gonza|es)
under 8.. 880, Lhe auLhorlLy Lo regulaLe assemblles and rallles ls lodged wlLh Lhe
LCus. 1hey have Lhe power Lo lssue permlLs and Lo revoke such permlLs afLer due
noLlce and hearlng on Lhe deLermlnaLlon of Lhe presence of clear and presenL
danger. (Chavez v. Gonza|es)
CourL's guldellnes lf Lhe assembly ls Lo be held ln school premlses: (42) Ma|abanan
v. kamento
1. ermlL musL be soughL from lLs school auLhorlLles, who are devold of Lhe
power Lo deny such requesL arblLrarlly or unreasonably.
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
2. ln granLlng such permlL, Lhere may be condlLlons as Lo Lhe Llme and place of
Lhe assembly Lo avold dlsrupLlon of classes or sLoppage of work of Lhe non-
academlc personnel.
3. Lven lf, however, Lhere be vlolaLlons of lLs Lerms, Lhe penalLy lncurred
should noL be dlsproporLlonaLe Lo Lhe offense.
4. 1helr exerclse Lo dlscuss maLLers affecLlng Lhelr welfare or lnvolvlng publlc
lnLeresL ls noL Lo be sub[ecLed Lo prevlous resLralnL or subsequenL
punlshmenL unless Lhere be a showlng of a clear and presenL danger Lo a
subsLanLlve evll LhaL Lhe sLaLe, has a rlghL Lo presenL.

8. Sed|t|ous Speech and Commun|st arty Assoc|at|on
CrlLlclsm, no maLLer how severe, on Lhe LxecuLlve, Lhe LeglslaLure or Lhe !udlclary,
ls wlLhln Lhe range of llberLy of speech, unless Lhe lnLenLlon and effecL be sedlLlous.
8uL when Lhe lnLenLlon and effecL of Lhe acL ls sedlLlous, Lhe consLlLuLlonal
guaranLles of freedom of speech and press and of assembly and peLlLlon musL yleld
Lo punlLlve measures deslgned Lo malnLaln Lhe presLlge of consLlLuLed auLhorlLy,
Lhe supremacy of Lhe consLlLuLlon and Lhe laws, and Lhe exlsLence of Lhe SLaLe "
Dangerous tendency ru|e |s app||cab|e to sed|t|ous speech (7) eop|e v. erez
1he quesLlon ln every case ls wheLher Lhe words used are used ln such
clrcumsLances and are of such a naLure as Lo creaLe a clear and presenL danger LhaL
Lhey wlll brlng abouL Lhe subsLanLlve evlls LhaL Congress has a rlghL Lo prevenL" (9)
(8) Denn|s v. US
o 1he SC sald LhaL Lhe requlslLe danger exlsLed ln Lhls case: CommunlsL arLy
! 1here was a group ready Lo make Lhe aLLempL
! Plghly organlzed consplracy
! ldeologlcally aLLuned
o 1he effecL of resLralnlng speech here ls only lncldenLal Lo suppresslng Lhe
assoclaLlon, whaL ls belng resLralned ls noL dlscusslon, buL advocacy.

It |s on|y where |t |s unavo|dab|y necessary to prevent an |mmed|ate and grave
danger (c|ear and present danger) to the secur|ty and we|fare of the commun|ty
that |nfr|ngement of re||g|ous freedom may be [ust|f|ed. (28) INC v. CA (Sect|on S)
o Where Lhe lndlvldual exLernallzed hls bellef ln acLs or omlsslons LhaL affecL
Lhe publlc, hls freedom Lo do so becomes sub[ecL Lo Lhe auLhorlLy of Lhe
o lnherenL pollce power can be exerclsed Lo prevenL rellglous pracLlces
lnlmlcal Lo socleLy.

!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
No |aw sha|| be made respect|ng an estab||shment of re||g|on, or proh|b|t|ng the free
exerc|se thereof. 1he free exerc|se and en[oyment of re||g|ous profess|on and worsh|p,
w|thout d|scr|m|nat|on or preference, sha|| forever be a||owed. No re||g|ous test sha|| be
requ|red for the exerc|se of c|v|| or po||t|ca| r|ghts.

I. Non-estab||shment of ke||g|on:
1hls means LhaL Lhe governmenL cannoL pass laws whlch promoLe or lnhlblL any
rellglon. ln oLher words, lL mandaLes governmenL neuLrallLy.
Iour Genera| ropos|t|ons of Government Neutra||ty (AIL)

1. CovernmenL musL noL !"#$#" one rellglon over anoLher, or rellglon over
2. CovernmenL $%&'( musL noL be used for rellglous purposes.

3. CovernmenL acLlon musL noL )*' rellglon.
4. CovernmenL acLlon musL noL resulL ln #+,#((*-# enLanglemenL wlLh rellglon.
A||owab|e government a|d 1here are forms of governmenL ald whlch are
allowable. 1he requlslLes are (SLN):
o A (#,%.)" leglslaLlve purpose.
o MusL noL requlre #+,#((*-# enLanglemenL wlLh Lhe rellglous lnsLlLuLlon.
o A prlmary effecL LhaL &#*/0#" advance nor lnhlblLs rellglon.
(3) Schoo| D|str|ct v. Schempp, (4) 8oard of Lducat|on v. A||en, (S) Lemon
v. kurtzman, (6) 1||ton v. k|chardson, (7) County of A||egheny v. ACLU
Cn ke||g|ons symbo|s
o 1he dlsplay of rellglous symbols (e.g. cruclflx, menorah, creche, eLc.) ln
publlc places and bulldlngs can be dlsallowed lf lL Lends Lo show LhaL Lhe
governmenL endorses lLs rellglous message. (7) County of A||egheny v.
o ConLenL-neuLral llmlLs are valld for regulaLlng dlsplays of rellglous symbols
ln publlc places.
o Slmllar Lo free speech, conLenL-based resLrlcLlons on rellglous messages can
only be lmplemenLed lf Lhere ls a compelllng sLaLe lnLeresL. (9) Cap|to|
Square kev|ew 8oard v. |nette & ku k|ux k|an.

1+#&'F B#++& 1--G
3++ B'#?+F H: ;F*+&D-
o Powever, because of hlllpplne culLure, Lhls rule ls noL as sLrlcL ln our
[urlsdlcLlon. lor example, lL ls noL uncommon Lo flnd a cruclflx ln a courL
ub||c Schoo|s and ke||g|ous Instruct|on
o 8ased on Amerlcan [urlsprudence, rellglous lnsLrucLlon parLlcularly Lhe use
of SLaLe resources for rellglous lnsLrucLlon ls noL allowed. 1here ls excesslve
! Powever, lf Lhe law provldes a general beneflL Lo sLudenLs
regardless of rellglon, lL can be valld. (4) 8oard of Lducat|on v.
A||en, (8) 2obrest v. Cata||na Iooth|||s Schoo| D|str|ct
! 1hus, Lhe lendlng of books (whlch are noL rellglous ln naLure buL
raLher secular) ls allowable slnce Lhe prlmary effecL dld noL lnhlblL
or promoLe rellglon. (4) 8oard of Lducat|on v. A||en
! An lnLerpreLer provlded by Lhe sLaLe can Leach and suggesL, buL LhaL
ls lncldenLal Lo Lhe maln servlce LhaL ls lnLerpreLaLlon. (8) 2obrest v.
Cata||na Iooth|||s Schoo| D|str|ct
o ln Lhe hlllpplnes, Lhls ls noL enLlrely dlsallowed. 1he ConsLlLuLlon allows for
rellglous lnsLrucLlon durlng school hours Lo be conducLed by lnsLrucLors
deslgnaLed by Lhe rellglon Lhey belong Lo. 1hls ls wlLhouL cosL Lo Lhe
governmenL Anu wlLh wrlLLen consenL by parenLs. (Sect|on 3(3), Art|c|e
kIV, 1987 Const|tut|on)
State [ur|sd|ct|on over re||g|ous affa|rs Lhe governmenL does noL have Lhe power
Lo lnLerfere and subsLlLuLe lLs [udgmenL on maLLers of rellglous docLrlne and oLher
purely rellglous affalrs (11) Is|am|c Da'wah Counc|| v. Lxecut|ve Secretary, (12)
1aruc v. De La Cruz
o Lxample: Palal cerLlflcaLlon or excommunlcaLlon from a church.
CovernmenL neuLrallLy ls noL compromlsed even lf some acLs cause some lncldenLal
beneflL Lo any rellglon. 1he deLermlnlng facLor ls LhaL lL ls noL prlmarlly almed aL
provldlng such beneflL. (1) Ag||pay v. ku|z

II. Iree Lxerc|se of ke||g|on
2 AspecLs of lree Lxerclse of 8ellglon (14) Cantwe|| v. Connect|cut
1. 1"##'23 /2 5#.*#-#6 AbsoluLe freedom whlch cannoL be regulaLed. eople
are free Lo belleve whaLever wanL, even lf Lhey cannoL prove lL.
2. 1"##'23 /2 7,/6 When bellef ls LranslaLed lnLo exLernal acLs, Lhey can be
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
sub[ecLs of regulaLlon and pollce power, especlally lf Lhey are ln[urlous Lo
publlc safeLy.
o Whlle Lhe courLs can look lnLo Lhe good falLh of an lndlvldual, Lhey cannoL
lnqulre lnLo Lhe LruLhfulness or falslLy of rellglous bellefs. (1S) U.S. v.
lree exerclse of rellglon carrles wlLh lL Lhe rlghL Lo dlssemlnaLe rellglous
lnformaLlon. Any resLralnL of such rlghL musL pass Lhe LesL of clear and presenL
danger of any subsLanLlve evll whlch Lhe SLaLe may prevenL. (16) Amer|can 8|b|e
Soc|ety v. C|ty of Man||a
SollclLaLlons for rellglous purposes may be regulaLed by Lhe SLaLe ln lLs exerclse of
pollce power. 1he SLaLe may proLecL lLs clLlzens from fraudulenL sollclLaLlons. lL may
regulaLe Lhe Llme and manner of sollclLaLlons. (23) Centeno v. V|||a|on-orn|||os
lreedom of rellglon ls a valld reason for people Lo be exempLed from Lhe operaLlon
of cerLaln laws and pollcles.
o Cn un|on membersh|p uesplLe havlng a closed shop provlslon ln Lhe
C8A, a member of Lhe lglesla nl CrlsLo may opL noL Lo [oln Lhe labor unlon
slnce Lhls ls dlsallowed by hls rellglon. lreedom of rellglon ls superlor over
conLracLual rlghLs llke Lhe C8A. (13) V|ctor|ano v. L||za|de
o Cn f|ag ceremony !ehovah's WlLnesses may be excluded from Lhe
mandaLory flag ceremony ln publlc schools mandaLed by k.A. 126S because
lL ls agalnsL Lhelr rellglon Lo worshlp oLher ldols. Whlle malnLalnlng LhaL Lhe
hlllpplne flag and Lhe flag ceremony are noL rellglous ldols and rlLuals, Lhe
Supreme CourL upheld Lhelr rlghL Lo noL parLlclpaLe. 1hey may noL dlsrupL lL
elLher. (17) Lbra||nag v. D|v|s|on Super|ntendent
o Cn mandatory educat|on 1he Amlsh communlLy may refuse Lo enroll
Lhelr chlldren from Lhe publlc school sysLem desplLe a compulsory
educaLlon pollcy by Lhe sLaLe of Wlsconsln. 1hey have Lhelr own sysLem of
educaLlon whlch ls more approprlaLe for Lhelr rellglous bellef. (18)
W|scons|n v. oder.
o Ch government off|ce hours Musllm courL employees were exempLed
from Lhe 8am Lo 3pm work hours. lnsLead, Lhey were allowed Lo work from
7:30am Lo 3:30pm wlLhouL breaks ln order Lo comply wlLh Lhelr 8amadan
obllgaLlon of fasLlng. (30) In re: kequest of Mus||m Lmp|oyees
A law LhaL burdens rellglous pracLlces need noL be [usLlfled by a compelllng
governmenL lnLeresL lf lL ls neuLral and of general appllcablllLy. CLherwlse lL musL be
1. !usLlfled by a compelllng lnLeresL
2. narrowly Lallored Lo advance LhaL lnLeresL (l.e. lL musL noL be overbroad nor
underlncluslve or Loo speclflc Lo a cerLaln rellglon)
(2S) Church of the Lukum| v. C|ty of n|a|eah
8enevo|ent Neutra||ty 1he approach LhaL glves room for accommodaLlon of
rellglous exerclses, provlded LhaL lL does noL offend compelllng sLaLe lnLeresL. (26)
Lstrada v. Lscr|tor
o Compe|||ng State Interest 1est (SLI)
! Look lnLo (*&,#"*/8 of bellef.
! 1he SLaLe has Lo prove LhaL lLs purposes are .#9*/*3)/# and
! 1he SLaLe musL use Lhe lease *&/"%(*-# means posslble.
ke||g|ous 1ests CovernmenL may noL use rellglon as a basls of classlflcaLlon for
Lhe lmposlLlon of duLles, penalLles, prlvlleges or beneflLs.
o 1he prohlblLlon ln Lhe 8evlsed AdmlnlsLraLlve Code of 1917 of an
eccleslasLlc from elecLed offlce was consldered as a prohlblLed rellglous
LesL. Powever, Lhe CourL was 1 voLe shorL Lo declare such provlslon
unconsLlLuLlonal. (19) am|| v. 1e|eron
o 1he sLaLuLe whlch bars a 8apLlsL mlnlsLer from belng a member of Lhe
1ennessee consLlLuLlonal convenLlon was held Lo be unconsLlLuLlonal (20)
McDan|e| v. aty
ke||g|ous C|oth|ng wearlng arLlcles of cloLhlng wlLh rellglous slgnlflcance (e.g.
yarmulke, Lurban, vell, eLc.) ls a form of rellglous expresslon. rohlblLlon agalnsL
Lhem musL undergo Lhe same LesLs for resLrlcLlons on rellglous expresslon.
o 1he wearlng of a yarmulke lnsLead of Lhe requlred headgear of an Alr lorce
offlcer's unlform was prohlblLed due Lo Lhe speclal naLure and sLrucLure of
Lhe mlllLary. 1he unlform ls parL of Lhe means by whlch Lhe mlllLary enforces
dlsclpllne. (21) Go|dman v. We|nberger
8ellglous rlLuals and acLlons whlch are noL done ln good falLh and are lnsLead done
Lo do someLhlng deLrlmenLal Lo naLlonal lnLeresL (e.g. golng Lo SL. !ude's chapel
besldes Malacanang wlLh an lnLenL Lo dlsLurb Lhe governmenL) can be valldly
regulaLed and even prohlblLed by Lhe SLaLe. (22) German v. 8arangan
1he lncluslon of prayer rlLes ln a publlc hlgh school graduaLlon by Lhe prlnclpal can
be consLrued as an lndlrecL acLlon by Lhe SLaLe of coerclng sLudenLs lnLo professlng
a cerLaln rellglon. 1hls ls prohlblLed by Lhe lree Lxerclse Clause. (24) Lee v.
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
1he prohlblLlon agalnsL Lhe showlng of a fllm on famlly values ln Lhe publlc school
forum ouLslde of class hours based solely on Lhe facL LhaL ls rellglous ln naLure ls
lnvalld. lL ls agalnsL freedom of expresslon of rellglon and allowlng such fllm would
noL have caused excesslve enLanglemenL slnce lL ls done ouLslde of class hours. (26)
Lamb's Chape| v. Center Mor|ches Schoo| D|str|ct
CrlLlclsms of oLher rellglons by any oLher rellglons ls noL a valld ground Lo prohlblL
LhaL rellglon's show on 1v slnce lL does noL pass Lhe clear and presenL danger LesL
for prohlblLlng free speech and free exerclse of rellglon. (28) INC v. CA

Lstab||shment C|ause Iree Lxerc|se C|ause
1he wholesome neuLrallLy" of whlch Lhls
CourL's cases speak sLems from a
recognlLlon of Lhe Leachlngs of hlsLory LhaL
powerful secLs or groups mlghL brlng abouL
a fuslon of governmenLal and rellglous
funcLlons or a concerL or dependency of one
upon Lhe oLher Lo Lhe end LhaL offlclal
supporL of Lhe SLaLe or lederal CovernmenL
would be placed behlnd Lhe LeneLs of one or
of all orLhodoxles. 1hls ls whaL Lhe
LsLabllshmenL Clause prohlblLs.
1he rlghL of every person Lo freely choose
hls own course wlLh reference LhereLo, free
of any compulslon from Lhe sLaLe. 1hls ls
whaL Lhe lree Lxerclse Clause guaranLees.
(3) Schoo| D|str|ct v. Schempp

III. Cther Notes (quest|ons ra|sed by Dean Cande|ar|a):
(4) Ab|ngton Schoo| D|str|ct v. Schempp
o WlLh regard Lo hlllpplne CourLs, ls lL a vlolaLlon of Lhe LsLabllshmenL Clause
Lo pray prlor Lo Lhe sLarL of a hearlng?
o WhaL ls Lhe dlfference wlLh Schemepp?
(S) Lemon v. kurtzman
o lf Lhe law school were Lo offer a Law and 8ellglon" class, would lL be
vlolaLlve of Lhe LsLabllshmenL clause? nC so long as lL has a secular
o lf such class was offered, ls Lhe professor Leachlng rellglon or ConsLlLuLlonal
(7) County of A||egheny v. ACLU
o lrom a culLural conLexL, whaL's Lhe dlfference beLween Lhe Menorah and
Lhe naLlvlLy Scene?
o When Lhe governmenL declares holldays ln llghL of a rellglous hollday, does
lL vlolaLe Lhe LsLabllshmenL Clause?
! ldelfeLur (musllm hollday) ls declarlng lL a hollday a klnd of
! WhaL lf resldenL Aqulno declares Lhe deaLh of Manalo (lnC
lounder) a hollday? ls he endorslng a rellglon?
(9) Cap|to| Square kev|ew 8oard v. |nette & ku k|ux k|an
o WhaL lf Lhe rellglous symbol placed ls offenslve? May Lhe governmenL Lhen
sLop lLs dlsplay?
(26) Lstrada v. Lscr|tor
o WhaL compelllng sLaLe lnLeresL may overwhelm Lhe exerclse of rellglous
rlghL Lo remarry even Lhough dlvorce ls noL allowed ln Lhe hlllpplnes?
(30) In re: kequest of Mus||m Lmp|oyees
o ln Lhe case of prlvaLe lnsLlLuLlons, would such lnsLlLuLlons have a rlghL Lo
deny employees or sLudenLs lf Lhey requesL for a (Musllme/!ewlsh) prayer
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
"#$%&'( )*
%+, -./,012 34 5/36, 576 34 8+579.79 1+, :5;, <.1+.7 1+, -.;.1: =0,:80./,6 /2 -5< :+5--
731 /, .;=5.0,6 ,>8,=1 ?=37 -5<4?- 306,0 34 1+, 83?01* (,.1+,0 :+5-- 1+, 0.9+1 13 105@,- /,
.;=5.0,6 ,>8,=1 .7 1+, .71,0,:1 34 751.375- :,8?0.12A =?/-.8 :54,12A 30 =?/-.8 +,5-1+A 5: ;52
/, =03@.6,6 /2 -5<*

BC##D'E 'B E'F#E#(%G H&I#C%J 'B KI'D# K(D 'B %CKF#H

&* L,7,05- M0.78.=-,:
lreedom of movemenL ln ",81.37 ) lncludes Lwo (2) rlghLs:
o 1he llberLy of abode.
o 1he llberLy of Lravel.
1ravel need noL lnclude abode, buL abode necessarlly lncludes Lhe rlghL Lo Lravel.

K* %+, H./,012 34 K/36,
1he llberLy of abode may only be lmpalred upon lawful order of Lhe courL", based
on llmlLs prescrlbed by law" on Lhe llberLy lLself.

o Lven publlc offlcers do noL have Lhe power Lo order lndlvlduals Lo leave
Manlla and move Lo uavao NOP F.--5@.8,78.3 @* H?Q/57
lnLenL was Lo proscrlbe pracLlces llke hamleLLlng
o !"#$%&&'()* racLlce of herdlng people lnLo a mlllLarlly quaranLlned
sancLuary wlLhln rebel areas.

I* %+, H./,012 34 %05@,-
1he llberLy of Lravel may be lmpalred even wlLhouL a courL order, buL Lhe
approprlaLe execuLlve offlcers ls noL armed wlLh arblLrary dlscreLlon Lo lmpose
llmlLaLlons. Pe can lmpose llmlLs based on naLlonal securlLy, publlc safeLy, or publlc
healLh" and as may be provlded by law."

o 1he resldenL's deLermlnaLlon LhaL Lhe desLablllzaLlon caused by Lhe reLurn of
Lhe Marcoses would wlpe away Lhe galns achleved durlng Lhe pasL few years
and lead Lo LoLal economlc collapse ls sufflclenL basls Lo lmpose llmlLs on

}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy S76 (2uu9 eu.)
Iu., p. S77
one's rlghL Lo Lravel. A person's rlghL Lo Lravel and abode can be lmpalred
pursuanL Lo sLaLe lnLeresL. NRP E5083: @* E579-5=?:
Sub[ecL Lo [udlclal revlew
8lghL Lo Lravel can be lmpalred Lhrough sLaLuLes or 8ules of CourL.
o A person on ball can be prevenLed from leavlng Lhe counLry. NSP ".-@,0.3 @*
$KT NUP "571.593 @* F5:V?,W
o A person on ball asklng Lo Lravel for medlcal reasons, Lhe CourL can seek Lhe
advlce of medlcal experLs, aparL from LhaL presenLed by Lhe person, Lo
deLermlne Lhe necesslLy Lo Lravel abroad. lL ls wlLhln Lhe courL's dlscreLlon
Lo granL Lhe requesL Lo Lravel for humanlLarlan reasons NXP E5083: @*
"576.957/5257 or Lo change one's resldence N)P J5= @* $K
o ln kanL kwong v. CCC, Lhe CourL held LhaL when a hold order has explred
and no good reason appears for exLendlng, an allen may noL be prevenLed
Lo leave Lhe counLry.

