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BECAUSE SHARING IS LOVING

A new command I give you: Love one another.
As I have loved you, so you must love one another
By this everyone will know that you are my disciples,
if you love one another.
John 13: 34-35

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1I1LL I: CkIMLS AGAINS1 NA1ICNAL SLCUkI1
AND 1nL LAW CI NA1ICNS

Chapter 1: Cr|mes Aga|nst Nat|ona| Secur|ty

Sect|on 1 - 1reason and Lsp|onage

Art|c|e 114 - 1reason
Any I|||p|no c|t|zen who |ev|es war aga|nst the h|||pp|nes or adheres to her
enem|es, g|v|ng them a|d or comfort w|th|n the h|||pp|nes or e|sewhere,
sha|| be pun|shed by rec|us|on perpetua to death and sha|| pay a f|ne not to
exceed 100,000 pesos.

No person sha|| be conv|cted of treason un|ess on the test|mony of two
w|tnesses at |east to the same over act or on confess|on of the accused |n
open court.

L|kew|se, an a||en, res|d|ng |n the h|||pp|nes who comm|ts acts of treason
as def|ned |n paragraph 1 of th|s art|c|e sha|| be pun|shed by rec|us|on
tempora| to death and sha|| pay a f|ne not to exceed 100, 000 pesos.

CIN1S
AkAGkAn 1: nCW 1kLASCN IS CCMMI11LD

I. L|ements: (IWC: |a)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a llllplno clLlzen or an allen resldlng ln Lhe
hlllpplnes
2. 1haL Lhere ls a war ln whlch Lhe hlllpplnes ls lnvolved
3. 1haL Lhe offender elLher:
a. Levles war agalnsL Lhe CovernmenL, or
b. Adheres Lo Lhe enemles, glvlng Lhem ald or comforL.

II. Genera| o|nts
A. Def|n|t|ons
!"#$%&' ! breach of alleglance Lo a governmenL, by a person who
owes alleglance Lo lL.
o 1reason ls Lhe vlolaLlon by a sub[ecL of hls alleglance Lo hls
soverelgn or Lo Lhe supreme auLhorlLy of Lhe sLaLe (uS v.
Abad).
o 1he law on reason ls Anglo-Amerlcan ln orlgln, and
Lherefore Lhe SLaLe musL depend on Amerlcan
!urlsprudence.
())#*+$',# ! Lhe obllgaLlon of fldellLy and obedlence whlch Lhe
lndlvlduals owe Lo Lhe governmenL whlch Lhey llve or Lo Lhelr
soverelgn ln reLurn for Lhe proLecLlon Lhey recelve
1wo 1ypes of Alleglance
a. ermanenL alleglance ! Cbedlence and fldellLy LhaL a
clLlzen or sub[ecL owes Lo hls governmenL.
b. 1emporary alleglance ! CbllgaLlon of fldellLy and
obedlence whlch a resldenL allen owes Lo our governmenL

8. 1reason as an offense
1here ls noL Lreason Lhrough negllgence because Lhe overL acLs
commlLLed musL be lnLenLlonal.
1here ls no complex crlme of Lreason because crlmes llke murder
and physlcal ln[urles are lnherenL ln Lhe crlme of Lreason.
o 8uL such crlmes may be prosecuLed as common crlmes lf
Lhe prosecuLlon chooses Lo do so.
1reason ls a conLlnuous offense, Lhus lL may be commlLLed by a
serles of acLs.
A llllplno ouLslde of Lhe hlllpplne LerrlLory may commlL Lreason.
8u1 Lreason by an allen musL be commlLLed ln hlllpplne LerrlLory.
AggravaLlng ClrcumsLances: LxCLuSlvLL? CruelLy C8 lgnomlny
o CLhers llke evldenL premedlLaLlon and Lreachery are
lnherenL or absorbed ln Lhe crlme of Lreason.
Art|c|e 64 ls noL sLrlcLly applled Lo Lreason
o ln deLermlnlng Lhe proper penalLy for Lreason, Lhe amounL
or degree of ald or comforL glven Lhe enemy as well as Lhe
gravlLy of Lhe separaLe and dlsLlncL acLs of Lreason
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commlLLed (ln lleu of Lhe aggravaLlng or mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLances) shall be used Lo deLermlne Lhe perlod.

C. Defense
A. NC1 ACCL1LD
uefense of suspended alleglance and change of soverelgnLy ls noL
accepLed because:
o A clLlzen owes an absoluLe and permanenL alleglance Lo hls
governmenL.
o 1he soverelgnLy of Lhe governmenL ls noL Lransferred Lo Lhe
enemy by mere occupaLlon.
o 1he subslsLence of Lhe soverelgnLy of Lhe leglLlmaLe
governmenL ln a LerrlLory occupled by Lhe mlllLary forces of
Lhe enemy durlng Lhe war ls one of Lhe rules of
lnLernaLlonal Law.
o WhaL ls suspended ls Lhe exerclse of Lhe rlghLs soverelgnLy.
uefense of loss of clLlzenshlp by [olnlng Lhe army of Lhe enemy.
uefense of duress or unconLrollable fear

8. ACCL1LD
uefense of obedlence Lo a de facLo CovernmenL ls accepLed.
uefense of fear of lmmedlaLe deaLh.

III. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Cffender |s a I|||p|no C|t|zen or an a||en res|d|ng
A. I|||p|no c|t|zen
May be proved by:
o uocumenLs provlng clLlzenshlp
o rlson record (eople v. MarLln)
o 1esLlmony of wlLnesses who know hlm (eople v. llavler)

8. kes|dent a||en
Allens who ald Lhe enemy can now be prosecuLed under Art|c|e 144.

IV. SLCCND kLUISI1L: 1he h|||pp|nes |s |nvo|ved |n a war
1reason ls a war crlme, Lreasonable acLs may acLually be
perpeLraLed durlng peace buL Lhere are no LralLors unLll war has
sLarLed.
unlshed by Lhe sLaLe as a measure of self-defense and
preservaLlon.

V. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Lev|es war or Adheres to the enem|es
A. Levy|ng war aga|nst the government
kequ|s|tes of |evy|ng war aga|nst the government
1. 1here musL be an acLual assembllng of men.
2. lor Lhe purpose of execuLlng a Lreasonable deslgn by force.
Lxamples:
o uS v. ue los 8eyes ! Mere accepLance of Lhe commlsslon
from Lhe secreLary of Lhe kaLlpunan SocleLy wlLhouL dolng
anyLhlng else ls noL an overL acL of levylng war. nelLher ls
an acLual enllsLmenL Lo serve ln Lhe war, because Lhere ls
no acLual assembllng of men.
8u1
o lf a group acLually assembled for Lhe purpose of levylng
war, Lhose who parLlclpaLed or are ln consplracy wlLh shall
be llable no maLLer how mlnuLe Lhelr role ls.
lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhere be a formal declaraLlon of Lhe exlsLence
of a sLaLe of war. (!usLlce !ohnson, dlssenLlng, u.S. v. Lagnason)
Levylng of war musL be wlLh Lhe lnLenL Lo overLhrow Lhe
governmenL, and merely reslsL a parLlcular sLaLuLe.
lL does noL maLLer how valn and fuLlle Lhe aLLempL was and how
lmposslble of accompllshmenL (appllcable Lo Lhe 8. Loo).
Levylng war as an acL of Lreason musL be for Lhe purpose of
execuLlng a Lreasonable deslgn by force.
Levylng war musL be ln collaboraLlon wlLh a forelgn enemy. lf Lhe
levylng ls merely a clvll uprlslng wlLhouL any lnLenLlon of helplng an
exLernal enemy, offenders wlll be llable for rebelllon noL Lreason.

8. Adheres to the enem|es, g|v|ng them a|d or comfort
kequ|s|tes must concur:
1. Adherence Lo Lhe enemy
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2. Clvlng ald or comforL Lo Lhe enemy
(-.#"#',# 0& 0.# #'#12 ! means lnLenL Lo beLray.
o When a clLlzen lnLellecLually or emoLlonally favors Lhe
enemy and harbors sympaLhles or convlcLlons dlsloyal Lo
hls counLry's pollcy or lnLeresL. (Cramer v. u.S.)
3+4+'* $+- &" ,&15&"0 ! an acL whlch sLrengLhens or Lends Lo
sLrengLhen Lhe enemy ln Lhe conducL of war agalnsL Lhe counLry.
o An acL whlch sLrengLhens or Lends Lo sLrengLhen Lhe
LralLors or weakens Lhe sLaLe Lo reslsL and aLLack Lhe enemy
o 1he ald and comforL musL be glven Lo Lhe enemy by some
klnd of acLlon. lL musL be a deed or physlcal acLlvlLy, noL
merely a menLal operaLlon.
o 1he enemy's occupaLlon ls bound Lo creaLe all sorLs of
relaLlonshlps wlLh Lhe locals. lor ald and comforL Lo
consLlLuLe Lreason, Lhe naLure, degree and purpose of Lhe
acLs musL be consldered.
o 1he exLenL of Lhe ald and comforL glven musL be Lo render
asslsLance Lo Lhem as enemles, and noL as lndlvlduals.
o ulrecL and lndlrecL acL
" ulrecL - MaLerlally conLrlbuLes Lo Lhe LralLors and
exLernal force. l.e. selllng bulleLs
" lndlrecL - normal conducL of buslness such as
Selllng food or cloLhlng
Adherence alone, wlLhouL glvlng Lhe enemy ald or comforL, does noL
consLlLuLe Lreason (and vlce versa)
o eople v. 1an ! havlng frlendly relaLlons wlLh Lhe !apanese
and belng openly sympaLheLlc Lo Lhelr cause wlLhouL dolng
anyLhlng Lo help Lhem succeed ls noL Lreason.
o eople v. Agonclllo ! Whlle sale Lo Lhe enemy of alum
crysLals and waLer plpes may do ald or comforL Lhem, lf
Lhere ls no lnLenL Lo beLray, Lhere can be no Lreason.
o eople v. lernando ! servlng as an lnformer and belng an
acLlve member of Lhe !apanese MlllLary.
o eople v. Adrlano ! 8elng a makaplll consLlLuLes an overL
acL, slnce he placed hlmself aL Lhe enemy's call Lo flghL slde
by slde wlLh hlm, and provlded psychologlcal comforL Lo
Lhem because Lhe enemy knows hls cause ls advanced.
Ald and comforL glven Lo Lhe enemles musL be afLer Lhe declaraLlon
of war. 1he enemles musL be Lhe sub[ecL of a forelgn power.
o 6'#1+#% does noL embrace rebels from one's own counLry.

VI. ub||c Cff|ce
AccepLance of publlc offlce and dlscharge of offlclal duLles under Lhe
enemy do noL consLlLuLe per se Lhe felony of Lreason. Mere
governmenLal work under Lhe !apanese governmenL ls noL Lreason.
8u1
lf due Lo hls poslLlon he helped ln Lhe propagaLlon of Lhe creed of
Lhe lnvader, such consLlLuLe Lreason.
Lxamples:
eople v. ulzon ! Membershlp ln Lhe pollce force durlng Lhe
occupaLlon ls noL Lreason buL acLlve parLlclpaLlon wlLh Lhe enemles
ln Lhe apprehenslon of guerrlllas and lnfllcLlon of lll-LreaLmenLs make
such member llable for Lreason.
eople v. uumaplL ! Lhe arresL of guerlllas for commlLLlng
(common crlme) arson, Lhe arresLlng offlcer ls noL llable for Lreason.

VII. Guer|||a Warfare
Cuerllla warfare durlng Lhe Llme of Lhe !apanese was [usLlfled
because Lhey were flghLlng for Lhe de [ure governmenL of Lhe
hlllpplnes, and Lhe !apanese was a de facLo governmenL.
____________________
AkAGkAn 2: 1WC-WI1NLSS kULL

I. Ways of prov|ng treason
1. 1esLlmony of aL leasL Lwo wlLnesses Lo Lhe same overL acL.
2. Confesslon of Lhe accused ln open courL.

II. 2 w|tnesses test|fy|ng to same overt act
A. Genera| ku|e: 1wo test|mon|es accepted or defendant |s acqu|tted
1reason cannoL be proved by clrcumsLanLlal evldence or by
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exLra[udlclal confesslon.
1he LesLlmony of Lwo wlLnesses provlng an overL acL of ald or
comforL Lo Lhe enemy ls sufflclenL. Adherence need noL be proved.
o 74#"0 $,0 ! Lhe physlcal acLlvlLy LhaL consLlLuLes Lhe
renderlng ald and comforL.
1he LesLlmonles musL refer Lo Lhe same acL, place and momenL of
Llme. lL does noL necessarlly have Lo be ldenLlcal.
o lnsufflclenL: x saw arms landed ln La unlon and loaded lnLo
a moLor vehlcle. AL Lhls sLage, noL sufflclenL Lo convlcL yeL. ?
laLer saw Lhe arms unloaded ln a warehouse. Wlll x + ? be
sufflclenL wlLnesses Lo convlcL? Answer: nC. 8ecause Lhe
law requlres LhaL 2 wlLnesses see Lhe SAML CvL81 AC1.
o SufflclenL: x saw Lhe defendanL arrlve ln Lhe house of ?.
WlLness Z dld noL corroboraLe Lhls, buL boLh x and Z sald
LhaL ? was arresLed and Lhe defendanL alded ln Lhe arresL.
1hls rule ls severely resLrlcLlve.
o 8eason: 1he speclal naLure of Lreason (penallzed by deaLh
and commlLLed ln abnormal Llmes) requlres Lhe accused ls
afforded a speclal proLecLlon noL requlred ln oLher cases.
1he Lwo-wlLness rule ls noL affecLed by Lhe dlscrepancles ln mlnor
deLalls of Lhe LesLlmony.
o eople v. Lansanas ! LhaL Lhe 2 wlLnesses could noL agree
on wheLher or noL Lhere were !apanese soldlers presenL ln
Lhe arresL of ? ls lnslgnlflcanL.

8. Lxcept|on: Adherence may be proved by 1 w|tness or by c|rcumstances
Adherence may be proved:
o 8y 1 wlLness
o lrom Lhe naLure of Lhe acL lLself
o lrom Lhe clrcumsLances surroundlng Lhe acL
Adherence, belng a sLaLe of mlnd, need noL be proved by Lwo
wlLnesses, because whaL ls deslgned ln Lhe mlnd of an accused
never ls suscepLlble of proof by dlrecL LesLlmony.

III. Confess|on of the accused |n open court
lf he has pleaded nC1 gullLy already durlng arralgnmenL, he can sLlll
confess ln open courL by sLaLlng Lhe parLlcular acLs consLlLuLlng
Lreason.
o uurlng Lrlal, slmply saylng l'm gullLy" ls noL enough.
lf durlng arralgnmenL he pleads gullLy, courL wlll ask lf Lhe accused
undersLands ls plea. Submlsslon of affldavlL durlng Lrlal, even lf
asslsLed by counsel ls noL enough.
1. uefense
o uuress or unconLrollable fear, only fear of lmmedlaLe deaLh
shall be accepLed.
o Suspended alleglance and change of soverelgnLy noL
accepLed.

Art|c|e 11S - Consp|racy and proposa| to comm|t treason
1he consp|racy or proposa| to comm|t the cr|me of treason sha|| be
pun|shed respect|ve|y, by pr|s|on mayor and a f|ne not exceed|ng 10,000
pesos, and pr|s|on correcc|ona| and a f|ne not exceed|ng S,000 pesos.

CIN1S
I. Acts pun|shed:
1. Consplracy Lo commlL Lreason ! when ln Llme of war, Lwo or more
persons come Lo an agreemenL Lo levy war agalnsL Lhe governmenL
or Lo adhere Lo Lhe enemles and Lo glve Lhem ald or comforL, and
declde Lo commlL lL.
2. roposal Lo commlL Lreason ! when ln Llme of war a person who
has declded Lo levy war agalnsL Lhe governmenL or Lo adhere Lo Lhe
enemles and Lo glve Lhem ald or comforL, proposes lLs execuLlon Lo
some oLher person or persons.

II. keason
ln Lreason, Lhe very exlsLence of Lhe sLaLe ls endangered.

III. Cther Notes:
Consplracy and proposal Lo commlL Lreason are separaLe and
dlsLlncL offenses. Pence Lhe Lwo-wlLness rule does noL apply.
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Art|c|e 116 - M|spr|s|on of treason
Lvery person ow|ng a||eg|ance to (the Un|ted States) the Government of
the h|||pp|ne Is|ands, w|thout be|ng a fore|gner, and hav|ng know|edge of
any consp|racy aga|nst them, concea|s or does not d|sc|ose and make
known the same, as soon as poss|b|e to the governor or f|sca| of the
prov|nce, or the mayor or f|sca| of the c|ty |n wh|ch he res|des, as the case
may be, sha|| be pun|shed as an accessory to the cr|me of treason.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (CkC)
1. 1haL Lhe offender musL be owlng alleglance Lo Lhe governmenL, and
noL a forelgner,
2. 1haL he has knowledge of any consplracy (Lo commlL Lreason)
agalnsL Lhe governmenL,
3. 1haL he conceals or does noL dlsclose and make known Lhe same as
soon as posslble Lo Lhe governor or flscal of Lhe provlnce or Lhe
mayor or flscal of Lhe clLy ln whlch he resldes.

II. Cffender:
Applles Lo llllplno clLlzens, resldenL allen ls noL lncluded.
1he offender here ls punlshed only as an accessory Lo Lreason, buL ls
vlewed as a prlnclpal ln Lhe crlme of mlsprlslon. Pence, Lhe beneflLs
of Art|c|e 20 does noL apply.
Cffender ls noL llable lf Lreason ls acLually commlLLed, as Lhe second
elemenL (of knowledge) would be mlsslng.
1hls arLlcle ls an excepLlon Lo Lhe rule LhaL mere sllence does noL
make a person crlmlnally llable, for lL punlshes non-dlsclosure. (u.S.
v. Caballeros, eL al.)
WhaL lf oLher hlgh ranklng offlclal such as n chlef? lL ls sLlll
appllcable as long as Lhe offlclal ls under ulLC

Art|c|e 117 - Lsp|onage
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| sha|| be |nf||cted upon any person who:
1. W|thout author|ty therefor, enters a warsh|p, fort, or nava| or
m|||tary estab||shment or reservat|on to obta|n any |nformat|on,
p|ans, photographs, or other data of a conf|dent|a| nature re|at|ve
to the defense of the h|||pp|ne Arch|pe|ago, or
2. 8e|ng |n possess|on, by reason of the pub||c off|ce he ho|ds, of the
art|c|es, data, or |nformat|on referred to |n the preced|ng
paragraph, d|sc|oses the|r contents to a representat|ve of a fore|gn
nat|on.

1he pena|ty next h|gher |n degree sha|| be |mposed |f the offender be a
pub||c off|cer or emp|oyee.

CIN1S
I. L|ements:
1. aragraph 1 LlemenLs: (WA)
a. 1haL Lhe offender enLers a warshlp, forL, or naval or mlllLary
esLabllshmenL or reservaLlon,
b. 1haL he has no auLhorlLy Lherefor,
c. 1haL hls purpose ls Lo obLaln lnformaLlon, plans,
phoLographs or oLher daLa of a confldenLlal naLure relaLlve
Lo Lhe defense of Lhe hlllpplnes.
Actus keus: LnLerlng
2. aragraph 2 LlemenLs: (Au)
a. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer,
b. 1haL he has ln hls possesslon Lhe arLlcles, daLa or
lnformaLlon referred Lo ln paragraph 1, Art|c|e 117, by
reason of Lhe publlc offlce he holds,
c. 1haL he dlscloses Lhelr conLenLs Lo a represenLaLlve of a
forelgn naLlon.
Actus keus: ulsclosemenL

II. Genera| o|nts
lL ls noL necessary LhaL hlllpplnes ls aL war wlLh Lhe counLry Lo
whlch Lhe lnformaLlon was revealed. WhaL ls lmporLanL ls LhaL Lhe
lnformaLlon relaLed ls connecLed wlLh Lhe defense sysLem of Lhe
hlllpplnes.
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lL ls sufflclenL LhaL he has Lhe purpose Lo obLaln any of Lhem.

III. aragraph 1:
lL ls necessary LhaL Lhe offender has lnLenL Lo obLaln lnformaLlon
relaLlve Lo Lhe defense of Lhe hlllpplnes.
Cffender ls any person. lf Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or
employee, Lhe penalLy nexL hlgher ln degree shall be lmposed.

IV. aragraph 2:
1he offender musL be a publlc offlcer.

V. Lsp|onage v. 1reason
Lsp|onage 1reason
noL condlLloned upon clLlzenshlp of Lhe offender
Cffendlng allen need noL reslde ln
Lhe hlllpplnes
Cffendlng allen musL reslde ln Lhe
hlllpplnes
CommlLLed ln Llme of peace and war CommlLLed ln Llme of war
CommlLLed ln many ways May be commlLLed ln Lwo ways:
adherlng or levylng war
Cnly publlc offlcers may commlL LlLher publlc or prlvaLe persons can
commlL
Note:
ln crlmes agalnsL Lhe law of naLlons, Lhe offenders can be
prosecuLed anywhere ln Lhe world because Lhese crlmes are
consldered as agalnsL humanlLy ln general, llke plracy and muLlny.
Crlmes agalnsL naLlonal securlLy can be Lrled only ln Lhe hlllpplnes,
as Lhere ls a need Lo brlng Lhe offender here before he can be made
Lo suffer Lhe consequences of Lhe law.
1he acLs agalnsL naLlonal securlLy may be commlLLed abroad and sLlll
be punlshable under our law, buL lL cannoL be Lrled under forelgn
law.

VI Commonwea|th Act No. 616:
Sect|on 1 "Un|awfu||y obta|n|ng"
Colng upon, enLerlng, flylng over or oLherwlse by obLalnlng
lnformaLlon concernlng any vessel, alrcrafL, work of defense, for Lhe
purpose of obLalnlng lnformaLlon wlLh Lhe lnLenL Lo use lL Lo Lhe
ln[ury of Lhe hlllpplnes or Lo advanLage any forelgn naLlon.
Copylng, Laklng, maklng or aLLempLlng or lnduclng or aldlng anoLher
Lo copy, Lake, make or obLaln any skeLch, phoLograph, phoLographlc
negaLlve, blue prlnL, plan, map, lnsLrumenL, appllance, documenL,
wrlLlng for Lhe purpose ln paragraph 1.
8ecelvlng or obLalnlng or agreelng or aLLempLlng or lnduclng or
aldlng anoLher Lo recelve or obLaln Lhose menLloned ln paragraph 2.
CommunlcaLlng or LransmlLLlng or aLLempLlng Lo communlcaLe or
LransmlL Lo any person noL enLlLled Lo recelve lL, by wlllfully reLalnlng
and falllng Lo dellver lL on demand.
ermlLLlng Lhrough gross negllgence Lo be removed from lLs proper
place or cusLody or dellver Lo anyone ln vlolaLlon of hls LrusL, or Lo be
losL, sLolen, absLracLed or desLroyed.

Sect|on 2 "Un|awfu| D|sc|osure"
8y communlcaLlng, dellverlng or LransmlLLlng or aLLempLlng or
aldlng or lnduclng anoLher Lo do lL.
ln Llme of war, by collecLlng, recordlng, publlshlng or communlcaLlng
or aLLempLlng Lo ellclL any lnformaLlon wlLh respecL Lo Lhe
movemenL, number, descrlpLlon, condlLlon, or dlsposlLlon of any of
Lhe armed forces.