C&LY% 'B #(%#C %Y# $'Z(%CJ

&* L,7,05- M0.78.=-,:
1he rlghL Lo leave and Lhe rlghL Lo reLurn may be consldered, as a generally
accepLed prlnclple of lnLernaLlonal law and, under our ConsLlLuLlon, ls parL of Lhe law
of Lhe land. Powever, lL ls dlsLlncL and separaLe from Lhe rlghL Lo Lravel and en[oys a
dlfferenL proLecLlon under Lhe lCC8. NRP E5083: @* E579-5=?:

KH&#(" K(D C&LY% 'B #(%CJ

&* L,7,05- M0.78.=-,:
Admlsslon of allens lnLo Lhe counLry ls a pollLlcal maLLer beyond Lhe reach of [udlclal
Lvery counLry has a rlghL Lo forbld Lhe enLry of forelgners wlLhln lLs domlnlon, or Lo
admlL Lhem upon condlLlons lL may see flL Lo prescrlbe.

!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
1he r|ght of the peop|e to |nformat|on on matters of pub||c concern sha|| be recogn|zed.
Access to off|c|a| records, and to documents and papers perta|n|ng to off|c|a| acts,
transact|ons, or dec|s|ons, as we|| as to government research data used as bas|s for po||cy
deve|opment, sha|| be afforded the c|t|zen, sub[ect to such ||m|tat|ons as may be prov|ded
by |aw.

I. Genera| r|nc|p|es
8lghLs guaranLeed of Sect|on 7 are (1) rlghL Lo lnformaLlon on maLLers of publlc
concern and (2) access Lo offlclal records and documenLs.
o Sect|on 7 guaranLees only a general rlghL. 1he rlghL of access Lo offlclal
records ls glven as an lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe rlghL Lo lnformaLlon.
o 1hese pollLlcal rlghLs are avallable Lo clLlzens only.


I. Genera| r|nc|p|es
urpose ! for Lhe people Lo know whaL Lhelr governmenL ls dolng, parLlclpaLory
democracy (2) Va|monte, et a|. v. 8e|monte Ir.
naLure of 8lghL ! self-execuLory
8emedy ! peLlLlon for mandamus (slnce Lhe acL of releaslng lnformaLlon of publlc
lnLeresL ls mlnlsLerlal)
o MlnlsLerlal v. ulscreLlonary
" ulscreLlonary ! lL ls Lhe cholce of Lhe governmenL. ?ou cannoL
compel Lhem Lo perform.
" MlnlsLerlal ! Lhe law mandaLes LhaL Lhe governmenL perform.

II. Scope
A. Matters of ub||c Interest
!"##$%& () *+,-. .(/.$%/ ! Lhe appolnLmenLs made Lo publlc offlces and Lhe
uLlllzaLlon of publlc properLy. (6) Gonza|es v. Narvasa
MaLLers of publlc concern lnclude:
a. Cfflclal records
b. uocumenLs and papers perLalnlng Lo offlclal acLs, LransacLlons and declslons,
c. CovernmenL research daLa used ln formulaLlng pollcles
8equlslLes for someLhlng Lo be consLrued wlLhln Sect|on 7 (1) Legasp| v. CSC
a. 8elng of publlc concern or one LhaL lnvolves publlc lnLeresL, and,
b. noL belng exempLed by law from Lhe operaLlon of Lhe consLlLuLlonal

8. Cff|c|a| kecords
1he documenLs of CSlS are noL prlvaLe ln naLure because CSlS as a governmenL-
conLrolled corporaLlon exerclses a proprleLary funcLlon, whlch Lhen falls wlLhln Lhe
ConsLlLuLlonal rlghL Lo lnformaLlon. (2) Va|monte, et a|. v. 8e|monte Ir.
Slnce Lhe lmposlLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy ls a maLLer of llfe and deaLh, lL musL always
be revlewable by Lhe courL, and accesslble Lo Lhe person dlrecLly affecLed by Lhe
manual. (4) Lchegaray v. Secretary of Iust|ce

C. Documents and papers perta|n|ng to off|c|a| acts, transact|ons and dec|s|ons
0))-.-"1 2.#&
o 1hls rlghL may be asserLed even agalnsL CCCCs because Lhelr funcLlon
slmllar Lo governmenL agencles - LhaL ls, Lo serve Lhe people.
o 1rade secreLs are of a prlvlleged naLure. 1he SecurlLles 8egulaLlon Code ls
expllclL LhaL SLC ls noL auLhorlzed Lo requlre Lhe revelaLlon of Lrade secreLs
or processes ln any appllcaLlon flled wlLh SLC.

o ueclslons of Lhe M18C8 and Lhe lndlvldual voLlng sllps accompllshed by Lhe
members concerned are acLs made pursuanL Lo Lhelr offlclal funcLlons, and
as such, are nelLher personal nor prlvaLe ln naLure buL raLher publlc ln
characLer (3) Aqu|no-Sarm|ento v. Morato
3%"/&".#-(/& ! lnclude Lhe negoLlaLlon sLages of a conLracL Lo be made avallable,
noL [usL Lhe consummaLed conLracL. 1he lnformaLlon, however, 4+&# .(/&#-#+#$
5$)-/-#$ *%(*(&-#-(/& by Lhe governmenL and &6(+15 /(# .(7$% %$.(8/-9$5 $:.$*#-(/&
1-;$ *%-7-1$8$5 -/)(%4"#-(/, mlllLary and dlplomaLlc secreLs and slmllar maLLers
affecLlng naLlonal securlLy and publlc order. (S) Chavez v. CGG, (7) Chavez v. LA
<$.-&-(/& ! and oplnlons of a courL are publlc maLLers. Powever, pleadlngs and

Iu., p. S86
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
oLher documenLs flled by parLles Lo a case are noL maLLers of publlc concern. (8)
n||ado v. keyes

D. Government research data used |n formu|at|ng po||c|es
1987 Const|tut|on lncluded Lhe phrase as well as Lo governmenL research daLa
used as basls for pollcy developmenL." 1hls was a reacLlon Lo a pracLlce durlng
marLlal law of wlLhholdlng soclal research daLa from Lhe publlc whenever Lhe daLa
conLradlcLed wlLh governmenL pollcles.

o CovernmenL research daLa refers Lo governmenL funded research and noL
prlvaLely funded research.
lnqulrles ln ald of leglslaLlon also falls underneaLh Lhls, because such ls used ln Lhe
formulaLlon of pollcles, whlch Lhe people should be lnformed wlLh so LhaL Lhey may
formulaLe Lhelr own oplnlons concernlng Lhe maLLer. (9) Sab|o v. Gordon

Lxecut|ve Leg|s|at|ve Iud|c|ary
CAn be
?ou know Lhe number of voLes and
who voLed for whlch.
?ou may
know Lhe
ueclslons of Lhe SC are
publlc ! you know Lhe
number of Lhe voLes and
who voLed for who.
naLlonal securlLy maLLers, mlllLary,
dlplomaLlc, and oLher naLlonal
securlLy sLaLe secreLs, lnformaLlon
on lnLer-governmenL exchanges
prlor Lo concluslon of LreaLles and
execuLlve agreemenLs, prlvlleged
reveal Lhe
WhaL cannoL be revealed
Lo Lhe publlc ls Lhe
declslon maklng process
and Lhe flles lnvolved
(dellberaLlons of [usLlces)
! LxCL1lCn: oral

III. L|m|tat|ons
A. k|ght to |nformat|on and access to pub||c documents may be regu|ated
Whlle access Lo offlclal records may noL be prohlblLed, lL can sLlll be regu|ated. 1hls
ls based on lnherenL power of an offlcer Lo conLrol hls offlce and records under hls
cusLody. 1he offlce also has Lhe power Lo regulaLe Lhe manner records may be
lnspecLed, examlned, or copled. (2) Va|monte, et a|. v. 8e|monte Ir.


}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy S76 (2uu9 eu.), p.S81
ln Chavez v. CCC, Lhe CourL enumeraLed some recognlzed llmlLaLlons on Lhe rlghL
Lo lnformaLlon:
o naLlonal securlLy maLLers, mlllLary, dlplomaLlc, and oLher naLlonal securlLy
sLaLe secreLs, lnformaLlon on lnLer-governmenL exchanges prlor Lo
concluslon of LreaLles and execuLlve agreemenLs.
" ulplomaLlc relaLlons lnclude Lrade negoLlaLlons wlLh forelgn
counLrles (10) Ner| v. Senate
o 1rade secreLs and banklng LransacLlons. ursuanL Lo lnLellecLual roperLy
Code (k.A. 8283) and relaLed laws, Lhe Secrecy of 8ank ueposlLs AcL (k.A.
o Crlmlnal maLLers or law enforcemenL maLLers. lnformaLlon on
apprehenslon, prosecuLlon and deLenLlon of crlmlnals.
o CLher confldenLlal maLLers. LLhlcal SLandards AcL (k.A. 6713) prohlblLs
dlsclosure of confldenLlal lnformaLlon known Lo publlc offlclals and
employees by vlrLue of Lhelr offlce. CLher llmlLaLlons lnclude dlplomaLlc
correspondence, closed door cablneL meeLlngs, execuLlve sesslon ln
Congress, and lnLernal dellberaLlons of Lhe Supreme CourL.
ueclslons and oplnlons of a courL are publlc maLLers. Powever, pleadlngs and oLher
documenLs flled by parLles Lo a case are noL maLLers of publlc concern.
o Access Lo courL records may be permlLLed aL Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe courL,
conslderlng purpose of documenLs requesLed and posslble pre[udlce agalnsL
any of Lhe parLles.
(8) n||ado v. keyes

8. kestr|ct|ons to r|ght to pub||c |nformat|on (m|||tary, d|p|omat|c, etc)
Case 1ransact|on Stage Iud|c|a| Inf|rm|ty
LA CovernmenL
nL8l Z1L Slgned ConLracL
SuLlCC Z1L Slgned ConLracL MooL buL declded on Lo gulde Lhe bar for
posslble repeLlLlon
Ak8A?An !LA negoLlaLlon
noL yeL"

!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
peace panel
eace AgreemenL 1reaLy was cancelled buL CourL ruled on lL
ln case of repeLlLlon:
! ConsulLaLlon requlred
nL8l: Where Lhe CourL may lnLervene Lo prevenL Lhe SenaLe ln compelllng someone Lo
come ln ald of leglslaLlon.
When you are Lhe sub[ecL of SenaLe lnvesLlgaLlon, you need Lo Lake lnLo
conslderaLlon Lhe naLure of your personallLy ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe Loplc of

IV. Lxtent of Lxecut|ve r|v||ege
Any execuLlve lssuance Lendlng Lo unduly llmlL dlsclosures of lnformaLlon ln such
lnvesLlgaLlons necessarlly deprlves Lhe people of lnformaLlon whlch, belng presumed
Lo be ln ald of leglslaLlon, ls presumed Lo be a maLLer of publlc concern. 1he clLlzens
are Lhereby denled access Lo lnformaLlon whlch Lhey can use ln formulaLlng Lhelr own
oplnlons on Lhe maLLer before Congress. (9) Sab|o v. Gordon
1o overcome Lhe presumpLlon favorlng confldenLlallLy, you look aL Lhe naLure and
Lhe approprlaLeness of Lhe funcLlon and performance, and Lhe degree Lo whlch Lhe
lnformaLlon or documenL was necessary for such performance (l.e. how necessary
was lL for Lhe accompllshmenL of Lhe funcLlon). (12) Akbayan v. Aqu|no
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
!"#$%&' )*
$+, -./+0 12 0+, 3,134,5 .67489.6/ 0+1:, ,;341<,9 .6 0+, 38=4.7 >69 3-.?>0, :,701-:5 01
21-; 86.16:5 >::17.>0.16:5 1- :17.,0.,: 21- 38-31:,: 610 7160->-< 01 4>@ :+>44 610 =,

A%BC$ $& D&AE FGHDIF G!!&#%G$%&'!

%* B,6,->4 J-.67.34,:
1he rlghL Lo form unlons and assoclaLlons ls recognlzed Lo belong Lo people wheLher
employed or unemployed, worklng ln Lhe governmenL or prlvaLe secLor.
1he rlghL Lo form assoclaLlons shall noL be lmpalred excepL Lhrough a valld exerclse
of pollce power, hence for purposes noL conLrary Lo law."

%%* A./+0 01 !0-.K, ?* A./+0 01 21-; G::17.>0.16:
1he rlghL Lo form lawful assoclaLlons does noL carry wlLh lL Lhe rlghL Lo sLrlke LMN !!!
";341<,,: ?* #G
ln !,70.16 OP5 G-0.74, Q%%%5 Lhe rlghL Lo sLrlke ls quallfled wlLh Lhe phrase ln
accordance Lo wlLh law."
o 1he rlghL Lo organlze ls seen as a broader Lhan rlghL Lo sLrlke. 1he laLLer may
be curLalled by law for valld reasons.
1he currenL ban on governmenL employees Lo go on sLrlke ls sLaLuLory and may be
llfLed by anoLher sLaLuLe.
o AL presenL, ln Lhe absence of any leglslaLlon allowlng gov'L employees Lo
sLrlke, recognlzlng Lhelr rlghL Lo do so, or regulaLlng Lhe exerclse of Lhe rlghL,
Lhey are prohlblLed from sLrlklng, by express provlslon of E,;1->698;
#.-784>- '1* R >: .;34.,9 .6 "*&* '1* O)S* LMN !!! ";341<,,: ?* #G

G* F.;.0>0.16: 16 J8=4.7 !,701-
1hose governmenL owned or conLrolled corporaLlons (CCCC) wlLh orlglnal charLers,
and noL formed under Lhe general corporaLlon law, are covered by Lhe Clvll Servlce
and Lherefore have no rlghL Lo organlze for purposes of collecLlve bargalnlng. LON
$I#J ?* 'T#
Mass acLlons for essenLlally economlc reasons are acLually sLrlkes, and absenL any
leglslaLlon allowlng for such ln publlc schools, lL ls prohlblLed. LPN E>6.4> J8=4.7
!7+114: $,>7+,-: G::17.>0.16 ?* F>/8.15 U-*

T* F.;.0>0.16: 16 J-.?>0, !,701-
no slmllar absoluLe consLlLuLlonal rlghL Lo organlze should be deemed Lo have been
granLed Lo Lop-level and mlddle managers (employees concerned wlLh managemenL
pollcy). All managerlal employees are confldenLlal employees. 1hey asslsL and acL ln a
confldenLlal capaclLy. lf Lhese managerlal employees would belong Lo or be afflllaLed
wlLh a unlon, Lhe laLLer mlghL noL be assured of Lhelr loyalLy Lo Lhe unlon ln vlew of
evldenL confllcL of lnLeresLs. 1he unlon can also become company-domlnaLed wlLh
Lhe presence of managerlal employees. LVN IJ!#I ?* F>/8,:;>

%%%* #4>:: W.:78::.16
Cn campus
o So long as Lhe fraLernlLles and/or sororlLles are noL conLrary Lo law, Lhelr
assembly wlll be conslsLenL wlLh SecLlon 8.
LPN E>6.4> J8=4.7 !7+114 $,>7+,-: G::17.>0.16 ?* F>/8.1 U-* ! AL whaL polnL ls a
mass acLlon a sLrlke? uoes wearlng colored armbands even durlng worklng hours a
o Wearlng colored armbands durlng worklng hours does noL lmpede
governmenL servlces (whlch ls Lhe reason why governmenL agencles are noL
allowed Lo sLrlke). ln addlLlon, wearlng of armbands ls parL and parcel of
your freedom Lo expresslon.
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
r|vate property sha|| not be taken for pub||c use w|thout [ust compensat|on.


I. Def|n|t|on
!"#$% '( )*"+)+% ,'*-"+ ! soverelgn power Lo approprlaLe publlc and prlvaLe
properLy of all clLlzens wlLhln lLs LerrlLory for publlc use.

II. Nature
1he power ls LradlLlonally execuLlve ln naLure buL can be lnlLlaLed Lhorugh
(17) kepub||c v. De knecht
1he power of emlnenL domaln ls generally exerclsed by Lhe cenLral governmenL
o May be delegaLed Lo lnsLrumenLallLles (creaLed by law) of Lhe governmenL,
who when dlssolved, wlll reverL such power back Lo Lhe cenLral
governmenL. (2) Iron and Stee| Author|ty
LxproprlaLlon can happen ln 3 ways (17) kepub||c v. De knecht
o volunLary negoLlaLlon
o llllng a courL acLlon
o 1hrough LeglslaLlon
1wo requlslLes for Lhe exerclse of emlnenL domaln: (1) Vda. De Cuna v. kepub||c
o lL ls for a parLlcular publlc use
o !usL compensaLlon be pald Lo Lhe owner
1wo SLages of Lhe LxproprlaLlon: (3) kepub||c v. Sa|em
o ueLermlnaLlon of Lhe auLhorlLy of Lhe plalnLlff Lo exerclse emlnenL domaln
o ueLermlnaLlon of [usL compensaLlon
1wo parLles lnvolved (3) kepub||c v. Sa|em
o CovernmenL
o rlvaLe naLural or [urldlcal person


}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy S76 (2uu9 eu.), p. S96
Iu., p. S97
1. rlvaLe properLy of an lndlvldual (wheLher naLural or [urldlcal)
2. 1aklng by Lhe governmenL
3. lor publlc purpose/use
4. rovlslon of [usL compensaLlon ln exchange

A. r|vate property of a natura| or [ur|d|ca| person
1he owner of Lhe properLy has Lhe rlghL Lo hold on Lo Lhe LlLle of Lhe properLy unLll
Lhe exproprlaLlon process ls over. Cnly upon recelvlng compleLely [usL
compensaLlon wlll Lhe LlLle pass from Lhe owner Lo Lhe governmenL. As such, Lhe
owner has Lhe rlghL Lo exerclse all acLs of ownershlp over Lhe properLy lncludlng Lhe
rlghL Lo allenaLe (3) kepub||c v. Sa|em

8. 1ak|ng
L|ements of 1ak|ng: (L-MA-C)
(4) kepub||c v. de Caste||v|
1. LxproprlaLor musL enLer prlvaLe properLy.
2. LnLrance musL noL be for a momenLary perlod, LhaL ls, Lhe enLrance musL be
o 1he naLure of Lhe Laklng (permanenL or Lemporary easemenL) ls also cruclal
Lo Lhe deLermlnaLlon of wheLher [usL compensaLlon ls due Lo Lhe parLy or noL.
(S) US v. Causby
3. LnLry musL be under warranL or color of legal auLhorlLy.
4. roperLy musL be devoLed Lo publlc use or oLherwlse lnformally approprlaLed or
ln[urlously affecLed.
o When a prlvaLe enLlLy volunLarlly allows Lhe SLaLe Lo make use of lLs
properLy or servlces for publlc use, Lhe general publlc lmmedlaLely acqulres
an lnLeresL ln lL, conferrlng upon Lhe properLy a publlc sLaLus (7) k v. LD1
S. uLlllzaLlon of properLy musL be ln such a way as Lo ousL Lhe owner and deprlve hlm
of all beneflclal en[oymenL of Lhe properLy.
o 1he lmplemenL local ordlnances whlch llmlL Lhe use of Lhe properLy such
LhaL lL deprlves Lhe owner of slgnlflcanL beneflclal en[oymenL of Lhe
properLy amounLs Lo Laklng (6) eop|e v. Ia[ardo, (9) CSG v. Aya|a

}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution: A Compiehensive Reviewei, 98 (2u11 eu.)
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)

When properLy rlghL ls lmpalred by regulaLlon, compensaLlon ls noL requlred,
whereas, when properLy ls Laken, Lhe ConsLlLuLlon prescrlbes [usL compensaLlon.

o When LlLle Lo properLy ls Lransferred Lo exproprlaLlon auLhorlLy, Lhere ls a
clear case of compensable Laklng.

o lL ls a seLLled rule LhaL nelLher acqulslLlon of LlLle nor LoLal desLrucLlon of
value ls essenLlal Lo Laklng.

o Where a properLy lnLeresL ls merely resLrlcLed because conLlnued
unresLrlcLed use would be ln[urlous Lo publlc welfare or where properLy ls
desLroyed because conLlnued exlsLence of Lhe properLy would be ln[urlous
Lo publlc lnLeresL, Lhere ls no compensable Laklng.

o 1he deprlvaLlon of use can be LoLal and lL wlll noL consLlLuLe compensable
Laklng lf nobody else acqulres use of Lhe properLy or any properLy lnLeresL
1oLal desLrucLlon wlLhouL uLlllzaLlon ls noL approprlaLlon buL ls
merely regulaLlon by pollce power.

A mere declaraLlon of an lnLenLlon Lo exproprlaLe does noL yeL serve Lo curLall Lhe
domlnlcal rlghLs of Lhe owner.

o PlpollLo v. ClLy of Manlla ! 1he CourL held LhaL Lo deny plalnLlff a bulldlng
permlL on Lhe ground LhaL Lhe land he planned Lo bulld on would be used
for wldenlng Lhe sLreeL and before such land ls exproprlaLed ls Lo Lake
plalnLlff's properLy wlLhouL due process of law.

lacLors Lo be consldered ln deLermlnlng lf acLlon amounLs Lo Laklng or Lo

o Lconomlc lmpacL of Lhe regulaLlon on Lhe properLy. (8) enn Centra|
1ransportat|on v. New ork C|ty
o LxLenL Lo whlch Lhe regulaLlon mlghL lnLerfere wlLh lnvesLmenL

}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy, 4SS (2uu9 eu.)
Iu., p. 4S4
Iu., p.4SS
Iu., p. 4S8
Iu. P. 4S7
o Meanlng of Laklng of properLy" ln connecLlon wlLh [usL compensaLlon ls
lnLerpreLed ln accordance wlLh local law. (S) US v. Causby
8ecenL cases lnvolvlng Lhe meanlng of Laklng:

o LnLry for purposes of conducLlng mlnlng acLlvlLles such as exploraLlon,
exLracLlon, and processlng of mlnerals.
o 8lghL of way enforced by Lhe sLaLe resulLs ln maklng ad[olnlng properLy

o lnsLallaLlon of Lransmlsslon llnes resulLs ln lmposlLlon of llmlLaLlon agalnsL
Lhe use of Lhe land for an lndeflnlLe perlod.
o rescrlblng Lhe manner ln whlch a properLy should be used ls LanLamounL Lo
Laklng as Lhls lnvolves excesslve lnLruslon lnLo properLy rlghLs of Lhe owner
(6) eop|e v. Ia[ardo, (9) CSG v. Aya|a

C. Ior pub||c use
ConsLlLuLlonal llmlLaLlons on Lhe power of emlnenL domaln: (1) Laklng musL be for
publlc use, (2) [usL compensaLlon glven Lo Lhe prlvaLe owner.

WhaLever ls beneflclally employed for Lhe communlLy ls publlc use.
o ConcepL of publlc use ls as broad as publlc welfare.

o 1he scope of power of emlnenL domaln has become as broad as Lhe scope
of pollce power.

As a rule, Lhe deLermlnaLlon of wheLher Lhere ls a genulne necesslLy for Lhe exerclse
of emlnenL domaln ls [usL a [usLlclable quesLlon. Powever, when Lhe power ls
exerclsed by Lhe leglslaLure, Lhe quesLlon of necesslLy ls essenLlally a pollLlcal

urpose. lrom MacLan Cebu lnLernaLlonal AlrporL v. Lozada !r. ! 1he exproprlaLor
musL use Lhe properLy for Lhe purpose speclfled ln Lhe peLlLlon. lf Lhls ls noL done,
Lhe exproprlaLor musL reLurn Lhe properLy, even lf Lhere was no agreemenL for
reversal. 8uL Lhe owner musL reLurn Lo Lhe exproprlaLor Lhe compensaLlon lL had

}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy (2uu9 eu.), p. 4S9
Similai to easement as uiscusseu in 0S v. Causby
Iu., p. 4uu
Iu., p. 4u1
Iu., p. 4u2
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
recelved wlLh legal lnLeresLs and musL pay Lhe exproprlaLor for Lhe beneflLs Lhe he
may have obLalned.
(12) Mactan v. 1udtud
Agr|cu|tura| Lands. lor a long Llme, Lhe slze of Lhe land was Lhe facLor used Lo
deLermlne [usL compensaLlon. ln Sumulong lL was dlsregarded. 1hls focuses on
agrlculLural lands exproprlaLed for soclallzed houslng, whlch ls consldered as for
publlc use even Lhough only a few people are dlrecLly beneflLed by lL (10) Sumu|ong
v. Guerrero
Urban Lands. LxproprlaLlon ls noL llmlLed Lo exproprlaLlng urban lands for houslng
purposes (11) h||. Co|umb|an Assn. V. non. an|s

D. Iust Compensat|on
./0% 1'*2)+0-%"'+ ! 1he prlce whlch Lhe properLy wlll command lf Lhe seller ls noL
bound Lo sell and Lhe buyer ls noL bound Lo buy.

o 3-45)% 6-7/)8 rlce flxed by buyer and seller ln Lhe open markeL.

" 9'+0):/)+%"-7 ;-*-#)08 uamages Lo oLher lnLeresLs of Lhe owner
LhaL can be aLLrlbuLed Lo exproprlaLlon.

" 9'+0):/)+%"-7 <)+)("%08 lncrease ln value of Lhe oLher lnLeresLs of
Lhe owner aLLrlbuLed Lo Lhe new use of properLy by exproprlaLlon.
" ConsequenLlal damages are deducLed from consequenLlal beneflLs.
o lf properLy ls Laken before compensaLlon ls glven or deposlLed Lo courL, Lhe
flnal compensaLlon musL lnclude lnLeresLs on lLs [usL value, Lo be compuLed
from Lhe Llme properLy was Laken Lo Lhe Llme compensaLlon ls glven or
deposlLed wlLh Lhe courL.

lor purposes of enLry lnLo Lhe properLy before full paymenL, Sect|on 10, k.A. 7160
requlres a deposlL wlLh Lhe courL of aL leasL 13 of falr markeL value of properLy
based on Lhe currenL Lax declaraLlon of Lhe properLy.

o under k.A. 8974, ln lnfrasLrucLure pro[ecLs, Lhe governmenL musL make a
dlrecL paymenL of Lhe proffered value of Lhe properLy before lL can enLer

}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution: A Compiehensive Reviewei (2u11 eu.), p. 1uu
}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy (2uu9 eu.), p.41S
Iu., p.4uS
and exerclse proprleLary rlghLs.

What per|od shou|d be the bas|s for determ|n|ng Iust Compensat|on: value musL
be deLermlned aL Lhe Llme of Lhe flllng of Lhe complalnL of exproprlaLlon (Sect|on 4,
ku|e 67, ku|es of Court)

o llllng of Lhe case usually colncldes wlLh Lhe Laklng of Lhe properLy.
o =>1)2%"'+. When flllng of Lhe case comes laLer and Lhe properLy value grows
due Lo use exproprlaLor puL lL Lo, properLy shall be valued aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
earller Laklng.
o (4) kepub||c v. De Caste|v| ! ldeally, Laklng happens upon Lhe flllng of Lhe
exproprlaLlon case. lf Laklng happens afLer Lhe flllng, [usL compensaLlon wlll
be deLermlned from Lhe flllng. lf Lhe Laklng happens prlor Lo flllng, [usL
compensaLlon beglns Lo be compuLed from Lhe Llme acLual Laklng happens
8as|s of Iust Compensat|on (value of Lhe land may be deLermlned by Lhe followlng):
(13) C|ty of Man||a v. Lstrada
Acceptab|e (because Lhey reflecL Lhe Lrue value of Lhe properLy)
o 1esLlmony as Lo real esLaLe LransacLlon ln Lhe area ls Lhe locaLlon and
characLer of Lhe properLy should be slmllar and Lhe sales are reasonably near
ln polnL of Llme.
o remlses made by Lhe commlssloners. 8uL only ln some cases.
Not Acceptab|e (because Lhey don'L reflecL Lhe Lrue value of Lhe properLy)
o 1esLlmony as Lo mere offers.
o rlces pald for nelghborlng lands under emlnenL domaln proceedlngs. naLure
of a compromlse whlch does noL reflecL Lhe markeL value of Lhe properLy.
What forms shou|d Iust Compensat|on be |n: !usL as Lhe ConsLlLuLlon does noL
requlre prlor compensaLlon, nelLher does lL speclfy LhaL compensaLlon be ln money.
WhaL lL does requlre ls [usL compensaLlon.

o Laws whlch aLLempL Lo flx [usL compensaLlon were declared
o Land 8ank 8onds are valld means of [usL compensaLlon. CovernmenL
agencles accepLlng Lhem musL accepL ln full value. (14) Maddumba v. GSIS
Sect|on 4, Art|c|e kIII, 1987 Const|tut|on mandaLes Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of agrlculLural

Iu., p. 4uS
}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution: A Compiehensive Reviewei (2u11 eu.), p. 1uS
Iu., p. 4u9
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
lands sub[ecL Lo paymenL of [usL compensaLlon.

o Landowners' rlghL Lo [usL compensaLlon should be balanced wlLh Lhe
purpose of agrarlan reform.

When shou|d Iust Compensat|on be g|ven: ConcepL of [usL compensaLlon also
lncludes paymenL wlLhln a reasonable Llme from lLs Laklng.

Instance when Iust Compensat|on |s absent: 1here ls Laklng wlLhouL [usL
compensaLlon when resLlLuLlon Lakes place beLween Lhe parLles whereby Lhe
money pald Lo Lhe owner ls reLurned, buL Lhere ls refusal Lo reLurn Lhe land
purchased by LhaL money. (1S) Mactan v. Urge||o


I. Genera| r|nc|p|es
1he followlng aspecLs of Lhe exerclse of Lhe power of emlnenL domaln have been
sub[ecLed Lo [udlclal revlew:

o Adequacy of Lhe compensaLlon.
o necesslLy of Lhe Laklng.
o ubllc use" characLer of Lhe purpose of Lhe Laklng.
1hree commlssloners are appolnLed Lo vlew Lhe premlses and assess Lhe damages
Lo be pald for Lhe condemnaLlon.
o !udlclary can sLlll change or modlfy Lhe reporL of Lhe commlssloners by
lncreaslng or decreaslng Lhe amounL lf facLs of Lhe case [usLlfy such change.

When exproprlaLlon ls done noL dlrecLly by Lhe leglslaLlve auLhorlLy buL by anoLher
governmenL agency or by a munlclpal corporaLlon and ln vlrLue of an auLhorlzlng
sLaLuLe whlch nelLher speclfles Lhe purpose of Lhe Laklng nor Lhe properLy Lo be
Laken, Lhere should be no doubL buL LhaL Lhe courLs musL come ln Lo perform lL's
duLy of enforclng Lhe provlslon of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon.

o 1he necesslLy of Laklng ls a quesLlon of facL LhaL musL be esLabllshed by

}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy (2uu9 eu.), p. 412
Iu., p. 426
Iu., p. 427
proper evldence.

o 1he courLs can look lnLo Lhe publlc characLer of Lhe purpose of Lhe
governmenL agencles oLher Lhan Lhe leglslaLure.

1he prlnclple of res [udlcaLa does noL apply Lo Lhe rlghL of Lhe sLaLe Lo exerclse
emlnenL domaln.
o !)0 ./,"1-%- applles Lo speclflc lssues declded ln a prevlous case (e.g. flnal
[udgmenL dlsmlsslng exproprlaLlon because Lhere was no prlor offer,
anoLher sulL cannoL be ralsed for Lhe same lssue). Powever, lL cannoL sLop
Lhe SLaLe from exerclslng lLs power of emlnenL domaln over Lhe same
properLy. (e.g. complylng wlLh Lhe requlremenL of prlor offer from Lhe
prevlous example).

II. (17) kepub||c v. De knecht
!udlclal 8evlew: SLlll wlLhln CourL's prerogaLlve lf ln Lhe exerclse of Lhe power of
exproprlaLlon, Lhe prlvaLe parLy affecLed was Lhe vlcLlm of parLlallLy and pre[udlce.
Powever, subsequenL leglslaLlon can overLurn Lhls [udlclal deLermlnaLlon.

Iu., p. 428
Iu., p. 429
Iu., p. 4S2
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
No |aw |mpa|r|ng the ob||gat|on of contracts sha|| be passed.


I. Impa|rment def|ned
!"#$%&"'() ! 1o come under Lhe ConsLlLuLlonal prohlblLlon, Lhe law musL effecL a
change ln Lhe rlghLs of Lhe parLles wlLh reference Lo each oLher and noL wlLh
reference Lo non-parLles. (3) Abe||a v. NLkC

II. Impa|rment occurs when.
Genera| ku|e: ConLracLs are bound by Lhe laws ln force durlng Lhelr execuLlon. 1he
governmenL cannoL - ln enacLlng subsequenL laws - Lransgress Lhe blndlng power
of conLracLs beLween Lwo parLles.
o 1he non-lmpalrmenL clause ls noL absoluLe. osslble exerclse of reasonable
pollce power ls also read lnLo all conLracLs. (3) Abe||a v. NLkC, (8) nac|enda
Lu|s|ta v. AkC
Lxcept|on: Lhe subsequenL leglslaLlon ls an acL of pollce power (3) Abe||a v. NLkC
lnsLances when conLracLs can be Lransgressed by pollce power: (2) kutter v. Lsteban
1. lmpalrmenL should only refer Lo Lhe remedy and noL a subsLanLlve rlghL
2. roprleLy of Lhe remedy (musL noL be burdened wlLh resLrlcLlons whlch would make
remedy hardly pursulng)
ollce power may only be lnvoked: (2) kutter v. Lsteban
1. !usLlfled by an emergency Lemporary ln naLure
2. Can only be exerclsed upon reasonable condlLlons

III. o||ce ower exerc|sed by |eg|s|at|ve
1he ConsLlLuLlonal guaranLee of non-lmpalrmenL ls llmlLed by Lhe pollce power of
Lhe SLaLe, ln Lhe lnLeresL of publlc healLh, safeLy, morals and general welfare.

1he power of Lhe leglslaLure Lo change exlsLlng remedles and modes of procedures
resL on pollce power.

Iu., p. 4SS
o A law auLhorlzlng lnLerference, when approprlaLe, ln Lhe conLracLual
relaLlons beLween or among parLles ls deemed read lnLo Lhe conLracL and lLs
lmplemenLaLlon cannoL successfully be reslsLed by force of Lhe non-
lmpalrmenL guaranLee. (8) nac|enda Lu|s|ta v. AkC
o MoraLorlum laws provldlng for posLponemenL of fulflllmenL of obllgaLlons ls
wlLhln Lhe pollce power of Lhe sLaLe as LhaL power was called lnLo exerclse
by Lhe publlc emergency LhaL Lhe leglslaLure found Lo exlsL.
(2) kutter v.
o When exLenslons are unreasonable, Lhey lnfrlnge agalnsL Lhe lmpalrmenL of
(2) kutter v. Lsteban
o 1he non-lmpalrmenL clause ls a llmlL on Lhe exerclse of leglslaLlve power
and noL of [udlclal or quasl-[udlclal power.
o Zonlng laws are valld exerclses of pollce power whereby conLracLs beLween
parLles regardlng use of properLy can be lmpalred (4) res|ey v. 8e|-A|r, (S)
Crt|gas & Co. v. Ieat| 8ank and 1rust Co.
Sect|on 12, Art|c|e kII, 1987 Const|tut|on ls a reservaLlon clause
o WlLh or wlLhouL a reservaLlon clause, franchlses are sub[ecL Lo alLernaLlons
Lhrough a reasonable exerclse of pollce power. 1hey are also sub[ecL Lo
alLernaLlon by Lhe power Lo Lax, whlch llke pollce power, cannoL be
conLracLed away.

o A llcense or a permlL ls noL a conLracL beLween Lhe soverelgn and Lhe
llcensee or permlLee, and ls noL a properLy ln any consLlLuLlonal sense. A
llcense ls raLher ln Lhe naLure of a speclal prlvllege, or permlsslon, or
auLhorlLy Lo do whaL ls wlLhln lLs Lerms.

" A llcense granLed by Lhe SLaLe ls always revocable. 1hls power Lo
revoke can only be resLralned by an expllclL conLracL upon good
conslderaLlon Lo LhaL effecL.

" 1ax exempLlons are mere prlvlleges granLed by Lhe sLaLe Lo
buslnesses ln speclal economlc zones (SLZ), and Lherefore may be
valldly revoked even lf such lmpalrs conLracLs beLween SLZ

Iu., p. 461

}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution: A Compiehensive Reviewei (2u11), p. 1u6
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
auLhorlLles and buslnesses. (7) kepub||c v. Cagu|oa

IV. Cther Cases
Caspar v. Mollna ! 1he law relaLlng Lo Lhe obllgaLlons of conLracLs does noL
prohlblL every change ln exlsLlng laws. 1o fall wlLhln Lhe prohlblLlon, Lhe change
musL lmpalr Lhe obllgaLlon of Lhe exlsLlng conLracL, and Lhe lmpalrmenL musL be

Clemons v. nolLlng ! A law whlch changes Lhe Lerms of a legal conLracL beLween
parLles, elLher ln Lhe Llme or mode of Lhe performance, or lmposes new condlLlons,
or dlspenses wlLh Lhose expressed, or auLhorlzes for lLs saLlsfacLlon someLhlng
dlfferenL from LhaL provlded ln lLs Lerms, ls law whlch lmpalrs Lhe obllgaLlon of a
conLracL and ls Lherefore null and vold.

u.S. v. ulas Conde ! Any law whlch enlarges, abrldges, or ln any manner changes
Lhe lnLenLlon of Lhe parLles, necessarlly lmpalrs Lhe conLracL lLself.

Manlla 1radlng Co. v. 8eyes ! 1he CourL ruled LhaL whaL Lhe conLracL clause
prohlblLs ls a subsLanLlal lmpalrmenL of conLracLs. Changes ln procedural remedles
whlch do noL dlmlnlsh subsLanLlve rlghLs or lncrease subsLanLlve obllgaLlons do noL
vlolaLe Lhe guaranLee.


}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy (2uu9 eu.), p.444
Iu., p. 44S
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
Iree access to the courts and quas|-[ud|c|a| bod|es and adequate |ega| ass|stance sha|| not
be den|ed to any person by reason of poverty.


I. Genera| r|nc|p|es
Who are proLecLed:
o 1hose proLecLed lnclude low pald employees, domesLlc servanLs and
o 1hey need noL be persons so poor LhaL Lhey musL be supporLed aL publlc
o lL sufflce LhaL plalnLlff ls lndlgenL.
o ulfference beLween paupers and lndlgenL persons ls LhaL Lhe laLLer are
persons who have no properLy or sources of lncome sufflclenL aslde from
Lhelr own labor Lhrough self-supporLlng when able Lo work and ln
urpose of Lhls provlslon ls Lo bar hlllpplne [urlsprudence from Lhe dlsLlncLlon
made ln Amerlcan [urlsprudence whlch requlres Lwo requlremenLs before glvlng
free access Lo courLs.
o lnLeresL soughL Lo be proLecLed musL be fundamenLal.
o Cb[ecLlvely lmposslble Lo proLecL Lhe lnLeresL excepL ln a courL of law.
1he expanslon of Lhe free access clause ln Lhe 1987 ConsLlLuLlon had ln mlnd free
access Lo labor courLs.
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
(1) Any person under |nvest|gat|on for the comm|ss|on of an offense sha|| have the
r|ght to be |nformed of h|s r|ght to rema|n s||ent and to have competent and
|ndependent counse| preferab|y of h|s own cho|ce. If the person cannot afford the
serv|ces of counse|, he must be prov|ded w|th one. 1hese r|ghts cannot be wa|ved
except |n wr|t|ng and |n the presence of counse|.cra|aw
(2) No torture, force, v|o|ence, threat, |nt|m|dat|on, or any other means wh|ch v|t|ate
the free w||| sha|| be used aga|nst h|m. Secret detent|on p|aces, so||tary,
|ncommun|cado, or other s|m||ar forms of detent|on are proh|b|ted.cra|aw
(3) Any confess|on or adm|ss|on obta|ned |n v|o|at|on of th|s or Sect|on 17 hereof
sha|| be |nadm|ss|b|e |n ev|dence aga|nst h|m.cra|aw
(4) 1he |aw sha|| prov|de for pena| and c|v|| sanct|ons for v|o|at|ons of th|s sect|on as
we|| as compensat|on to the rehab|||tat|on of v|ct|ms of torture or s|m||ar
pract|ces, and the|r fam|||es.

I. Cases Summary: Sect|on 12 glves Lhe new rlghLs Lo accused whlch was noL provlded prlor
Lo Lhe passage of Lhe 1973 ConsLlLuLlon. More parLlcularly Lhls ls Lhe rlghL Lo be lnformed of
hls rlghL Lo be sllenL and Lo an aLLorney (Mlranda). 8elng so, such rlghL was held Lo be apply
prospecLlvely (MagLoLo). WlLh regard Lo Lhe rlghL Lo lndependenL and compeLenL counsel,
Lhe courL held LhaL a clLy legal offlcer whlch provldes free legal ald servlces for Lhe
promoLlon of peace and order canL be consldered as an lndependenL legal counsel seelng
LhaL Lhere's a confllcL of lnLeresL beLween such offlcer and Lhe accused (Sunga). 8lghLs
under Sect|on 12 are noL also avallable durlng ldenLlflcaLlon Lhrough pollce llne ups excepL
when Lhe accused ls already under cusLodlal lnvesLlgaLlon (Camboa, Lscordlal). lL was also
held LhaL Lhere ls no hard and fasL rule wlLh regard Lo Lhe place where pollce llne ups can be
held. 1hus even lf lL was done ouLslde Lhe pollce sLaLlon, as long as done properLy,
ldenLlflcaLlon ls valld (1eehankee). Cn Lhe lasL case asslgned, Lhe courL held LhaL a law
resLrlcLlng Lhe rlghL Lo remaln ln sllence (agalnsL rlghL Lo self-lncrlmlnaLlon) durlng an
lnvesLlgaLlon conducLed by a panel ls unconsLlLuLlonal. A wlLness/accused has Lhese rlghLs
even durlng such lnvesLlgaLlon (Calman).

II. C|t|zens k|ghts under Sect|on 12 (ISI)
1. 8lghL Lo be lnformed of rlghLs (#2 & #3 below)
2. 8lghL Lo remaln sllenL
3. 8lghL Lo have compeLenL and lndependenL counsel.
4. 8lghL Lo proper LreaLmenL of Lhose under lnvesLlgaLlon

III. M|randa k|ghts
A. keason for the ru|e:
lL recognlzed Lhe facL LhaL Lhe psychologlcal lf noL physlcal aLmosphere of cusLodlal
lnvesLlgaLlons, ln Lhe absence of proper safeguards, ls lnherenLly coerclve.

8. 1he M|randa k|ghts (rocedure) (1) M|randa v. Ar|zona

1. 1he person ln cusLody musL be lnformed aL Lhe ouLseL ln clear and unequlvocal
Lerms LhaL he has Lhe rlghL Lo remaln sllenL.
2. AfLer belng so lnformed, he musL be Lold LhaL anyLhlng he says can and wlll be used
agalnsL hlm ln courL.
3. Pe musL be clearly lnformed LhaL he has Lhe rlghL Lo consulL wlLh a lawyer and Lo
have Lhe lawyer wlLh hlm durlng Lhe lnLerrogaLlon. Pe does noL have Lo ask for a
lawyer. 1he lnvesLlgaLor should Lell hlm LhaL he has Lhe rlghL Lo counsel aL LhaL
4. Pe should be warned LhaL noL only has he Lhe rlghL Lo consulL wlLh a lawyer buL also
LhaL lf he ls lndlgenL, a lawyer wlll be appolnLed Lo represenL hlm.
3. Lven lf Lhe person consenLs Lo answer quesLlons wlLhouL Lhe asslsLance of counsel,
Lhe momenL he asks for a lawyer aL any polnL ln Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon, Lhe lnLerrogaLlon
musL cease unLll an aLLorney ls presenL.
6. lf Lhe foregolng proLecLlons and warnlngs are noL demonsLraLed durlng Lhe Lrlal Lo
have been observed by Lhe prosecuLlon, no evldence obLalned as a resulL of Lhe
lnLerrogaLlon can be used agalnsL hlm.