Sect|on 3 "D|s|oya| act or words dur|ng peace t|me"
Advlslng, counsellng, urglng or ln any oLher manner by causlng
lnsubordlnaLlon, dlsloyalLy, muLlny or refusal of duLy.
ulsLurblng any wrlLLen or prlnLed maLLer whlch urges Lhe acLs clLed
ln paragraph 1.

Sect|on 4 "D|s|oya| acts or words dur|ng war"
Wlllfully maklng or conveylng false reporLs or false sLaLemenLs wlLh
Lhe lnLenL Lo lnLerfere wlLh Lhe Al
Wlllfully causlng or aLLempLlng Lo cause lnsubordlnaLlon, dlsloyalLy,
muLlny or refusal of duLy
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
Wlllfully obsLrucLlng Lhe recrulLlng or enllsLmenL servlce

Sect|on S "Consp|racy"
1wo or more persons consplre Lo vlolaLe Lhe precedlng provlslons
Cne or more of such person do any acL Lo effecL Lhe ob[ecL of Lhe
consplracy

Sect|on 6 "narbor|ng or concea||ng"
Cffender knows LhaL a person has commlLLed or ls abouL Lo commlL
an offense under Lhls acL
Parbors and conceals such person

Sect|on 2 - rovok|ng War and D|s|oya|ty |n case of war

Art|c|e 118 - Inc|t|ng to war or g|v|ng mot|ves for repr|sa|s
1he pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora| sha|| be |mposed upon any pub||c off|cer
or emp|oyee, and that of pr|s|on mayor upon any pr|vate |nd|v|dua|, who,
by un|awfu| or unauthor|zed acts provokes or g|ves occas|on for a war
|nvo|v|ng or ||ab|e to |nvo|ve the h|||pp|ne Is|ands or exposes I|||p|no
c|t|zens to repr|sa|s on the|r persons or property.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (G)
1. 1haL Lhe offender performs unlawful or unauLhorlzed acLs.
2. 1haL such acLs provoke or glve occaslon for a war lnvolvlng or llable
Lo lnvolve Lhe hlllpplnes or expose llllplno clLlzens Lo reprlsals on
Lhelr persons or properLy.

II. Genera| o|nts
lnLenL ls lmmaLerlal, because Lhe law conslders and punlshes Lhe
acLs for Lhe effecLs produced by lL - even lf done by lmprudence.
Crlme ls commlLLed ln Llme of peace.
8eprlsals ls noL llmlLed Lo mlllLary acLlon, lL could be economlc
reprlsals, or denlal of enLry lnLo Lhelr counLry.
enalLy ls hlgher when Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or employee

III. Lxamp|es
8alslng Lroops wlLhln Lhe hlllpplnes wlLhouL proper auLhorlzaLlon
for Lhe servlce of anoLher naLlon agalnsL anoLher naLlon
ubllc desLrucLlon of Lhe flag or seal of a forelgn sLaLe or publlc
manlfesLaLlons of hosLlllLy Lo Lhe head or ambassador of anoLher
sLaLe.

Art|c|e 119 - V|o|at|on of neutra||ty
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| sha|| be |nf||cted upon anyone who, on
the occas|on of a war |n wh|ch the Government |s not |nvo|ved, v|o|ates any
regu|at|on |ssued by competent author|ty for the purpose of enforc|ng
neutra||ty 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| sha|| be |nf||cted upon anyone
who, on the occas|on of a war |n wh|ch the Government |s not |nvo|ved,
v|o|ates any regu|at|on |ssued by competent author|ty for the purpose of
enforc|ng neutra||ty.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (WkV)
1. 1haL Lhere ls war ln whlch Lhe hlllpplnes ls noL lnvolved
2. 1haL Lhere ls a regulaLlon lssued by compeLenL auLhorlLy for Lhe
purpose of enforclng neuLrallLy
3. 1haL Lhe offender vlolaLes such regulaLlon

II. IkIS1 kLUISI1L: War the h|||pp|nes |s not |nvo|ved
8#90"$)+02 ! a naLlon or power whlch Lakes no parL ln a conLesL of
arms golng on beLween oLhers.
o CovernmenL declared Lhe neuLrallLy of Lhe hlllpplnes ln a
war beLween 2 oLher counLrles

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: kegu|at|on |ssued by competent author|ty
Congress has Lhe rlghL Lo declare neuLrallLy

Art|c|e 120 - Correspondence w|th host||e country
Any person who |n t|me of war, sha|| have correspondence w|th an enemy
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
country or terr|tory occup|ed by enemy troops sha|| be pun|shed:
1. 8y pr|s|on correcc|ona|, |f the correspondence has been proh|b|ted
by the Government,
2. 8y pr|s|on mayor, |f such correspondence be carr|ed on |n c|phers
or convent|ona| s|gns, and
3. 8y rec|us|on tempora|, |f not|ce or |nformat|on be g|ven thereby
wh|ch m|ght be usefu| to the enemy. If the offender |ntended to
a|d the enemy by g|v|ng such not|ce or |nformat|on, he sha|| suffer
the pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora| to death.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (WC-Lpcu)
1. 1haL lL ls ln Llme of war ln whlch Lhe hlllpplnes ls lnvolved.
2. 1haL Lhe offender makes correspondence wlLh an enemy counLry or
LerrlLory occupled by enemy Lroops.
3. 1haL Lhe correspondence ls elLher -
a. rohlblLed by Lhe governmenL, or
b. Carrled on ln clphers or convenLlonal slgns, or
c. ConLalnlng noLlce or lnformaLlon whlch mlghL be useful Lo
Lhe enemy

II. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Correspondence w|th the enemy
:&""#%;&'-#',# ! communlcaLlon by means of leLLers, or lL may
refer Lo Lhe leLLers whlch pass beLween Lhose who have frlendly or
buslness relaLlons.

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Correspondence |s e|ther.
A. roh|b|ted by the government
Lven lf Lhe correspondence conLalns lnnocenL maLLers, lf Lhe
correspondence has been prohlblLed by Lhe governmenL, lL ls
punlshable, because of Lhe posslblllLy LhaL some lnformaLlon useful
Lo Lhe enemy mlghL be revealed unwlLLlngly.
ln (b) and (c), prohlblLlon by Lhe governmenL ls noL essenLlal.

NC1L: lf Lhe offender lnLended Lo ald Lhe enemy by glvlng such noLlce or
lnformaLlon, Lhe crlme amounLs Lo Lreason, hence, Lhe penalLy ls Lhe same as
LhaL for Lreason.

II. ua||fy|ng C|rcumstances:
1. noLlce or lnformaLlon mlghL be useful Lo Lhe enemy
2. Cffender lnLended Lo ald Lhe enemy
Correspondence:
CommunlcaLlon by means of leLLer.
lf clphers were used, no need for prohlblLlon

Art|c|e 121 - I||ght to enemy country
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor sha|| be |nf||cted upon any person who, ow|ng
a||eg|ance to the Government, attempts to f|ee or go to an enemy country
when proh|b|ted by competent author|ty.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (WA2)
1. 1haL Lhere ls a war ln whlch Lhe hlllpplnes ls lnvolved
2. 1haL Lhe offender (llllplno or resldenL allen) musL be owlng
alleglance Lo Lhe governmenL
3. 1haL Lhe offender aLLempLs Lo flee or go Lo enemy counLry
4. 1haL golng Lo enemy counLry ls prohlblLed by compeLenL auLhorlLy

II. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Cffender owes a||eg|ance to the government
Alleglance conLemplaLed here ls elLher naLural or Lemporary so even
allen resldenLs can be gullLy.

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Cffender goes to enemy country
Mere aLLempL Lo flee or go Lo enemy counLry consummaLes Lhe
crlme.

IV. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: roh|b|ted by competent author|ty
Art|c|e 121 musL be lmplemenLed by Lhe governmenL. lf fleelng or
golng Lo an enemy counLry ls noL prohlblLed by compeLenL
auLhorlLy, Lhe crlme deflned ln Art|c|e 121 can noL be commlLLed.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE

Sect|on 3 - |racy and Mut|ny on the h|gh seas

Art|c|e 122 - |racy |n genera| and mut|ny on the h|gh seas
1he pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora| sha|| be |nf||cted upon any person who,
on the h|gh seas, sha|| attack or se|ze a vesse| or, not be|ng a member of |ts
comp|ement nor a passenger, sha|| se|ze the who|e or part of the cargo of
sa|d vesse|, |ts equ|pment, or persona| be|ong|ngs of |ts comp|ement or
passengers.

1he same pena|ty sha|| be |nf||cted |n case of mut|ny on the h|gh seas.

CIN1S
I. Ways of Comm|tt|ng |racy:
1. 8y aLLacklng or selzlng a vessel on Lhe hlgh seas or ln Lhe hlllpplne
waLers (.D. No. S32)
2. 8y selzlng Lhe whole or parL of Lhe cargo of sald vehlcles, lLs
equlpmenL or personal belonglngs of lLs complemenL or passengers

II. L|ements: (VNC:as)
1. 1haL a vessel ls on Lhe hlgh seas/hlllpplne waLers
2. 1haL Lhe offenders are noL members of lLs complemenL or
passengers of Lhe vessel
3. 1haL Lhe offenders -
a. ALLack or selze LhaL vessel or (hence, lf commlLLed by crew
or passengers, Lhe crlme ls noL plracy buL robbery ln Lhe
hlgh seas)
b. Selze Lhe whole or parL of Lhe cargo of sald vessel, lLs
equlpmenL or personal belonglngs of lLs complemenL or
passengers

III. Def|n|t|ons:
<+*. %#$% ! parLs of Lhe sea LhaL are noL lncluded ln Lhe excluslve
economlc zone, ln Lhe LerrlLorlal seas, or ln Lhe lnLernal waLers of a
sLaLe, or ln Lhe archlpelaglc waLers of an archlpelaglc sLaLe.
=+"$,2 ! 8obbery or forclble depredaLlon on Lhe hlgh seas, wlLhouL
lawful auLhorlLy and done wlLh anlmo furandl and ln Lhe splrlL and
lnLenLlon of unlversal hosLlllLy. (eople v. Lol-lo)
>90+'2 ! CommlLLed by Lhe oLher members of Lhe complemenL
and may be commlLLed by Lhe passengers of Lhe vessel. unlawful
reslsLance Lo a superlor offlcer, or Lhe ralslng of commoLlons and
dlsLurbances on board a shlp agalnsL Lhe auLhorlLy of lLs
commander.

IV. |racy v. kobbery on n|gh Seas v. Mut|ny
|racy kobbery on n|gh
Seas
Mut|ny
8obbery or forclble degradaLlon on Lhe hlgh
seas, wlLhouL lawful auLhorlLy and done wlLh
anlmo lucrandl and ln Lhe splrlL and lnLenLlon of
unlversal hosLlllLy.
unlawful reslsLance Lo a
superlor offlcer, or Lhe
ralslng of commoLlon and
dlsLurbances on board a
shlp agalnsL Lhe auLhorlLy
of lLs commander
lnLenL Lo galn ls an elemenL. no crlmlnal lnLenL
ALLack from ouLslde.
Cffenders are sLrangers
Lo Lhe vessel.
ALLack from Lhe lnslde.

Art|c|e 123 - ua||f|ed p|racy
1he pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora| to death sha|| be |mposed upon those
who comm|t any of the cr|mes referred to |n the preced|ng art|c|e, under
any of the fo||ow|ng c|rcumstances:
1. Whenever they have se|zed a vesse| by board|ng or f|r|ng upon the
same,
2. Whenever the p|rates have abandoned the|r v|ct|ms w|thout
means of sav|ng themse|ves, or
3. Whenever the cr|me |s accompan|ed by murder, hom|c|de,
phys|ca| |n[ur|es or rape. (!" $%&'(&( )* +,!, -., /012)

CIN1S
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
I. ua||fy|ng c|rcumstances (|nc|udes mut|ny):
1. Whenever Lhey have selzed a vessel by boardlng or flrlng upon Lhe
same
o 8oarded
o llred guns
2. Whenever Lhe plraLes have abandoned Lhelr vlcLlms wlLhouL means
of savlng Lhemselves
o SeLLlng Lhe boaL on flre
3. Whenever Lhe crlme ls accompanled by murder, homlclde, physlcal
ln[urles, or rape (Lhe above may resulL Lo quallfled muLlny)
o !udge lmenLel sald LhaL parrlclde should also be lncluded
(ln shorL, Lake lnLo conslderaLlon oLher kllllngs whlch ls
necessarlly Lransformed lnLo oLher crlmes because of
quallfylng facLors)

II. Art|c|e 123, kC v. .D. No. S32
Art|c|e 123, kC .D. No. S32
lracy ls commlLLed by any person
nC1 a member of Lhe shlp's
complemenL or lLs passenger
lracy ls commlLLed by An? person
lncludlng members of Lhe shlp's
complemenL or lLs passengers
CommlLLed elLher ln hlgh seas or ln
hlllpplnes waLers
CommlLLed ln hlllpplne waLers

III. Genera| o|nts
A. ua||f|ed p|racy |s a spec|a| comp|ex cr|me pun|shab|e by rec|us|on
perpetua to death, regard|ess of the number of v|ct|ms

8. Def|n|t|ons
=.+)+;;+'# ?$0#"% ! refers Lo all bodles of waLer belonglng Lo Lhe
hlllpplnes.
@#%%#) ! Any vessel or waLercrafL used for LransporL. lL lncludes all
klnds and Lypes of vessels or boaLs used ln flshlng.

C. Any person who a|ds or protects p|rates or abets the comm|ss|on of
p|racy sha|| be cons|dered as an accomp||ce
resumpLlon: 1he person dld Lhese knowlngly.
8urden of proof: 1he accused musL prove conLrary.

kepub||c Act No. 623S (1he Ant| n|-Iack|ng Law):
AnLl hl-[acklng ls anoLher klnd of plracy whlch ls commlLLed ln an
alrcrafL. ln oLher counLrles, Lhls crlme ls known as alrcrafL plracy.
lour slLuaLlons governed by anLl hl-[acklng law:
1. usurplng or selzlng conLrol of an alrcrafL of hlllpplne reglsLry whlle lL
ls ln fllghL, compelllng Lhe plloLs Lhereof Lo change Lhe course or
desLlnaLlon of Lhe alrcrafL,
2. usurplng or selzlng conLrol of an alrcrafL of forelgn reglsLry whlle
wlLhln hlllpplne LerrlLory, compelllng Lhe plloLs Lhereof Lo land ln
any parL of hlllpplne LerrlLory,
3. Carrylng or loadlng on board an alrcrafL operaLlng as a publlc uLlllLy
passenger alrcrafL ln Lhe hlllpplnes, any flammable, corroslve,
exploslve, or polsonous subsLance, and
4. Loadlng, shlpplng, or LransporLlng on board a cargo alrcrafL
operaLlng as a publlc uLlllLy ln Lhe hlllpplnes, any flammable,
corroslve, exploslve, or polsonous subsLance lf Lhls was done noL ln
accordance wlLh Lhe rules and regulaLlons seL and promulgaLed by
Lhe Alr 1ransporLaLlon Cfflce on Lhls maLLer.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1I1LL II: CkIMLS AGAINS1 1nL IUNDAMLN1AL
LAWS CI 1nL S1A1L

Chapter 1: Arb|trary Detent|on or Lxpu|s|on, V|o|at|on of
Dwe|||ng, roh|b|t|on, Interrupt|on, and D|sso|ut|on of
eacefu| meet|ngs and cr|mes aga|nst ke||g|ous Worsh|p

Note: 1hey are called crlmes agalnsL Lhe fundamenLal laws of Lhe
SLaLe because Lhey vlolaLe cerLaln provlslons of Lhe 8||| of k|ghts
(Art|c|e III) of the 1987 Const|tut|on.

Sect|on 1 - Arb|trary Detent|on and Lxpu|s|on

Art|c|e 124 - Arb|trary Detent|on
Any pub||c off|cer or emp|oyee who, w|thout |ega| grounds, deta|ns
a person, sha|| suffer:
1. 1he pena|ty of arresto mayor |n |ts max|mum per|od to
pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od, |f the detent|on
has not exceeded three days,
2. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and
max|mum per|ods, |f the detent|on has cont|nued for more
than three but not more than f|fteen days,
3. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor, |f the detent|on has
cont|nued for more than f|fteen days but not more than s|x
months, and
4. 1hat of rec|us|on tempora|, |f the detent|on sha|| have
exceeded s|x months.

1he comm|ss|on of a cr|me, or v|o|ent |nsan|ty or any other a||ment
requ|r|ng the compu|sory conf|nemen of the pat|ent |n a hosp|ta|,
sha|| be cons|dered |ega| grounds for the detent|on of any person

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (DW)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or employee
2. 1haL he deLalns a person
3. 1haL Lhe deLenLlon ls wlLhouL legal grounds

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Cffender |s a pub||c off|cer
1he publlc offlcers llable for arblLrary deLenLlon musL be
vesLed wlLh auLhorlLy Lo deLaln or order Lhe deLenLlon of
persons accused of a crlme, alLhough Lhe legal grounds for
such deLenLlon ls lacklng
lf Lhe offender ls a prlvaLe lndlvldual, he ls gullLy of lllegal
deLenLlon under Art|c|e 267, unless he consplred wlLh Lhe
publlc offlcer Lhus maklng hlm llable under Art|c|e 124.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Deta|ns a person
ueLenLlon ls deflned as Lhe acLual conflnemenL of a person ln
an enclosure, or ln any manner deprlvlng hlm of hls llberLy
(eople v Cungon)
Lven lf Lhe persons deLalned could move freely ln and ouL of
Lhelr prlson cell and could Lake Lhelr meals ouLslde Lhe
prlson, neverLheless lf Lhey were under Lhe survelllance of
Lhe guards and Lhey could noL escape for fear of belng
apprehended agaln, Lhere would sLlll be arblLrary deLenLlon.
o 1hls lncludes resLralnL resulLlng from fear (AsLorga v.
eople).

IV. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: W|thout |ega| grounds
A. Lega| grounds for detent|on:
1. 1he commlsslon of a crlme
2. vlolenL lnsanlLy or any oLher allmenL requlrlng compulsory
conflnemenL of Lhe paLlenL ln a hosplLal

8. Arrest w|thout warrant |s the usua| cause of arb|trary detent|on
An arresL wlLhouL warranL ls lawful when Lhe suspecL ls
caughL ln (1) flagranLe dellcLo or (2) lmmedlaLely LhereafLer,
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
or when Lhe suspecL ls an (3) escaplng prlsoner.
1


1. I|agrante De||cto
lL musL be sLressed LhaL "presence" does noL only requlred
LhaL Lhe arresLlng person sees Lhe offense, buL also when he
"hears Lhe dlsLurbance creaLed Lhereby and proceeds aL one
Lo Lhe scene" (u.S. v SamonLe)

2. Immed|ate|y thereafter
An offlcer arresLlng a person who has [usL commlLLed an
offense musL have probable cause Lo belleve based on
personal knowledge of facLs and clrcumsLances LhaL Lhe
person Lo be arresLed has commlLLed lL.
A crlme musL ln facL or acLually have been commlLLed flrsL

3. Lscap|ng r|soner
1he rlghL of arresL wlLhouL warranL of arresL of an escaped
prlsoner ls founded on Lhe prlnclple LhaL aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
arresL, Lhe escapee ls ln Lhe conLlnuous acL of commlLLlng a
crlme whlch ls evadlng Lhe servlng of hls senLence
(araluman v ulrecLor of rlsons)

C. robab|e Cause
!"#$%$&' )%*+' ! such facLs and clrcumsLances whlch could
lead a reasonable dlscreeL and prudenL man Lo belleve LhaL
an offense has been commlLLed and LhaL Lhe ob[ecL soughL ln
connecLlon wlLh Lhe offense are ln Lhe place soughL Lo be

"
Sect|on S, ku|e 113, ku|es on Cr|m|na| rocedure
1. When hls presence, person Lo be arresLed has commlLLed, ls acLually commlLLlng, or
aLLempLlng Lo commlL an offense,
2. When an offense has been commlLLed, and he has personal knowledge of facLs
lndlcaLlng LhaL person Lo be arresLed has commlLLed lL,
3. When Lhe person Lo be arresLed ls a prlsoner who has escaped from penal
esLabllshmenL or place where he ls servlng flnal [udgmenL or Lemporarlly conflned
whlle hls case ls pendlng, or has escaped whlle belng Lransferred from one
conflnemenL Lo anoLher.

searched.
under Sect|on S, ku|e 113 of the kev|sed ku|es of Cr|m|na|
rocedure, Lhe acLual commlsslon of a crlme by Lhe person
deLalned ls noL necessary Lo [usLlfy hls deLenLlon. lL depends
upon Lhe naLure of hls deed, when lLs characLerlzaLlon as a
crlme may reasonably be ln erred by Lhe offlcer Lo whom Lhe
law aL Lhe momenL leaves Lhe declslon for Lhe urgenL
purpose of suspendlng Lhe llberLy of LhaL person (u.S. v
Sanchez)
no reasonable ground lf offlcer only wanLs Lo know Lhe
commlsslon of crlme
o uS v. Pachaw ! lL wasn'L sald how Lhe accused was
acLlng susplclously or whaL was Lhe parLlcular acL or
clrcumsLance whlch aroused hls susplclon LhaL was
Lhe basls for Lhe arresL of Lhe accused.
1haL a pollce offlcer can make an arresL on mere complalnL
of Lhe offended parLy ls a debaLable quesLlon.

D. Arb|trary Detent|on through Imprudence
1he crlme lf arblLrary deLenLlon can be commlLLed Lhrough
lmprudence provlded for and punlshed under Art|c|e 36S.
eople v. Mlsa ! Lhe pollce rearresLed a woman who had
been released by means of a verbal order of Lhe [usLlce of
peace. 1he accused acLed wlLhouL mallce, buL he should
have verlfled Lhe order of release before Lhe rearresL.

V. er|ods of detent|ons pena||zed:
1. lf deLenLlon has noL exceeded 3 days
2. lf Lhe deLenLlon has conLlnued more Lhan 3 days buL noL
more Lhan 13 days
3. lf Lhe deLenLlon has conLlnued more Lhan 13 days buL noL
more Lhan 6 monLhs
4. lf Lhe deLenLlon has exceeded 6 monLhs
Note: 1he law does noL flx any mlnlmum perlod of deLenLlon.

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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
Art|c|e 12S - De|ay |n the de||very |f deta|ned persons to the proper
[ud|c|a| author|t|es
1he pena|t|es prov|ded |n the next preced|ng art|c|e sha|| be
|mposed upon the pub||c off|cer or emp|oyee who sha|| deta|n any
person for some |ega| ground and sha|| fa|| to de||ver such person
to the proper [ud|c|a| author|t|es w|th|n the per|od of: twe|ve (12)
hours, for cr|mes or offenses pun|shab|e by ||ght pena|t|es, or the|r
equ|va|ent, e|ghteen (18) hours, for cr|mes or offenses pun|shab|e
by correct|ona| pena|t|es, or the|r equ|va|ent, and th|rty-s|x (36)
hours, for cr|mes or offenses pun|shab|e by aff||ct|ve or cap|ta|
pena|t|es, or the|r equ|va|ent.