IV. k|ght to Counse|
8lghL of counsel lnvolves more Lhan [usL Lhe presence of a lawyer, raLher lL means
efflclenL and declslve legal asslsLance and noL a slmple perfuncLory presenLaLlon. (2)
eop|e v. Sunga
noL lndependenL counsel (SCMM8C)
o Speclal Counsel
o ubllc/rlvaLe rosecuLor

}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy (2uu9 eu.)
Iu., p. 467 - 468
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
o Counsel of Lhe ollce
o Munlclpal aLLorney whose lnLeresL ls admlLLedly adverse Lo Lhe accused.
o A mayor unless Lhe accused approaches hlm as counselor or advlser.
o A barangay capLaln.
o Any oLher whose lnLeresL may be adverse Lo LhaL of Lhe accused.

V. When k|ght Attaches
AppllcaLlon of rlghL
o Applled prospecLlvely afLer Lhe effecLlvlLy of Lhe 1973 consLlLuLlon when
rlghL Lo be lnformed of rlghLs flrsL appeared. (3) Magtoto v. Manguera
AvallablllLy of rlghLs Lo a person belng lnvesLlgaLed
o 8ernas
sald LhaL Lhe Calman case says LhaL Lhe rlghL aLLaches when a
person ls belng lnvesLlgaLed already and noL necessary LhaL he ls ln cusLody.
o 8ecenL [urlsprudence sLaLes LhaL !"#$%& ()*+! !"#$%&' )* "& ,-,".,/.+ 0).1
2$+) %$+ 3+!&0) "& ,.!+,*1 ") 4(&%0*1.

! CusLodlal lnvesLlgaLlon lnvolves any quesLlonlng lnlLlaLed by law
enforcemenL offlcer afLer a person has been Laken lnLo cusLody or
oLherwlse deprlved of hls freedom of acLlon ln any slgnlflcanL way.
lL ls only afLer Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon ceases Lo be a general lnqulry lnLo
an unsolved crlme and belngs Lo focus on a parLlcular suspecL, Lhe
suspecL ls Laken lnLo cusLody, and Lhe pollce carrled ouL a process of
lnLerrogaLlons LhaL lends lLself Lo ellclLlng lncrlmlnaLlng sLaLemenLs
LhaL Lhe rule belngs Lo operaLe.
o Powever, k.A. 7438 exLended Lhe guaranLee Lo slLuaLlon ln whlch an
lndlvldual has noL been formally arresLed buL has merely been lnvlLed" for
quesLlonlng. 1here ls Lherefore a broader sLaLuLory guaranLee.
AvallablllLy of rlghLs Lo a person wlLnesslng
o rovlslon covers noL only confesslons" buL also admlsslons, wheLher made
by a wlLness ln any proceedlng or by an accused ln a crlmlnal proceedlng or
any person under lnvesLlgaLlon for Lhe commlsslon of an offense. 8ecause Lhe
wlLnesses were compelled Lo LesLlfy, a co-exLenslve proLecLlon ln Lhe form of
an lmmunlLy musL be offered. (6) Ga|man v. amaran

}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy (2uu9 eu.), p. 471
Iu., p. 472; People v. Naiia

VI. Non-app||cab|||ty of r|ghts
Sect|on 12(1) does noL apply Lo a slLuaLlon where a person presenLs hlmself Lo Lhe
pollce and ln Lhe process make hls admlsslons.

arrafln 1esL " Such LesLs ls noL a communlcaLlve acLlon or LesLlmonlal compulslon.
ollce Llne up (4) Gamboa v. Iudge Cruz, (S) eop|e v. Lscord|a|
o 564+3%"0)7 When Lhere ls a move on Lhe parL of Lhe lnvesLlgaLors Lo ellclL
o 564+3%"0)7 When Lhe person ls already under cusLodlal lnvesLlgaLlon.
1oLallLy of ClrcumsLances 1esL (Lo deLermlne valldlLy of ouL of courL ldenLlflcaLlon):
1. 1he wlLness' opporLunlLy Lo vlew Lhe crlmlnal aL Lhe Llme of Lhe crlme.
2. 1he wlLness' degree of aLLenLlon aL LhaL Llme.
3. 1he accuracy of any prlor descrlpLlon glven by Lhe wlLness.
4. 1he level of cerLalnLy demonsLraLed by Lhe wlLness aL Lhe ldenLlflcaLlon.
3. 1he lengLh of Llme beLween Lhe crlme and Lhe ldenLlflcaLlon.
6. 1he suggesLlveness of Lhe ldenLlflcaLlon procedure.

VII. When k|ghts Lnds
Sect|on 12(1) applles only Lo Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon prlor Lo Lhe flllng of charges, afLer
whlch Sect|ons 14 and 17 comes ln Lo proLecL Lhe accused.

VIII. Wa|ver of k|ghts under Sect|on 12
1here's a presumpLlon LhaL Lhe accused dld noL walve Lhe rlghL, burden of proof on

Can only walve lf done volunLarlly, knowlngly, and lnLelllgenLly and ln wrlLlng and ln
Lhe presence of counsel.

Powever, fallure Lo ob[ecL or ralse Lhe vlolaLlons as early as posslble (durlng Lrlal), lL
shall be deemed LhaL accused walved hls rlghLs under Sect|on 12.

Iu., p. 47u; People v. Taylaian
Iu., p. 476
Iu., p. 478
Iu., p. 477 - 478
Iu., p. 47S
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
A|| persons, except those charged w|th offenses pun|shab|e by rec|us|on perpetua when
ev|dence of gu||t |s strong, sha||, before conv|ct|on, be ba||ab|e by suff|c|ent suret|es, or be
re|eased on recogn|zance as may be prov|ded by |aw. 1he r|ght to ba|| sha|| not be
|mpa|red even when the pr|v||ege of the wr|t of habeas corpus |s suspended. Lxcess|ve
ba|| sha|| not be requ|red.

I. k|ght to 8a||
AnoLher means of lmmedlaLely obLalnlng llberLy.
Lnables Lhe accused Lo prepare hls defense.
urpose: 1o guaranLee appearance of Lhe accused aL Lhe Lrlal. (1) ap v. CA

II. Sett|ng up 8a||
CourL cannoL requlre a sLrlcLly cash bond.

AmounL should be hlgh enough Lo assure presence when requlred, buL no hlgher
Lhan ls reasonably calculaLed Lo fulflll Lhls purpose.
o lf lL ls unreasonably excesslve, lL ls LanLamounL Lo denlal of ball (1) ap v. CA
o 8all should noL be excesslve. lf lL were excesslve, lL becomes meanlngless
slnce Lhe accused won'L be able Lo afford lL. (3) De La Camara v. Lnage
Culdellnes (ANC-kAL-II8): (3) De La Camara v. Lnage
1. naLure of Lhe offense.
2. enalLy for Lhe offense charged.
3. CharacLer and sLrengLh of Lhe evldence.
4. AblllLy of Lhe accused Lo glve ball.
3. CharacLer and repuLaLlon of Lhe accused.
6. PealLh of Lhe accused.
7. robablllLy of Lhe accused appearlng ln Lrlal.
8. WheLher Lhe accused was a fuglLlve from [usLlce when arresLed.
9. lorfelLure of oLher bonds.
10. lf Lhe accused ls under bond for appearance aL Lrlal ln oLher cases.

III. Degree of Lv|dence
When offense charged ls caplLal ln naLure.

A(.+<' F: G$(('(CD
o 8urden ls on Lhe prosecuLlon Lo show LhaL Lhe evldence meeLs Lhe requlred
quanLum (sLrong evldence). 1he prosecuLlon musL be glven opporLunlLy Lo
presenL evldence, oLherwlse granL of ball ls vold.
SLrong evldence.
o Means accused wlll probably be punlshed, noL wheLher Lhe evldence
esLabllshed gullL beyond reasonable doubL buL raLher wheLher lL shows
evldenL gullL or a greaL presumpLlon of gullL.

IV. Ava||ab|||ty of the k|ght to 8a||
A. When ava||ab|e
8all musL be avallable Lo one who ls deLalned even before formal charges are flled.

8all ls avallable Lo defendanL ln exLradlLlon proceedlngs as well as deporLaLlon
proceedlngs (provlded he ls noL a fllghL rlsk), because lL lnvolves a prolonged
resLralnL of llberLy. (2) Government of nong kong v. C|a||a

8. When not ava||ab|e
8lghL Lo ball ls noL avallable Lo mlllLary personnel because of Lhe unlque sLrucLure of
Lhe communlLy, and because lL wlll be pald ouL from Lhe Laxes. (4) Commendador v.
Genera| de V|||a

V. Wa|ver of 8a||
8lghL Lo ball may be walved even lmpllclLly ln an lrrecoverable manner as ln Lhe
case when accused agreed Lo remaln ln legal cusLody durlng Lhe pendency of Lhe
Lrlal of hls crlmlnal case.

H+##'I J+@'&K++ F: 0-F$#'
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
(1) No person sha|| be he|d to answer for a cr|m|na| offense w|thout due process of
(2) In a|| cr|m|na| prosecut|ons, the accused sha|| be presumed |nnocent unt|| the
contrary |s proved, and sha|| en[oy the r|ght to be heard by h|mse|f and counse|, to
be |nformed of the nature and cause of the accusat|on aga|nst h|m, to have a
speedy, |mpart|a|, and pub||c tr|a|, to meet the w|tnesses face to face, and to have
compu|sory process to secure the attendance of w|tnesses and the product|on of
ev|dence |n h|s beha|f. nowever, after arra|gnment, tr|a| may proceed
notw|thstand|ng the absence of the accused: rov|ded, that he has been du|y
not|f|ed and h|s fa||ure to appear |s un[ust|f|ab|e.

I. C|t|zens k|ghts Under Sect|on 14 (DInI-SWA)
1. 8lghL Lo !"# process of law
2. 8lghL Lo be presumed $%%&'#%(
3. 8lghL Lo be )#*+! by hlmself and counsel
4. 8lghL Lo be $%,&+-#! of Lhe naLure and cause of Lhe accusaLlon agalnsL hlm
3. 8lghL Lo have a ./##!0, lmparLlal, and publlc Lrlal
6. 8lghL Lo meeL Lhe 1$(%#.. face Lo face
7. 8lghL Lo have compulsory process Lo secure Lhe *((#%!*%'# of wlLnesses and
Lhe producLlon of evldence ln hls behalf

II. Due rocess of Law
A. Genera| r|nc|p|es
8equlres Lhe procedure esLabllshed by law be followed. U.S. v. Ccampo

uue rocess here ls procedural due process. U.S. v. Grant

uue rocess ls saLlsfled lf Lhe accused ls
o lnformed as Lo why he ls proceeded agalnsL
o lnformed whaL charge he has Lo meeL
o WlLh hls convlcLlon [passed by a courL wlLh compeLenL [urlsdlcLlon] belng
made Lo resL on evldence LhaL ls noL LalnLed wlLh falslLy.
o AfLer full opporLunlLy for hlm Lo rebuL lL

}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy (2uu9 eu.), p. 498
o 1he senLence belng lmposed ln accordance wlLh a valld law.
Nuez v. Sand|ganbayan

8. k|ght Aga|nst 1r|a| by ub||c|ty
1here's a presumpLlon of lmparLlallLy Lowards Lhe [udge.
1o warranL a flndlng of pre[udlclal publlclLy Lhere musL be.
o AllegaLlon and proof LhaL Lhe [udges have been unduly lnfluenced.
o noL slmply LhaL Lhey mlghL be, by Lhe barrage of publlclLy
Webb v. De Leon

LffecL of publlclLy on [udges cannoL be presumed especlally slnce, unllke [urors,
[udges are Lralned professlonals. eop|e v. 1eehankee Ir.

C. Due rocess and M|||tary 1r|buna|s
Crdlnarlly, Lhe Supreme CourL cannoL revlew Lhe rullngs and proceedlngs of Lhe
mlllLary commlsslon
o Cenerally, Lhls courL does noL exerclse over mlllLary commlsslons Lhe
supervlsory [urlsdlcLlon whlch lL possesses over clvll Lrlal courLs. 8uscayan v.

Clvlllan !urlsdlcLlon of mlllLary commlsslon or Lrlbunal. C|aguer v. M|||tary
Comm|ss|on No. 34
o no !urlsdlcLlon ! cannoL Lry and exerclse [urlsdlcLlon, even durlng Lhe
perlod of marLlal law, over clvlllans for offenses allegedly commlLLed by
" As long as Lhe clvll courLs are open and funcLlonlng.
" Any [udgmenL rendered by such body relaLlng Lo a clvlllan ls null and
vold for lack of [urlsdlcLlon on Lhe parL of Lhe mlllLary Lrlbunal.
o Claguer reversed Aqulno !r. v. MlllLary Commlsslon where lL was held LhaL
mlllLary courLs have [urlsdlcLlon over clvlllans durlng marLlal law.
o 1hls case dld noL acqulL Lhe convlcLed accused buL ordered rehearlng.

Iu., p. 499
Iu., p. Suu
Iu., p. SuS
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
III. resumpt|on of Innocence
8urden of roof
o rosecuLlon has Lhe burden Lo overcome such presumpLlon of lnnocence by
presenLlng Lhe quanLum of evldence requlred (proof beyond reasonable
o 1he prosecuLlon musL resL on lLs own merlLs and musL noL rely on Lhe
weakness of Lhe defense.
8easonable uoubL
o 1haL doubL engendered by an lnvesLlgaLlon of Lhe whole proof and an
lnablllLy afLer such lnvesLlgaLlon Lo leL Lhe mlnd resL upon Lhe cerLalnLy of
1he presumpLlon
o resumpLlon of lnnocence lncludes LhaL of morallLy and decency and
chasLlLy (l.e. presumpLlon of vlrglnlLy). Va|depenas v. eop|e

o lf accused appeals afLer belng convlcLed by lower courL, Lhe presumpLlon of
lnnocence sLlll applles. Mangubat v. Sand|ganbayan

o Congress has Lhe power Lo deflne whaL shall consLlLuLe prlma facle evldence
of gullL for a crlme and such power ls noL vlolaLlve of rlghL agalnsL
presumpLlon of lnnocence, slnce such prlma facle evldence can easlly be
rebuLLed. U.S. v. Lu||ng
o A law sLaLlng LhaL one shall be dlsquallfled Lo run for offlce on Lhe ground
alone LhaL charges have been flled agalnsL hlm before Lhe courL ls
consldered as vlolaLlve of Lhe rlghL Lo be presumed lnnocenL. Dum|ao v.
o ln Marquez !r. v. CCMLLLC, Lhe CourL upheld Lhe dlsquallflcaLlon of a
candldaLe on Lhe grounds LhaL he ls a fuglLlve from [usLlce. 1he courL here
sald LhaL fuglLlve applles Lo Lhose who was noL yeL convlcLed buL was
runnlng away from Lrlal. 1hls dld noL vlolaLe Lhe presumpLlon of lnnocenL as
dlsquallflcaLlon ls noL a penalLy and LhaL Congress ls allowed Lo prescrlbe

Seuuction case citeu in }oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy
(2uu9 eu.), p. S1u
Iu., p. S12
reasonable quallflcaLlons for local candldaLes.

WhaL prosecuLlon musL do before Lhere can be a convlcLlon. eop|e v. M|ng
o 1he accused en[oys Lhe consLlLuLlonal presumpLlon of lnnocence unLll flnal
convlcLlon, convlcLlon requlres no less Lhan evldence sufflclenL Lo arrlve aL a
moral cerLalnLy of gullL, noL only wlLh respecL Lo Lhe exlsLence of a crlme,
buL more lmporLanLly, of Lhe ldenLlLy of Lhe accused as Lhe auLhor of Lhe
o rosecuLlon's case musL rlse and fall on lLs own merlLs and cannoL draw lLs
sLrengLh from Lhe weakness of Lhe defense.

IV. k|ght to be neard

A. Genera| r|nc|p|es
1he Pearer
o CuallLy demanded: falrness and lmparLlallLy
" !udge may noL play Lhe double role of prosecuLor and [udge ln one
and Lhe same case.
1he one belng Peard
o 8lghL Lo presenL evldence and Lo be presenL aL Lhe Lrlal
o 1he rlghL Lo be asslsLed by counsel
o 8lghL Lo compulsory process Lo compel Lhe aLLendance of wlLness ln hls
8lghL Lo presenL evldence.
o 8lghL Lo LesLlfy ln one's favor and Lhe rlghL Lo be glven Llme Lo call
Cne has Lhe rlghL also, lf belng accused of Lwo offenses, for Lrlal of each of Lhe case.

8. k|ght to be tr|ed by an |mpart|a| [udge
lmperaLlve characLer of Lhe safeguard of due process connoLes, aL Lhe very leasL, an
lmparLlal Lrlbunal. Mateo Ir. v. V|||a|uz
Cround ln whlch [udge can dlsquallfy hlmself (k-C): Mateo Ir. v. V|||a|uz
1. 2#'"%$*+0 lnLeresL.
34 5#6*($&%.)$/.

Iu., p. S11
Iu., p. S14 - S1S
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
3. revlous /*+($'$/*($&% ln Lhe maLLer LhaL calls for ad[udlcaLlon
4. CLher [usL or valld reason whlch erodes LralL of &89#'($:$(0
Lxamples of when [udge ls parLlal:
o Llne of quesLlonlng showed hls hosLlllLy agalnsL Lhe accused who was a
noLorlous crlmlnal. eop|e v. Cp|da

o !udge convlcLed Lhe peLlLloner of arson, he aLLrlbuLed Lhe acL Lo Lhe deslre
of peLlLloner Lo desLroy evldence of malversaLlon, Lhe [udge was dlsquallfled
from subsequenLly Lrylng Lhe peLlLloner for malversaLlon. Ignac|o v. V|||a|uz

!udge who lnherlL a case from anoLher [udge, even Lhough he was noL able Lo hear
all Lhe wlLnesses presenLed, sLlll have Lhe presumpLlon of belng lmparLlal.

C. k|ght to Counse|
8aslc elemenLs of Lhe rlghL Lo counsel:
o CourL ls duLy-bound Lo lnform Lhe defendanL LhaL he has a rlghL Lo an
aLLorney before he ls arralgned.
o 1he CourL musL ask hlm lf he deslres Lhe servlce of counsel.
o lf he does, and ls unable Lo geL one, Lhe CourL musL asslgn counsel de offlclo
o Cf, lf Lhe accused wlshes Lo procure prlvaLe counsel, Lhe courL musL glve
hlm Llme Lo obLaln one. lf appolnLed counsel's lnLeresLs are dlvlded
beLween prosecuLor and Lhe defense, hls appolnLmenL consLlLuLes
reverslble error.
o Where duly auLhorlzed members of Lhe bar are noL avallable, Lhe courL may
appolnL any person resldenL of Lhe provlnce and of good repuLe for problLy
and ablllLy.
1he 8lghL
o Accused musL be lnformed by Lhe courL LhaL he has a rlghL Lo have counsel
before belng arralgned, and musL be asked lf he deslres Lhe ald of counsel.
lf he deslres and ls unable Lo employ counsel, Lhe courL musL asslgn counsel
(counsel de offlclo) Lo defend hlm. U.S. v. Gem|no

o lL ls essenLlal LhaL Lhe courL should asslgn one de offlclo lf he deslres and lf

}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy (2uu9 eu.), p. Su2
Iu., p. SuS
Iu., p. S17
he ls poor, and granL hlm a reasonable Llme Lo procure an aLLorney of hls
o uenlal such rlghL would be sufflclenL cause for Lhe reversal of Lhe case. U.S.
v. Seradoy

o Counsel de offlclo musL be a quallfled lawyer.
resumpLlon of 8egularlLy
o 1here ls a presumpLlon LhaL Lhe courL dld Lhe sald acLs above. eop|e v.