In every case, the person deta|ned sha|| be |nformed of the cause of
h|s detent|on and sha|| be a||owed, upon h|s request, to
commun|cate and confer at any t|me w|th h|s attorney or counse|.

CIN1S
AkAGkAn 1: DLLA IN DLLIVLk 1C IUDICIAL AU1nCkI1

I. L|ements: (-D-I-12L-18c-36a)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or employee
2. 1haL he deLalned a person for some legal ground
3. 1haL he falls Lo dellver such person Lo Lhe proper [udlclal
auLhorlLles wlLhln:
a. 1welve (12) hours, for crlmes punlshable by llghL
penalLles or Lhelr equlvalenL,
b. LlghLeen (18) hours, for correcLlonal penalLles or
Lhelr equlvalenL,
c. 1hlrLy-slx (36) hours, for affllcLlve or Lhelr equlvalenL

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Cffender |s a pub||c off|cer
lf Lhe offender ls a prlvaLe person, crlme ls lllegal deLenLlon.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Deta|ned for some |ega| ground
1he arresL musL have been made for some legal ground
(under any of Lhe clrcumsLances where arresL wlLhouL
warranL ls auLhorlzed by law).
o lf Lhe arresL was made wlLh a warranL, Lhe person
can be deLalned lndeflnlLely unLll hls case ls declded
by Lhe courL or he posLs ball for Lemporary release.
Art|c|e 12S Lherefore applles only when Lhe arresL ls made
wlLhouL warranL of arresL. 8uL Lhe arresL musL be lawful.
o lf Lhe arresL was unlawful, Art|c|e 124 applles.

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Ia||s to de||ver to proper [ud|c|a| author|t|es
1he person arresLed wlLhouL a warranL shall be forLhwlLh
dellvered Lo Lhe nearesL pollce sLaLlon or [all. 1he dellvery
does noL conslsL ln a physlcal dellvery, buL ln maklng an
accusaLlon or charge or flllng of an lnformaLlon agalnsL Lhe
person arresLed wlLh Lhe correspondlng courL or [udge,
whereby Lhe laLLer acqulres [urlsdlcLlon Lo lssue an order of
release of commlLmenL of Lhe prlsoner, because Lhe
arresLlng offlcer can noL Lransfer Lo Lhe [udge and Lhe laLLer
does noL assume Lhe physlcal cusLody of Lhe person arresLed
(Sayo v. Chlef of ollce of Manlla)
uuLy of deLalnlng offlcer us deemed complled wlLh upon Lhe
flllng of Lhe complalnL wlLh Lhe [udlclal auLhorlLy.
1he "proper [udlclal auLhorlLy" means Lhe Supreme CourL
and such lnferlor courLs as may be esLabllshed by law.
ueLalned person should be released when a [udge ls noL
avallable lf Lhe maxlmum hours for deLenLlon provlded
under Art|c|e 12S has already explred. lallure Lo cause Lhe
release may resulL ln an offense under Art|c|e 12S (Alblor v
Auguls)

IV. Ior the purpose |f determ|n|ng the cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty of an off|cer
deta|n|ng a person for more than the t|me prescr|bed,
1. 1he means lf communlcaLlon, as well as
2. 1he hour of arresL, and
3. CLher clrcumsLances such as Lhe Llme of surrender and Lhe
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
maLerlal posslblllLy for Lhe flscal Lo make Lhe lnvesLlgaLlon
and flle ln Llme Lhe necessary lnformaLlon

V. Art|c|e 12S v. Art|c|e 124
De|ay |n the de||very
(Art|c|e 12S)
Arb|trary Detent|on
(Art|c|e 124)
ueLenLlon ls legal ln Lhe
beglnnlng buL Lhe lllegallLy sLarLs
from explraLlon of any of Lhe
perlods speclfled
ueLenLlon ls lllegal from Lhe
beglnnlng

VI. Cther Notes
vlolaLlon of Art|c|e 12S does noL affecL legallLy of
subsequenL conflnemenL under a warranL lssued by a courL.
Such vlolaLlon ls noL consldered as one of Lhe grounds on
whlch one can predlcaLe a moLlon Lo quash Lhe lnformaLlon.
o 8emedy where warranL lmproperly lssued:
lf Lhe accused was lllegally deLalned because he was
arresLed wlLhouL a prellmlnary examlnaLlon, whaL
should have been done was Lo seL aslde Lhe warranL
of arresL and order Lhe dlscharge of Lhe accused, buL
wlLhouL en[olnlng Lhe munlclpal [udge from
conducLlng a prellmlnary examlnaLlon and
afLerwards properly lssulng a warranL of arresL.
A subsequenL flllng of Lhe lnformaLlon ln courL does noL cure
Lhe lllegallLy of deLenLlon. 1he arresLlng offlcer wlll sLlll be
llable because Lhe vlolaLlon had already been commlLLed.
lf no charge ls flled by Lhe flscal ln courL wlLhln Lhe perlod
flxed ln Art|c|e 12S, Lhe arresLlng offlcer musL release Lhe
deLalnee. lf Lhe arresLlng offlcer does noL release such
person he wlll be gullLy under Art|c|e 12S whlle Lhe flscal
who falls Lo flle Lhe lnformaLlon wlll noL be llable, unless he
has ordered lnduced Lhe offlcer Lo hold and noL release Lhe
prlsoner afLer Lhe explraLlon of sald perlod. (Sayo v Chlef of
ollce of Manlla)
keason:
1o prevenL any abuse resulLlng from conflnlng a person
wlLhouL lnformlng hlm of hls offense and wlLhouL permlLLlng
hlm Lo go on ball. (Laurel v Mlsa)
____________________
AkAGkAn 2: kIG1nS CI 1nL ACCUSLD

I. k|ghts of a person deta|ned
1. Pe shall be lnformed of Lhe cause of hls deLenLlon
2. Pe shall be allowed, upon hls requesL, Lo communlcaLe and
confer aL anyLlme wlLh hls aLLorney or counsel

II. ub||c off|cer or emp|oyee |s ||ab|e for prevent|ng the exerc|se of
the r|ght of attorneys to v|s|t and confer w|th persons arrested
(k.A. No. 8S7)

kLU8LIC AC1 NC. 9372

I. 1|me of de||very of deta|ned persons prescr|bed |n Art|c|e 12S
does not app|y to suspected terror|sts who are deta|ned
A suspecLed LerrorlsL deLalned shall be dellvered Lo Lhe
proper [udlclal auLhorlLy wlLhln a perlod of 3 days from Lhe
momenL Lhe sald charge or suspecLed person has been
apprehended or arresLed.

II. A [udge must be not|f|ed before a suspected terror|st |s deta|ned
1he [udge musL ascerLaln Lhe ldenLlLles of Lhe arresLed and
Lhe arresLlng offlcers, as well as Lhe reasons behlnd Lhe
apprehenslon.
1he [udge musL submlL a wrlLLen reporL wlLhln 3 days from
Lhe Llme Lhe suspecL was broughL Lo hls/her offlce or
resldence.

III. er|od of Detent|on |n the event of an actua| or |mm|nent
terror|st attack
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
SuspecLs may noL be deLalned for more Lhan 3 days wlLhouL
Lhe wrlLLen approval of a munlclpal, clLy, provlnclal or
reglonal offlce of a Puman 8lghLs Commlsslon or [udge of Lhe
munlclpal, reglonal Lrlal courL, Lhe Sandlganbayan or a
!usLlce of Lhe CourL of Appeals nearesL Lhe place of arresL.


Art|c|e 126 - De|ay|ng ke|ease
1he pena|t|es prov|ded |n Art|c|e 124 sha|| be |mposed upon any
pub||c off|cer or emp|oyee who de|ays for the per|od of t|me
spec|f|ed there|n the performance of any [ud|c|a| or execut|ve order
for the re|ease of a pr|soner or detent|on pr|soner, or undu|y de|ays
the serv|ce of the not|ce of such order to sa|d pr|soner or the
proceed|ngs upon any pet|t|on for the ||berat|on of such persons.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e
1. 8y delaylng Lhe performance of a [udlclal or execuLlve order
for Lhe release of a prlsoner
2. 8y unduly delaylng Lhe servlce of Lhe noLlce of such order Lo
sald prlsoner
3. 8y unduly delaylng Lhe proceedlngs upon any peLlLlon for Lhe
llberaLlon of such person

II. L|ements: (IG)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or employee
2. 1haL Lhere ls a [udlclal or execuLlve order for Lhe release of a
prlsoner or deLenLlon prlsoner, or LhaL Lhere ls a proceedlng
upon a peLlLlon for Lhe llberaLlon of such person
3. 1haL Lhe offender wlLhouL good reason delays:
a. 1he servlce of Lhe noLlce of such order Lo Lhe
prlsoner
b. 1he performance of such [udlclal or execuLlve order
for Lhe release of Lhe prlsoner
c. 1he proceedlngs upon peLlLlon for Lhe release of
such person.

III. Cffender |s a pub||c off|cer
Wardens and [allers are Lhe publlc offlcers mosL llkely Lo
vlolaLe Art|c|e 126 as Lhey are Lhe ones Lemporarlly charged
of Lhe cusLody of prlsoners or deLalned persons.

Art|c|e 127 - Lxpu|s|on
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| sha|| be |mposed upon any
pub||c off|cer or emp|oyee who, not be|ng thereunto author|zed by
|aw, sha|| expe| any person from the h|||pp|ne Is|ands or sha||
compe| such person to change h|s res|dence.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e
1. 8y expelllng a person from Lhe hlllpplnes
2. 8y compelllng a person Loo change hls resldence

II. L|ements: (LN)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or employee
2. 1haL he expels any person from Lhe hlllpplnes, or compels a
person Lo change hls resldence
3. 1haL Lhe offender ls noL auLhorlzed Lo do so by law

III. "Not be|ng thereunto author|zed by |aw"
Cnly Lhe courL by a flnal [udgmenL can order a person Lo
change hls resldence. 1hls ls lllusLraLed ln e[ecLmenL
proceedlngs, exproprlaLlon proceedlngs and ln Lhe penalLy of
desLlerro.
vlllavlcenclo, eL al. v. Lukban ! 1he mayor cannoL force Lhe
prosLlLuLes resldlng ln hls ClLy Lo go and llve ln uavao.

Sect|on 2 - V|o|at|on of Dom|c||e

Art|c|e 128 - V|o|at|on of dom|c||e
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |t m|n|mum per|od sha|| be
|mposed upon any pub||c off|cer or emp|oyee who, not be|ng
author|zed by [ud|c|a| order, sha|| enter any dwe|||ng aga|nst the
w||| of the owner thereof, search papers or other effects found
there|n w|thout the prev|ous consent of such owner, or, hav|ng
surrept|t|ous|y entered sa|d dwe|||ng, and be|ng requ|red to |eave
the prem|ses, sha|| refuse to do so.

If the offense be comm|tted |n the n|ghtt|me, or |f any papers or
effects not const|tut|ng ev|dence of a cr|me be not returned
|mmed|ate|y after the search made by the offender, the pena|ty
sha|| be pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and max|mum per|ods.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e
1. 8y enLerlng any dwelllng agalnsL Lhe wlll of Lhe owner
Lhereof
2. 8y searchlng papers or oLher effecLs found Lhereln wlLhouL
Lhe prevlous consenL of such owner
3. 8y refuslng Lo leave Lhe premlses, afLer havlng
surrepLlLlously enLered sald dwelllng and afLer havlng been
requlred Lo leave Lhe same.

II. L|ements common to the 3 acts (N-LSk)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or employee
2. 1haL he ls noL auLhorlzed Lo:
a. LnLer any dwelllng agalnsL Lhe wlll of Lhe owner
Lhereof,
b. Search papers or oLher effecLs found Lhereln wlLhouL
Lhe prevlous consenL of such owner,
c. 8efuse Lo leave Lhe premlses, afLer havlng
surrepLlLlously enLered sald dwelllng and afLer
havlng been requlred Lo leave Lhe same

III. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Cffender |s a pub||c off|cer
Cffender musL be a publlc offlcer. lf lL ls a prlvaLe person, Lhe
crlme commlLLed ls Lrespass Lo dwelllng

IV. SLCCND kLUISI1L: ne |s not author|zed
A publlc offlcer or employee ls auLhorlzed by [udlclal order
when he ls armed wlLh a search warranL duly lssued by Lhe
courL.

A. Lnter|ng any dwe|||ng aga|nst the w||| of the owner
AgalnsL Lhe wlll of Lhe owner presupposes opposlLlon or
prohlblLlon by sald owner, wheLher express or lmplled.
AgalnsL Lhe wlll ls noL Lhe same as wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe
owner.
lf refused admlLLance afLer announclng hls auLhorlLy and
purpose, Lhe offlcer has Lhe rlghL Lo break lnLo bulldlng or
enclosure Lo make an arresL by vlrLue of a warranL or
wlLhouL a warranL as provlded ln Sect|on S (Sec. 11, ku|e
113, kev|sed ku|es of Cr|m|na| rocedure)
8uL Lhe mere facL LhaL on ls suspecLed of havlng unlawful
possesslon of oplum, ls no excuse for enLry lnLo Lhe house by
a peace offlcer for Lhe purpose of search agalnsL Lhe wlll of
lLs owner and wlLhouL search warranL. (u.S. v ue los 8eyes)

8. Search|ng papers or other effects found there|n w|thout prev|ous
consent of such owner
1he rlghL Lo be secure from unreasonable search may llke
every rlghL be walved and such walver may be made
expressly or lmplledly. Sllence of Lhe owner of Lhe dwelllng
before or durlng Lhe search may show lmplled walver.
apers or oLher effecLs under Art|c|e 128 wlLhouL search
warranL and such person ls noL legally arresLed, musL be
found ln Lhe dwelllng, noL ouLslde. ln such case, Lhe crlme
commlLLed by Lhe publlc offlcer ls grave coerclon, lf vlolence
or lnLlmldaLlon ls used, or un[usL vexaLlon lf Lhere ls no
vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon.
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE

C. 8y refus|ng to |eave the prem|ses
Pavlng surrepLlLlously enLered sald dwelllng ls an lnsLance
where a publlc offlcer or employee may commlL vlolaLlon of
domlclle even lf Lhe enLrance ls only wlLhouL Lhe consenL of
lLs owner. WhaL consLlLuLes Lhe crlme ls Lhe refusal of Lhe
offender Lo leave Lhe premlses when requlred Lo do so, noL
Lhe enLrance.

V. ua||fy|ng c|rcumstances:
1. nlghLLlme
2. lf any papers or effecLs noL consLlLuLlng evldence of a crlme
are noL reLurned lmmedlaLely afLer Lhe search made by Lhe
offender.

Art|c|e 129 - Search warrants ma||c|ous|y obta|ned, and abuse |n
the serv|ce of those |ega||y obta|ned
In add|t|on to the ||ab|||ty attach|ng to the offender for the
comm|ss|on of any other offense, the pena|ty of arresto mayor |n
|ts max|mum per|od to pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od
and a f|ne not exceed|ng 1,000 pesos sha|| be |mposed upon any
pub|c| off|cer or emp|oyee who sha|| procure a search warrant
w|thout [ust cause, or, hav|ng |ega||y procured the same, sha||
exceed h|s author|ty or use unncessary sever|ty |n execut|ng the
same.

CIN1S
I. Acts pun|shab|e w|th e|ements: (W-L)
1. 8y procurlng a search warranL wlLhouL [usL cause.
L|ements (SN)
a. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or employee
b. 1haL he procures a search warranL
c. 1here ls no [usL cause
2. 8y exceedlng hls auLhorlLy or by uslng unnecessary severlLy
ln execuLlng a search arranL legally procured
L|ements (SL)
a. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or employee
b. 1haL he has legally procured a search warranL
c. 1haL he exceeds hls auLhorlLy or uses unnecessary
severlLy ln execuLlng Lhe same.

II. Search Warrant
A. Def|n|t|on
,'%")- .%""%/0 ! an order ln wrlLlng lssued ln Lhe name of
Lhe eople of Lhe hlllpplnes, slgned by a [udge and dlrecLed
Lo a peace offlcer commandlng hlm Lo search for personal
properLy descrlbed Lhereln and brlng lL before Lhe courL.

8. ersona| property to be se|zed
1. Sub[ecL of Lhe offense
2. SLolen or embezzled and oLher proceeds or frulLs of Lhe
offense
3. used or lnLended Lo be used as Lhe means of commlLLlng an
offense

C. kequ|s|tes for |ssu|ng search warrant
1. robable Cause
o 8easons supporLed by facLs and clrcumsLances, as
wlll warranL a cauLlous man ln Lhe bellef LhaL hls
acLlon, and Lhe means Laken ln prosecuLlng lL, are
legally [usL and proper.
o 1he Lrue LesL of lack of [usL cause wheLher Lhe
affldavlL flled ln supporL of Lhe appllcaLlon for search
warranL has been drawn ln such a manner LhaL
per[ury could be charged Lhereon and afflanL be held
llable for damages.
2. lor a speclflc offense
3. ueLermlned personally by Lhe [udge
4. 1hrough examlnaLlon under oaLh or afflrmaLlon of Lhe
complalnanL and Lhe wlLnesses as Lo Lhelr personal
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
knowledge
3. arLlcularly descrlblng Lhe place Lo be searched, lLems Lo be
selzed, or person Lo be arresLed.
o Selzlng oLher properLy havlng no remoLe or no
connecLlon Lo Lhe lLems speclfled ln Lhe search
warranL shall consLlLuLe exceedlng auLhorlLy ln
execuLlng a search warranL.

D. Lxcept|ons to the requ|rement of a search warrant
1. Search lncldenLal Lo an arresL
2. Search of movlng vehlcles
3. Selzure of evldence ln plaln vlew
4. CusLoms searches
3. Where Lhere ls a walver of Lhe rlghL
8are excepLlons are Lhe rules on:
6. LxlgenL clrcumsLances
7. SLop and frlsk

L. Cther Notes
Searches shall be made ln Lhe presence of Lhe lawful
occupanL Lhereof or any member of hls famlly or ln Lhe
absence of Lhe laLLer, ln Lhe presence of Lwo wlLnesses of
sufflclenL age and dlscreLlon resldlng ln Lhe same locallLy.
A deLalled recelpL for Lhe properLy selzed musL be glven Lo
such persons.
A search warranL shall be valld for Len (10) days from lLs
daLe.
er[ury shall be LreaLed as a separaLe offense ln vlew of Lhe
phrase ln addlLlon Lo Lhe llablllLy aLLachlng Lo Lhe offender
for Lhe commlsslon of any oLher offense. 1hey cannoL form a
complex crlme.

III. Lxceed|ng author|ty or us|ng unnecessary sever|ty |n execut|ng
A. Lxceed|ng author|ty |n execut|ng search warrant
uy kheyLln, eL al. v. vlllareal, eL al. ! selzure of books,
personal leLLers, and oLher properLy when Lhe warranL ls for
oplum, even lf Lhe offlcer belleved LhaL Lhey had some
relaLlon wlLh oplum.
Magoncla v. alaclo ! 8uL possesslon of conLraband arLlcles,
llke flrearm wlLhouL llcense, ls a flagranLe vlolaLlon of Lhe law
and Lhe conLraband can be selzed wlLhouL a wrlL.

8. Us|ng unnecessary sever|ty |n execut|ng search warrant
lf ln searchlng a house, Lhe publlc offlcer desLroys furnlLure
Lhereln wlLhouL any [usLlflcaLlon aL all, he ls gullLy under
Art|c|e 129, as havlng used unnecessary severlLy ln execuLlng
Lhe search warranL.

Art|c|e 130 - Search|ng dom|c||e w|thout w|tnesses
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor |n |ts med|um and max|mum per|ods
sha|| be |mposed upon a pub||c off|cer or emp|oyee who, |n cases
where a search |s proper, sha|| search the dom|c||e, papers, or
other be|ong|ngs of any person, |n the absence of the |atter, any
member of h|s fam||y, or |n the|r defau|t, w|thout the presence of
two w|tnesses res|d|ng |n the same |oca||ty.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (SSN)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or employee
2. 1haL he ls armed wlLh search warranL legally procured
3. 1haL he searches Lhe domlclle, papers or oLher belonglngs of
any person.
4. 1haL Lhe owner, or any member of hls famlly, or Lwo
wlLnesses resldlng ln Lhe same locallLy are noL presenL

II. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Search warrant |ega||y procured
ln cases where a search ls proper"
V|o|at|on of Dom|c||e
(Art|c|e 128)
Search|ng dom|c||e w|thout w|tnesses
(Art|c|e 130)
ubllc offlcer has no 1he publlc offlcer has a search warranL
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


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auLhorlLy Lo make a search

III. 1nIkD kLUIS1L: Searches
Search means Lo go over or look Lhrough for Lhe purpose of
flndlng someLhlng, Lo examlne.
As Lhe crlme deflned ln Art|c|e 130, Lhe papers or oLher
belonglngs musL be ln Lhe dwelllng of Lhelr owner aL Lhe
Llme Lhe search ls made. Art|c|e 130 does noL apply Lo
searches of vehlcles or oLher means of LransporLaLlon.
Searches wlLhouL warranL under Lhe 1ar|ff and Customs
Code does noL lnclude a dwelllng house

Sect|on 3 - roh|b|t|on, |nterrupt|on and d|sso|ut|on of peacefu|
meet|ngs

Art|c|e 131 - roh|b|t|on, |nterrupt|on, and d|sso|ut|on of peacefu|
meet|ngs
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od sha|| be
|mposed upon any pub||c off|cer or emp|oyee who, w|thout |ega|
ground, sha|| proh|b|t or |nterrupt the ho|d|ng of a peacefu|
meet|ng, or sha|| d|sso|ve the same.

1he same pena|ty sha|| be |mposed upon any pub||c off|cer or
emp|oyee who sha|| h|nder any person from [o|n|ng any |awfu|
assoc|at|on or from attend|ng any of |ts meet|ngs.

1he same pena|ty sha|| be |mposed upon any pub||c off|cer or
emp|oyee who sha|| proh|b|t or h|nder any person from address|ng,
e|ther a|one or together w|th others, any pet|t|on to the author|t|es
for the correct|on of abuses or redress of gr|evances.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (n)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or employee
2. 1haL he performs any of Lhe followlng acLs:
a. rohlblLlng or lnLerrupLlng, wlLhouL legal ground, Lhe
holdlng of a peaceful meeLlng, or by dlssolvlng Lhe
same.
b. Plnderlng any person from [olnlng any lawful
assoclaLlon or from aLLendlng any of lLs meeLlng
c. rohlblLlng or hlnderlng any person from addresslng,
elLher alone or LogeLher wlLh oLhers, any peLlLlon Lo
Lhe auLhorlLles for Lhe correcLlon of abuses or
redress of grlevances.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Cffender |s a pub||c off|c|a|
A prlvaLe lndlvldual cannoL commlL Lhls crlme.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: erforms any of the fo||ow|ng acts
8lghL Lo peaceful meeLlngs ls noL absoluLe as lL may be
regulaLed Lo promoLe good order or safeLy and general
welfare of Lhe people.
When Lhe meeLlng Lo be held ls noL peaceful, Lhere ls legal
ground for prohlblLlng lL.
uenlal of a peLlLlon ls noL a vlolaLlon of Lhls arLlcle because
as menLloned, Lhe rlghL Lo peaceably assemble may be
regulaLed so LhaL lL shall noL be ln[urlous Lo Lhe equal
en[oymenL of oLhers havlng equal rlghLs nor ln[urlous Lo Lhe
rlghLs of Lhe communlLy or socleLy.
1here ls no legal ground Lo prohlblL Lhe holdlng of a meeLlng
when Lhe danger apprehended ls noL lmmlnenL and Lhe evll
Lo be prevenLed ls noL a serlous one.
1he offender musL be a sLranger, noL a parLlclpanL ln Lhe
peaceful meeLlng.
1he person Lalklng on prohlblLed sub[ecL aL publlc meeLlng
conLrary Lo agreemenL LhaL no speaker should Louch on
pollLlcs maybe sLopped.
8u1 sLopplng a speaker who was aLLacklng cerLaln churches
ln publlc meeLlng ls a vlolaLlon of Art|c|e 131.