When rlghL aLLaches. Sayson v. eop|e

o 1lme of arralgnmenL
o 8efore arralgnmenL, rlghLs under Art|c|e 12 shall apply Lo Lhe accused
Cases where Lhere's no denlal of rlghL Lo counsel
o 1he accused has proceeded wlLh Lhe arralgnmenL and Lhe Lrlal wlLh a
counsel of hls cholce buL when Lhe Llme for Lhe presenLaLlon of evldence for
Lhe defense has arrlved, he appears by hlmself alone and Lhe absence of hls
counsel was lnexcusable. Sayson v. eop|e

o A counsel de offlclo was appolnLed durlng Lhe absence of Lhe accused
counsel de parLe pursuanL Lo Lhe courL's deslre Lo flnlsh Lhe case as early as
pracLlcable under conLlnuous Lrlal sysLem
o eLlLloner was represenLed by counsel de parLe aL Lhe arralgnmenL and
Lrlal, Lhe Lrlal courL could noL be deemed duLy-bound Lo appolnL a counsel
de offlclo for Lhe conLlnuaLlon of hls cross examlnaLlon.
Walver of rlghL Lo counsel

o Accused sald LhaL he dld noL wanL a counsel. eop|e v. S|m 8en
o Accused wenL Lo Lrlal alone and conducLed hls own defense afLer belng
asked lf he wanLed a counsel.
o resumpLlon ls always agalnsL Lhe walver.
o rosecuLlon musL prove wlLh sLrong evldence walver was made wllllngly and

Iu., p. S18
Iu., p. S2u
Iu., p. S21
Iu., p. S22 - S2S
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
V. k|ght to be |nformed
Cardlnal requlslLe: accused be lnformed of facLs LhaL are lmpuLed Lo hlm.
o lnformaLlon musL descrlbe Lhe acL wlLh sufflclenL parLlcularlLy.
o uescrlpLlve Lerms used musL be sufflclenL ln Lhelr common and ordlnary
accepLaLlon Lo show wlLh cerLalnLy Lo Lhe common undersLandlng of
lnLelllgenL men whaL Lhe properLy was and Lo fully ldenLlfy lL.
o Cuallfylng clrcumsLances musL be alleged.
o 1he rlghL Lo assall Lhe sufflclency of Lhe lnformaLlon or Lhe admlsslon of
evldence may be walved by Lhe accused lf he falls Lo ob[ecL Lo lLs sufflclency
durlng Lhe Lrlal and Lhe deflclency ls cured by compeLenL evldence
presenLed Lhereln.
o need noL allege Lhe preclse Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense, unless
Llme ls an essenLlal elemenL of Lhe crlme charged.
o 1lme of commlsslon of Lhe offense musL be alleged as near Lo Lhe acLual
daLe as Lhe lnformaLlon of complalnL wlll permlL (Sect|on 11, ku|e 110,
ku|es of Court).
o uue process requlres LhaL noL only he (accused) needs Lo be lnformed, he
musL be able Lo undersLand whaL Lhe law commands or prohlblLs (oLherwlse
lLs vold for vagueness)
o 8lghL Lo sufflclenL lnformaLlon ls a rlghL ln crlmlnal proceedlgns and noL ln
admlnlsLraLlve proceedlngs, whlch only requlres LhaL Lhe respondenL be
glven Lhe opporLunlLy Lo be heard.
An lnformaLlon flled musL conLaln all Lhe valld charges agalnsL Lhe accused as lL ls
Lhe rlghL of Lhe accused Lo be lnformed of Lhe naLure and Lhe cause of accusaLlon
agalnsL hlm. eop|e v. kega|a

VI. Speedy, |mpart|a| and pub||c tr|a|
A. Impart|a| 1r|a|
8lghL Lo lmparLlal Lrlal ls noL a bar Lo a [udge's lnLervenLlon ln cross-examlnaLlon.

lL ls Lhe duLy of a Lrlal [udge Lo examlne wlLnesses when lL appears necessary for Lhe
elucldaLlon of Lhe record.

}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy (2uu9 eu.), p. S26
8. Speedy 1r|a|
uenlal of Lhe rlghL Lo speedy Lrlal shall enLlLle Lhe accused Lo Lhe dlsmlssal of Lhe
case flled agalnsL hlm. Conde v. k|vera
WhaL consLlLuLlon prohlblLs are unreasonable delays.

1hus lf delay was reasonable lL does noL vlolaLe rlghL Lo speedy Lrlal (See examples)
o Absence of Lhe complalnanL due Lo medlcal reasons. eop|e v. G|nes
o lour days ln Lhe Lransmlsslon of appeal papers.
o War/LlberaLlon
o 1yphoon
lf accused ralse Lhe defense of denlal of speedy Lrlal only on appeal, lL's deemed Lo
have been walved.
Walver or abandonmenL may be presumed only when Lhe posLponemenL of Lhe Lrlal
has been soughL and obLalned by Lhe accused hlmself or by hls aLLorney.
8emedy of an accused when Lhere's a vlolaLlon of rlghL Lo speedy Lrlal ls dlsmlssal
whlch ls equlvalenL Lo acqulLLal, Lhus double [eopardy applles Lo habeas corpus lf

C. ub||c 1r|a|
When anyone lnLeresLed ln observlng Lhe manner a [udge conducLs Lhe proceedlngs
ln hls courLroom may do so.
LxcepLlon: general publlc may be excluded when Lhe evldence Lo be presenLed ln
Lhe proceedlng may be characLerlzed as offenslve Lo decency or publlc morals.
o 8uL even ln such lnsLances, Lhe consLlLuLlon demands LhaL Lhe accused
should be allowed Lo aL leasL have hls frlends, relaLlves, and counsel presenL
no maLLer wlLh whaL offense he may be charged.
8lghL ls a safeguard agalnsL any aLLempL Lo employ our courLs as lnsLrumenLs of

VII. k|ght to Confrontat|on
8lghL Lo meeL Lhe wlLness face Lo face
1wo-fold purpose:
o Afford Lhe accused an opporLunlLy Lo LesL Lhe LesLlmony of Lhe wlLness by

Iu., p. S27
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
o Secondarlly Lo allow Lhe [udge Lo observe Lhe deporLmenL of Lhe wlLness.
A docLor who execuLes Lhe medlcal cerLlflcaLe musL be presenLed for cross
examlnaLlon. U.S. v. Lorenzana

AgreemenL beLween prosecuLlon and Lhe defense Lo Lhe effecL LhaL cerLaln
wlLnesses, lf presenLed, would LesLlfy Lo cerLaln facLs can deprlve Lhe defendanL of
Lhe rlghL of confronLaLlon ls noL compleLely dlsallowed. U.S. v. Donato

1esLlmony noL sub[ecL Lo cross examlnaLlon musL be excluded from conslderaLlon.
o ;<'#/($&%4 When cross examlnaLlon was sLarLed, buL was noL flnlshed,
before wlLness can come back, he dles. 1esLlmony already made ls
admlsslble. eop|e v. Sener|s.
1he provlslon whlch allows Lhe sharla courL Lo render a declslon based on an
unexamlned oaLh made by Lhe defendanL wlLhouL any oLher evldence, denles a
parLy hls rlghL Lo confronL Lhe wlLnesses agalnsL hlm and Lo cross-examlne Lhem,
Lhus lL ls a vlolaLlon of due process. 1ampar v. Usman
8lghL of confronLaLlon ls recognlzed durlng prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon proper
(wheLher or noL Lo flle a case), buL noL durlng prellmlnary examlnaLlon (wheLher or
noL Lo lssue a warranL). Mar|nas v. S|och|

VIII. Compu|sory rocess
1o esLabllsh Lhe rlghL Lo conLlnuance by reason of absence of wlLnesses, Lhe
accused musL show (M-NAL):
1. 1haL Lhe wlLness ls really maLerlal
2. 1haL he ls gullLy of no neglecL ln prevlously obLalnlng aLLendance of sald
3. 1haL Lhe wlLness wlll be avallable aL Lhe Llme deslred.
4. 1haL no slmllar evldence could be obLalned.
1he followlng are klnds of compulsory processes avallable Lo Lhe accused:
1. ="8/&#%* !"'#. (#'"-4 Summon documenLs ln courL.
2. ="8/&#%* *! (#.($,$'*%!"-4 Summon wlLnesses Lo LesLlfy ln courL.
3. >&%(#-/(4 unlshmenL for dlsobedlence or dlshonor Lo Lhe courL, may be
dlrecL or lndlrecL.

}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy (2uu9 eu.), p. SS1
4. ?#%') @*++*%(4 Compels Lhe aLLendance ln courL of a key wlLness dlfferenL
from an arresL or search warranL, Lhus, no need for probable cause.
Slnce prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon can resulL ln an arresL, Lhe accused should noL be
denled access Lo evldence favorable Lo hlm. Webb v. De Leon

8. 1r|a| |n absent|a
Accused was so nolsy, dlsorderly and dlsrupLlve durlng Lhe Lrlal LhaL lL was
lmposslble for Lhe Lrlal Lo proceed. 1he [udge ordered accused Lo be removed. SC
sald he forfelLed hls rlghL Lo be presenL LhroughouL Lhe Lrlal. I|||no|s v. A||en
8equlslLes for Lrlal ln absenLla
o Accused has been arralgned
o noLlce of Lhe Lrlal was duly served Lo hlm and properly reLurned
o Pls fallure Lo appear ls un[usLlfled
Why afLer arralgnmenL
o uurlng arralgnmenL, Lhe lnformaLlon ls read Lo Lhe accused and he enLers
hls plea.
o 1rlal courL acqulres [urlsdlcLlon over Lhe person.
1here ls sLaLuLory rule whlch requlres Lhe presence of Lhe accused aL promulgaLlon
of [udgmenL.
1rlal ln absenLla can be made volunLarlly buL he may be compelled Lo appear for
purpose of ldenLlflcaLlon by Lhe wlLnesses of Lhe prosecuLlon.

lf he really does noL wanL Lo appear, he musL unquallfledly admlL LhaL every Llme a
wlLnesses menLlons a name by whlch he ls known, Lhe wlLness ls Lo be undersLood
as referrlng Lo hlm. Carredo v. eop|e

Iu., p. SSS
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

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"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
A|| persons sha|| have the r|ght to a speedy d|spos|t|on of the|r cases before a|| [ud|c|a|,
quas|-[ud|c|a|, or adm|n|strat|ve bod|es.

I. Genera| r|nc|p|es
A. Speedy D|spos|t|on of Cases
1hls provlslon covers Lhe perlods before, durlng, and afLer Lrlal.
lL glves a broader proLecLlon Lhan Sect|on 14 whlch guaranLees merely Lhe rlghL Lo a
speedy Lrlal.
1hls provlslon applles Lo all clvll, crlmlnal, and admlnlsLraLlve cases.
lL also applles Lo all [udlclal or quasl-[udlclal proceedlngs.

8. "Speedy" as a ke|at|ve and I|ex|b|e 1erm
1he concepL of speedy dlsposlLlon" such as speedy Lrlal" ls relaLlve and musL
necessarlly be flexlble.
lL ls conslsLenL wlLh reasonable delay.
ln deLermlnaLlon of wheLher or noL Lhe rlghL has been vlolaLed, Lhe followlng
facLors may be consldered and balanced. (1) Gu|an| v. Sand|ganbayan
1. LengLh of delay
2. 8eason for Lhe delay
3. AsserLlon of Lhe rlghL or fallure Lo asserL lL
4. re[udlce caused by Lhe delay

II. roper kemedy: Mandamus
1he remedy for vlolaLlon of Lhe rlghL Lo a speedy dlsposlLlon of a case ls dlsmlssal
Lhrough mandamus.

III. Speedy D|spos|t|on of Cases v. Speedy 1r|a|

Speedy D|spos|t|on Speedy 1r|a|
8eglns from Lhe prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon 8eglns from Lhe momenL Lhe charge ls flled

!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
No person sha|| be compe||ed to be a w|tness aga|nst h|mse|f.

I. Genera| r|nc|p|es: k|ght Aga|nst Se|f-Incr|m|nat|on
!"#$%&'()*+*',-*.' ! "# $%& '()*+,)-.& /0'& () *0102+& ,# 2&(34 -)&' 040(3)$ $%&
'&#&3'03$ 0) 0 *,3#&))(,3 ,# 0 *.(/& $%&3 )-*% '()*+,)-.& 5,-+' 2& 03 0**-)0$(,3
040(3)$ %(/)&+# (1) US v. Navarro
6-)$(#(*0$(,3 ,# $%& 4-0.03$&&7 (1) US v. Navarro
o 8-2+(* 1,+(*9: (# $%& 10.$9 5&.& .&;-(.&' $, $&)$(#9< ($ 5,-+' 1+0*& $%& 5($3&))
-3'&. $%& )$.,34&)$ $&/1$0$(,3 $, *,//($ 1&.=-.97
o >-/03($9: "$ 5,-+' 1.&?&3$ $%& &@$,.$(34 ,# *,3#&))(,3) 29 '-.&))7
o 8.,%(2($ *,/1-+),.9 ,.0+ &@0/(30$(,3 ,# 1.(),3&. 2&#,.& $.(0+< ,. -1,3 $.(0+<
#,. $%& 1-.1,)& ,# &@$,.$(34 -35(++(34 *,3#&))(,3) ,. '&*+0.0$(,3)
(/1+(*0$(34 $%&/ (3 $%& *,//())(,3 ,# $%& *.(/&7 (2) US v. 1an 1eng
o A+), *,?&.) $%& #0*$ $%0$ 03 0**-)&' /09 3,$ 2& #,.*&' $, *.&0$& &?('&3*&
$%0$ 5(++ (/1+(*0$& %(/)&+#7 (S) 8e|tran v. Samson
B%, '&$&./(3&) 5%&$%&. ,. 3,$ 0 ;-&)$(,3 () (3*.(/(30$(34C
o A3)5&.: D%& E,-.$

II. Compu|s|on to (1) take the w|tness stand or (2) to answer an |ncr|m|nat|ng quest|on
(7) Chavez v. CA

D0F(34 $%& 5($3&))
D0F(34 $%& 5($3&))
)$03' (3 0 *.(/(30+
A3)5&. 03
E03 2& *,/1&++&'
E033,$ 2& *,/1&++&'
E033,$ 2& *,/1&++&'
B($3&)) E03 2& *,/1&++&'
G5($% 03 &@*&1$(,3 )-2)$03$(0$&' (3 $%& 3&@$ )&*$(,3

E03 0+), 2& 011+(&' (3 0'/(3()$.0$(?& 1.,*&&'(34) 10.$0F(34 $%& 30$-.& ,# 0 *.(/(30+
1.,*&&'(34 ,. 030+,4,-) $, 0 *.(/(30+ 1.,*&&'(34
o (8) Caba| v. kapunan Ir. H #,.#&($-.& ,# 1.,1&.$9
o (9) ascua| Ir. v. 8oard of Med|ca| Lxam|ners - .&?,*0$(,3 ,# +(*&3)&7

III. Not an Abso|ute k|ght
"$ ',&) 3,$ 1.,%(2($ &?&.9 #,./ ,# 1.&+(/(30.9 (3?&)$(40$(,3
o 8.&+(/(30.9 (3?&)$(40$(,3 I() ,#$&3 $%& ,3+9 /&03) ,# '()*,?&.(34 $%&
1&.),3) 5%, /09 2& .&0),302+9 *%0.4&' 5($% 0 *.(/& ), 0) $, &302+& $,
#()*0+ $, 1.&10.& %() *,/1+0(3$ ,. (3#,./0$(,37J
D%& 4-0.03$&& ',&) 3,$ 1.,%(2($ 0 10.$9 +($(403$ #.,/ -)(34 %() 0'?&.)0.9 0) 0
5($3&)) 5%&3 $%& *0)& () 3,$ 0 *.(/(30+ *0)& 5%&.& $%& (3$&3'&' 5($3&)) () $%&
0**-)&' %(/)&+#7
"# 0 )-21,&30 50) ())-&' 29 $%& K&30$& $, ())-& ;-&.(&) (3 0(' ,# +&4()+0$(,3< $%&
5($3&)) L&?&3 (# 0**-)&' (3 0 *.(/(30+ *0)&M /09 2& *,/1&++&' $, $0F& $%& 5($3&))
)$03' &?&3 (# 5%0$ () $, 2& 0)F&' () .&+0$&' $, $%& *.(/(30+ *0)&7
o >,5&?&.< $%&9 /09 )$(++ (3?,F& $%& .(4%$ (# $%&9 #(3' $%0$ $%& ;-&)$(,3 ())-&'
$, $%&/ () (3*.(/(30$(347

IV. When to ra|se the r|v||ege

N&#,.& $0F(34 $%& 5($3&))
N&#,.& 03)5&.(34 03
(3*.(/(30$(34 ;-&)$(,3
A**-)&' (3 0 *.(/(30+ *0)& k
A**-)&' 3,$ (3 0 *.(/(30+
B($3&)) k

V. roh|b|t|on does not prec|ude a body check-up, mechan|ca| acts
K-2)$03*& &/($$(34 #.,/ $%& 2,'9 ,# $%& '&#&3'03$ 50) .&*&(?&' 0) &?('&3*& (3 0
1.,)&*-$(,3 #,. 0 .01& *0)&7 (2) US v. 1an 1eng
O,.1%(3& #,.*&' ,-$ ,# $%& /,-$% ,# $%& 0**-)&' 50) .&*&(?&' 0) &?('&3*&7 (3) US
v. Cng Su| nong
8.&4303*9 $&)$ () 3,$ 0 ?(,+0$(,3 ,# $%& .(4%$ 040(3)$ )&+#P(3*.(/(30$(,3 0) +,34 0) ($ ()
3,$ ',3& 5($% $,.$-.& ,. #,.*&7 (3) V|||af|or v. Summers

!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
VI. nandwr|t|ng
B.($(34 () 3,$ 0 1-.&+9 /&*%03(*0+ 0*$< 2&*0-)& ($ .&;-(.&) $%& 011+(*0$(,3 ,#
(3$&++(4&3*& 03' 0$$&3$(,37 (S) 8e|tran v. Samson
o Q,.*(34 ),/&,3& $, #-.3()% 0 )1&*(/&3 ,# %() %03'5.($(34 () &;-0+ $,
*,/1&++(34 0 1&.),3 $, 1.,'-*& 0 ',*-/&3$ 5%(*% () 0 ?(,+0$(,3 ,# $%() .(4%$
H $%& 5($3&)) () .&;-(.&' $, #-.3()% &?('&3*& 040(3)$ %(/)&+#7

VII. Wa|ver of k|ght
B%&3 0 1&.),3 ?,+-3$0.(+9 03)5&.) 03 (3*.(/(30$(34 ;-&)$(,3< %& () '&&/&' $, %0?&
50(?&' %() .(4%$7
R&3(0+ ,3 $%& 10.$ ,# $%& 0**-)&' 5%&3 ($ 50) )0(' $%0$ ($ 50) )%& 5%, 5.,$& ,3 $%&
',*-/&3$) ',&) 3,$ *,3)$($-$& 0 50(?&. 03' $%&.&#,.& *033,$ 2& .&;-(.&' $,
1.,'-*& 0 )0/1+& ,# %&. %03'5.($(347 (6) 8ermudez v. Cast|||o

VIII. Documents and records
D%& .(4%$ 040(3)$ )&+#P(3*.(/(30$(,3 *,?&.) ',*-/&3$0.9 &?('&3*&7
D%() .(4%$ () 0 1&.),30+ ,3& H $%-) 011+9(34 ,3+9 $, 0 30$-.0+ 1&.),37
o >&3*&< 0 *,.1,.0$(,3 /09 2& *,/1&++&' $, )-2/($ $, $%& ?()($,.(0+ 1,5&.) ,#
$%& )$0$& &?&3 (# $%() .&)-+$) (3 '()*+,)-.& ,# *.(/(30+ 0*$) ,# $%& *,.1,.0$(,37
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
!"#$%&' )*+
,)- '. /012.3 24566 70 8095:308 2.606; 7; 1052.3 .< 4:2 /.6:9:=56 706:0<2 538
,>- '. :3?.6@3951; 201?:9@80 :3 53; <.1A 24566 0B:29 0B=0/9 52 5 /@3:24A039 <.1 5
=1:A0 C4010.< 940 /519; 24566 45?0 7003 8@6; =.3?:=908+

!"#$%&' )D+
,)- "B=022:?0 <:302 24566 3.9 70 :A/.208E 3.1 =1@06E 80F158:3F .1 :34@A53 /@3:24A039
:3<6:=908+ '0:9401 24566 80594 /03569; 70 :A/.208E @36022E <.1 =.A/066:3F 1052.32
:3?.6?:3F 40:3.@2 =1:A02E 940 #.3F1022 40105<901 /1.?:802 <.1 :9+ G3; 80594
/03569; 561058; :A/.208 24566 70 108@=08 9. 10=6@2:.3 /01/09@5+
,>- $40 0A/6.;A039 .< /4;2:=56E /2;=4.6.F:=56E .1 80F158:3F /@3:24A039 5F5:329 53;
/1:2.301 .1 8095:300 .1 940 @20 .< 2@729538518 .1 :3580H@590 /0356 <5=:6:9:02
@3801 2@74@A53 =.38:9:.32 24566 70 80569 C:94 7; 65C+

#IJ"KE L"MIGL%'ME %'NJOG' &I "P#"!!%Q" R"'GK$S

%+ T#1@06E L0F158:3FE .1 :34@A53U
1o come under Lhe ban, Lhe punlshmenL musL be flagranLly and plalnly
oppresslve", wholly dlsproporLlonaLe Lo Lhe naLure of Lhe offense as Lo shock Lhem
moral sense of Lhe communlLy. ,)- R0./60 ?+ "29.:295
lnvolves LorLure or llngerlng deaLh.

%%+ R03569; =.329:9@9:.356 7@9 T0B=022:?0U
1here are lnsLances where ln Lhe penalLy for a cerLaln crlme ls generally
proporLlonaLe buL excesslve" lf cerLaln facLs and clrcumsLances are changed.
ln such slLuaLlons, Lhe courL musL sLlll lmpose such penalLy buL wlLh
recommendaLlon for execuLlve clemency. ,)- R0./60 ?+ "29.:295


%+ TL0594 R03569;U
1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlon does noL ban Lhe lmposlLlon of Lhe deaLh penalLy, lL merely
suspended lL. ,>- R0./60 ?+ "=40F515;
o lL's framers have lefL Lhe dlscreLlon Lo Lhe leglslaLure Lo resLore lL lf Lhey
flnd compelllng reasons lnvolvlng helnous crlmes"
1hls ls noL cruel and unusual"
o lL only becomes such lf Lhe penalLy lnvolves LorLure and llngerlng deaLh.

%%+ TN0:3.@2 #1:A02U
ueflned under I+G+ VWXD ,L0594 R03569; K5C-
Crlmes are helnous for belng grlevous, odlous, and haLeful offenses and whlch, by
reason of Lhelr lnherenL or manlfesL wlckedness, vlclousness, aLroclLy and perverslLy
are repugnanL and ouLrageous Lo Lhe common sLandards and norms of decency and
morallLy ln a [usL, clvlllzed and ordered socleLy.

%%%+ R.C01 9. 1029.10 940 L0594 R03569;
uoes noL fall wlLhln Lhe plenary power of Lhe Congress: lL ls sub[ecL Lo a clear
showlng of compelllng reasons lnvolvlng helnous crlmes"
LnLalls Lhe followlng: ,>- R0./60 ?+ "=40F515;
o 1haL Lhe Congress musL deflne whaL ls meanL by helnous crlmes
o 1haL Lhe Congress musL speclfy and penallze by deaLh, only crlmes LhaL
quallfy as helnous ln accordance wlLh Lhe deflnlLlon or descrlpLlon seL ln Lhe
deaLh penalLy blll and/or deslgnaLe crlmes punlshable by recluslon perpeLua
Lo deaLh ln whlch laLLer case, deaLh can only be lmposed upon Lhe
aLLendance of clrcumsLances duly proven ln courL LhaL characLerlze Lhe
crlmes Lo be helnous ln accordance wlLh Lhe deflnlLlon seL ln Lhe deaLh
penalLy blll.
o 1haL Congress, ln enacLlng such law, be moLlvaLed by compelllng reasons
lnvolvlng helnous crlmes.
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
No person sha|| be |mpr|soned for debt or non-payment of a po|| tax.

I. "Debt"
A. Coverage of Debt
no person may be lmprlsoned for debuL ln vlrLue of an order ln a clvll proceedlng,
elLher as a subsLlLuLe for saLlsfacLlon of a debuL or as a means of compelllng
!" $%&'()$'*. lrom a conLracL.

8. What |s the not covered
A person may be lmprlsoned as a penalLy for a crlme arlslng from a conLracLual
debuL and lmposed ln a proper crlmlnal proceedlng. (1) Lozano v. Mart|nez
!" +,-.$'%/ lor a LorL.

II. o|| 1ax
A poll Lax may also be undersLood as Lhe cedula Lax or resldence Lax
1he ConsLlLuLlon does noL prohlblL Lhe cedula Lax buL lL prohlblLs lmprlsonmenL for
non-paymenL of Lhe cedula or resldence Lax.

!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
!"#$%&' )*+
', -./0,1 02344 5. 6789. -:6 81 ;.,-3/<= ,> -:1802?.16 >,/ 62. 03?. ,>>.10.+ %> 31 396 80
-:1802.< 5= 3 437 31< 31 ,/<81319.@ 9,1A8968,1 ,/ 39B:86634 :1<./ .862./ 02344 9,10686:6.
3 53/ 6, 31,62./ -/,0.9:68,1 >,/ 62. 03?. 396+

%+ C.1./34 D,8160

E,:54. F.,-3/<= G.H34 F.,-3/<=
1wlce punlshed for Lhe same offense
(Lx: 8elng punlshed under (1) an ordlnance
whlch has Lhe exacL same elemenLs
necessary Lo be punlshed under (2) a
1wlce Lrled for Lhe same offense
1he facL of belng prosecuLed or senLenced
Lwlce for subsLanLlally Lhe same offense
1he rlsk of convlcLlon and punlshmenL LhaL
Lhe crlmlnal defendanL faces aL Lrlal

I+ J.B:8086.0 >,/ 62. I66392?.16 ,> E,:54. F.,-3/<=+
1. A flrsL [eopardy musL have aLLached prlor Lo Lhe second ! legal [eopardy
2. 1he flrsL [eopardy musL have LermlnaLed ! LermlnaLlon
3. 1he second [eopardy musL be for Lhe same offense as LhaL ln Lhe flrsL ! ldenLlLy of
Lhe offense
J.B:8086.0 >,/ E,:54. F.,-3/<= KLM "06/3<3 A+ E.08./6,
1. upon a valld complalnL
2. 8efore a compeLenL courL
3. AfLer arralgnmenL
4. When a valld plea has been enLered
3. When Lhe defendanL was acqulLLed or convlcLed or Lhe case was dlsmlssed or
oLherwlse LermlnaLed wlLhouL Lhe express consenL of Lhe accused

N+ J.B:8086.0 >,/ I66392?.16 ,> G.H34 F.,-3/<= K*M D.,-4. A+ O43H31
1. upon a valld lndlcLmenL/complalnL
2. 8efore a compeLenL courL wlLh [urlsdlcLlon
3. AfLer arralgnmenL

A##'$%&.+&* ! $&$*$'( F*+G $& ' ?#$.$&'( G#-F+?C*$-& H@+#+=> *@+ <+,+&<'&* $F =#-C%@* =+,-#+ *@+ ?-C#* *- @+'# *@+
4. AfLer plea

#+ C"'"JIG JPG"Q %106319.0 ,> $./?81368,1 K)M N:43,1H A+ D.,-4.
1. AcqulLLal ! when Lhe case ls LermlnaLed upon Lhe merlLs of Lhe lssue (e.g. gullL noL
proven beyond reasonable doubL).
',6.Q ulsmlssal based on demurrer of evldence ls an acqulLLal. Pence, lf Lhe
demurrer ls vold, Lhere ls noL acqulLLal and double [eopardy does noL aLLach. KRM
S:-30 A+ D.,-4.
2. llnAL ConvlcLlon ! accused gullL ls proven and Lhere ls no more opporLunlLy for
3. ulsmlssal wlLhouL express consenL of Lhe accused ! dlsmlssal on any ground LhaL
does noL declde Lhe merlLs of Lhe case, Lhere should be no consenL on Lhe parL of
Lhe accused (e.g. lack of [urlsdlcLlon).
',6.Q Mere sllence does noL necessarlly mean consenL K*M D.,-4. A+ O43H31
4. ulsmlssal" on Lhe merlLs ! mosL common example ls dlsmlssal on Lhe ground of
denlal of Lhe rlghL Lo a speedy Lrlal.
',6.Q ulsmlssal musL be done by Lhe [udge ln wrlLlng. A mere verbal dlsmlssal ls noL
flnal unLll wrlLLen and slgned by Lhe [udge.

E+ "T#"D$%&'Q !:-./A.181H U396
When afLer Lhe flllng of Lhe flrsL lnformaLlon, a supervenlng facL Lakes place and
changes Lhe characLer of Lhe crlme charged, amendlng Lhe lnformaLlon would noL
consLlLuLe a vlolaLlon of double [eopardy. KVM S.4, A+ D.,-4.
o 1he second crlme musL noL have been ln exlsLence when Lhe flrsL
lnformaLlon was flled.
o Lxample: ueaLh of vlcLlm changes Lhe characLer of homlclde from frusLraLed
Lo consummaLed.
1o be accepLed as a supervenlng facL LhaL creaLes an excepLlon, lL musL noL have
been presenL durlng Lhe flllng of Lhe flrsL lnformaLlon.
o lf Lhe dlscovery of such facL (presence of a fracLure whlch changes Lhe
characLer of Lhe crlme) was [usL delayed due Lo Lhe lncompeLence of a
docLor, double [eopardy wlll aLLach. KWM D.,-4. A+ N:481H

?@'#%+F '&< *- +&*+# ' G(+':
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
%%+ U8/06 D3/6Q !3?. &>>.10.
no person shall be Lwlce puL ln [eopardy of punlshmenL for Lhe same offense.

I+ %<.1686= ,> 62. &>>.10. KVM S.4, A+ D.,-4.
1. Cne offense ls ldenLlcal Lo anoLher
2. Cne ls an (a) aLLempL or (b) frusLraLlon of Lhe oLher
3. Cne (a) necessarlly lncludes or (b) ls necessarlly lncluded ln Lhe oLher

',6.: When Lhe same seL of acLs consLlLuLe Lwo or more offenses dlsLlncLly punlshed by Lhe
law, LermlnaLlon of elLher one does noL bar prosecuLlon for anoLher. ln Lhls case, Lhere ls an
elemenL ln one LhaL ls noL ln Lhe oLher KXM D.,-4. A+ $8,Y,1
Lxample: lllegal possesslon of llrearms under a speclal law and homlclde/murder
under Lhe 8C

%%+ !.9,1< D3/6Q &/<81319. 31< !636:6.
lf an acL ls punlshed by a law and an ordlnance, convlcLlon or acqulLLal under elLher
shall consLlLuLe a bar Lo anoLher prosecuLlon for Lhe same acL.

I+ C.1./34 D,8160
ConLrary Lo whaL ls covered ln Lhe flrsL parL, Lhe second parL of Lhe provlslon covers
Lhe same acLs".
o 1hus, even lf Lhe same acL consLlLuLes Lwo dlfferenL offenses whereln one ls
punlshed under an ordlnance and Lhe oLher under a naLlonal law,
LermlnaLlon under elLher shall consLlLuLe a bar Lo Lhe prosecuLlon of Lhe
oLher. KZM D.,-4. A+ J.4,A3

%%%+ I--.340
1he proLecLlon agalnsL second [eopardy noL only means LhaL an accused cannoL be
prosecuLed a second Llme for Lhe same offense buL also LhaL Lhe prosecuLlon cannoL
appeal a [udgmenL of acqulLLal.
o nor wlll Lhe prosecuLlon be allowed Lo appeal an [udgmenL of convlcLlon ln
order Lo obLaln a modlflcaLlon of Lhe penalLy when Lhe penalLy lmposed ls
llghLer Lhan whaL ls legally demandable.
When Lhe accused hlmself appeals from a declslon of convlcLlon, he effecLlvely
walves hls rlghL agalnsL double [eopardy.
o Clven Lhls, Lhe lmposlLlon of a hlgher penalLy upon appeal ls noL conLrary Lo
Lhe consLlLuLlonal guaranLee.

%[+ !-.9834 #30.Q %?-.392?.16+ KLM "06/3<3 A+ E.08./6,
ConvlcLlon or acqulLLal ln an lmpeachmenL proceedlng ls noL a condlLlon !"#$ &'(
#)# Lo prosecuLlon under Lhe Cmbudsman.
8eslgnaLlon from one's poslLlon ls express consenL for Lhe dlsmlssal of Lhe
lmpeachmenL case.
o 1hus, when one reslgns, Lhe case auLomaLlcally does noL fall under Lhe
lnsLances of LermlnaLlon LhaL glve rlse Lo Lhe aLLachmenL of double
lf an lmpeachmenL Lrlal ls declared funcLus offlclo, Lhe besL argumenL avallable for
Lhe defendanL ln saylng LhaL double [eopardy should aLLach ls fallure Lo prosecuLe
amounLlng Lo a vlolaLlon of one's rlghL Lo a speedy Lrlal whlch may lead Lo dlsmlssal
on Lhe merlLs whlch ls one of Lhe lnsLances of LermlnaLlon LhaL glve rlse Lo Lhe
aLLachmenL of double [eopardy.
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
!"#$%&' ))*
'+ ,- .+/0 1230+ 425 +6 7844 +1 200289:,6 /;244 7, ,9230,:*

"< =&!$ >?#$& @?A

%* #;26230,68/083/ +1 29 ,- .+/0 1230+ 425
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1he fo||ow|ng are c|t|zens of the h|||pp|nes:
1. 1hose who are c|t|zens of the h|||pp|nes at the t|me of the adopt|on of th|s
2. 1hose whose fathers or mothers are c|t|zens of the h|||pp|nes,
3. 1hose born before Ianuary 17, 1973, of I|||p|no mothers, who e|ect h|||pp|ne
c|t|zensh|p upon reach|ng the age of ma[or|ty, and
4. 1hose who are natura||zed |n accordance w|th |aw.

I. C|t|zensh|p
ersonal and more or less permanenL membershlp ln a pollLlcal communlLy.
uenoLes possesslon wlLhln LhaL parLlcular pollLlcal communlLy of full clvll and
pollLlcal rlghLs sub[ecL Lo speclal dlsquallflcaLlons.
8eclprocally, lL lmposes Lhe duLy of alleglance.

II. Modes of Acqu|r|ng C|t|zensh|p
!"# %&'(")')#* 8lood relaLlonshlp.
!"# %+,). lace of blrLh.
-&."/&,)0&.)+'. AdopLlng an allen.
1he hlllpplnes follows Lhe rule of 1"# #&'(")')# and has legal procedures for

III. Sect|on 1(2): Ch||dren of I|||p|no Iathers and Mothers
8ule of 1"# #&'(")')# (1) Va||es v. CCMLLLC
a. Applles only Lo naLural flllaLlon and noL Lo flllaLlon by adopLlon.
b. Cnly leglLlmaLe chlldren follow Lhe clLlzenshlp of Lhe faLher.
Note: resumpLlon of valldlLy of a marrlage celebraLed ln anoLher counLry
glves blrLh Lo Lhe presumpLlon of belng Lhe leglLlmaLe chlld of Lhe couple.
ClLlzenshlp may be based on such presumpLlons. (3) Gatcha||an v. 8CC
c. llleglLlmaLe chlldren follow Lhe naLlonallLy of Lhelr moLher.
LxcepLlon: (4) 1ecson v. CCMLLLC
a. llleglLlmaLe chlldren may (posslblllLy of dual clLlzenshlp) also follow Lhe
naLlonallLy of Lhelr faLher lf paLernlLy ls clear.
b. ConvenLlon on Lhe 8lghLs of Lhe Chlld: Chlldren shall no be dlscrlmlnaLed on
Lhe basls of blrLh (Lhus l! was allowed Lo run even lf he was an llleglLlmaLe
chlld of a llllplno laLher)
1here ls noLhlng prevenLlng Lhe leglslaLure from adopLlng Lhe prlnclple of [us soll or
any of lLs feaLures as supplemenLary law on clLlzenshlp.
o 1he leglslaLure ls endowed wlLh broad powers Lo pass naLurallzaLlon laws.

IV. Sect|on 1(3): C|t|zens by e|ect|on
LlecLlon musL be expressed ln a sLaLemenL sworn before any offlcer auLhorlzed Lo
admlnlsLer oaLhs and flled wlLh Lhe nearesL clvll reglsLry and accompanled by an
oaLh of alleglance Lo Lhe hlllpplne ConsLlLuLlon.
lf a mlnor's faLher ls naLurallzed, he does noL need Lo elecL hlllpplne ClLlzenshlp
anymore. (S) Co v. L|ectora| 1r|buna|
LlecLlon may be obLalned lmplledly. (S) Co v. L|ectora| 1r|buna|
o e.g. poslLlve acLs such as llvlng one's whole llfe ln Lhe hlllpplnes
aragraph 3, Sect|on 1, Art|c|e kIV ls lnLended Lo be ln Lhe naLure of a LranslLory
provlslon appllcable Lo chlldren born under Lhe 1933 ConsLlLuLlon who had noL yeL
reached ma[orlLy when Lhe 1973 ConsLlLuLlon Look effecL.
o 1here ls no rlghL of elecLlon for elecLlon for chlldren born under Lhe 1973
1here ls noLhlng ln Lhe law LhaL prevenLs Congress from granLlng a sLaLuLory rlghL of
elecLlon ldenLlcal wlLh Lhe rlghL formerly glven ln Lhe 1933 ConsLlLuLlon.
o Powever, a chlld who elecLs under such sLaLuLe shall noL be consldered a
naLural-born clLlzen under Sect|on 2 because such elecLlon ls noL ln Lhe
vlrLue of Sect|on 1(3), Art|c|e kIV.

V. Sect|on 1(4): Natura||zat|on, Iud|c|a| and Adm|n|strat|ve
naLurallzaLlon: legal acL of adopLlng an allen and cloLhlng hlm wlLh Lhe rlghLs LhaL
belong Lo a naLural born clLlzen. May be obLalned Lhrough:
o Ceneral law of naLurallzaLlon applled Lhrough a [udlclal process.
o Speclal acL of Lhe leglslaLure.
o AdmlnlsLraLlve naLurallzaLlon: handled by Lhe Speclal CommlLLee on
naLurallzaLlon chalred by Lhe SollclLor Ceneral.
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1he power of Lhe leglslaLure lncludes:
o ConLrol over processes Lhrough whlch clLlzenshlp ls acqulred or losL
o ueLermlnaLlon of subsLanLlve crlLerla for admlsslon Lo clLlzenshlp
o llxlng of consequences of Lhe granL of clLlzenshlp on Lhe wlfe or mlnor
chlldren of Lhe granLee
C.A. 473 (kev|sed Natura||zat|on Law)
o SubsLanLlve requlremenLs. (2) Cng Ch|a v. CCMLLLC
! names one has been known
! All pasL addresses
! ManlfesLaLlon of good and reproachable manner
! LucraLlve Lrade/professlon
o rocedural requlremenLs
! ueclaraLlon of lnLenLlon
! llllng of peLlLlon
! Pearlng and lnlLlal [udgmenL
! erlod of probaLlon
! 8ehearlng and flnal [udgmenL
o Note: naLurallzaLlon ls sLrlcLly consLrued agalnsL Lhe appllcanL
1he granL of clLlzenshlp Lo a parenL also exLends clLlzenshlp Lo mlnor chlldren under
parenLal auLhorlLy

VI. kes Iud|cata
Cenerally, res [udlcaLa does noL apply ln resolvlng lssues of clLlzenshlp.

8. kequ|s|tes for Lxcept|on (1) Va||es v. CCMLLLC
1. A person's clLlzenshlp be ralsed as a maLerlal lssue ln a conLroversy where sald
person ls a parLy.
2. 1he SollclLor Ceneral or hls auLhorlzed represenLaLlve Look acLlve parL ln Lhe
resoluLlon Lhereof.
3. 1he flndlng on clLlzenshlp ls afflrmed by Lhe SC

VII. Dua| C|t|zensh|p (9) Mercado v. Manzano
osslble for Lhe followlng classes of clLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes Lo have dual clLlzenshlp:
1. 1hose born of llllplno parenLs ln forelgn counLrles adopLlng Lhe [us soll docLrlne.
2. 1hose born of a llllplno moLher and an allen faLher when Lhe law ln Lhelr faLher's
counLry declare Lhem Lo have Lhe same clLlzenshlp as Lhelr faLher.
3. 1hose who marry allens lf by Lhe laws of Lhe laLLer's counLry Lhe former are
consldered clLlzens.

Natura|-born c|t|zens are those who are c|t|zens of the h|||pp|nes from b|rth w|thout
hav|ng to perform any act to acqu|re or perfect the|r h|||pp|ne c|t|zensh|p. 1hose who
e|ect h|||pp|ne c|t|zensh|p |n accordance w|th paragraph (3), SLC1ICN 1 hereof sha|| be
deemed natura|-born c|t|zens.

I. Who are natura|-born c|t|zens
1hose wlLhouL havlng Lo perform any acL Lo acqulre or perfecL hlllpplne clLlzenshlp
o 23456.)+'* 1hose who repaLrlaLed. (11) 8engson v. nkL1
1hose who elecL hlllpplne clLlzenshlp ln accordance wlLh Sect|on 1(3), Art|c|e kIV.
naLurallzed clLlzens are nC1 naLural-born
o 1he process of naLurallzaLlon ls a performance of an acL Lo acqulre

II. urpose of add|ng the second sentence
1o equallze Lhe sLaLus of Lhose born of llllplna parenLs before !anuary 17, 1973 wlLh
Lhose born of llllplna parenLs on or before Lhe sald daLe.

h|||pp|ne c|t|zensh|p may be |ost or reacqu|red |n the manner prov|ded by |aw.

I. Loss of C|t|zensh|p
A. kenunc|at|on
C.A. No. 63 applles Lo boLh naLural-born and naLurallzed clLlzenshlp.
o Sect|on 1 provldes, sub[ecL Lo some excepLlons, LhaL clLlzenshlp ls losL by:
! naLurallzaLlon ln a forelgn counLry.
! Lxpress renunclaLlon of clLlzenshlp. (6) u v. Defensor Sant|ago
! CaLh of alleglance Lo a forelgn counLry.
! 8enderlng servlce ln Lhe armed forces of a forelgn counLry.
! ueserLer of Lhe armed forces.
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8enunclaLlon of hlllpplne clLlzenshlp musL be made 536/5##,7
o Mere possesslon of an allen cerLlflcaLe of reglsLraLlon does noL amounL Lo
renunclaLlon. (9) Mercado v. Manzano
Lxpressly ls noL Lhe same as formally. (6) u v. Defensor-Sant|ago
o 8enunclaLlon of clLlzenshlp need noL be made formally.
o Lxpress renunclaLlon may be deemed from one's acLs, whlch show
repudlaLlon of one's clLlzenshlp.

8. Cance||at|on roceed|ng
C.A. No. 473 applles Lo naLurallzed clLlzenshlp.
o Sect|on 18 Lhereof provldes LhaL a cerLlflcaLe of naLurallzaLlon may be
! When found Lo have been fraudulenLly or lllegally obLalned.
! 8y permanenL resldence ln Lhe counLry of orlgln wlLhln 3 years from
! When peLlLlon ls found Lo have been made on lnvalld declaraLlon of
! upon fallure Lo comply wlLh Lhe requlremenLs of educaLlon of mlnor
! lf Lhe person allows hlmself Lo be a dummy" for allens.
8urden of proof ls shlfLed Lo Lhe governmenL.
naLurallzed clLlzenshlp may only be cancelled upon evldence LhaL ls clear,
unequlvocal and convlnclng" and no merely preponderanL.
o naLurallzed clLlzens are noL second-class clLlzens, Lhey are also afforded
proLecLlon by law.

II. keacqu|s|t|on of c|t|zensh|p
May be done ln Lhree (3) ways: (C.A. No. 63) (8) Labo Ir. v. CCMLLLC
o ulrecL granL by law
o naLurallzaLlon
o 8epaLrlaLlon
Note: 1he process of reacqulrlng your clLlzenshlp musL be compleLe, and you musL
be able Lo presenL proof LhaL Lhe process was compleLed.