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Sect|on 4 - Cr|mes Aga|nst ke||g|ous Worsh|p

Art|c|e 132 - Interrupt|on of re||g|ous worsh|p.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od sha|| be
|mposed upon any pub||c off|cer or emp|oyee who sha|| prevent or
d|sturb the ceremon|es or man|festat|ons of any re||g|on.

If the cr|me sha|| have been comm|tted w|th v|o|ence, the pena|ty
sha|| be pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and max|mum per|ods.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (k)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or employee
2. 1haL rellglous ceremonles or manlfesLaLlons of any rellglon
are abouL Lo Lake place or are golng on.
3. 1haL Lhe offender prevenLs or dlsLurbs Lhe same

II. ua||fy|ng c|rcumstance:
1. resence of vlolence or
2. 1hreaLs

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: ke||g|ous ceremony ongo|ng
1he rellglous worshlp should be a ceremony or manlfesLaLlon
of a rellglon, noL merely a meeLlng of a rellglous secL.
ersons who meeL for Lhe purpose of rellglous worshlp, by
any meLhod whlch ls noL lndecenL and unlawful, have a rlghL
Lo do so wlLhouL belng molesLed or dlsLurbed.

Art|c|e 133 - Cffend|ng the re||g|ous fee||ngs
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor |n |ts max|um per|od to pr|s|on
correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od sha|| be |mposed upon anyone
who, |n a p|ace devoted to re||g|ous worsh|p or dur|ng the
ce|ebrat|on of any re||g|ous ceremony, sha|| perform acts
notor|ous|y offens|ve to the fee||ngs of the fa|thfu|.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (2DC)
1. 1haL Lhe acLs complalned of were performed -
a. ln a place devoLed Lo rellglous worshlp, or
b. uurlng Lhe celebraLlon of any rellglous ceremony
2. 1haL Lhe acLs musL be noLorlously offenslve Lo Lhe feellngs of
Lhe falLhful.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: |ace devoted to or dur|ng ce|ebrat|on of
re||g|ous worsh|p
1he place musL be devoLed Lo rellglous worshlp alLhough lL ls
noL necessary LhaL Lhere ls a rellglous ceremony golng on.
1'&232#*+ )'"'4#/2'+ ! are Lhose rellglous acLs performed
ouLslde of a church, such as processlons and speclal prayers
for burylng Lhe dead.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Acts notor|ous|y offens|ve to fee||ngs
AcLs noLorlously offenslve Lo Lhe feellngs of Lhe falLhful musL
be dlrecLed agalnsL rellglous pracLlce or dogma or rlLual for
Lhe purpose of rldlcule.
1here musL be dellberaLe lnLenL Lo hurL Lhe feellngs of Lhe
falLhful.
A cemeLery ls noL a place devoLed Lo rellglous worshlp,
alLhough a rellglous ceremony may be conducLed ln such.
Cffense Lo feellngs ls [udged from complalnanL's polnL of
vlew, noL from LhaL of Lhe offender.

IV. Art|c|e 133 v. Art|c|e 287
Cffend|ng re||g|ous fee||ngs
(Art|c|e 133)
Un[ust Vexat|on
(Art|c|e 287)
lace ls maLerlal
(1he offense be commlLLed ln a
place devoLed Lo rellglous
worshlp or durlng Lhe
celebraLlon of any rellglous
lace ls lmmaLerlal
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ceremony)
noLorlously offenslve Lo Lhe
feellngs of Lhe falLhful
A klnd of coerclon shorL of belng
noLorlously offenslve
eople v. 8eyes ! 1he consLrucLlon of a fence ln fronL of Lhe
chapel, even Lhough lrrlLaLlng and vexaLlous Lo Lhose presenL
ln Lhe pabasa" ls noL noLorlously offenslve Lo Lhe feellngs
of Lhe falLhful"
eople v. nanoy ! 1he acL of Lhe accused ln aLLempLlng Lo
grab Lhe song leader who ran away from hlm, and Lhus Lhe
resL of Lhe congregaLlon also ran ouL of Lhe church resulLlng
ln Lhe dlsconLlnuance of Lhe servlce ls only un[usL vexaLlon.
eople v. 8aes ! Lhe acL of causlng Lhe funeral member of
Church of ChrlsL", belng held ln accordance wlLh Lhe rlLes of
LhaL secL, Lo pass Lhrough Lhe churchyard fronLlng Lhe parlsh
church over opposlLlon of Lhe CaLhollc prlesL ls offendlng
rellglous feellngs.
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1I1LL III: CkIMLS AGAINS1 U8LIC CkDLk

Chapter 1: kebe|||on, Coup d'etat, Sed|t|on and D|s|oya|ty

Art|c|e 134 - kebe|||on or |nsurrect|on
1he cr|me of rebe|||on or |nsurrect|on |s comm|tted by r|s|ng
pub||c|y and tak|ng arms aga|nst the Government for the purpose
of remov|ng from the a||eg|ance to sa|d Government or |ts |aws, the
terr|tory of the h|||pp|ne Is|ands or any part thereof, of any body
of |and, nava| or other armed forces, depr|v|ng the Ch|ef Lxecut|ve
or the Leg|s|ature, who||y or part|a||y, of any of the|r powers or
prerogat|ves. !"# %&'()') *+ ,-"- ./- 01023 %445/6') 789/*'5 :;-
<11=>

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (1-ktfD)
1. 1haL Lhere be (a) publlc uprlslng and (b) Laklng arms agalnsL
Lhe CovernmenL
2. 1haL Lhe purpose of Lhe uprlslng or movemenL ls elLher
a. 1o remove from Lhe alleglance Lo sald governmenL
or lLs laws
l. 1he LerrlLory of Lhe hlllpplnes or any parL
Lhereof, or
ll. Any body of land, naval or oLher armed
forces, or
b. 1o deprlve Lhe Chlef LxecuLlve or Congress, wholly or
parLlally of any of Lhelr powers or prerogaLlves

II. Genera| o|nts
A. kebe|||on v. Insurrect|on
1. !"#"$$%&' ! Cb[ecL of Lhe movemenL ls compleLely Lo
overLhrow and supersede Lhe governmenL.
o 8y lLs naLure a crlme of masses, of mulLlLude.
(eoplve v. Almazan)
o noL merely a challenge Lo auLhorlLles, buL also clvll
war on a blgger or lesser scale. (eople v.
Pernandez)
o 1he purpose of Lhe uprlslng musL be shown Lo
consLlLuLe rebelllon. (u.S. v. ConsLanLlno)
2. (')*++",-%&' ! a movemenL whlch seek merely Lo effecL
some change of mlnor lmporLance, or Lo prevenL Lhe
exerclse of governmenLal auLhorlLy wlLh respecL Lo parLlcular
maLLers or sub[ecLs.

8. Consummat|on
1he crlme of rebelllon ls compleLe Lhe very momenL a group
of rebels rlse publlcly and Lake arms agalnsL Lhe
CovernmenL, for Lhe purpose of overLhrowlng Lhe same by
force. 8lslng publlcly and Laklng arms agalnsL Lhe
governmenL ls Lhe normaLlve elemenL of Lhe offense, whlle
Lhe lnLenL or purpose ls Lhe sub[ecLlve elemenL.

III. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: ub||c upr|s|ng AND tak|ng arms aga|nst
eople v. Almazan ! Lhere ls publlc uprlslng and Laklng arms
agalnsL Lhe governmenL when Lhey foughL Lhe ConsLabulary
soldlers. 8y proclalmlng Lhe hlllpplne lndependence, Lhey
removed Lhe locallLy under Lhelr conLrol from Lhe alleglance
Lo Lhe CovernmenL or lLs laws.
AcLual clash of arms wlLh Lhe forces of Lhe CovernmenL, noL
necessary Lo convlcL Lhe accused who ls ln consplracy wlLh
oLhers acLually Laklng arms agalnsL CovernmenL.
o 1hose acLlng as courlers or sples for Lhe rebels are
also gullLy of rebelllon.

IV. SLCCND kLUISI1L: 1he purpose
uS v. ConsLanLlno, eL al. ! 40 men enLered Lhe Lown and
kldnapped Lhe munlclpal presldenLs, secreLary and oLhers
wlLhouL evldence Lo lndlcaLe Lhe moLlve or purpose. 1he
crlme commlLLed ls kldnapplng.

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V. D|st|ngu|shed from other cr|mes
A. 1reason and kebe|||on
1reason kebe|||on (Art|c|e 134)
Levylng of war ls for Lhe purpose
of aldlng Lhe forelgn enemy
Levylng war for any of Lhe
purposes ln Art|c|e 134
CommlLLed durlng warLlme CommlLLed durlng peaceLlme
May be commlLLed by mere
adherence coupled wlLh glvlng
ald or comforL Lo Lhe enemy
Always lnvolves Laklng up arms
agalnsL Lhe governmenL
Clvlng ald or comforL ls a
crlmlnal acL
Clvlng ald or comforL Lo rebels ls
noL a crlmlnal acL

8. Subvers|on and kebe|||on
Subvers|on kebe|||on
Crlme agalnsL naLlonal securlLy Crlme agalnsL publlc order
CommlLLed durlng Llme of war CommlLLed durlng Llme of peace

VI. kebe|||on or Insurrect|on, when cons|dered 1error|sm
k.A. No. 9372 (Puman 8lghLs SecurlLy AcL of 2007) punlshes
as Lerrorlsm when rebelllon or lnsurrecLlon ls commlLLed
Lhereby sowlng and creaLlng a condlLlon of wldespread and
exLraordlnary fear and panlc among Lhe populace ln order Lo
coerce Lhe governmenL Lo glve ln Lo an unlawful demand.

kLU8LIC AC1 NC. 9372
nUMAN SLCUkI1 AC1 CI 2007
AkCVLD CN MAkCn 6, 2007

I. Acts un|shab|e as 1error|sm under k.A. No. 9372
1. Art|c|e 122 (lracy ln general and MuLlny ln Lhe Plgh Seas or
ln Lhe hlllpplne WaLers)
2. Art|c|e 134 (8ebelllon of lnsurrecLlon)
3. Art|c|e 134-A (Coup d'LLaL)
4. Art|c|e 248 (Murder)
3. Art|c|e 267 (kldnapplng and Serlous lllegal ueLenLlon)
6. Art|c|e 324 (Crlmes lnvolvlng uesLrucLlon)
a. .D. No. 1613 (1he Law on Arson)
b. k.A. No. 6969 (1oxlc SubsLances and Pazardous and
nuclear WasLe ConLrol AcL of 1990)
c. k.A. No. S207 (ALomlc Lnergy 8egulaLory and
LlablllLy AcL of 1968)
d. k.A. No. 623S (AnLl-Pl[acklng Law)
e. .D. No. S32 (AnLl-lracy and Plghway 8obbery Law
of 1974)
f. .D. No. 1866 as amended (uecree Codlfylng Lhe
laws on lllegal and unlawful ossesslon,
manufacLure, ueallng ln, AcqulslLlon or ulsposlLlon
of llrearms AmmunlLlons or Lxploslves)


Art|c|e 134-A - Coup d'etat, now comm|tted
1he cr|me of coup d'etat |s a sw|ft attack accompan|ed by v|o|ence,
|nt|m|dat|on, threat, strategy or stea|th, d|rected aga|nst du|y
const|tuted author|t|es of the kepub||c of the h|||pp|nes, or any
m|||tary camp or |nsta||at|on, commun|cat|ons network, pub||c
ut|||t|es or other fac|||t|es needed for the exerc|se and cont|nued
possess|on of power, s|ng|y or s|mu|taneous|y carr|ed out
anywhere |n the h|||pp|nes by any person or persons, be|ong|ng to
the m|||tary or po||ce or ho|d|ng any pub||c off|ce of emp|oyment
w|th or w|thout c|v|||an support or part|c|pat|on for the purpose of
se|z|ng or d|m|n|sh|ng state power. !"# %&'()') *+ ,-"- ./- 0102>

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (MSDD)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a person or persons belonglng Lo Lhe
mlllLary or pollce or holdlng any publlc offlce or
employmenL,
2. 1haL lL ls commlLLed by means of a swlfL aLLack accompanled
by vlolence, lnLlmldaLlon, LhreaL, sLraLegy, or sLealLh,
3. 1haL Lhe aLLack ls dlrecLed agalnsL duly consLlLuLed
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
auLhorlLles of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes, or any mlllLary
camp or lnsLallaLlon, communlcaLlon neLworks, publlc
uLlllLles or oLher faclllLles needed for Lhe exerclse and
conLlnued possesslon of power,
4. 1haL Lhe purpose of Lhe aLLack ls Lo selze or dlmlnlsh sLaLe
power.

II. Coup d'etat when pun|shed as 1error|sm
k.A. No. 9372 (Puman 8lghLs SecurlLy AcL of 2007) punlshes
as Lerrorlsm when Coup d'eLaL ls commlLLed Lhereby sowlng
and creaLlng a condlLlon of wldespread and exLraordlnary
fear and panlc among Lhe populace ln order Lo coerce Lhe
governmenL Lo glve ln Lo an unlawful demand.

III. Cther o|nts
Coup d'eLaL can be commlLLed wlLh or wlLhouL clvlllan
parLlclpaLlon

Art|c|e 13S - ena|ty for rebe|||on, |nsurrect|on or coup d'etat
Any person who promotes, ma|nta|ns, or heads rebe|||on or
|nsurrect|on sha|| suffer the pena|ty of rec|us|on perpetua.

Any person mere|y part|c|pat|ng or execut|ng the commands of
others |n a rebe|||on sha|| suffer the pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora|.

Any person who |eads or |n any manner d|rects or commands
others to undertake a coup d'etat sha|| suffer the pena|ty of
rec|us|on perpetua.

Any person |n the government serv|ce who part|c|pates, or
executes d|rect|ons or commands of others |n undertak|ng a coup
d'etat sha|| suffer the pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor |n |ts max|mum
per|od.

Any person not |n the government serv|ce who part|c|pates, or |n
any manner supports, f|nances, abets or a|ds |n undertak|ng a coup
d'etat sha|| suffer the pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora| |n |ts max|mum
per|od.

When the rebe|||on, |nsurrect|on, or coup d'etat sha|| be under the
command of unknown |eaders, any person who |n fact d|rected the
others, spoke for them, s|gned rece|pts and other documents
|ssued |n the|r name, as performed s|m||ar acts, on beha|f or the
rebe|s sha|| be deemed a |eader of such a rebe|||on, |nsurrect|on, or
coup d'etat.

CIN1S
I. Who are ||ab|e
1. 1he leaders
a. Any person who (a) promoLes, (b) malnLalns, or (c)
heads a rebelllon or lnsurrecLlon, or
b. Any person who (a) leads, (b) dlrecLs, or (c)
commands oLhers Lo underLake a coup d'eLaL.
2. 1he parLlclpanLs
a. Any person who (a) parLlclpaLes, or (b) execuLes Lhe
commands of oLhers ln rebelllon, or lnsurrecLlon,
b. Any person ln Lhe governmenL servlce who (a)
parLlclpaLes, or (b) execuLes dlrecLlons or commands
of oLhers ln underLaklng a coup d'eLaL.
c. Any person noL ln Lhe governmenL servlce who (a)
parLlclpaLes, (b) supporLs, (c) flnances, (d) abeLs, or
(e) alds ln Lhe underLaklng a coup d'eLaL.

II. ku|es regard|ng attachment to the cr|me
1. ubllc offlcer musL Lake acLlve parL Lo be llable, omlsslon ls
noL punlshable ln rebelllon. (u.S. v. 8adlvas)
2. lf Lhe leader ls unknown, Lhose who ln facL dlrecLed Lhe
oLhers, spoke for Lhem, slgned recelpLs and oLher documenLs
lssued ln Lhelr name, or performed slmllar acLs on behalf of
Lhe rebels, shall be deemed as Lhe leader.
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3. Mere asslsLance Lo a prlnclpal ls only gullLy as a parLlclpanL ln
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme of rebelllon.
4. lnasmuch as Lhe acLs speclfled ln Art|c|e 13S consLlLuLe one
slngle crlme, lL follows necessarlly LhaL sald acLs offer no
occaslon for Lhe appllcaLlon of Art|c|e 48 whlch requlres
Lherefor Lhe commlsslon of, aL leasL, Lwo crlmes. (eople v.
Pernandez)
3. lf Lhe kllllng or robbery durlng Lhe rebelllon ls wlLhouL
pollLlcal moLlvaLlon lL shall be separaLely punlshed. (eople
v. Ceronlmo.)

III. o||t|ca| Cr|mes v. Common Cr|mes
o||t|ca| Cr|mes Common Cr|mes
ulrecLly almed agalnsL Lhe
pollLlcal order
May be commlLLed Lo achleve a
pollLlcal purpose
Note: lf common crlmes are perpeLraLed for Lhe purpose of coup
d'eLaL, Lhen sald offenses are sLrlpped of Lhelr common"
complexlon.

Art|c|e 136 - Consp|racy and proposa| to comm|t coup d'etat,
rebe|||on or |nsurrect|on
1he consp|racy and proposa| to comm|t coup d'etat sha|| be
pun|shed by pr|s|on mayor |n m|n|mum per|od and a f|ne wh|ch
sha|| not exceed e|ght thousand pesos (8,000.00).

1he consp|racy and proposa| to comm|t rebe|||on or |nsurrect|on
sha|| be pun|shed respect|ve|y, by pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts
max|mum per|od and a f|ne wh|ch sha|| not exceed f|ve thousand
pesos (S,000.00) and by pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um per|od
and a f|ne not exceed|ng two thousand pesos (2,000.00).

CIN1S
I. Cr|mes pun|shed
1. Consplracy Lo commlL rebelllon, and
2. roposal Lo commlL rebelllon.

II. Def|n|t|on:
.&')/%+0,1 -& ,&33%- +"#"$$%&' ! Lwo or more persons
come Lo an agreemenL Lo rlse publlcly and Lake arms agalnsL
Lhe CovernmenL for any of Lhe purposes of rebelllon and
declde Lo commlL lL.
4+&/&)0$ -& ,&33%- +"#"$$%&' ! person who has declded Lo
rlse publlcly and Lake arms agalnsL Lhe CovernmenL for any
of Lhe purposes of rebelllon proposes lLs execuLlon Lo some
oLher person or persons

III. Lxamp|es
A. Consp|racy present
uS v. vergara ! Crganlzlng a group of soldlers, sollclLlng
membershlp ln and sollclLlng funds from Lhe people for, Lhe
organlzaLlon show consplracy Lo overLhrow Lhe CovernmenL.

8. Consp|racy absent
eople v. 8auLlsLa ! 1he facL LhaL some of Lhe accused, llke
Lhe appellanLs, had made and deslgned flags for Lhe
SakdallsLa arLy does noL necessarlly show LhaL Lhey dld lL
wlLh Lhe lnLenLlon of [olnlng an uprlslng agalnsL Lhe
consLlLuLed governmenL.
eople v. Pernandez !1he mere facL of glvlng and renderlng
speeches favorlng Communlsm would noL make Lhe accused
gullLy of consplracy, because Lhere was no evldence LhaL Lhe
hearers of hls speeches of propaganda Lhen and Lhere
agreed Lo rlse up ln arms for Lhe purpose of obLalnlng Lhe
overLhrow of Lhe democraLlc governmenL as envlsaged by
Lhe prlnclples of Communlsm.

Art|c|e 137 - D|s|oya|ty of pub||c off|cers or emp|oyees
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od sha|| be
|mposed upon pub||c off|cers or emp|oyees who have fa||ed to
res|st a rebe|||on by a|| the means |n the|r power, or sha|| cont|nue
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
to d|scharge the dut|es of the|r off|ces under the contro| of the
rebe|s or sha|| accept appo|ntment to off|ce under them.

CIN1S
I. Act pun|shed: (ICA)
Cffender musL be a publlc offlcer or employee durlng Lhe exlsLence
of a rebelllon by oLher persons (connoLes LhaL Lhere musL be no
consplracy).
1. 8y falllng Lo reslsL a rebelllon by all Lhe means ln Lhelr power
2. 8y conLlnulng Lo dlscharge Lhe duLles of Lhelr offlces under
Lhe conLrol of Lhe rebels
3. 8y accepLlng appolnLmenL Lo offlce under Lhem.

Art|c|e 138 - Inc|t|ng a rebe|||on or |nsurrect|on
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor |n |ts m|n|mum per|od sha|| be
|mposed upon any person who, w|thout tak|ng arms or be|ng |n
open host|||ty aga|nst the Government, sha|| |nc|te others to the
execut|on of any of the acts spec|f|ed |n art|c|e 134 of th|s Code, by
means of speeches, proc|amat|ons, wr|t|ngs, emb|ems, banners or
other representat|ons tend|ng to the same end.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (NIM)
1. 1haL Lhe offender does noL Lake arms or ls noL ln open
hosLlllLy agalnsL Lhe governmenL,
2. 1haL he lnclLes oLhers Lo Lhe execuLlon of any of Lhe acLs of
rebelllon,
3. 1haL Lhe lnclLlng ls done by means of speeches,
proclamaLlons, wrlLlngs, emblems, banners or oLher
represenLaLlons Lendlng Lo Lhe same end.

II. Inc|t|ng to rebe|||on d|st|ngu|shed from proposa|
roposa| to Comm|t kebe|||on Inc|t|ng to Comm|t kebe|||on
Cffender lnduces anoLher Lo commlL rebelllon
1he person who proposes has lL ls noL requlred LhaL Lhe
declded Lo commlL rebelllon offender has declded Lo commlL
rebelllon
1he person who proposes Lhe
execuLlon of Lhe crlmes uses
secreL means
1he acL of lnclLlng ls done
publlcly
Note: 8ebelllon should noL be commlLLed by Lhe persons lL ls
proposed Lo or who are lnclLed. CLherwlse, Lhe person who lnclLed
Lhem shall be a prlnclpal by lnducemenL.

Art|c|e 139 - Sed|t|on, now comm|tted
1he cr|me of sed|t|on |s comm|tted by persons who r|se pub||c|y
and tumu|tuous|y |n order to atta|n by force, |nt|m|dat|on, or by
other means outs|de of |ega| methods, any of the fo||ow|ng ob[ects:
1. 1o prevent the promu|gat|on or execut|on of any |aw or the
ho|d|ng of any popu|ar e|ect|on,
2. 1o prevent the Nat|ona| Government, or any prov|nc|a| or
mun|c|pa| government or any pub||c off|cer thereof from
free|y exerc|s|ng |ts or h|s funct|ons, or prevent the
execut|on of any adm|n|strat|ve order,
3. 1o |nf||ct any act of hate or revenge upon the person or
property of any pub||c off|cer or emp|oyee,
4. 1o comm|t, for any po||t|ca| or soc|a| end, any act of hate or
revenge aga|nst pr|vate persons or any soc|a| c|ass, and
S. 1o despo||, for any po||t|ca| or soc|a| end, any person,
mun|c|pa||ty or prov|nce, or the Nat|ona| Government (or
the Government of the Un|ted States), of a|| |ts property or
any part thereof.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (LC)
1. 1haL Lhe offenders rlse:
a. ubllcly (lf no publlc uprlslng l.e. LumulL and oLher
dlsLurbance of publlc order)
b. !"#"$%"&"'$( *+,'-!-vls rebelllon where Lhere musL
be a Laklng of arms)
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
2. 1haL Lhey employ force, lnLlmldaLlon, or oLher means ouLslde
of legal meLhods,
3. 1haL Lhe offenders employ any of Lhose means Lo aLLaln any
of Lhe followlng ob[ecLs:
a. 1o prevenL Lhe promulgaLlon or execuLlon of any law
or Lhe holdlng of any popular elecLlon,
b. 1o prevenL Lhe naLlonal governmenL, or any
provlnclal or munlclpal governmenL, or any publlc
Lhereof from freely exerclslng lLs or hls funcLlons, or
prevenL Lhe execuLlon of any admlnlsLraLlve order,
c. 1o lnfllcL any acL or haLe or revenge upon Lhe person
or properLy of any publlc offlcer or employee,
d. 1o commlL for any pollLlcal or soclal end, any acL of
haLe or revenge agalnsL prlvaLe persons or any soclal
class (hence, even prlvaLe persons may be offended
parLles),
e. 1o despoll, for any pollLlcal or soclal end, any person,
munlclpallLy or provlnce, or Lhe naLlonal governmenL
of all lLs properLy or any parL Lhereof.

II. Sed|t|on
ln lLs general sense, ls Lhe ralslng of commoLlons or
dlsLurbances ln Lhe sLaLe. (eople v. Cabrera)
1he ulLlmaLe ob[ecL of sedlLlon ls a vlolaLlon of Lhe publlc
peace or aL leasL such a course of measures as evldenLly
engenders lL. (eople v. erez)
ubllc uprlslng and Lhe ob[ecL of sedlLlon musL concur.
Common crlmes are noL absorbed ln sedlLlon.

III. Cb[ects of Sed|t|on
A. revent|ng pub||c off|cers from free|y exerc|s|ng the|r funct|ons
eople v. 1ahll and 1arson ! Pavlng reslsLed Lhe [udlclal
warranL of arresL by means of force and Lhereby prevenLed
Lhe offlcers, charged wlLh Lhe duLy of arresLlng Lhem from
performlng lL, uaLu 1ahll and hls men commlLLed Lhe crlme
of sedlLlon.

8. Inf||ct|ng an act of hate or revenge upon pub||c off|cers
eople v. Cabrera, eL al. ! Lhe ob[ecL of Lhe uprlslng was Lo
lnfllcL an acL of haLe or revenge upon Lhe persons of Lhe
pollcemen who were publlc offlcers or employees.

C. "Aga|nst pr|vate persons or any soc|a| c|ass"
uS v. Lapus, eL al. ! 1he reason for Lhe uprlslng was LhaL Lhe
rlch people were loanlng money aL usurlous Lerms Lo Lhelr
farm laborers, and when Lhe laLLer were unable Lo pay Lhe
loan, Lhey compelled Lhelr chlldren Lo work for Lhem. 1he
assoclaLlon called SanLa lglesla" Lo whlch Lhe accused
belonged, was organlzed for Lhe purpose of performlng acLs
of haLred and vengeance agalnsL Lhe auLhorlLles and Lhe
wealLhy people ln Lhe Lown ln whlch were puL ln pracLlce
and execuLlon acLs Lendlng Lo such pollLlco-soclal ends.

IV. D|st|ngu|sh|ng Sed|t|on from other cr|mes
A. Sed|t|on v. kebe|||on
Sed|t|on kebe|||on
1here ls a publlc uprlslng
lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lhe publlc
uprlslng ls LumulLuous
1here ls Laklng up of arms
agalnsL Lhe governmenL
1he purpose of Lhe offenders
may be pollLlcal or soclal
1he purpose ls always pollLlcal
1he purpose ls merely Lo aLLaln
by force, lnLlmldaLlon, or by
oLher means ouLslde of legal
meLhods, one ob[ecL, Lo wlL, Lo
lnfllcL an acL of haLe or revenge
upon Lhe person or properLy of a
publlc offlclal.
1he purpose of Lhe uprlslng ls
exacLly agalnsL Lhe CovernmenL.
Common crlmes are noL
absorbed
Common crlmes may be
absorbed
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE

8. Sed|t|on v. 1reason
Sed|t|on 1reason
1he ralslng of
commoLlons or
dlsLurbances ln Lhe SLaLe
1he vlolaLlon by a sub[ecL of hls
alleglance Lo hls soverelgn or llege, lord,
or Lo Lhe supreme auLhorlLy of Lhe sLaLe

Art|c|e 140 - ena|ty for sed|t|on
1he |eader of a sed|t|on sha|| suffer the pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor |n
|ts m|n|mum per|od and a f|ne not exceed|ng 10,000 pesos.
Cther persons part|c|pat|ng there|n sha|| suffer the pena|ty of
pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts max|mum per|od and a f|ne not exceed|ng
S,000 pesos.

CIN1S
I. ersons ||ab|e for sed|t|on:
1. 1he leader of Lhe sedlLlon, and
2. CLher persons parLlclpaLlng ln Lhe sedlLlon.

Art|c|e 141 - Consp|racy to comm|t sed|t|on
ersons consp|r|ng to comm|t the cr|me of sed|t|on sha|| be
pun|shed by pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um per|od and a f|ne
not exceed|ng 2,000 pesos.

CIN1S
Note: Art|c|e 141 punlshes only consplracy Lo commlL sedlLlon.
Pence, proposal Lo commlL sedlLlon ls noL punlshable.

Art|c|e 142 - Inc|t|ng to sed|t|on
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts max|mum per|od and a
f|ne not exceed|ng 2,000 pesos sha|| be |mposed upon any person
who, w|thout tak|ng any d|rect part |n the cr|me of sed|t|on, shou|d
|nc|te others to the accomp||shment of any of the acts wh|ch
const|tute sed|t|on, by means of speeches, proc|amat|ons, wr|t|ngs,
emb|ems, cartoons, banners, or other representat|ons tend|ng to
the same end, or upon any person or persons who sha|| utter
sed|t|ous words or speeches, wr|te, pub||sh, or c|rcu|ate scurr||ous
||be|s aga|nst the Government (of the Un|ted States or the
Government of the Commonwea|th) of the h|||pp|nes, or any of
the du|y const|tuted author|t|es thereof, or wh|ch tend to d|sturb
or obstruct any |awfu| off|cer |n execut|ng the funct|ons of h|s
off|ce, or wh|ch tend to |nst|gate others to caba| and meet together
for un|awfu| purposes, or wh|ch suggest or |nc|te rebe|||ous
consp|rac|es or r|ots, or wh|ch |ead or tend to st|r up the peop|e
aga|nst the |awfu| author|t|es or to d|sturb the peace of the
commun|ty, the safety and order of the Government, or who sha||
know|ng|y concea| such ev|| pract|ces.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shed:
1. lnclLlng oLhers Lo Lhe accompllshmenL of any of Lhe acLs
whlch consLlLuLe sedlLlon by means of speeches,
proclamaLlons, wrlLlngs, emblems eLc.
2. uLLerlng sedlLlous words or speeches whlch Lend Lo dlsLurb
Lhe publlc peace
3. WrlLlng, publlshlng, or clrculaLlng scurrllous [vulgar, mean,
llbelous] llbels agalnsL Lhe governmenL or any of Lhe duly
consLlLuLed auLhorlLles Lhereof, whlch Lend Lo dlsLurb Lhe
publlc peace
4. knowlngly conceallng such evll pracLlces

II. Inc|t|ng to sed|t|on to accomp||sh any of |ts ob[ects
A. L|ements: (DIM)
1. 1haL Lhe offender does noL Lake a dlrecL parL ln Lhe crlme of
sedlLlon
2. 1haL he lnclLes oLhers Lo Lhe accompllshmenL of any of Lhe
acLs whlch consLlLuLe sedlLlon (Art|c|e 139)
3. 1haL Lhe lnclLlng ls done by means of speeches,
proclamaLlons, wrlLlng, emblems, carLoons, banners, or
oLher represenLaLlons Lendlng Lo Lhe same end (purpose:
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
cause commoLlon noL exacLly agalnsL Lhe governmenL, acLual
dlsLurbance noL necessary)

8. Cther o|nts
ulsLurbance or dlsorder, noL necessary ln lnclLlng Lo sedlLlon
1he use of words, emblems, eLc., noL performance of acL, ls
punlshed ln lnclLlng Lo sedlLlon.

III. Utter|ng sed|t|ous words or speeches
A. Genera| o|nts
1he reason why uLLerances are prohlblLed ls because Lhe
sLaLe cannoL walL unLll Lhe apprehended danger became
cerLaln, and Lhen lLs rlghL Lo proLecL lLself would come lnLo
belng slmulLaneously wlLh Lhe overLhrow of Lhe governmenL.
lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe words used should ln facL resulL
ln a rlslng of Lhe people. 1he law ls noL almed merely aL
acLual dlsLurbance, as lLs purpose ls also Lo punlsh
uLLerances whlch may endanger publlc order.
uLLerlng sedlLlons words
o eople v. erez ! llllplnos, llke myself, musL use
bolos for cuLLlng off Wood's head for havlng
recommended a bad Lhlng for Lhe llllplno, for he has
kllled our lndependence"
uLLerlng sedlLlons speech
o eople v. nabong ! 1hey commlLLed a real abuse
ln selzlng Lhe flag. 1he members of Lhe ConsLabulary
are bad because Lhey shooL even lnnocenL women,
as lL happened ln 1ayug. ln vlew of Lhls, we oughL Lo
be unlLed Lo suppress LhaL abuse. CverLhrow Lhe
presenL governmenL and esLabllsh our own
governmenL, Lhe governmenL of Lhe poor. use your
whlp so LhaL Lhere may be marks on Lhelr sldes.

8. When |s utter|ng sed|t|ous words or speeches pun|shab|e?
1. 1hey Lend Lo dlsLurb or obsLrucL any lawful offlcer ln
execuLlng Lhe funcLlons of hls offlce, or
2. 1hey Lend Lo lnsLlgaLe oLhers Lo cabal and meeL LogeLher for
unlawful purposes, or
3. 1hey suggesL or lnclLe rebelllous consplracles or rloLs, or
4. 1hey lead or Len Lo sLlr up Lhe people agalnsL Lhe lawful
auLhorlLles or Lo dlsLurb Lhe peace of Lhe communlLy, Lhe
safeLy and order of Lhe governmenL.
noLe: WhaL ls lmporLanL ls LhaL Lhe uLLerance may endanger
publlc order. (eople v. nabong)

C. ku|es re|at|ve to sed|t|ous words:
C|ear and present danger ru|e ! 8y uLLerlng Lhem Lhere ls
danger of publlc uprlslng and LhaL such danger should be
boLh clear and lmmlnenL. 1he danger musL noL only be
probable buL very llkely lnevlLable.
Dangerous tendency ru|e ! 1ends Lo creaLe a danger of
publlc uprlslng. 1he words uLLered or publlshed could easlly
produce dlsaffecLlon among Lhe people and a sLaLe of feellng
ln Lhem lncompaLlble wlLh a dlsposlLlon Lo remaln loyal Lo
Lhe CovernmenL and obedlenL Lo Lhe laws.

IV. Wr|t|ng, pub||sh|ng, or c|rcu|at|ng scurr||ous ||be|s aga|nst the
government or any of the du|y const|tuted author|t|es thereof
A. Scurr||ous ||be|
5,*++%$&*) ! low, vulgar, mean or foul.
WrlLlngs whlch Lend Lo overLhrow or undermlne Lhe securlLy
of Lhe governmenL or Lo weaken Lhe confldence of Lhe
people ln Lhe governmenL are agalnsL Lhe publlc peace, and
are crlmlnal noL only because Lhey Lend Lo lnclLe Lo a breach
of Lhe peace buL because Lhey are conduclve Lo Lhe
desLrucLlon of Lhe governmenL lLself.
Lspuelas v. eople ! A poslLloned hlmself deplcLlng LhaL he
was llfelessly hanglng ln a Lree wlLh a noLe LhaL reasoned hls
dlsconLenL wlLh Lhe 8oxas admlnlsLraLlon. 1he leLLer ls
scurrllous agalnsL Lhe governmenL as lL undermlnes lLs
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
securlLy or weakened Lhe confldence of Lhe people.
u.S. v. 1olenLlno !A LheaLrlcal play where Lhe words uLLered
or speeches dellvered where sedlLlous were punlshed.
eople v. Culmpo ! roposal Lo Lhrow grenades ln a publlc
place, lnLended Lo cause common commoLlon as an acL of
haLe agalnsL Lhe pollce force ls lnclLlng Lo sedlLlon.

V. know|ng|y concea||ng such ev|| pract|ces
normally Lhls ls noL punlshable buL under Lhls provlslon, Lhls
acL ls LreaLed and punlshed as LhaL of Lhe prlnclpal.

VI. Cther Notes
unlawful rumor-mongerlng and spreadlng false lnformaLlon
! ls commlLLed by any person who shall offer, publlsh,
dlsLrlbuLe, clrculaLe and spread rumors, false news, and
lnformaLlon and gosslp, or cause Lhe publlcaLlon,
dlsLrlbuLlon, clrculaLlon or spreadlng of Lhe same whlch
cause or Lend Lo cause panlc, dlvlslve effecL among Lhe
people.

Chapter 2: Cr|mes aga|nst popu|ar representat|on

Sect|on 1 - Cr|mes aga|nst |eg|s|at|ve bod|es and s|m||ar bod|es

Art|c|e 143 - Act tend|ng to prevent the meet|ng of the Assemb|y
and s|m||ar bod|es
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| or a f|ne rang|ng from 200 to
2,000 pesos, or both, sha|| be |mposed upon any person who, by
force or fraud, prevents the meet|ng of the Nat|ona| Assemb|y
(Congress of the h|||pp|nes) or of any of |ts comm|ttees or sub-
comm|ttees, const|tut|ona| comm|ss|ons or comm|ttees or d|v|s|ons
thereof, or of any prov|nc|a| board or c|ty or mun|c|pa| counc|| or
board.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (M)
1. 1haL Lhere be a pro[ecLed or acLual meeLlng of Congress or
any of lLs commlLLees or subcommlLLees, consLlLuLlonal
commlsslons or commlLLees or dlvlslon Lhereof, or of any
provlnclal board or clLy or munlclpal councll or board,
2. 1haL Lhe offender who may be any persons prevenLs such
meeLlng by force or fraud.

II. Lxamp|e:
eople v. AllplL, eL al. ! Any sLranger, even lf he be Lhe
munlclpal presldenL hlmself or Lhe chlef of Lhe munlclpal
pollce, musL respecL Lhe meeLlng of Lhe munlclpal councll
preslded over by Lhe vlce-presldenL and he has no rlghL Lo
dlssolve lL Lhrough vlolence under Lhe preLesL of lack of
noLlce Lo some members of Lhe councll, whlch was noL
apparenL, buL requlred an lnvesLlgaLlon before lL could be
deLermlned.

Art|c|e 144 - D|sturbance of proceed|ngs
1he pena|y of arresto mayor or a f|ne of 200 to 1,000 pesos sha|| be
|mposed upon any person who d|sturbs meet|ngs of the Nat|ona|
Assemb|y (Congress of the h|||pp|nes) or any of |ts comm|ttees or
subcomm|ttees, const|tut|ona| comm|ss|ons or comm|ttees or
d|v|s|on thereof, or |f any prov|nc|a| board or c|ty or mun|c|pa|
counc|| or board, or |n the presence of any such bod|es shou|d
behave |n such a manner as to |nterrupt |ts proceed|ngs or to
|mpa|r the respect due to |t.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (C-D8)
1. 1haL Lhere be a meeLlng of Congress or any of lLs
commlLLees, consLlLuLlonal commlsslons or commlLLees or
dlvlslons Lhereof, or of any provlnclal board or clLy or
munlclpal councll or board,
2. 1haL Lhe offender does any of Lhe followlng acLs:
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
a. Pe dlsLurbs any of such meeLlngs,
b. Pe behaves whlle ln Lhe presence of any such bodles
ln such a manner as Lo lnLerrupL lLs proceedlngs or Lo
lmpalr Lhe respecL due lL.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Meet|ng of the congress or mun|c|pa| counc||
eople v. Calera ! 1he mayor called a meeLlng. A heaLed
exchange of words among Lhe mayor, councllor and chlef of
pollce ensued, Lhe chlef of pollce ls gullLy of un[usL vexaLlon.
o LeglslaLlve body, provlnclal board, clLy or munlclpal
councll ls requlred for Lhls arLlcle Lo apply.

III. Cther Notes:
Art|c|e 144 ls noL among Lhose whlch may noL be prosecuLed
de oflclo. Pence, Lhe complalnL may be flled by a member of
Lhe leglslaLlve body.
lurLhermore, Lhe assembly may also punlsh a person by
conLempL.
o ConLempL ! Coerclve
o Crlme ! unlLlve

Sect|on 2 - V|o|at|on of par||amentary |mmun|ty

Art|c|e 14S - V|o|at|on of par||amentary |mmun|ty
1he pena|y of pr|s|on mayor sha|| be |mposed upon any person who
sha|| use force, |nt|m|dat|on, threats or fraud to prevent any
member of the Nat|ona| Assemb|y (Congress of the h|||pp|nes)
from attend|ng the meet|ngs of the Assemb|y (Congress) or of any
of |ts comm|ttees or subcomm|ttees, const|tut|ona| comm|ss|ons or
comm|ttees or d|v|s|ons thereof, from express|ng h|s op|n|ons or
cast|ng h|s vote, and the pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| sha|| be
|mposed upon any pub||c off|cer or emp|oyee who sha||, wh||e the
Assemb|y(Congress) |s |n regu|ar or spec|a| sess|on, arrest or sear
any member thereof, except |n case such member has comm|tted a
cr|me h|gher than pr|s|on mayor.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e:
1. 8y uslng force, lnLlmldaLlon, LhreaLs, or frauds Lo prevenL any
member of Congress from -
a. ALLendlng Lhe meeLlng of Lhe assembly or any of lLs
commlLLees, consLlLuLlonal commlsslons or
commlLLees or dlvlslons Lhereof, or from,
b. Lxpresslng hls oplnlons, or
c. CasLlng hls voLe.
2. 8y arresLlng or searchlng any member Lhereof whlle
Congress ls ln a regular or speclal sesslon, excepL ln case
such member has commlLLed a crlme punlshable under Lhe
code by a penalLy hlgher Lhan prlslon mayor ( 6 years up )

II. IIkS1 AC1 UNISnLD
A. L|ements (U-aec)
1. 1haL Lhe offender uses force, lnLlmldaLlon, LhreaLs or fraud
2. 1haL Lhe purpose of Lhe offender ls Lo prevenL any member
of Lhe naLlonal Assembly from
a. ALLendlng Lhe meeLlng of Lhe assembly or any of lLs
commlLLees, consLlLuLlonal commlsslons or
commlLLees or dlvlslons Lhereof, or from,
b. Lxpresslng hls oplnlons, or
c. CasLlng hls voLe.

8. Cffender ls any person

C. Cther notes
lL ls noL necessary LhaL a member of Lhe Congress be acLually
prevenLed. lL ls sufflclenL LhaL such ls Lhe purpose.

III. SLCCND AC1 UNISnLD
A. L|ements: (ASN)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or employee,
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
2. 1haL he arresLs or searches any member of Congress,
3. 1haL Congress, aL Lhe Llme of arresL or search, ls ln a regular
or speclal sesslon,
4. 1haL Lhe member searched has noL commlLLed a crlme
punlshable under Lhe code by a penalLy hlgher Lhan prlslon
mayor (1987 consLlLuLlon: prlvllege from arresL whlle
congress ln sesslon ln all offenses punlshable by noL more
Lhan 6 years lmprlsonmenL).

8. Cther Notes
arllamenLary lmmunlLy ! guaranLees Lhe leglslaLor
compleLe freedom of expresslon wlLhouL fear of belng made
responslble ln crlmlnal or clvll acLlons before Lhe courLs or
any oLher forum ouLslde of Lhe congresslonal hall. Powever,
lL does noL proLecL hlm from responslblllLy before Lhe
leglslaLlve body lLself.
lor unparllamenLary conducL, members of Lhe Congress
have been, or could be censured, commlLLed Lo prlson,
suspended, even expelled by Lhe voLes of Lhelr colleagues.
1o be conslsLed wlLh Lhe 1987 Const|tut|on, Lhe phrase by a
penalLy hlgher Lhan prlslon mayor" ln Art|c|e 14S should be
amended Lo read by Lhe penalLy of prlslon mayor or hlgher"

Chapter 3: I||ega| Assemb||es and Assoc|at|ons

Art|c|e 146 - I||ega| assemb||es
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts max|mum per|od to pr|s|on
mayor |n |ts med|um per|od sha|| be |mposed upon the organ|zers
or |eaders of any meet|ng attended by armed persons for the
purpose of comm|tt|ng any of the cr|mes pun|shab|e under th|s
Code, or of any meet|ng |n wh|ch the aud|ence |s |nc|ted to the
comm|ss|on of the cr|me of treason, rebe|||on or |nsurrect|on,
sed|t|on or assau|t upon a person |n author|ty or h|s agents.
ersons mere|y present at such meet|ng sha|| suffer the pena|ty of
arresto mayor, un|ess they are armed, |n wh|ch case the pena|ty
sha|| be pr|s|on correcc|ona|.

If any person present at the meet|ng carr|es an un||censed f|rearm,
|t sha|| be presumed that the purpose of sa|d meet|ng, |nsofar as he
|s concerned, |s to comm|t acts pun|shab|e under th|s Code, and he
sha|| be cons|dered a |eader or organ|zer of the meet|ng w|th|n the
purv|ew of the preced|ng paragraph.

As used |n th|s art|c|e, the word "meet|ng" sha|| be understood to
|nc|ude a gather|ng or group, whether |n a f|xed p|ace or mov|ng.