A. kepatr|at|on
8eLroacLs Lo Lhe day where appllcaLlon was flled. (7) Ir|va|do v. CCMLLLC
upon repaLrlaLlon, orlglnal clLlzenshlp ls reacqulred. (11) 8engson v. nkL1
o Consldered as naLural-born clLlzens afLer repaLrlaLlon lf naLural-born before
loss of clLlzenshlp.
8epaLrlaLlon under k.A. 8171. (10) 1abasa v. CCMLLLC
o Women who losL clLlzenshlp by marrlage.
o 1hose who losL clLlzenshlp for pollLlcal or economlc reasons
8epaLrlaLlon under k.A. 2630. (11) 8engson v. nkL1
o SecLlon 1. Any person who had losL hls hlllpplne clLlzenshlp by renderlng
servlce Lo, or accepLlng commlsslon ln, Lhe Armed lorces of Lhe unlLed
SLaLes, or afLer separaLlon from Lhe Armed lorces of Lhe unlLed SLaLes,
acqulred unlLed SLaLes clLlzenshlp, may reacqulre hlllpplne clLlzenshlp by
Laklng an oaLh of alleglance Lo Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes and
reglsLerlng Lhe same wlLh Lhe Local Clvll 8eglsLry ln Lhe place where he
resldes or lasL reslded ln Lhe hlllpplnes. 1he sald oaLh of alleglance shall
conLaln renunclaLlon of any oLher clLlzenshlp.
8epaLrlaLlon may be had by Lhose who losL Lhelr clLlzenshlp due Lo:
o ueserLlon of Lhe Armed lorces
o Servlces ln Lhe Armed lorces of Lhe Allled lorces ln World War ll
o Servlce ln Lhe Armed lorces of Lhe uSA aL any oLher Llme
o Marrlage of a llllplno woman Lo an allen
o ollLlcal economlc necesslLy

C|t|zens of the h|||pp|nes who marry a||ens sha|| reta|n the|r c|t|zensh|p, un|ess by the|r
act or om|ss|on, they are deemed, under the |aw, to have renounced |t.

I. Marr|age to an a||en spouse (9) Mercado v. Manzano
1he facL alone of marrlage cannoL sLrlp a llllplno woman of her hlllpplne
Cnly acLs or omlsslon, whlch Congress may prescrlbe, consLlLuLe expllclL or lmpllclL
renunclaLlon of clLlzenshlp.
1hls provlslon ls prospecLlve
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o lL does noL serve Lo resLore clLlzenshlp already losL by marrlage under Lhe
old law.

Dua| a||eg|ance of c|t|zens |s |n|m|ca| to the nat|ona| |nterest and sha|| be dea|t w|th by

I. Dua| C|t|zensh|p
1he ConsLlLuLlon allows for Lhe posslblllLy of dual clLlzenshlp.
o lL ls, afLer all, a condlLlon whlch arlses from Lhe facL LhaL hlllpplne law
cannoL conLrol lnLernaLlonal law and Lhe laws of oLher counLrles on
1he 1987 ConsLlLuLlonal Commlsslon preferred Lo leave Lhe maLLer of dual
clLlzenshlp Lo ordlnary leglslaLlon.
o k.A. 922S, Lhe uual ClLlzenshlp Law, deals wlLh Lwo classes of person.
! llllplnos who losL Lhelr clLlzenshlp prlor Lo Lhe enacLmenL of k.A.
! llllplnos who become clLlzens of anoLher counLry afLer Lhe
effecLlvlLy of Lhls law.
osslble for Lhe followlng classes of clLlzens of Lhe hlllpplnes Lo have dual clLlzenshlp:
(9) Mercado v. Manzano
o 1hose born of llllplno parenLs ln forelgn counLrles adopLlng Lhe 1"# #+,)
o 1hose born of a llllplno moLher and an allen faLher when Lhe law ln Lhelr
faLher's counLry declare Lhem Lo have Lhe same clLlzenshlp as Lhelr faLher.
o 1hose who marry allens lf by Lhe laws of Lhe laLLer's counLry Lhe former are
consldered clLlze
uual ClLlzenshlp ls noL a ground for loss of hlllpplne ClLlzenshlp (1) Va||es v.

II. Dua| A||eg|ance (12) AASIS-Ca|||ung v. Datumanong
uual alleglance ls noL Lhe same as dual clLlzenshlp.
ConsLlLuLlonal ConvenLlon Sesslons (Commlssloner Cple)
o .larger and more LhreaLenlng Lhan LhaL of mere double clLlzenshlp whlch
ls seldom lnLenLlonal and, perhaps, never lnsldlous."
o uual alleglance referred Lo LhaL unseLLled klnd of alleglance" of persons
who are already llllplnos buL who, by Lhelr acLs, may be sald Lo be bound by
a second alleglance.

III. kestorat|on of C|v|| and o||t|ca| k|gths
Clvll and pollLlcal rlghLs are resLored.
Powever, Lhere are resLrlcLlons under k.A. 922S

Sect|on S. !"#"$ &'( )*$"+",&$ -"./+0 &'( 1"&2"$"+"30 4 1hose who reLaln or re-acqulre
hlllpplne clLlzenshlp under Lhls AcL shall en[oy full clvll and pollLlcal rlghLs and be sub[ecL Lo
all aLLendanL llablllLles and responslblllLles under exlsLlng laws of hlllpplnes and Lhe
followlng condlLlons:
1. 1hose lnLendlng Lo exerclse Lhelr rlghL of suffrage musL meeL Lhe requlremenLs
under Sect|on 1, Art|c|e V of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon, kepub||c Act No. 9189, oLherwlse
known as 1he Cverseas AbsenLee voLlng AcL of 2003" and oLher exlsLlng laws,
2. 1hose seeklng elecLlve publlc ln Lhe hlllpplnes shall meeL Lhe quallflcaLlon for
holdlng such publlc offlce as requlred by Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and exlsLlng laws and, aL
Lhe Llme of Lhe flllng of Lhe cerLlflcaLe of candldacy, make a personal and sworn
renunclaLlon of any and all forelgn clLlzenshlp before any publlc offlcer auLhorlzed
Lo admlnlsLer an oaLh,
3. 1hose appolnLed Lo any publlc offlce shall subscrlbe and swear Lo an oaLh of
alleglance Lo Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes and lLs duly consLlLuLed auLhorlLles
prlor Lo Lhelr assumpLlon of offlce: 8/+9):5:, LhaL Lhey renounce Lhelr oaLh of
alleglance Lo Lhe counLry where Lhey Look LhaL oaLh,
4. 1hose lnLendlng Lo pracLlce Lhelr professlon ln Lhe hlllpplnes shall apply wlLh Lhe
proper auLhorlLy for a llcense or permlL Lo engage ln such pracLlce, and
3. 1haL rlghL Lo voLe or be elecLed or appolnLed Lo any publlc offlce ln Lhe hlllpplnes
cannoL be exerclsed by, or exLended Lo, Lhose who:
a. Are candldaLes for or are occupylng any publlc offlce ln Lhe counLry of whlch
Lhey are naLurallzed clLlzens, and/or
b. Are ln acLlve servlce as commlssloned or non-commlssloned offlcers ln Lhe
armed forces of Lhe counLry whlch Lhey are naLurallzed clLlzens.

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1he Lerm resldence as used ln Lhe elecLlon law ls synonymous wlLh domlclle, whlch
lmporLs noL only lnLenLlon Lo reslde ln a flxed place buL also personal presence ln LhaL
place, coupled wlLh conducL lndlcaLlve of such lnLenLlon. QPR "E936A@8C L2 "#%
AcL of Lhe person musL conform wlLh hls purpose.
1he change of resldence musL be volunLary
8equlslLe: anlmus non reverLendl and anlmus manendl QG"!R
o 8esldence or bodlly presence ln Lhe new locallLy
o An lnLenLlon Lo remaln Lhere

}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy (2uu9 eu.), p. 6S1
Iu., p. 6S6
Iu., p. 6S8; uallego v. veiia
o An lnLenLlon Lo abandon Lhe old domlclle
Cne could reglsLer as a voLer away from hls munlclpal domlclle of orlgln as he has
Lhe quallflcaLlon Lo be one and ls noL wllllng Lo glve up or lose Lhe opporLunlLy Lo
choose Lhe offlclals who are Lo run Lhe governmenL especlally ln naLlonal elecLlon."

$$$2 !;?8DB88 )EB>D7

Accordlng Lo Lhe dellberaLlons of Lhe consLlLuLlonal commlsslon, absenLee voLlng
applles Lo person who have all Lhe quallflcaLlon of a voLe buL:
o Who happen Lo be Lemporarlly abroad
o Who are ln Lhe hlllpplnes buL are Lemporarlly absenL from Lhelr voLlng
1he execuLlon of Lhe affldavlL of lnLenL Lo reLurn ls sufflclenL Lo show LhaL Lhose who
are noL currenLly resldlng ln Lhe hlllpplnes have no abandoned Lhelr domlclle. Q1R
T6=6A>DB6A L2 %/T'&'%
AbsenLee voLlng applles Lo naLlonal elecLlons only.

$)2 +3;?B6DB>L8 "8J3>5898DB?
LeglslaLure ls forever banned from lmposlng any subsLanLlve quallflcaLlon slmllar ln
naLure Lo llLeracy or ownershlp of properLy.

WhaL ls prohlblLed ls subsLanLlve requlremenL noL procedural.

o 1hus, lL has Lo be recognlzed LhaL cerLaln procedural requlremenLs musL be
complled wlLh before Lhe rlghL can be exerclsed.

o arL of Lhe exerclse of pollce power Lo safeguard and regulaLe Lhe acL of
voLer's reglsLraLlon.

)2 U>?J36A>4>=6B>ED
LeglslaLure ls glven Lhe power Lo prescrlbe dlsquallflcaLlon.

Iu., p. 66u; Faypon v. Quiiino 19S4
Iu., p. 66S - 664
velasco v. C0NELEC
Iu., p. 67u
Iu., p. 674
Iu., p. 671
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

0iiginal Nateiial fiom CR0NB0NS (2u11-2u12). Euiteu by Rachelle Anne uutieiiez (2u12-2u1S)
ulsquallflcaLlon musL noL be ln Lhe form of addlLlonal quallflcaLlon.

o ConvlcLlon for a crlme (e.g. accessory penalLles ln 8C)
o erson who vlolaLed hls alleglance Lo Lhe republlc
o lnsane/lncompeLenL/feeble-mlnded persons
1he presldenL Lhrough hls pardonlng power may erase Lhe dlsquallflcaLlon.

}oaquin u. Beinas, S.}., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A Commentaiy (2uu9 eu.), p.67S
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9


1he Congress sha|| g|ve h|ghest pr|or|ty to the enactment of measures that protect and
enhance the r|ght of a|| the peop|e to human d|gn|ty, reduce soc|a|, econom|c, and po||t|ca|
|nequa||t|es, and remove cu|tura| |nequ|t|es by equ|tab|y d|ffus|ng wea|th and po||t|ca|
power for the common good.

1o th|s end, the State sha|| regu|ate the acqu|s|t|on, ownersh|p, use, and d|spos|t|on of
property and |ts |ncrements.

I. Curb|ng Soc|a| In[ust|ce
arL of curblng soclal ln[usLlce ls curblng dlscrlmlnaLlon such as LhaL made beLween
local hlred and forelgn hlres ln Lerms of salary dlfferences (1) Internat|ona| Schoo|
A|||ance of Lducators v. u|sumb|ng

1he promot|on of soc|a| [ust|ce sha|| |nc|ude the comm|tment to create econom|c
opportun|t|es based on freedom of |n|t|at|ve and se|f-re||ance.

I. Genera| r|nc|p|es
1wo (2) rlnclpal acLlvlLles LhaL Lhe SLaLe ls commanded Lo aLLend Lo Lo achleve Lhe
goals of soclal [usLlce
o CreaLlon of more economlc opporLunlLles and more wealLh
o Close regulaLlon of Lhe acqulslLlon, ownershlp, use, dlspoLllon of properLy ln
order Lo achleve a more equlLable dlsLrlbuLlon of wealLh and pollLlcal power.
!"#$%&' )*"+*"',- uenoLes urgency because lL ls essenLlal Lo Lhe survlval of Lhe 8epubllc
and aLLalnmenL of lLs goals.
./0+*' +1 &+2"34 56&'"2%- When Lhe law ls clear, lL musL be applled, buL when lL can be
lnLerpreLed ln more ways Lhan one, an lnLerpreLaLlon LhaL favors Lhe underprlvlleged
musL be favored.
Art|c|e kIII ls an accompanlmenL of Sect|on 10, Art|c|e II. Many of Lhe rlghLs
expressed hereln are collecLlve rlghLs (Candelarla, 2011).

8. LA8Ck

1he State sha|| afford fu|| protect|on to |abor, |oca| and overseas, organ|zed and
unorgan|zed, and promote fu|| emp|oyment and equa||ty of emp|oyment opportun|t|es for

It sha|| guarantee the r|ghts of a|| workers to se|f-organ|zat|on, co||ect|ve barga|n|ng and
negot|at|ons, and peacefu| concerted act|v|t|es, |nc|ud|ng the r|ght to str|ke |n accordance
w|th |aw. 1hey sha|| be ent|t|ed to secur|ty of tenure, humane cond|t|ons of work, and a
||v|ng wage. 1hey sha|| a|so part|c|pate |n po||cy and dec|s|on-mak|ng processes affect|ng
the|r r|ghts and benef|ts as may be prov|ded by |aw.

1he State sha|| promote the pr|nc|p|e of shared respons|b|||ty between workers and
emp|oyers and the preferent|a| use of vo|untary modes |n sett||ng d|sputes, |nc|ud|ng
conc|||at|on, and sha|| enforce the|r mutua| comp||ance therew|th to foster |ndustr|a| peace.
1he State sha|| regu|ate the re|at|ons between workers and emp|oyers, recogn|z|ng the r|ght
of |abor to |ts [ust share |n the fru|ts of product|on and the r|ght of enterpr|ses to
reasonab|e returns to |nvestments, and to expans|on and growth.

I. "Iu|| protect|on to |abor"
78"+8- no secLor may be prohlblLed from formlng unlons.
9'*":%- SelecLed secLors may be prohlblLed from resorLlng Lo sLrlke, Lhe rlghL Lo
sLrlke" ls llmlLed by ln accordance wlLh law".
;"#$' '+ 03*'"2"03'% '$% <%2"&"+8 /3:"8# 0*+2%&&. 1hey have a rlghL on maLLers
affecLlng Lhelr rlghLs and beneflLs as may be provlded by law".
o 1hese rlghLs may be done Lhrough:
1. CollecLlve bargalnlng agreemenLs.
2. Crlevance Machlnerles.
3. volunLary modes of seLLllng dlspuLes.
ConclllaLlon proceedlngs medlaLed by Lhe governmenL
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
Compulsory arblLraLlon - ls noL ruled ouL buL downplayed.

II. Iactors we|ghed |n regu|at|ng the re|at|ons between workers and emp|oyers
1. 8lghL of labor Lo lLs [usL share ln Lhe frulLs of producLlon.
2. 8lghL of enLerprlses Lo reasonable reLurns on lnvesLmenLs, and Lo expanslon and

III. "Lqua| pay for equa| work"
9343*,. A reward or recompense for servlces performed. lL ls Lhe conslderaLlon pald aL
regular lnLervals for Lhe renderlng of servlces.
ersons who work wlLh subsLanLlally equal quallflcaLlons, sklll efforL and
responslblllLy, under slmllar condlLlons, should be pald slmllar salarles.
lf Lhe employer pays one employee less Lhan Lhe resL, lL ls noL for LhaL employee Lo
explaln why he recelves less or why Lhe oLhers recelve more. lL ls for Lhe employer Lo
explaln why Lhe employee ls LreaLed unfalrly.

IV. "Co||ect|ve 8arga|n|ng"
=3*#3"8"8# 68"'- A group of employees of a glven employer, comprlsed of all or less
Lhan all of Lhe enLlre body of employees, conslsLenL wlLh equlLy Lo Lhe employer
lndlcaLe Lo be Lhe besL sulLed Lo serve Lhe reclprocal rlghLs and duLles of Lhe parLles
under Lhe collecLlve bargalnlng provlslon of Lhe law.
1he baslc LesL of an asserLed bargalnlng unlL's accepLablllLy ls wheLher or noL ls
fundamenLally Lhe comblnaLlon whlch wlll besL assure Lo all employees Lhe exerclse
of Lhelr collecLlve bargalnlng rlghLs.
Iactors |n determ|n|ng the appropr|ate Co||ect|ve 8arga|n|ng Un|t: (WASn)
o >"44 of Lhe employees. G|obe Doctr|ne
o ?11"8"'", and unlLy of Lhe employees' lnLeresL (SubsLanLlal MuLual lnLeresL
o rlor collecLlve bargalnlng $"&'+*,
o 9"/"43*"', of employmenL sLaLus.


1he State sha||, by |aw, undertake an agrar|an reform program founded on the r|ght of
farmers and regu|ar farmworkers who are |and|ess, to own d|rect|y or co||ect|ve|y the |ands
they t||| or, |n the case of other farmworkers, to rece|ve a [ust share of the fru|ts thereof. 1o
th|s end, the State sha|| encourage and undertake the [ust d|str|but|on of a|| agr|cu|tura|
|ands, sub[ect to such pr|or|t|es and reasonab|e retent|on ||m|ts as the Congress may
prescr|be, tak|ng |nto account eco|og|ca|, deve|opmenta|, or equ|ty cons|derat|ons, and
sub[ect to the payment of [ust compensat|on. In determ|n|ng retent|on ||m|ts, the State
sha|| respect the r|ght of sma|| |andowners. 1he State sha|| further prov|de |ncent|ves for
vo|untary |and-shar|ng.

I. Goa|s of Agrar|an keform
1. LfflclenL producLlon
2. More equlLable dlsLrlbuLlon of land whlch recognlzes Lhe rlghL of farmers and regular
farm workers who are landless Lo own Lhe land Lhey Llll.
3. !usL share of oLher or seasonal farm workers ln Lhe frulLs of Lhe land.

II. Agrar|an keform
Land LhaL come under Lhe scope of agrarlan reform
o All klnds of land devoLed Lo agrlculLure
o AgrlculLural lands - arable and sulLable agrlculLural lands and do noL lnclude
commerclal, lndusLrlal and resldenLlal lands.
o Lven lands for whlch one holds a naked LlLle.
Lands LhaL are exempL
o non-agrlculLural lands
o AgrlculLural lands converLed Lo non-agrlculLural uses prlor Lo Lhe effecLlvlLy of
lssuance of a cerLlflcaLe of land Lransfer - Lo a beneflclary does noL auLomaLlcally vesL
ownershlp, lL ls [usL a recognlLlon LhaL Lhe beneflclarles may avall of Lhe ownershlp
sub[ecL Lo compllance wlLh obllgaLlons, lL ls sLlll revocable.
8eLenLlon llmlLs (1) Assn. of Sma|| Landowners v. Sec. of Agrar|an keform
o SLaLe musL proLecL &/344 438<+@8%*&A or ordlnary people who may have
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
lnherlLed small pleces of land or who Lhrough sheer hard work and frugallLy
have managed Lo save enough Lo be able Lo purchase land for Lhe securlLy of
Lhelr fuLure.
o Cholce of land Lo be reLalned - belongs wlLh Lhe owner, as long as lL does noL
exceed flve (3) hecLares and ls compacL or conLlguous, oLherwlse, Lhe SLaLe
may lnLervene.
ower of emlnenL domaln v. ollce power
o ln so far as Lhe provlslon of reLenLlon llmlLs, pollce power
o Any land Laken ln excess of reLenLlon llmlLs, emlnenL domaln, Lhe
CovernmenL wlll have Lo pay [usL compensaLlon.
!usL compensaLlon (2) Luz Iarms v. Sec. of Agrar|an keform
o 1he farmer beneflclary wlll only pay Lhe porLlon of Lhe compensaLlon LhaL he
can afford, Lhe resL wlll be subsldlzed by Lhe SLaLe.
o May be flxed by admlnlsLraLlve bodles, buL sub[ecL Lo [udlclal revlew
o 1he CA8 Law condlLlons Lhe Lransfer of possesslon and ownershlp Lo Lhe
governmenL on recelpL by Lhe landowner of Lhe correspondlng paymenL of
Lhe deposlL by Lhe uA8 of Lhe compensaLlon ln cash or bonds.
o !urlsprudence hold LhaL compensaLlon musL be ln money
o 8u1, Lhls ls a revoluLlonary klnd of exproprlaLlon, so lL ls undersLandable LhaL
Lhe governmenL does noL have all Lhe money needed now so oLher flnanclal
lnsLrumenLs are allowed. (2) Luz Iarms v. Sec. of Agrar|an keform
o ;%B+46'"+83*,. AffecLs all prlvaLe agrlculLural lands, for Lhe beneflL of Lhe
enLlre llllplno naLlon, affecLlng Lhe whole LerrlLory, boLh now and for Lhe
forseeable fuLure. (2) Luz Iarms v. Sec. of Agrar|an keform

III. Not |nc|uded |n agrar|an reform
1987 Const|tut|ona| De||berat|ons - clearly show LhaL lL was never Lhe lnLenLlon of
Lhe framers of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon Lo lnclude llvesLock and poulLry lndusLry ln Lhe
coverage of Lhe consLlLuLlonally-mandaLed agrarlan reform program of Lhe

1he State sha|| recogn|ze the r|ght of farmers, farmworkers, and |andowners, as we|| as
cooperat|ves, and other |ndependent farmers' organ|zat|ons to part|c|pate |n the p|ann|ng,
organ|zat|on, and management of the program, and sha|| prov|de support to agr|cu|ture
through appropr|ate techno|ogy and research, and adequate f|nanc|a|, product|on,
market|ng, and other support serv|ces.

1he State sha|| app|y the pr|nc|p|es of agrar|an reform or stewardsh|p, whenever app||cab|e
|n accordance w|th |aw, |n the d|spos|t|on or ut|||zat|on of other natura| resources, |nc|ud|ng
|ands of the pub||c doma|n under |ease or concess|on su|tab|e to agr|cu|ture, sub[ect to pr|or
r|ghts, homestead r|ghts of sma|| sett|ers, and the r|ghts of |nd|genous commun|t|es to the|r
ancestra| |ands.

1he State may resett|e |and|ess farmers and farmworkers |n |ts own agr|cu|tura| estates
wh|ch sha|| be d|str|buted to them |n the manner prov|ded by |aw.