CIN1S
I. What are I||ega| Assemb||es?
1. Any meeLlng aLLended by armed persons for Lhe purpose of
commlLLlng any of Lhe crlmes punlshable under Lhe Code.
kequ|s|tes: (MAC)
a. 1haL Lhere ls a meeLlng, a gaLherlng or group of
persons, wheLher ln a flxed place or movlng,
b. 1haL Lhe meeLlng ls aLLended by armed persons,
c. 1haL Lhe purpose of Lhe meeLlng ls Lo commlL any of
Lhe crlmes punlshable under Lhe code.
2. Any meeLlng ln whlch Lhe audlence, wheLher armed or noL, ls
lnclLed Lo Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme of Lreason, rebelllon
or lnsurrecLlon, sedlLlon or assaulL upon a person ln
auLhorlLy of hls agenLs.
kequ|s|tes: (MI)
a. 1haL Lhere ls a meeLlng, a gaLherlng, or group of
persons, wheLher ln a flxed place or movlng.
b. 1haL Lhe audlence, wheLher armed or noL, ls lnclLed
Lo Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme of Lreason, rebelllon
or lnsurrecLlon, sedlLlon or dlrecL assaulL.
Note: Lhe word meeLlng" lncludes a gaLherlng or group whlch ls
movlng.

II. IIkS1 1L CI ILLLGAL ASSLM8L
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1he persons presenL aL Lhe meeLlng musL be armed.
o lf 40 unarmed people gaLher Lo commlL Lhe crlme of
LhefL of large caLLle, Lhere ls no crlme commlLLed.
8uL noL all Lhe persons presenL aL Lhe meeLlng of Lhe flrsL
form of lllegal assembly musL be armed
o 1he law does noL sLaLe how many of Lhe persons
aLLendlng Lhe meeLlng musL be armed. lL ls sald LhaL
a good number, say aL leasL, four musL be armed.
An unarmed person merely presenL aL Lhls meeLlng ls llable

III. SLCCND 1L CI ILLLGAL ASSLM8L
1haL Lhe audlence ls acLually lnclLed Lo Lhe commlsslon of
any of Lhe crlmes of sedlLlon, rebelllon, eLc. seems Lo be a
necessary elemenL of Lhe second form of lllegal assembly.

IV. ersons ||ab|e
1. arLlclpanLs
o Crganlzers or leaders of Lhe meeLlng
o ersons merely presenL aL Lhe meeLlng (musL have
common lnLenL Lo commlL Lhe felony of lllegal
assembly)
2. 8esponslblllLles
o lf Lhey are noL armed, penalLy ls arresLo mayor
o lf Lhey carry arms, llke bolos or knlves, or llcensed
flrearms, penalLy ls prlslon correcclonal
3. resumpLlon when aL Lhe meeLlng carrles an unllcensed
flrearm
o urpose of Lhe meeLlng ls Lo commlL acLs punlshable
under Lhe 8C
o Consldered as leader or organlzer of Lhe meeLlng

Art|c|e 147 - I||ega| assoc|at|ons
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um
per|ods and a f|ne not exceed|ng 1,000 pesos sha|| be |mposed
upon the founders, d|rectors, and pres|dents of assoc|at|ons tota||y
or part|a||y organ|zed for the purpose of comm|tt|ng any of the
cr|mes pun|shab|e under th|s Code or for some purpose contrary to
pub||c mora|s. Mere members of sa|d assoc|at|ons sha|| suffer the
pena|ty of arresto mayor.

CIN1S
I. What are |||ega| assoc|at|ons?
1. AssoclaLlons LoLally or parLlally organlzed for Lhe purpose of
commlLLlng any of Lhe crlmes punlshable under Lhe code.
2. AssoclaLlons LoLally or parLlally organlzed for some purpose
conLrary Lo publlc morals

II. ersons ||ab|e:
1. lounders, dlrecLors and presldenL of Lhe assoclaLlon.
2. Mere members of Lhe assoclaLlon.

III. D|st|ngu|sh|ng I||ega| assoc|at|on from I||ega| assemb|y
I||ega| Assoc|at|on I||ega| Assemb|y
lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhere be
an acLual meeLlng
An acLual meeLlng or assembly of
armed persons for Lhe purpose
of commlLLlng any of Lhe crlmes
punlshable under Lhe code
AcL of formlng, organlzlng and
membershlp are punlshed
MeeLlng and aLLendance aL such
meeLlng are punlshed
1he persons llable are Lhe (a)
founders, dlrecLors and
presldenL and (b) members.

1he person llable (a) Lhe
organlzers or leaders and (b)
persons presenL aL Lhe meeLlng

IV. Subvers|on (kLLALLD)
knowlngly, wlllfully, and by over acL afflllaLlng wlLh,
becomlng or remalnlng a member of a subverslve assoclaLlon
or organlzaLlon.
o 5*#6"+)%6" 7))&,%0-%&' ! Any assoclaLlon wlLh Lhe
purpose of overLhrowlng or removlng from Lhe
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
alleglance Lo sald governmenL or lLs laws, Lhe
LerrlLory of Lhe hlllpplnes or any parL Lhereof, wlLh
Lhe open or coverL asslsLance or supporL of a forelgn
power by force, vlolence, decelL or oLher lllegal
means.
1aklng up arms agalnsL Lhe CovernmenL, Lhe offender belng
a member of such subverslve assoclaLlon or organlzaLlon.
vlolaLlon of AnLl-Subverslon AcL ls dlsLlncL from LhaL of
rebelllon
o Subverslon ! mere membershlp ls punlshable
o 8ebelllon ! 8lslng publlcly and Laklng up arms ls
punlshed

Chapter 4: Assau|t upon, and kes|stance and
D|sobed|ence to, ersons |n Author|ty and the|r Agents

Art|c|e 148 - D|rect assau|t
Any person or persons who, w|thout a pub||c upr|s|ng, sha|| emp|oy
force or |nt|m|dat|on for the atta|nment of any of the purpose
enumerated |n def|n|ng the cr|mes of rebe|||on and sed|t|on, or
sha|| attack, emp|oy force, or ser|ous|y |nt|m|date or res|st any
person |n author|ty or any of h|s agents, wh||e engaged |n the
performance of off|c|a| dut|es, or on occas|on of such performance,
sha|| suffer the pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and
max|mum per|ods and a f|ne not exceed|ng 1,000 pesos, when the
assau|t |s comm|tted w|th a weapon or when the offender |s a
pub||c off|cer or emp|oyee, or when the offender |ays hands upon a
person |n author|ty. If none of these c|rcumstances be present, the
pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od and a f|ne not
exceed|ng S00 pesos sha|| be |mposed.

Note: k.A. No. 7S lmposes an addlLlonal penalLy for aLLacklng
ambassador or mlnlsLer
CIN1S
I. D|rect Assau|ts v. Crd|nary Assau|ts
D|rect Assau|ts
(Art|c|e 148)
Crd|nary Assau|ts
(Art|c|e 263 to 266)
Crlmea agalnsL publlc order Crlme agalnsL persons
1rlable by Lhe 81C

II. 1wo ways of comm|tt|ng the cr|me of d|rect assau|ts
1. WlLhouL publlc uprlslng, by employlng force or lnLlmldaLlon
for Lhe aLLalnmenL of any of Lhe purposes enumeraLed ln
deflnlng Lhe crlmes of rebelllon and sedlLlon.
2. WlLhouL publlc uprlslng, by aLLacklng, by employlng force or
by serlously lnLlmldaLlng or serlously reslsLlng any person ln
auLhorlLy or any of hls agenLs, whlle engaged ln Lhe
performance of offlclal duLles or on Lhe occaslon of such
performance.
____________________
IIkS1 ICkM CI DIkLC1 ASSAUL1

I. L|ements of the f|rst form: (IkN)
1. 1haL Lhe offender employs force or lnLlmldaLlon.
2. 1haL Lhe alm of Lhe offender ls Lo aLLaln any of Lhe purposes
of Lhe crlme of rebelllon or any of Lhe ob[ecLs of Lhe crlmes
of sedlLlon. (vlcLlm need noL be person ln auLhorlLy)
3. 1haL Lhere ls no publlc uprlslng.

II. Lxamp|es
uS v. ulraln ! Chlef of pollce LogeLher wlLh 4 pollcemen,
enLered Lhe house of Lhe munlclpal presldenL and held hlm
for four hours because of fallure Lo dlsperse Lhelr salarles.
1he crlme ls dlrecL assaulL for revenge upon a publlc offlcer
____________________
SLCCND ICkM CI DIkLC1 ASSAUL1

I. L|ements of the second form: (AL-kN)
1. 1haL Lhe offender (a) makes an aLLack, (b) employs force, (c)
makes a serlous lnLlmldaLlon, or (d) makes a serlous
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
reslsLance.
2. 1haL Lhe person assaulLed ls a person ln auLhorlLy or hls
agenL.
3. 1haL aL Lhe Llme of Lhe assaulL Lhe person ln auLhorlLy or hls
agenL (a) ls engaged ln Lhe acLual performance of offlclal
duLles (moLlve ls noL essenLlal), or LhaL he ls assaulLed (b) by
reason of Lhe pasL performance of offlclal duLles (moLlve ls
essenLlal).
4. 1haL Lhe offender knows LhaL Lhe one he ls assaulLlng ls a
person ln auLhorlLy or hls agenL ln Lhe exerclse of hls duLles
(wlLh lnLenLlon Lo offend, ln[ure or assaulL).
3. 1haL Lhere ls no publlc uprlslng.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Makes an attack or emp|oys force
Iorce Lmp|oyed Int|m|dat|on]kes|stance
erson |n
author|ty
need noL be serlous Serlous

Agent MusL be of serlous
characLer as Lo lndlcaLe
deLermlnaLlon Lo defy Lhe
law and lLs represenLaLlve
aL all hazards
A. "Sha|| Attack"
7--0,8 ! lncludes any offenslve or anLagonlsLlc movemenL
or acLlon of any klnd

8. "Lmp|oy Iorce"
uegree of force necessary (See Lable). 1he reason for Lhe
dlfference ln rule ls LhaL Lhe penalLy ls even hlgher when Lhe
offended parLy ls a person ln auLhorlLy.
uS v. 1ablana ! PlLLlng a pollceman ln Lhe breasL wlLh a flsL
ls noL a dlrecL assaulL. 1he words ln Art|c|e 148 appear Lo
have reference Lo someLhlng more dangerous Lo clvll socleLy
Lhan a slmple blow wlLh Lhe hands aL Lhe momenL a parLy ls
Laken lnLo cusLody by a pollceman.
eople v. 8eyes ! ushlng a pollceman and glvlng hlm flsL
blows wlLhouL hlLLlng hlm ls noL dlrecL assaulL.

C. Ser|ous Int|m|dat|on
1he lnLlmldaLlon musL produce lLs effecLs lmmedlaLely. lf Lhe
LhreaLs consLlLuLe some fuLure evll, lL's noL dlrecL assaulL.
eople v. ulama ! olnLlng a gun aL a mlllLary pollce capLaln
who ls ln Lhe performance of hls duLy.
1hreaLenlng Lo glve a flsL blow Lo an arresLlng pollceman ls
noL a serlous lnLlmldaLlon.

D. Ser|ous kes|stance
8eslsLance musL be acLlve
o asslve reslsLance ls commlLLed by one who when
placed under arresL Lhrows hlmself on Lhe ground
such LhaL Lhe arresLlng offlcer has Lo drag hlm.
uS v. SamonLe ! uo noL come near me or l wlll Lake your
llfe," A sald Lo Lhe arresLlng offlcer. As Lhe offlcer
approached, A sLruck wlLh a knlfe buL dld noL hlL hlm.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: "erson |n Author|ty or h|s Agent"
A. ersons |n Author|ty
ersons ln auLhorlLy ! any person dlrecLly vesLed wlLh
[urlsdlcLlon, wheLher as a member of some courL or
governmenLal corporaLlon, board or commlsslon.
o owers and duLles vesLed ln hlm by law should be
deLermlned.
o 1he sLaLus of persons ln auLhorlLy, belng a maLLer of
law, lgnorance of Lhe law ls no excuse.
Lxamples:
o ulvlslon SuperlnLendenL of Schools (Sect|on 917,
kev|sed Adm|n|strat|ve Code)
o resldenL of SanlLary ulvlslon
o 1eachers, professors and persons charged wlLh Lhe
supervlslon of publlc or duly recognlzed prlvaLe
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
schools, colleges and unlverslLles (Com. Act No. S79,
now part of Art. 1S2 as amended by k.A. No. 1978)
keasons why teachers and professors are protected:
8especL for Leachers ls requlred of all persons lf we are Lo
uphold and enhance Lhe dlgnlLy of Lhe Leachlng professlon.

8. Agents of ersons |n Author|ty
AgenL ln AuLhorlLy ! 8y dlrecL provlslon of law or by
elecLlon or by appolnLmenL by compeLenL auLhorlLy ls
charged wlLh Lhe (a) malnLenance of publlc order and (b)
proLecLlon and securlLy of llfe and properLy, and (c) anyone
who comes Lo Lhe ald of persons ln auLhorlLy.
Lxamples:
o ollceman
o Munlclpal Lreasurer, because he ls only a depuLy de
oflclo of Lhe provlnclal Lreasurer, a person ln
auLhorlLy wlLhln Lhe provlnce where Lhe laLLer
exerclses hls [urlsdlcLlon.
o osLmasLer, agenL of Lhe ulrecLor of osLs
o Sherlff
o AgenLs of 8ureau of lnLernal 8evenue
o Malacanang confldenLlal agenL
o 8arangay Chlef 1anod

Note: luncLlons of Lhe person ln auLhorlLy or hls agenL musL be
clearly shown ln Lhe lnformaLlon.

IV. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: In the performance or by reason of such
performance of dut|es
A. In the performace of off|c|a| dut|es
When cons|dered attacked |n the performance of dut|es
Lven lf Lhe person ln auLhorlLy agrees Lo flghL, Lhe aLLack
consLlLuLes dlrecL assaulL.
u.S. v. 8aluyoL ! A kllled Lhe governor whlle ln Lhe
performance of hls duLles, Lhe charge ls complex crlme of
dlrecL assaulL wlLh murder.
eople v. 1eves !Llbowed Lhe governor when he was golng
down Lhe sLalrs for lnspecLlon.
eople v. !allL ! When a barrlo capLaln Lrled Lo sLop Lhe
accused, ln dolng so, hls person was aLLacked.
eople v. lranclsco ! A flscal on hls way Lo an area
encounLered a servlce Lruck LhaL was zlgzagglng
eople v. 8aladhay ! A Leacher who Lravels from one place
Lo anoLher Lo dellver school reporLs.
When NC1 cons|dered attacked |n the performance of dut|es
When Lhe persons ln auLhorlLy or Lhelr agenLs descended Lo
maLLers whlch are prlvaLe ln naLure, an aLLack made by one
agalnsL Lhe oLher ls noL dlrecL assaulL.
lf Lhey go beyond Lhelr respecLlve powers and Lhey vlolaLe
any recognlzed rlghLs of Lhe clLlzens, Lhen Lhe laLLer may
reslsL Lhe lnvaslon, especlally when lL ls clear and manlfesL.
1he reslsLance musL be coexLenslve wlLh Lhe excess and
should noL be greaLer Lhan whaL ls necessary Lo repel Lhe
aggresslon.
eople v. !lngco ! A Leacher who wenL ouL of hls classroom
Lo Lalk Lo hls credlLor abouL hls unpald accounL.

8. Cn occas|on of such performance
"Cn occas|on of such performance" ! Lhe lmpelllng moLlve
of Lhe aLLack ls Lhe performance of offlclal duLy.
lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe person ln auLhorlLy or hls agenL ls
ln Lhe acLual performance of hls offlclal duLy when aLLacked
or serlously lnLlmldaLed.
A ls a Leacher walklng on Lhe beach and was aLLacked by hls
former sLudenL who goL a falllng mark on hls grade under Lhe
sald Leacher.

C. Se|f-defense |n d|rect assau|t
When a person ln auLhorlLy or hls agenL ls Lhe one who
provokes and aLLacks anoLher person, Lhe laLLer ls enLlLled Lo
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
defend hlmself and Lhus cannoL be held llable.

V. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: know|edge that the offended |s a person |n
author|ty or h|s agent
knowledge of Lhe offended parLy as an agenL of auLhorlLy ls
essenLlal and musL be alleged ln Lhe lnformaLlon.
ln llghL of Lhls knowledge, Lhe defendanL musL have lnLenL Lo
defy Lhe auLhorlLles, dlsregard of respecL due Lo offended
parLy on accounL of rank, lnherenL ln dlrecL assaulL.

VI. III1n kLUISI1L: W|thout pub||c upr|s|ng
Lvldence of moLlve ls lmporLanL when Lhe person ln
auLhorlLy or hls agenL ls noL ln Lhe acLual performance of hls
offlclal duLy.
lf Lhere ls publlc and LumulLuous uprlslng, Lhe crlme may be
sedlLlon.
___________________
UALIIILD ASSAUL1
A. 1wo k|nds
1. Slmple assaulL
2. Cuallfled assaulL

8. ua||f|ed
1. When Lhe assaulL ls commlLLed wlLh a weapon, or
o lncludes flrearm, sharp and cuLLlng lnsLrumenLs can
also be clubs or sLones
2. When Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or employee, or
3. When Lhe offender lays hands upon Lhe person ln auLhorlLy.

C. Can be comp|exed w|th hom|c|de, murder or w|th ser|ous
phys|ca| |n[ur|es

D. S||ght phys|ca| |n[ury |s absorbed

Art|c|e 149 - Ind|rect assau|ts
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um
per|ods and a f|ne not exceed|ng S00 pesos sha|| be |mposed upon
any person who sha|| make use of force or |nt|m|dat|on upon any
person com|ng to the a|d of the author|t|es or the|r agents on
occas|on of the comm|ss|on of any of the cr|mes def|ned |n the next
preced|ng art|c|e.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (VAII)
1. 1haL a person ln auLhorlLy or hls agenL ls Lhe vlcLlm of any of
Lhe forms of dlrecL assaulL deflned ln Art|c|e 148,
2. 1haL a person comes Lo Lhe ald of such auLhorlLy or hls
agenL,
3. 1haL Lhe offender makes use of force or lnLlmldaLlon upon
such person comlng Lo Lhe ald of Lhe auLhorlLy or hls agenL.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: 1hat a person |n author|ty or agent |s v|ct|m
lndlrecL assaulL can be commlLLed only when a dlrecL assaulL
ls also commlLLed.
o A ls a pollce offlcer aLLacked by 8, C comes Lo ald and
force and lnLlmldaLlon ls used agalnsL hlm. 1he crlme
agalnsL A ls dlrecL assaulL whlle Lhe crlme agalnsL C ls
lndlrecL assaulL.
A prlvaLe person aldlng an auLhorlLy or hls agenL can be a
vlcLlm here.

Art|c|e 1S0 - D|sobed|ence to summons |ssued by the Nat|ona|
Assemb|y, |ts comm|ttees or subcomm|ttees, by the Const|tut|ona|
Comm|ss|ons, |ts comm|ttees, subcomm|ttees or d|v|s|ons
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor or a f|ne rang|ng from two hundred to
one thousand pesos, or both such f|ne and |mpr|sonment sha|| be
|mposed upon any person who, hav|ng been du|y summoned to
attend as a w|tness before the Nat|ona| Assemb|y, (Congress), |ts
spec|a| or stand|ng comm|ttees and subcomm|ttees, the
Const|tut|ona| Comm|ss|ons and |ts comm|ttees, subcomm|ttees, or
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
d|v|s|ons, or before any comm|ss|on or comm|ttee cha|rman or
member author|zed to summon w|tnesses, refuses, w|thout |ega|
excuse, to obey such summons, or be|ng present before any such
|eg|s|at|ve or const|tut|ona| body or off|c|a|, refuses to be sworn or
p|aced under aff|rmat|on or to answer any |ega| |nqu|ry or to
produce any books, papers, documents, or records |n h|s
possess|on, when requ|red by them to do so |n the exerc|se of the|r
funct|ons. 1he same pena|ty sha|| be |mposed upon any person
who sha|| restra|n another from attend|ng as a w|tness, or who
sha|| |nduce d|sobed|ence to a summon or refusa| to be sworn by
any such body or off|c|a|.

CIN1S
I. Acts pun|shed
1. 8efuslng wlLhouL legal excuse Lo obey summons,
2. 8efuslng Lo be sworn or placed under afflrmaLlon,
3. 8efuslng Lo answer any legal lnqulry Lo produce books,
records eLc.,
4. 8esLralnlng anoLher from aLLendlng as wlLness ln such body,
3. lnduclng dlsobedlence Lo a summons or refusal Lo be sworn.
noLe: Art|c|e 1S0 does noL apply when Lhe papers or documenLs may
be used ln evldence agalnsL hlm. (uy khayLln v. vlllareal)

II. Cther Notes
Cnly dlsobedlence wlLhouL legal excuse ls punlshable
1he LesLlmony of Lhe person summoned musL be upon
maLLers lnLo whlch Lhe naLlonal Assembly has [urlsdlcLlon Lo
lnqulre, lnvesLlgaLlon musL be ln ald of leglslaLlon.
AcLs punlshed by Art|c|e 1S0 may also consLlLuLe conLempL
of Lhe naLlonal Assembly.
o 1he courL may Lake any acLlon noL amounLlng Lo a
release of a prlsoner of Lhe naLlonal Assembly.

Art|c|e 1S1 - kes|stance and d|sobed|ence to a person |n author|ty
or the agents of such person
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor and a f|ne not exceed|ng S00 pesos
sha|| be |mposed upon any person who not be|ng |nc|uded |n the
prov|s|ons of the preced|ng art|c|es sha|| res|st or ser|ous|y d|sobey
any person |n author|ty, or the agents of such person, wh||e
engaged |n the performance of off|c|a| dut|es.

When the d|sobed|ence to an agent of a person |n author|ty |s not
of a ser|ous nature, the pena|ty of arresto menor or a f|ne rang|ng
from 10 to 100 pesos sha|| be |mposed upon the offender.

CIN1S
AkAGkAn 1: SLkICUS DISC8LDILNCL

I. L|ements: (L-kD-N)
1. 1haL a person ln auLhorlLy or hls agenL ls engaged ln Lhe
performance of offlclal duLy or glves a lawful order Lo Lhe
offender.
2. 1haL Lhe offender reslsLs or serlously dlsobeys such person ln
auLhorlLy.
3. 1haL Lhe acL of Lhe offender ls noL lncluded ln Lhe provlslons
of Art|c|e 148, 149 and 1S0.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Author|ty or agent |s engaged |n off|c|a| duty
1here can be no reslsLance lf Lhere ls noLhlng Lo reslsL.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: kes|sts or ser|ous|y d|sobeys author|ty
1hls crlme conslsLs ln a fallure Lo comply wlLh orders dlrecLly
lssued Lo hlm by Lhe auLhorlLles ln Lhe exerclse of Lhelr
offlclal duLles.
lallure Lo comply wlLh legal provlslons of a general characLer
or wlLh [udlclal declslons merely declaraLory of rlghLs or
obllgaLlons or vlolaLlons of prohlblLory declslons do noL
consLlLuLe Lhe crlme.
1he accused musL have knowledge LhaL Lhe person arresLlng
hlm ls a peace offlcer.
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
!usLlfled reslsLance (See C. Se|f-defense ln Art|c|e 148)
o lf Lhe pollce offlcers dld noL ldenLlfy Lhemselves and
Lhey have been mlsLaken Lo be bandlLs, reslsLance ls
[usLlfled.
____________________
AkAGkAn 2: SIMLL DISC8LDILNCL

I. L|ements of s|mp|e d|sobed|ence (LDN)
1. 1haL an agenL of a person ln auLhorlLy ls engaged ln Lhe
performance of offlclal duLy or glves a lawful order Lo Lhe
offender.
2. 1haL Lhe offender dlsobeys such agenL of a person ln
auLhorlLy
3. 1haL such dlsobedlence ls noL of a serlous naLure

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Lawfu| order
1he order musL be lawful, oLherwlse reslsLance ls [usLlfled.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: D|sobeys such agent of author|ty
Cffended parLy musL CnL? be an agenL of auLhorlLy.

IV. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: D|sobed|ence |s not of a ser|ous nature
CLherwlse lL wlll punlshable under Art|c|e 1S1
____________________
D|rect Assau|t v. kes|stance or Ser|ous D|sobed|ence
DIkLC1 ASSAUL1 kLSIS1ANCL Ck SLkICUS
DISC8LDILNCL
Lngaged ln or by reason of
performance of hls duLles
ln acLual performance of hls
duLles
(2
nd
form) commlLLed ln 4 ways CommlLLed only by reslsLlng or
serlously dlsobeylng
1here ls serlous force employed
ln reslsLlng Lhe offlcer
1he force employed ls noL so
serlous
1he offender has lnLenL Lo
lgnore, dlsregard or defy Lhe
1here ls no manlfesL lnLenLlon Lo
defy Lhe law and Lhe offlcers
auLhorlLy or hls agenLs enforclng lL


Art|c|e 1S2 -ersons |n author|ty and agents of persons |n author|ty,
Who sha|| be deemed as such.
In app|y|ng the prov|s|ons of the preced|ng and other art|c|es of th|s
Code, any person d|rect|y vested w|th [ur|sd|ct|on, whether as an
|nd|v|dua| or as a member of some court or governmenta|
corporat|on, board, or comm|ss|on, sha|| be deemed a person |n
author|ty. A barr|o capta|n and a barangay cha|rman sha|| a|so be
deemed a person |n author|ty.

A person who, by d|rect prov|s|on of |aw or by e|ect|on or by
appo|ntment by competent author|ty, |s charged w|th the
ma|ntenance of pub||c order and the protect|on and secur|ty of ||fe
and property, such as a barr|o counc||man, barr|o po||ceman and
barangay |eader and any person who comes to the a|d of persons |n
author|ty, sha|| be deemed an agent of a person |n author|ty.

In app|y|ng the prov|s|ons of Art|c|es 148 and 1S1 of th|s Code,
teachers, professors and persons charged w|th the superv|s|on of
pub||c or du|y recogn|zed pr|vate schoo|s, co||eges and un|vers|t|es,
and |awyers |n the actua| performance of the|r profess|ona| dut|es
or on the occas|on of such performance, sha|| be deemed persons
|n author|ty- !"# %&'()') *+ ?@ ./- :113 A'49- <13 <1BC %() D%9%#
?%&*%(#% DEF- 2BC3 GH(' <:3 <12I>-

CIN1S
I. ersons |n Author|ty
A. A person |n author|ty |s one d|rect|y vested w|th [ur|sd|ct|on

8. Lxamp|e of persons |n author|ty:
1. Munlclpal mayor
2. ulvlslon superlnLendenL of schools
3. ubllc and prlvaLe school Leachers
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
4. 1eacher-nurse
3. resldenL of sanlLary dlvlslon
6. rovlnclal flscal
7. !usLlce of peace
8. Munlclpal councllor
9. 8arrlo capLaln

Chapter S: ub||c D|sorders

Art|c|e 1S3 - 1umu|ts and other d|sturbance of pub||c orders,
1umu|tuous d|sturbance or |nterrupt|on ||ab|e to cause
d|sturbance.
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor |n |ts med|um per|od to pr|s|on
correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od and a f|ne not exceed|ng 1,000
pesos sha|| be |mposed upon any person who sha|| cause any
ser|ous d|sturbance |n a pub||c p|ace, off|ce, or estab||shment, or
sha|| |nterrupt or d|sturb pub||c performances, funct|ons or
gather|ngs, or peacefu| meet|ngs, |f the act |s not |nc|uded |n the
prov|s|ons of Art|c|es 131 and 132.

1he pena|ty next h|gher |n degree sha|| be |mposed upon persons
caus|ng any d|sturbance or |nterrupt|on of a tumu|tuous character.

1he d|sturbance or |nterrupt|on sha|| be deemed to be tumu|tuous
|f caused by more than three persons who are armed or prov|ded
w|th means of v|o|ence.

1he pena|ty of arresto mayor sha|| be |mposed upon any person
who |n any meet|ng, assoc|at|on, or pub||c p|ace, sha|| make any
outcry tend|ng to |nc|te rebe|||on or sed|t|on or |n such p|ace sha||
d|sp|ay p|acards or emb|ems wh|ch provoke a d|sturbance of the
pub||c order.

1he pena|ty of arresto menor and a f|ne not to exceed 200 pesos
sha|| be |mposed upon these persons who |n v|o|at|on of the
prov|s|ons conta|ned |n the |ast c|ause of Art|c|e 8S, sha|| bury w|th
pomp the body of a person who has been |ega||y executed.

CIN1S
I. What are tumu|ts and other d|sturbances? (SI-C)
1. Causlng any serlous dlsLurbance ln a publlc place, offlce, or
esLabllshmenL.
o Serlous dlsLurbance musL be planned or lnLended
o When Lhe dlsLurbance was noL planned, Lhe crlme
may only be alarm.
o lf Lhe acL of dlsLurblng or lnLerrupLlng a meeLlng or
rellglous ceremony ls noL commlLLed by publlc
offlcers, or lf commlLLed by publlc offlcers who are
parLlclpanLs Lhereln, Art|c|e 1S3 applles.
2. lnLerrupLlng or dlsLurblng performances, funcLlons or
gaLherlngs, or peaceful meeLlngs, lf acL ls noL lncluded ln
arLlcles 131 and 132 (peaceful meeLlng, rellglous worshlp)
o 1he lnLerrupLlon or dlsLurbance shall be LumulLuous
lf caused by more Lhan Lhree persons who are armed
or provlded wlLh means of vlolence.
o 1he deLermlnlng facLor here ls wheLher Lhe offender
ls a publlc offlcer.
o lf he ls a publlc offlcer, Lhen ArLs 131-132 wlll apply.
o Art|c|e 1S3 applles when
" 1he offender ls noL a publlc offlcer
" 1he offender ls a publlc offlcer who ls a
parLlclpanL ln Lhe meeLlng or rellglous
worshlp.
3. Maklng any ouLcry Lendlng Lo lnclLe rebelllon or sedlLlon ln
any meeLlng, assoclaLlon, or publlc place
o 9*-,+1 ! Lo shouL subverslve or provocaLlve words
Lendlng Lo sLlr Lhe people up Lo rebelllon or sedlLlon
o 1here musL be no lnLenL for Lhls arLlcle Lo apply.
4. ulsplaylng placards or emblems whlch provoke a dlsLurbance
of publlc order ln such place
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
3. 8urylng wlLh pomp Lhe body of a person who has been
legally execuLed

II. ua||fy|ng C|rcumstance
enalLy nexL hlgher shall be lmposed lf Lhe dlsLurbance ls
LumulLuous ln characLer

III. Cutcry v. Inc|t|ng to comm|t sed|t|on or rebe|||on
Cutcry Inc|t|ng
An ouLcry ls an unconsclous
ouLbursL. 1he offender dld noL
plan for hls words Lo lnduce
oLhers Lo sedlLlon or rebelllon.
lf Lhere was lnLenL behlnd hls
words, Lhen Lhe crlme ls lnclLlng
Lo commlL sedlLlon or rebelllon


Art|c|e 1S4 - Un|awfu| use of means of pub||cat|on and un|awfu|
utterances
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor and a f|ne rang|ng from 200 to 1,000
pesos sha|| be |mposed upon:
1. Any person who by means of pr|nt|ng, ||thography, or any
other means of pub||cat|on sha|| pub||sh or cause to be
pub||shed as news any fa|se news wh|ch may endanger the
pub||c order, or cause damage to the |nterest or cred|t of
the State,
2. Any person who by the same means, or by words,
utterances or speeches, sha|| encourage d|sobed|ence to
the |aw or to the const|tuted author|t|es or pra|se, [ust|fy,
or exto| any act pun|shed by |aw,
3. Any person who sha|| ma||c|ous|y pub||sh or cause to be
pub||shed any off|c|a| reso|ut|on or document w|thout
proper author|ty, or before they have been pub||shed
off|c|a||y, or
4. Any person who sha|| pr|nt, pub||sh, or d|str|bute or case to
be pr|nted, pub||shed, or d|str|buted books, pamph|ets,
per|od|ca|s, or |eaf|ets wh|ch do not bear the rea| pr|nter's
name, or wh|ch are c|ass|f|ed as anonymous.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shed: (ILCk)
1. ubllshlng or causlng Lo be publlshed, by means of prlnLlng,
llLhography, or any oLher means of publlcaLlon, as news any
false news whlch may endanger Lhe publlc order, or cause
damage Lo Lhe lnLeresL or credlL of Lhe SLaLe.
o May" ! AcLual damage or dlsorder ls noL necessary
o 1he mere posslblllLy of causlng such danger or
damage ls sufflclenL.
o 1he offender musL know LhaL Lhe news ls false.
" 1here musL be crlmlnal lnLenL
o lf Lhere ls no posslblllLy of danger or damage, Lhen
Lhls arLlcle ls noL appllcable
2. Lncouraglng dlsobedlence Lo Lhe law or Lo Lhe consLlLuLed
auLhorlLles, or by pralslng, [usLlfylng or exLolllng any acL
punlshed by law, by Lhe same means or by words, uLLerances
or speeches
o Lxample: ulsLrlbuLlng leafleLs urglng people Lo
dlsobey Lhe naLlonal uefense AcL requlrlng
compulsory mlllLary Lralnlng.
3. Mallclously publlshlng or causlng Lo be publlshed any offlclal
resoluLlon or documenL wlLhouL proper auLhorlLy, or before
Lhey have been publlshed offlclally
o unlshed by k.A. No. 248 - reprlnLlng of governmenL
publlcaLlons and offlclal documenLs wlLhouL prevlous
auLhorlLy
4. rlnLlng, publlshlng or dlsLrlbuLlng (or causlng Lhe same)
books, pamphleLs, perlodlcals, or leafleLs whlch do noL bear
Lhe real prlnLer's name, or whlch are classlfled as
anonymous.

Art|c|e 1SS - A|arms and Scanda|s
1he pena|ty of arresto menor or a f|ne not exceed|ng 200 pesos
sha|| be |mposed upon:
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1. Any person who w|th|n any town or pub||c p|ace, sha||
d|scharge any f|rearm, rocket, f|recracker, or other
exp|os|ve ca|cu|ated to cause a|arm or danger,
2. Any person who sha|| |nst|gate or take an act|ve part |n any
char|var| or other d|sorder|y meet|ng offens|ve to another
or pre[ud|c|a| to pub||c tranqu|||ty,
3. Any person who, wh||e wander|ng about at n|ght or wh||e
engaged |n any other nocturna| amusements, sha|| d|sturb
the pub||c peace, or
4. Any person who, wh||e |ntox|cated or otherw|se, sha||
cause any d|sturbance or scanda| |n pub||c p|ace, prov|ded
that the c|rcumstances of the case sha|| not make the
prov|s|ons of Art|c|e 1S3 app||cab|e.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shed : (DINC)
1. ulscharglng any flrearm, rockeL, flrecracker or oLher
exploslve wlLhln any Lown or publlc place, calculaLed Lo
cause alarm or danger
o llrearm should noL be almed aL a person -
oLherwlse, dlscharge of flrearm (Art|c|e 2S4)
o lL ls Lhe resulL LhaL counLs ! Lhe acL musL produce
alarm or danger
" ulscharge of flrecrackers or rockeLs durlng
flesLas or fesLlve occaslons ls noL covered.
o no dlsLlncLlon as Lo parLlcular place - as long as lL
produces alarm or danger
2. lnsLlgaLlng or Laklng an acLlve parL ln any charlvarl or oLher
dlsorderly meeLlng offenslve Lo anLher or pre[udlclal Lo
publlc LranqulllLy
o .:0+%60+% ! medley of dlscordanL volces, dlscordanL
nolses deslgned Lo offend and lnsulL
o lL ls punlshed Lo prevenL more serlous dlsorders.
3. ulsLurblng Lhe publlc peace whlle wanderlng abouL aL nlghL
or whlle engaged ln any oLher nocLurnal amusemenLs
4. Causlng any dlsLurbance or scandal ln publlc places whlle
lnLoxlcaLed or oLherwlse, provlded ArL 133 ls noL appllcable
o Lx. erson hurled a general lnsulL aL everyone ln a
bllllard hall, causlng commoLlon and dlsorder. - no
serlous dlsLurbance creaLed.
o lf dlsLurbance ls of serlous naLure, Art|c|e 1S3 applles

Art|c|e 1S6 - De||ver|ng r|soners from Ia||
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor |n |ts max|mum per|od to pr|s|on
correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od sha|| be |mposed upon any
person who sha|| remove from any [a|| or pena| estab||shment any
person conf|ned there|n, or sha|| he|p the escape of such person, by
means of v|o|ence, |nt|m|dat|on or br|bery. If other means are used,
the pena|ty of arresto mayor sha|| be |mposed.

If the escape of the pr|soner sha|| take p|ace outs|de of sa|d
estab||shments by tak|ng the guards by surpr|se, the same pena|t|es
sha|| be |mposed |n the|r m|n|mum per|od.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (Ck)
1. 1here ls a person conflned ln a [all or penal esLabllshmenL
2. 1he offender removes Lherefrom such person, or helps Lhe
escape of such person

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: erson conf|ned
May be a mere deLenLlon prlsoner
PosplLal or asylum ls consldered [all or prlson

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Cffender removes such person
Cffender: usually an ouLslder
Art|c|e 1S6 can also be applled Lo an employee
o rovlded he does noL have cusLody of such person
" Cuard of [all, when off duLy, may be llable
o lf publlc offlcer, wlLh cusLody of prlsoner, he ls llable
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
under Art|c|e 223 (lnfldellLy ln cusLody of prlsoners)
1he offender ls any person.
vlolence, lnLlmldaLlon, or brlbery are noL elemenLs, buL
serve Lo aggravaLe Lhe penalLy.
o 8rlbery referred Lo here ls a means of dellverlng Lhe
prlsoner
o lf Lhe offender commlLs Lhls crlme by reason of a
brlbe, Lhen lL serves as a generlc aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance
nelLher ls decelL an elemenL

IV. M|t|gat|ng C|rcumstance
MlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance lf Lhe escape Lakes place ouLslde Lhe
prlson, by Laklng Lhe guards by surprlse

Chapter 6: Lvas|on of Serv|ce of Sentence

Art|c|e 1S7 - Lvas|on of serv|ce of sentence
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and max|mum
per|ods sha|| be |mposed upon any conv|ct who sha|| evade serv|ce
of h|s sentence by escap|ng dur|ng the term of h|s |mpr|sonment by
reason of f|na| [udgment. nowever, |f such evas|on or escape sha||
have taken p|ace by means of un|awfu| entry, by break|ng doors,
w|ndows, gates, wa||s, roofs, or f|oors, or by us|ng p|ck|ocks, fa|se
keys, dece|t, v|o|ence or |nt|m|dat|on, or through conn|vance w|th
other conv|cts or emp|oyees of the pena| |nst|tut|on, the pena|ty
sha|| be pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts max|mum per|od.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (ILL)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a convlcL by flnal [udgmenL.
2. 1haL he ls servlng hls senLence whlch conslsLs ln deprlvaLlon
of llberLy (uesLlerro lncluded)
3. 1haL he evades Lhe servlce of hls senLence by escaplng
durlng Lhe Lerm lf hls senLence. (lacL of reLurn lmmaLerlal).
Note: noL appllcable ln deporLaLlon slnce lL ls an admlnlsLraLlve
proceedlng.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Cffender |s a conv|ct by f|na| [udgment
noL appllcable Lo deLenLlon prlsoners and mlnor dellnquenLs
who escapes
o 1he convlcLlon of mlnor dellnquenLs are suspended.

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Lvades the serv|ce
;),0/" ! flee from, Lo avold, Lo geL ouL of Lhe way, as Lo
flee Lo avold arresL. lL requlres acLs and mere lnLenL whlle
belng spoLLed lolLerlng Lhe courLhouse where Lhey can easlly
be ldenLlflable ls noL escaplng.

IV. ua||fy|ng c|rcumstance:
1. 8y means of unlawful enLry (Lhls should be by scallng or
cllmblng)
2. 8y breaklng doors, wlndows, gaLes, walls, roofs or floors,
3. 8y uslng plcklocks, false keys, dlsgulse, decelL, vlolence or
lnLlmldaLlon, or
4. 1hrough connlvance wlLh oLher convlcLs or employees of Lhe
penal lnsLlLuLlon.

Art|c|e 1S8 - Lvas|on of serv|ce of sentence on the occas|on of
d|sorder, conf|agrat|ons, earthquakes, or other ca|am|t|es
A conv|ct who sha|| evade the serv|ce of h|s sentence, by |eav|ng
the pena| |nst|tut|on where he sha|| have been conf|ned, on the
occas|on of d|sorder resu|t|ng from a conf|agrat|on, earthquake,
exp|os|on, or s|m||ar catastrophe, or dur|ng a mut|ny |n wh|ch he
has not part|c|pated, sha|| suffer an |ncrease of one- f|fth of the
t|me st||| rema|n|ng to be served under the or|g|na| sentence, wh|ch
|n no case sha|| exceed s|x months, |f he sha|| fa|| to g|ve h|mse|f up
to the author|t|es w|th|n forty-e|ght hours fo||ow|ng the |ssuance of
a proc|amat|on by the Ch|ef Lxecut|ve announc|ng the pass|ng away
of such ca|am|ty.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE

Conv|cts who, under the c|rcumstances ment|oned |n the preced|ng
paragraph, sha|| g|ve themse|ves up to the author|t|es w|th|n the
above ment|oned per|od of 48 hours, sha|| be ent|t|ed to the
deduct|on prov|ded |n Art|c|e 98.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (CDLI)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a convlcL by flnal [udgmenL who ls
conflned ln a penal lnsLlLuLlon.
2. 1haL Lhere ls dlsorder, resulLlng from-
a. conflagraLlon,
b. earLhquake, or
c. exploslon, or
d. slmllar caLasLrophes, or
e. muLlny, noL parLlclpaLed by Lhe offender.
3. 1haL Lhe offender evades Lhe servlce of hls senLence by
leavlng Lhe penal lnsLlLuLlon where he ls conflned, on Lhe
occaslon of such dlsorder or durlng Lhe muLlny.
4. 1haL Lhe offender falls Lo glve hlmself up Lo Lhe auLhorlLles
wlLhln 48 hours followlng Lhe lssuance of a proclamaLlon by
Lhe chlef execuLlve announclng Lhe passlng away of such
calamlLy.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Cffender |s conv|ct by f|na| [udgment
AlLhough Lhe arLlcle ls sllenL, only a convlcL by flnal [udgmenL
can evade Lhe servlce of hls senLence.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L:
MuLlny" ln Lhls arLlcle lmplles an organlzed unlawful
reslsLance Lo a superlor offlcer, a sedlLlon, a revolL
o 1here ls no muLlny lf Lhe prlsoners dlsarmed Lhe
guards and escaped, because Lhe guards are noL
Lhelr superlor offlcers. ln Lhls case, lf Lhose who
escaped surrendered laLer, Lhey wlll noL en[oy any
reducLlon.
eople v. adllla ! 1he accused was noL held llable for
evaslon because he acLed under Lhe lnfluence of
unconLrollable fear of an equal or greaLer ln[ury, Lhe
escaplsLs havlng LhreaLened Lo shooL aL whoever remalned.

IV. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: 1he offender |eaves the |nst|tut|on
1here ls no assurance LhaL Lhose who dld noL escape Lhe
penal lnsLlLuLlon durlng such dlsorders (regardless of Lhelr
reasons) would have reLurned.

V. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: Cffender fa||s to g|ve h|mse|f up
WhaL ls punlshed ls noL Lhe leavlng of Lhe penal lnsLlLuLlon,
buL Lhe fallure of Lhe convlcL Lo glve hlmself up Lo Lhe
auLhorlLles wlLhln 48 ours afLer Lhe proclamaLlon announclng
Lhe passlng away of Lhe calamlLy.
lf offender falls Lo surrender, 1/3 of Lhe Llme sLlll remalnlng
Lo be served by hlm shall be lmposed provlded LhaL lL does
noL exceed 6 monLhs
lf offender glves hlmself up wlLhln 48 hours are glven
reducLlon by 1/3 of Lhelr Llme Lo be served.

Art|c|e 1S9 - Cther case of evas|on of serv|ce of sentence
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od sha|| be
|mposed upon the conv|ct who, hav|ng been granted cond|t|ona|
pardon by the Ch|ef Lxecut|ve, sha|| v|o|ate any of the cond|t|ons of
such pardon. nowever, |f the pena|ty rem|tted by the grant|ng of
such pardon be h|gher than s|x years, the conv|ct sha|| then suffer
the unexp|red port|on of h|s or|g|na| sentence.

CIN1S
I. Cond|t|ona| ardon (Sect|on 19, Art|c|e VII, 1987 Const|tut|on)
lL ls a conLracL beLween Lhe Chlef execuLlve and Lhe convlcL
who accepLs lL. 1he pardoned convlcL ls bound Lo fulflll lLs
condlLlons and accepL all lLs consequences, noL as he
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
chooses, buL accordlng Lo sLrlcL Lerms.

II. L|ements (CCV)
1. 1haL Lhe offender was a convlcL
2. 1haL he was granLed a condlLlonal pardon by Lhe Chlef
LxecuLlve.
3. 1haL he vlolaLed any of Lhe condlLlons of such pardon.

III. ena|t|es
1. rlslon correcclonal ln lLs mlnlmum ! lf Lhe penalLy remlLLed
does noL exceed 6 years
2. 1he unexplred porLlon of hls orlglnal senLence ! lf Lhe
penalLy remlLLed ls hlgher Lhan 6 years.

IV. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Granted cond|t|ona| pardon
uuraLlon of Lhe condlLlons subsequenL ls llmlLed Lo Lhe
remalnlng perlod of Lhe senLence.

V. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: V|o|ated any of the cond|t|ons of such pardon
1he condlLlon lmposed noL Lo commlL any crlme covers
speclal laws.
Cffender musL have been found gullLy of Lhe subsequenL
offense before he can be prosecuLed under Lhls ArLlcle. 8uL lf
under 8evlsed AdmlnlsLraLlve Code, no convlcLlon necessary.
resldenL has power Lo arresL, relncarnaLe offender wlLhouL
Lrlal.