1he State sha|| protect the r|ghts of subs|stence f|shermen, espec|a||y of |oca| commun|t|es,
to the preferent|a| use of the communa| mar|ne and f|sh|ng resources, both |n|and and
offshore. It sha|| prov|de support to such f|shermen through appropr|ate techno|ogy and
research, adequate f|nanc|a|, product|on, and market|ng ass|stance, and other serv|ces. 1he
State sha|| a|so protect, deve|op, and conserve such resources. 1he protect|on sha|| extend
to offshore f|sh|ng grounds of subs|stence f|shermen aga|nst fore|gn |ntrus|on. I|shworkers
sha|| rece|ve a [ust share from the|r |abor |n the ut|||zat|on of mar|ne and f|sh|ng resources.

1he State sha|| prov|de |ncent|ves to |andowners to |nvest the proceeds of the agrar|an
reform program to promote |ndustr|a||zat|on, emp|oyment creat|on, and pr|vat|zat|on of
pub||c sector enterpr|ses. I|nanc|a| |nstruments used as payment for the|r |ands sha|| be
honored as equ|ty |n enterpr|ses of the|r cho|ce.

I. Genera| r|nc|p|es
CLher naLural resources are covered by agrarlan reform - even lncludlng Lhe
en[oymenL of communal marlne and flshlng grounds."
8elaLlon beLween lndusLrlallzaLlon and agrarlan reform - muLually beneflclal, agrarlan
reform should unlock ldle wealLh hldden ln land for lnvesLmenL ln lndusLrlallzaLlon,
and lndusLrlallzaLlon lLself, among oLher beneflLs, should be able Lo absorb farm
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
workers released from farms because of mechanlzaLlon.


1he State sha||, by |aw, and for the common good, undertake, |n cooperat|on w|th the
pr|vate sector, a cont|nu|ng program of urban |and reform and hous|ng wh|ch w||| make
ava||ab|e at affordab|e cost, decent hous|ng and bas|c serv|ces to under-pr|v||eged and
home|ess c|t|zens |n urban centers and resett|ement areas. It sha|| a|so promote adequate
emp|oyment opportun|t|es to such c|t|zens. In the |mp|ementat|on of such program the
State sha|| respect the r|ghts of sma|| property owners.

Urban or rura| poor dwe||ers sha|| not be ev|cted nor the|r dwe|||ng demo||shed, except |n
accordance w|th |aw and |n a [ust and humane manner.
No resett|ement of urban or rura| dwe||ers sha|| be undertaken w|thout adequate
consu|tat|on w|th them and the commun|t|es where they are to be re|ocated.

I. keform
noL [usL Lhe proper urban land use or zonlng buL also Lhe rlghL Lhlng of lnequlLable
land dlsLrlbuLlon. lL Lhus lncludes Lhe auLhorlzaLlon Lo use exproprlaLlon for
redlsLrlbuLlon of urban land.

II. "In accordance w|th |aw and |n a [ust and humane manner" (1) eop|e v. Leachon
WhaL ls meanL by Lhls ls LhaL Lhe accused be afforded due process ! accorded an
opporLunlLy Lo conLroverL Lhe allegaLlon LhaL hls or her occupaLlon ls unlawful or
agalnsL Lhe wlll of Lhe landowner, Lhe occupanL be sufflclenLly noLlfled before acLual
evlcLlon or demollLlon ls done, and LhaL Lhere be no loss of llves, physlcal ln[urles or
unnecessary loss of damage Lo properLles.
lL ls noL necessary LhaL reseLLlemenL areas be esLabllshed flrsL or LhaL Lhere be prlor
consulLaLlon wlLh Lhe persons Lo be evlcLed.

L. nLAL1n

1he State sha|| adopt an |ntegrated and comprehens|ve approach to hea|th deve|opment
wh|ch sha|| endeavor to make essent|a| goods, hea|th and other soc|a| serv|ces ava||ab|e to
a|| the peop|e at affordab|e cost. 1here sha|| be pr|or|ty for the needs of the under-
pr|v||eged, s|ck, e|der|y, d|sab|ed, women, and ch||dren. 1he State sha|| endeavor to prov|de
free med|ca| care to paupers.

1he State sha|| estab||sh and ma|nta|n an effect|ve food and drug regu|atory system and
undertake appropr|ate hea|th, manpower deve|opment, and research, respons|ve to the
country's hea|th needs and prob|ems.

1he State sha|| estab||sh a spec|a| agency for d|sab|ed person for the|r rehab|||tat|on, se|f-
deve|opment, and se|f-re||ance, and the|r |ntegrat|on |nto the ma|nstream of soc|ety.

1he State sha|| protect work|ng women by prov|d|ng safe and hea|thfu| work|ng cond|t|ons,
tak|ng |nto account the|r materna| funct|ons, and such fac|||t|es and opportun|t|es that w|||
enhance the|r we|fare and enab|e them to rea||ze the|r fu|| potent|a| |n the serv|ce of the

1he State sha|| respect the ro|e of |ndependent peop|e's organ|zat|ons to enab|e the peop|e
to pursue and protect, w|th|n the democrat|c framework, the|r |eg|t|mate and co||ect|ve
|nterests and asp|rat|ons through peacefu| and |awfu| means.
eop|e's organ|zat|ons are bona f|de assoc|at|ons of c|t|zens w|th demonstrated capac|ty to
promote the pub||c |nterest and w|th |dent|f|ab|e |eadersh|p, membersh|p, and structure.

!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

"#$%$&'( )'*+#$'( ,#-. /0")1"23 45677856759: ;<$*+< => 0'?@+((+ A&&+ BC*$+##+D 456758567E9
1he r|ght of the peop|e and the|r organ|zat|ons to effect|ve and reasonab|e part|c|pat|on at
a|| |eve|s of soc|a|, po||t|ca|, and econom|c dec|s|on-mak|ng sha|| not be abr|dged. 1he State
sha||, by |aw, fac|||tate the estab||shment of adequate consu|tat|on mechan|sms.

I. "eop|e's Crgan|zat|ons"
1hey musL noL be [urldlcal, Lhe rlghL proLecLed ls LhaL of lndlvldual members, because
only persons can be Lhe sub[ecL of rlghLs.
lndependenL - noL conLrolled by manlpulaLlve forces ln or ouL of Lhe governmenL.


1. 1here |s hereby created an |ndependent off|ce ca||ed the Comm|ss|on on numan
2. 1he Comm|ss|on sha|| be composed of a Cha|rman and four Members who must be
natura|-born c|t|zens of the h|||pp|nes and a ma[or|ty of whom sha|| be members of
the 8ar. 1he term of off|ce and other qua||f|cat|ons and d|sab|||t|es of the Members
of the Comm|ss|on sha|| be prov|ded by |aw.
3. Unt|| th|s Comm|ss|on |s const|tuted, the ex|st|ng res|dent|a| Comm|ttee on numan
k|ghts sha|| cont|nue to exerc|se |ts present funct|ons and powers.
4. 1he approved annua| appropr|at|ons of the Comm|ss|on sha|| be automat|ca||y and
regu|ar|y re|eased.

1he Comm|ss|on on numan k|ghts sha|| have the fo||ow|ng powers and funct|ons:
1. Invest|gate, on |ts own or on comp|a|nt by any party, a|| forms of human r|ghts
v|o|at|ons |nvo|v|ng c|v|| and po||t|ca| r|ghts,
2. Adopt |ts operat|ona| gu|de||nes and ru|es of procedure, and c|te for contempt for
v|o|at|ons thereof |n accordance w|th the ku|es of Court,
3. rov|de appropr|ate |ega| measures for the protect|on of human r|ghts of a||
persons w|th|n the h|||pp|nes, as we|| as I|||p|nos res|d|ng abroad, and prov|de for
prevent|ve measures and |ega| a|d serv|ces to the under-pr|v||eged whose human
r|ghts have been v|o|ated or need protect|on,
4. Lxerc|se v|s|tor|a| powers over [a||s, pr|sons, or detent|on fac|||t|es,
S. Lstab||sh a cont|nu|ng program of research, educat|on, and |nformat|on to enhance
respect for the pr|macy of human r|ghts,
6. kecommend to Congress effect|ve measures to promote human r|ghts and to
prov|de for compensat|on to v|ct|ms of v|o|at|ons of human r|ghts, or the|r fam|||es,
7. Mon|tor the h|||pp|ne Government's comp||ance w|th |nternat|ona| treaty
ob||gat|ons on human r|ghts,
8. Grant |mmun|ty from prosecut|on to any person whose test|mony or whose
possess|on of documents or other ev|dence |s necessary or conven|ent to determ|ne
the truth |n any |nvest|gat|on conducted by |t or under |ts author|ty,
9. kequest the ass|stance of any department, bureau, off|ce, or agency |n the
performance of |ts funct|ons,
10. Appo|nt |ts off|cers and emp|oyees |n accordance w|th |aw, and
11. erform such other dut|es and funct|ons as may be prov|ded by |aw.

I. Cnk power |s ||m|ted to fact-f|nd|ng and NC1 ad[ud|cat|ng
(1) Car|o v. Cnk ! 1he only power of Lhe CP8 close Lo ad[udlcaLlon ls Lo lnvesLlgaLe.
lacL-flndlng ls noL equlvalenL Lo ad[udlcaLlon so lL cannoL Lry Lo apply Lhe law and
resolve cases based on lLs merlLs.
(2) L2A v. Cnk ! CP8 has no power Lo lssue wrlLs. 1hey may only approach proper
auLhorlLles cloLhe wlLh such power ln behalf of Lhe complalnanLs.
(3) S|mon v. Cnk ! Crders Lo deslsL are wrlLs whlch ls noL wlLhln Lhe power of Lhe
CP8. nelLher can Lhe CP8 clLe parLles ln conLempL.

1he Congress may prov|de for other cases of v|o|at|ons of human r|ghts that shou|d fa||
w|th|n the author|ty of the Comm|ss|on, tak|ng |nto account |ts recommendat|ons.

I. Const|tut|ona| Status
lL ls a consLlLuLlonal creaLlon, buL noL on Lhe same level as Lhe consLlLuLlonal
lull operaLlonallzaLlon requlres leglslaLlon.
Sect|on 19 provldes for Lhe posslblllLy of expanslon of lLs powers by leglslaLlon.

!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

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II. Serv|ce to those abroad
1hrough represenLaLlon wlLh consular and oLher dlplomaLlc personnel abroad.

III. numan k|ghts V|o|at|on
1he Internat|ona| Covenant on Lconom|c, Soc|a| and Cu|tura| k|ghts (ICLSCk) and
Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and o||t|ca| k|ghts (ICCk) - scope of human rlghLs
can be undersLood Lo lnclude Lhose LhaL relaLe Lo an lndlvldual's soclal, economlc,
culLural, pollLlcal and clvll relaLlons.
1he framers of the Const|tut|on - envlsloned Lhe CP8 LhaL would focus lLs aLLenLlon
Lo Lhe more severe cases of human rlghLs vlolaLlons such as proLecLlon of rlghLs of
pollLlcal deLalnees, LreaLmenL of prlsoners and Lhe prevenLlon of LorLures, falr and
publlc Lrlals, dlsappearances, salvaglngs and hamleLLlng, and oLher crlmes commlLLed
agalnsL Lhe rellglous. Congress may provlde for oLher cases of vlolaLlons of human
rlghLs LhaL should fall wlLhln Lhe auLhorlLy of CP8.

IV. owers
ower ls LhaL lL may lnvesLlgaLe
o 8ecelve evldence.
o Make flndlngs of facLs regardlng human rlghLs vlolaLlons.
o lnvesLlgaLe.
o Lxamlne and lnqulre
o An lnqulry
o 1aklng of evldence
o SeLLle wlLh exerclse of [udlclal auLhorlLy
o 1o declde, seLLle, decree, senLence, or condemn
lacL-flndlng ls noL ad[udlcaLlon - lL may recelve evldence and make facLual flndlngs
8u1 MA? nC1 make an appllcaLlon of law on Lhe facLual concluslons Lo Lhe end LhaL
Lhe conLroversy may be declded or deLermlned auLhorlLaLlvely, flnally and deflnlLely,
sub[ecL Lo such appeals or modes of revlew as may be provlded by law.
"prov|de for prevent|ve measures and |ega| a|d serv|ces to the underpr|v||eged
whose human r|ghts have been v|o|ated or need protect|on" - may noL be consLrued
Lo confer [urlsdlcLlon on Lhe CP8 Lo lssue resLralnlng order Lo ln[uncLlon
o !urlsdlcLlon ls never lmplled, lL musL be expressly glven by Lhe consLlLuLlon.
o 1hls provlslon refers Lo exLra[udlclal and [udlclal remedles whlch Lhe CP8 may
seek ln behalf of Lhe vlcLlms.
" CP8 may flle, ln behalf of vlcLlms, a peLlLlon for prohlblLlon, ln[uncLlon
or resLralnlng order ln Lhe proper courLs.
ower to c|te for contempt - should be undersLood Lo apply only Lo vlolaLlons of lL's
adopLed operaLlonal guldellnes and rules of procedure essenLlal Lo carry ouL lLs
lnvesLlgaLorlal powers.
o 1he +*<%* '+ <%&"&' ls noL lnvesLlgaLorlal ln characLer buL presclnds from an
ad[udlcaLlve power LhaL lL does noL possess. 1he Commlsslon does noL have
legal sLandlng Lo lndorse, for approprlaLe acLlon, lLs flndlngs and
recommendaLlons Lo any approprlaLe agency of governmenL.
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

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A. Lducat|on

1he State sha|| protect and promote the r|ght of a|| c|t|zens to qua||ty educat|on at a|| |eve|s
of educat|on and sha|| take appropr|ate steps to make such educat|on access|b|e to a||.

I. Academ|c Ireedom
k|ght to ua||ty Lducat|on
1he rlghL Lo educaLlon ls a consLlLuLlonal rlghL buL lL ls noL absoluLe. Pence, whlle
everyone may asplre Lo be a docLor, no one has a consLlLuLlonal rlghL Lo pursue and
be a docLor (1) DLCS v. San D|ego

1he State sha||:
1. Lstab||sh, ma|nta|n and support a comp|ete, adequate and |ntegrated system of
educat|on re|evant to the needs of the peop|e and soc|ety,
2. Lstab||sh and ma|nta|n a system of free pub||c educat|on |n the e|ementary and h|gh
schoo| |eve|s. W|thout ||m|t|ng the natura| r|ght of parents to rear the|r ch||dren,
e|ementary educat|on |s compu|sory for a|| ch||dren of schoo| age,
3. Lstab||sh and ma|nta|n a system of scho|arsh|p grants, students |oan programs,
subs|d|es, and other |ncent|ves wh|ch sha|| be ava||ab|e to deserv|ng students |n
both pub||c and pr|vate schoo|, espec|a||y to the underpr|v||eged,
4. Lncouraged non-forma|, |nforma|, and |nd|genous |earn|ng systems, as we|| as se|f-
|earn|ng, |ndependent, and out-of-schoo| study programs part|cu|ar|y those that
respond to commun|ty needs, and
S. rov|de adu|t c|t|zen, the d|sab|ed, and out-of-schoo| youth w|th tra|n|ng |n c|v|c,
vocat|ona| eff|c|ency, and other sk|||s.

1. A|| educat|ona| |nst|tut|ons sha|| |nc|ude the study of the Const|tut|on as part of the
2. 1he sha|| |ncu|cate patr|ot|sm and nat|ona||sm, foster |ove of human|ty, respect for
human r|ghts, apprec|at|on of the ro|e of nat|ona| heroes |n the h|stor|ca|
deve|opment of the country, teach the r|ghts and dut|es of c|t|zensh|p, strengthen
eth|ca| and sp|r|tua| va|ues, deve|op mora| character and persona| d|sc|p||ne,
encourage cr|t|ca| and creat|ve th|nk|ng, broaden sc|ent|f|c and techno|og|ca|
know|edge, and promote vocat|ona| eff|c|ency.
3. At the opt|on expressed |n wr|t|ng by the parents or guard|ans, re||g|on sha|| be
a||owed to be taught to the|r ch||dren or wards |n pub||c e|ementary and h|gh
schoo|s w|th|n the regu|ar c|ass hours by |nstructors des|gnated or approved by the
re||g|ous author|t|es of the re||g|on to wh|ch the ch||dren or ward be|ong, w|thout
add|t|ona| cost to the government.

I. Comment on paragraph 3
1hls ls noL an lnconslsLency wlLh Lhe non-esLabllshmenL clause (Sect|on S, Art|c|e III).
noLe LhaL Lhe rellglous lnsLrucLlon, when allowed, ls Lo be done by a person
deslgnaLed by LhaL rellglous secL, and wlLhouL cosL Lo Lhe governmenL. 1hus,
governmenL does noL have any parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe rellglous lnsLrucLlon.

II. Academ|c Ireedom
lnherenL ln an lnsLlLuLlon's rlghL Lo Leach ls Lhe rlghL Lo penallze lLs sLudenLs for
mlsdemeanors and lmproper conducL. 1hls ls ln llne wlLh Art|c|e 14, Sect|on 3[2]
whlch requlres a school Lo lnculcaLe cerLaln values Lo lLs sLudenLs (1) M|r|am Co||ege
v. CA

Sect|on 4.
1. 1he State recogn|zes the comp|ementary ro|es of pub||c and pr|vate |nst|tut|ons |n
the educat|ona| system and sha|| exerc|se reasonab|e superv|s|on and regu|at|on of
a|| educat|ona| |nst|tut|ons.

2. Lducat|ona| |nst|tut|ons, other than those estab||shed by re||g|ous groups and
m|ss|on boards, sha|| be owned so|e|y by c|t|zens of the h|||pp|nes or corporat|ons
or assoc|at|ons at |east s|xty per centum of the cap|ta| of wh|ch |s owned by such
c|t|zens. 1he Congress may, however, requ|re |ncreased I|||p|no equ|ty part|c|pat|on
|n a|| educat|ona| |nst|tut|ons.

1he contro| and adm|n|strat|on of educat|ona| |nst|tut|ons sha|| be vested |n c|t|zens
!"#$%&%'%&"#() )(+ && (%%,- $./01., !(#/.)(1&(

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of the h|||pp|nes.

No educat|ona| |nst|tut|on sha|| be estab||shed exc|us|ve|y for a||ens and no group of
a||ens sha|| compr|se more than one-th|rd of the enro||ment |n any schoo|. 1he
prov|s|ons of th|s subsect|on sha|| not app|y to schoo|s estab||shed for fore|gn
d|p|omat|c personne| and the|r dependents and, un|ess otherw|se prov|ded by |aw,
for other fore|gn temporary res|dents.

3. A|| revenues and assets of non-stock, non-prof|t educat|ona| |nst|tut|ons used
actua||y, d|rect|y, and exc|us|ve|y for educat|ona| purposes sha|| be exempt from
taxes and dut|es. Upon the d|sso|ut|on or cessat|on of the corporate ex|stence of
such |nst|tut|ons, the|r assets sha|| be d|sposed of |n the manner prov|ded by |aw.

ropr|etary educat|ona| |nst|tut|ons, |nc|ud|ng those cooperat|ve|y owned, may
||kew|se be ent|t|ed to such exempt|ons, sub[ect to the ||m|tat|ons prov|ded by |aw,
|nc|ud|ng restr|ct|ons on d|v|dends and prov|s|ons for re|nvestment.

4. Sub[ect to cond|t|ons prescr|bed by |aw, a|| grants, endowments, donat|ons, or
contr|but|ons used actua||y, d|rect|y, and exc|us|ve|y for educat|ona| purposes sha||
be exempt from tax.

Sect|on S.
1. 1he State sha|| take |nto account reg|ona| and sectora| needs and cond|t|ons and
sha|| encourage |oca| p|ann|ng |n the deve|opment of educat|ona| po||c|es and
2. Academ|c freedom sha|| be en[oyed |n a|| |nst|tut|ons of h|gher |earn|ng.
3. Lvery c|t|zen has a r|ght to se|ect a profess|on or course of study, sub[ect to fa|r,
reasonab|e, and equ|tab|e adm|ss|on and academ|c requ|rements.
4. 1he State sha|| enhance the r|ght of teachers to profess|ona| advancement. Non-
teach|ng academ|c and non-academ|c personne| sha|| en[oy the protect|on of the
S. 1he State sha|| ass|gn the h|ghest budgetary pr|or|ty to educat|on and ensure that
teach|ng w||| attract and reta|n |ts r|ghtfu| share of the best ava||ab|e ta|ents
through adequate remunerat|on and other means of [ob sat|sfact|on and

I. Academ|c Ireedom of |nst|tut|ons means that the schoo| may choose: (1) Garc|a v. Iacu|ty
1. WhaL may be LaughL
2. Pow lL may be LaughL
3. Who may Leach lL
4. Who may be admlLLed Lo be LaughL

II. Who may be adm|tted to be taught
Who are admlLLed as sLudenLs of a school ls wlLhln Lhe dlscreLlon of Lhe school. 1he
governmenL has only supervlsory powers aL mosL over an educaLlonal lnsLlLuLlon. (1)
Garc|a v. Iacu|ty

III. now |t may be taught
A. o||c|es (2) Un|vers|ty of San Car|os v. Court of Appea|s
1he CourL held LhaL Lhe rlvaLe 8espondenL should know and ls presumed Lo know
Lhose unlverslLy pollcles and ls bound Lo comply LherewlLh.
o 1he CourL held LhaL lL ls an accepLed prlnclple and parL of academlc freedom,
for lnsLlLuLlons Lo formulaLe rules and guldellnes ln Lhe granLlng of honors. lL
ls wlLh Lhe dlscreLlon and compeLence of unlverslLles and colleges Lo
deLermlne who are enLlLled Lo Lhe granL of honors and Lhls dlscreLlon may noL
be dlsLurbed much less conLrolled by Lhe courLs unless Lhere ls grave abuse of
dlscreLlon ln lLs exerclse.

8. Cn|y poss|b|e reasons for expe|||ng or d|sm|ss|ng a student
1. lallure Lo reach academlc sLandards
2. vlolaLlon of dlsclpllnary rules
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