VI. Cther Notes
Art|c|e 1S9 ls a dlsLlncL felony. lL ls a subsLanLlve crlme. lor
one Lo suffer Lhe consequence of lLs vlolaLlon, Lhe prlsoner
musL be formally charged ln courL. Pe wlll be enLlLled Lo a
full-blown hearlng, ln full en[oymenL of hls rlghL Lo due
process. Cnly afLer a flnal [udgmenL has been rendered
agalnsL hlm may he suffer Lhe penalLy prescrlbed under
Art|c|e 1S9 (1orres vs. Conzales, eL al.)
1he presldenL has Lhe speclflc power Lo auLhorlze Lhe arresL
and relncarceraLlon of any convlcLed person granLed pardon
or parole who, ln hls [udgmenL, shall fall Lo comply wlLh Lhe
condlLlon or condlLlons of hls pardon or parole. (1esoro v.
ulrecLor of prlsons)
Slnce desLlerro has a duraLlon of 6 monLhs and 1 day Lo 6
years, under no clrcumsLances may Lhe penalLy for vlolaLlon
of Lhe condlLlonal pardon be desLlerro.
erlod when Lhe convlcL was aL llberLy ls noL deducLed ln
case he ls recommlLLed.

VII. V|o|at|on of ardon (Art|c|e 1S9) v. Lvas|on of serv|ce of
sentence (Art|c|e 1S8)
V|o|at|on of ardon Lvas|on of serv|ce of sentence
uoes noL cause harm or ln[ury Lo
Lhe rlghL of oLher person nor
does lL dlsLurb publlc order,
lnfrlngemenL of
condlLlons/Lerms of Lhe
resldenL
1o evade Lhe penalLy glven by
Lhe courLs, and Lherefore
dlsLurbs Lhe publlc order

Chapter 7: Comm|ss|on of another cr|me dur|ng serv|ce
of pena|ty |mposed for another prev|ous offense.

Art|c|e 160 - Comm|ss|on of another cr|me dur|ng serv|ce of pena|ty
|mposed for another offense, ena|ty
8es|des the prov|s|ons of ku|e S of Art|c|e 62, any person who sha||
comm|t a fe|ony after hav|ng been conv|cted by f|na| [udgment,
before beg|nn|ng to serve such sentence, or wh||e serv|ng the same,
sha|| be pun|shed by the max|mum per|od of the pena|ty prescr|bed
by |aw for the new fe|ony.

Any conv|ct of the c|ass referred to |n th|s art|c|e, who |s not a
hab|tua| cr|m|na|, sha|| be pardoned at the age of seventy years |f
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
he sha|| have a|ready served out h|s or|g|na| sentence, or when he
sha|| comp|ete |t after reach|ng the sa|d age, un|ess by reason of h|s
conduct or other c|rcumstances he sha|| not be worthy of such
c|emency.

CIN1S
I. uas|-rec|d|v|sm
Cuasl-recldlvlsm ! ls a speclal aggravaLlng clrcumsLance
where a person, afLer havlng been convlcLed by flnal
[udgmenL, shall commlL a new felony before beglnnlng Lo
serve such senLence, or whlle servlng Lhe same.
Cuasl-recldlvlsm does noL requlre LhaL Lhe Lwo offenses are
embraced ln Lhe same LlLle of Lhe Code.
Cuasl-recldlvlsm cannoL be offseL by an ordlnary mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLance.

II. L|ements: (CN)
1. 1haL Lhe offender was already convlcLed by flnal [udgmenL of
one offense.
2. 1haL he commlLLed a new felony before beglnnlng Lo serve
such senLence or whlle servlng Lhe same.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L:
"8efore beg|nn|ng to serve such sentence"
When Lhe [udgmenL of convlcLlon of Lhe lower courL ln Lhe
flrsL offense havlng been afflrmed by Lhe appellaLe courL,
and hls commlLmenL havlng been ordered he commlLLed Lhe
new felony whlle belng Laken Lo Lhe prlson or [all
"Cr wh||e serv|ng the same"
When a convlcL by flnal [udgmenL shall commlL a new felony
whlle servlng hls senLence for Lhe flrsL offense
Second crlme musL be a felony (l.e. 8evlsed enal Code)
o lf lL ls a vlolaLlon of a speclal law (e.g. lllegal
possesslon of flrearm), Lhls arLlcle does noL apply.
8u1 Lhe flrsL crlme need noL be a felony
1he new offense need noL be of dlfferenL characLer from
LhaL of Lhe former offense.
o eople v. ?abuL ! a person convlcLed of murder
who subsequenLly commlLs homlclde before
beglnnlng Lo serve hls senLence ls llable here.

IV. uas|-kec|d|v|sm v. ke|terac|on
uas|-kec|d|v|sm ke|terac|on
1he offender has noL begun or ls
currenLly servlng a senLence
Cffender shall have served ouL
hls senLence for prlor offenses

V. Cther Notes:
Cuasl-recldlvlsLs shall be pardoned when he has reached Lhe
age of 70 and has already served ouL hls orlglnal senLence,
unLLSS by reason of hls conducL he ls noL worLhy of such.
8u1
When Lhe offender ls a hablLual crlmlnal, a quasl-recldlvlsL
may noL be pardoned even lf he reaches Lhe age of 70 and
has already served ouL hls orlglnal senLence.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1I1LL IV: CkIMLS AGAINS1 U8LIC IN1LkLS1

Chapter 1: Iorger|es

Sect|on 1 - Iorg|ng the sea| of the Government of the h|||pp|ne
Is|ands, the s|gnature or stamp of the Ch|ef Lxecut|ve

Art|c|e 161 - Counterfe|t|ng the great sea| of the Government of
the h|||pp|ne Is|ands, forg|ng the s|gnature or stamp of the Ch|ef
Lxecut|ve.
1he pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora| sha|| be |mposed upon any
person who sha|| forge the Great Sea| of the Government of the
h|||pp|nes Is|ands or the s|gnature or stamp of the Ch|ef Lxecut|ve.

CIN1S
I. Acts pun|shed: (GSS)
1. lorglng Lhe
CreaL Seal of
Lhe
CovernmenL of
Lhe hlllpplnes
2. lorglng Lhe
slgnaLure of
Lhe resldenL
3. lorglng Lhe
sLamp of Lhe
resldenL

II. 1he Great Sea| of
the kepub||c of the
h|||pp|nes
1he CreaL Seal ls beauLlfully descrlbed ln Sec. 18 of Lhe
8evlsed AdmlnlsLraLlve Code as amended by Com. Acts Nos.
602, 614, and 731.
1he cusLody and use of Lhe CreaL Seal shall be and remaln
wlLh Lhe resldenL of Lhe hlllpplnes.

III. S|gnature of the res|dent of the h|||pp|nes
ln a governmenL documenL where Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe
resldenL ls forged, Lhe crlme ls forglng Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe
Chlef LxecuLlve, noL falslflcaLlon. Art|c|e 161 supplles Lhe
speclflc provlslon Lo govern such case.
1he slgnaLure of Lhe resldenL musL be formed or lmlLaLed. lf
a documenL ls wrlLLen above Lhe acLual slgnaLure of Lhe
resldenL, Lhe crlme ls noL under Art|c|e 161, buL under
Art|c|e 171 or 172

Art|c|e 162 - Us|ng forged s|gnature or counterfe|t sea| or stamp.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor sha|| be |mposed upon any person
who sha|| know|ng|y make use of the counterfe|t sea| or forged
s|gnature or stamp ment|oned |n the preced|ng art|c|e.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (CountIor-kU)
1. 1haL Lhe CreaL Seal of Lhe hlllpplnes as counLerfelLed or Lhe
slgnaLure or sLamp of Lhe Chlef LxecuLlve was forged by
anoLher person.
2. 1haL Lhe offender knew of Lhe counLerfelLlng or forgery
3. 1haL he used Lhe counLerfelL seal or forged slgnaLure or
sLamp

III. If the user |s a|so the forger, he w||| pena||zed under Art|c|e 161
1he offender under Lhls arLlcle should noL be Lhe forger of
Lhe seal or slgnaLure of Lhe Chlef LxecuLlve oLherwlse he wlll
be penallzed under Art|c|e 161.
1he user ls penallzed as an accessory buL Lhe penalLy ls only
one degree lower.

Sect|on 2 - Counterfe|t|ng co|ns
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE

Art|c|e 163 - Mak|ng and |mport|ng and utter|ng fa|se co|ns.
Any person who makes, |mports, or utters fa|se co|ns, |n
conn|vance w|th counterfe|ters |r |mporters, sha|| suffer:
1. r|s|on mayor |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um per|ods and a
f|ne not exceed|ng 10,000 pesos, |f the counterfe|ted co|n
be s||ver co|n of the h|||pp|nes or co|n of the Centra| 8ank
of the h|||pp|nes of ten-centavo denom|nat|on or above.
2. r|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um per|ods
and a f|ne not exceed|ng 2,000 pesos |f the counterfe|ted
co|ns be any of the mnor co|nage of the h|||pp|nes or the
Centra| 8ank of the h|||pp|nes be|ow the ten-centavo
denom|nat|on.
3. r|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od and a f|ne not to
exceed 1,000 pesos |f th countefe|ted co|n be currency of a
fore|gn country. (!" $%&'(&( )* +! ,-. /0102 $334-5&( -'
67'& 892 89:;)

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (IC-MIU-C)
1. 1haL Lhere be false or counLerfelLed colns
2. 1haL Lhe offender elLher made, lmporLed, or uLLered such
colns
3. 1haL ln case of uLLerlng such false or counLerfelLed colns, he
connlved wlLh Lhe counLerfelLers or lmporLers

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Ia|se or counterfe|ted co|ns
!"#$ ! ls a plece of meLal sLamped wlLh cerLaln marks and
made currenL aL a cerLaln value.
A coln ls forged or counLerfelLed, lf lL ls forged or lL ls noL
auLhorlzed by Lhe CovernmenL as legal Lender, regardless of
lLs lnLrlnslc value.
!"%$&'()'#&#$* ! Lhe lmlLaLlon of a legal or genulne coln.
klnds of colns Lhe counLerfelLlng of whlch ls punlshed: (SMl)
1. Sllver coln of Lhe hlllpplnes or coln of Lhe CenLral 8ank of
Lhe hlllpplnes.
2. Coln of Lhe mlnor colnage of Lhe hlllpplnes or of Lhe CenLral
8ank of Lhe hlllpplnes.
+#$"( -"#$. ! Lhe colns below Len-cenLavo denomlnaLlon.
lormer colns wlLhdrawn from clrculaLlon may be
counLerfelLed. 1he word coln under Lhe provlslon does noL
have a quallfylng word such as currenL."
o 1he Spanlsh LexL uses Lhe world /0"$'123 whlch
embraces noL only Lhose LhaL are legal Lender, buL
also Lhose ouL of clrculaLlon.
3. Coln of Lhe currency of a forelgn counLry.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Made, |mported, or uttered
405"(& ! means Lo brlng Lhem lnLo porL. lmporLaLlon ls
compleLe before enLry aL CusLoms Pouse
6&&'( ! ls Lo pass counLerfelLed colns. lL lncludes Lhelr
dellvery or Lhe acL of glvlng Lhem away.

Art|c|e 164 - Mut||at|on of co|ns - Importat|on and utterance of
mut||ated co|ns.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od and a f|ne
not exceed|ng 2,000 pesos sha|| be |mposed upon any person who
sha|| mut||ate co|ns of the |ega| currency of the (Un|ted States or of
the) h|||pp|nes Is|ands or |mport or utter mut||ated current co|ns,
|n the conn|vance w|th the mut||ator or |mporter.

CIN1S
I. Acts pun|shed: (MI)
1. MuLllaLlng colns of Lhe legal currency, wlLh Lhe furLher
requlremenL LhaL Lhere be lnLenL Lo damage or Lo defraud
anoLher.
2. lmporLlng or uLLerlng such muLllaLed colns, wlLh Lhe furLher
requlremenL LhaL Lhere musL be connlvance wlLh Lhe
muLllaLor or lmporLer ln case of uLLerlng

!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
II. Co|n must be the |ega| tender
1he coln muLllaLed musL be of legal Lender ln muLllaLlon.
Cnly ln Lhls arLlcle LhaL Lhe law requlres such as an elemenL
of Lhe offense ln Lhe case of muLllaLlon.
Colns of forelgn currency noL lncluded.

III. Mean|ng of Mut||at|on
+%&#72&#"$ ! means Lo Lake off parL of Lhe meLal elLher by
fllllng lL or subsLlLuLlng lL for anoLher meLal of lnferlor
quallLy. lL ls Lo dlmlnlsh by lngenlous means Lhe meLal (or
lnLrlnslc value) ln Lhe coln.
Cffender musL Lake advanLage of Lhe meLal absLracLed and
does noL do so for Lhe sake of muLllaLlng.

Art|c|e 16S - Se|||ng of fa|se or mut||ated co|n, w|thout conn|vance.
Any person who know|ng|y, a|though w|thout the conn|vance
ment|oned |n the preceed|ng art|c|es, sha|| possess fa|se or
mut||ated co|n w|th |ntent to utter the same, or sha|| actua||y utter
such co|n, sha|| suffer the pena|ty |ower by one degree than that
prescr|bed |n the sa|d art|c|es.

CIN1S
I. Acts pun|shed w|th L|ements:
1. ossesslon of coln, counLerfelLed or muLllaLed by anoLher
person, wlLh lnLenL Lo uLLer Lhe same, knowlng LhaL ls false
or muLllaLed (lk)
a. ossesslon
b. WlLh lnLenL Lo uLLer, and
c. knowledge
2. AcLually uLLerlng such false or muLllaLed coln, knowlng Lhe
same Lo be false or muLllaLed (Ak)
a. AcLually uLLerlng,
b. knowledge

II. IIkS1 AC1 UNISnLD: Mere ho|d|ng of the fa|se or mut||ated
co|n w|th |ntent to utter.
ossesslon of or uLLerlng false coln does noL requlre LhaL Lhe
counLerfelLed coln ls legal Lender.
o unless lL ls a muLllaLed coln, ln whlch case, Art|c|e
164 ls Laken lnLo conslderaLlon.
ConsLrucLlve possesslon ls lncluded. 1he provlslon prohlblLs
possesslon ln general.
o ossesslon of counLerfelLer or lmporLer noL punlshed
as separaLe offense.

III. SLCCND AC1 UNISnLD: Actua||y utter|ng a fa|se co|n
Accused musL have knowledge of Lhe facL LhaL Lhe coln ls
false. 1he accused shall be punlshable alLhough wlLhouL Lhe
connlvance menLloned ln Lhe precedlng arLlcles.
eople v. Co o ! 1he facL LhaL Lhe Chlnaman recelved lL ln
paymenL of hls goods and placed lL ln hls drawer shows LhaL
he dld noL know LhaL such coln was false.

Sect|on 3 - Iorg|ng treasury or bank notes, ob||gat|ons and
secur|t|es, |mport|ng and utter|ng fa|se or forged notes, ob||gat|ons
and secur|t|es

Art|c|e 166 - Iorg|ng treasury or bank notes or other documents
payab|e to bearer, |mport|ng, and utter|ng such fa|se or forged
notes and documents.
1he forg|ng or fa|s|f|cat|on of treasury or bank notes or cert|f|cates
or other ob||gat|ons and secur|t|es payab|e to bearer and the
|mportat|on and utter|ng |n conn|vance w|th forgers or |mporters of
such fa|se or forged ob||gat|ons or notes, sha|| be pun|shed as
fo||ows:
1. 8y rec|us|on tempora| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od and a f|ne not
to exceed 10,000 pesos, |f the document wh|ch has been
fa|s|f|ed, counterfe|ted, or a|tered, |s an ob||gat|ons or
secur|ty of the Un|ted States or of the h|||pp|nes Is|ands.
1he word "ob||gat|on or secur|ty of the Un|ted States or of
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
the h|||pp|ne Is|ands" sha|| be he|d to mean a|| bonds,
cert|f|cates of |ndebtedness, nat|ona| bank notes, fract|ona|
notes, cert|f|cates of depos|t, b|||s, checks, or drafts for
money, drawn by or upon author|zed off|cers of the Un|ted
States or of the h|||pp|ne Is|ands, and other
representat|ves of va|ue, of whatever denom|nat|on, wh|ch
have been or may be |ssued under any act of the Congress
of the Un|ted States or of the h|||pp|ne Leg|s|ature.
2. 8y pr|s|on mayor |n |ts max|mum per|od and a f|ne not to
exceed S,000 pesos, |f the fa|s|f|ed or a|tered document |s
a c|rcu|at|ng note |ssued by any bank|ng assoc|at|on du|y
author|zed by |aw to |ssue the same.
3. 8y pr|s|on mayor |n |ts med|um per|od and a f|ne not to
exceed S,000 pesos, |f the fa|s|f|ed or counterfe|ted
document was |ssued by a fore|gn government.
4. 8y pr|s|on mayor |n |ts m|n|mum per|od and a f|ne not to
exceed 2,000 pesos, when the forged or a|tered document
|s a c|rcu|at|ng note or b||| |ssued by a fore|gn bank du|y
author|zed therefor.

CIN1S
I. Acts pena||zed under 166: (IIU)
1. lorglng or falslflcaLlon of Lreasury or bank noLes or oLher
documenLs payable Lo bearer
2. lmporLaLlon of such false or forged obllgaLlons or noLes
3. uLLerlng of such false or forged obllgaLlon or noLes ln
connlvance wlLh Lhe forgers or lmporLers

II. Notes or other ob||gat|ons and secur|t|es that may be forged or
fa|s|f|ed under Art|c|e 166 (1CC)
1. 1reasury or bank noLes
2. CerLlflcaLes and
3. CLher obllgaLlons and securlLles, payable Lo bearer
A bank noLe, cerLlflcaLe or obllgaLlon and securlLy ls payable
Lo bearer when lL can negoLlaLed by mere dellvery.
1he penalLles depend on Lhe klnd of forged Lreasury or bank
noLes or oLher documenLs.

III. Iorg|ng or fa|s|f|cat|on of documents payab|e to bearer
8"(*#$* ! ls commlLLed by glvlng Lo a Lreasury or bank noLe
or any lnsLrumenL payable Lo bearer or Lo order Lhe
appearance of a Lrue and genulne documenL. 1o forge an
lnsLrumenL ls Lo make false lnsLrumenL lnLended Lo be
passed for Lhe genulne one.
827.#)#-2&#"$ ! ls commlLLed by eraslng, subsLlLuLlng,
counLerfelLlng, or alLerlng by any means, Lhe flgures, leLLers,
words, or slgns conLalned Lhereln.
uel 8osarlo v. eople ! 1he accused erased and changed
Lhe lasL dlglL 9 of Serlal no. l-7969261 of a genulne Lreasury
noLe so as Lo read 0.

IV. Importat|on of fa|se or forged ob||gat|ons or notes
405"(&2&#"$ ! means Lo brlng Lhem lnLo Lhe hlllpplnes,
whlch presupposes LhaL Lhe obllgaLlons or noLes are forged
or falslfled ln a forelgn counLry.

V. Utter|ng |n conn|vance w|th forgers or |mporters
6&&'(#$* ! means offerlng obllgaLlons or noLes knowlng
Lhem Lo be false or forged, wheLher such offer ls accepLed or
noL, wlLh a represenLaLlon, by words or acLlons, LhaL Lhey are
genulne and wlLh an lnLenL Lo defraud.
uLLerlng forged blll musL be wlLh connlvance Lo consLlLuLe a
vlolaLlon of Art|c|e 166.

VI. ena|t|es depend on the k|nd of forged treasury or bank notes
or other documents
1. CbllgaLlons or securlLy lssued by Lhe governmenL of Lhe hll.
2. ClrculaLlng noLe lssued by any banklng assoclaLlon duly
auLhorlzed by law Lo lssue Lhe same.
3. uocumenL lssued by a forelgn governmenL.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
4. ClrculaLlng noLe or blll lssued by a forelgn bank duly
auLhorlzed Lo lssue Lhe same.

A. Iorg|ng ob||gat|ons or secur|ty
eople v. 8almores ! 1he accused falslfled a genulne 1/8
unlL of Lhe hlllpplne CharlLy SweepsLakes LlckeL. Pe was
convlcLed of Lhe complex crlme of aLLempLed esLafa Lhrough
falslflcaLlon of an obllgaLlon or securlLy of Lhe hlllpplnes
because he aLLempLed Lo cash Lhe LlckeL so alLered as one
wlLh a prlze-wlnnlng number.
9:7#*2&#"$ "( ;'-%(#&< ") &=' >=#7#55#$'.
o 8onds
o CerLlflcaLes of lndebLedness
o naLlonal bank noLes
o Coupons
o 1reasury noLes
o lracLlonal noLes
o CerLlflcaLes of deposlLs
o 8llls
o Checks
o urafLs for money
o CLher represenLaLlves of value lssued under any AcL
of Congress
/9:7#*2&#"$. "( .'-%(#&< ") &=' 6$#&'1 ;&2&'.3
o 1he provlslons of Art|c|e 166 relaLlve Lo uS
obllgaLlons were repealed upon granL of hlllpplne
lndependence.

8. Money 8|||s |ssued by the Centra| 8ank are nat|ona| bank notes
o 1he 3-bllls, 10-bllls, 20-bllls, eLc. lssued by Lhe CenLral
8ank of Lhe hlllpplnes are naLlonal bank noLes.
o hlllpplne naLlonal 8ank checks are commerclal documenLs,
noL covered by Art|c|e 166. 1hey're under Art|c|e 171 & 172.

VII. 1he Code pun|shes forg|ng or fa|s|f|cat|on of bank notes and of
documents of cred|t payab|e to bearer and |ssued by the State
more severe|y than |t does the counterfe|t|ng of co|ns.
lalslflcaLlon of bank noLes and documenLs Lend Lo brlng such
documenLs lnLo dlscredlL and produces a lack of confldence
on Lhe parL of Lhe holders of sald documenLs Lo Lhe pre[udlce
of Lhe lnLeresLs of socleLy and of Lhe SLaLe.
lL ls easler Lo forge or falslfy documenLs Lhan colns.
1he proflL from forglng or falslfylng documenLs ls greaLer
Lhan LhaL from counLerfelLlng colns.

Art|c|e 167 - Counterfe|t|ng, |mport|ng, and utter|ng |nstruments
not payab|e to bearer.
Any person who sha|| forge, |mport or utter, |n conn|vance w|th the
forgers or |mporters, any |nstrument payab|e to order or other
document of cred|t not payab|e to bearer, sha|| suffer the pena|t|es
of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and max|mum per|ods and a
f|ne not exceed|ng 6,000 pesos.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (IIC)
1. 1haL Lhere be an lnsLrumenL payable Lo order or oLher
documenL of credlL noL payable Lo bearer
2. 1haL Lhe offender elLher forged, lmporLed or uLLered such
lnsLrumenL
3. 1haL ln case of uLLerlng, he connlved wlLh Lhe forger or
lmporLer.

II. keason for pun|sh|ng forgery
o 1o malnLaln Lhe lnLegrlLy of Lhe currency and Lhus lnsure Lhe
credlL sLandlng of Lhe governmenL and prevenL Lhe
lmposlLlon on Lhe publlc and Lhe governmenL of worLhless
noLes or obllgaLlons.

III. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Instrument |s payab|e to order
AppllcaLlon of Lhls Art|c|e 167 ls llmlLed Lo payable Lo order
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
or oLher documenL or credlL noL payable Lo bearer.
An lnsLrumenL ls payable Lo order where lL ls drawn payable
Lo Lhe order of a speclfled person or Lo hlm or hls order.

IV. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Iorged, |mported, or uttered
Connlvance ls noL requlred ln uLLerlng lf Lhe uLLerer ls Lhe
forger.
1he acL punlshed lncludes LhaL of lmporLlng, wlLhouL
speclfylng Lhe counLry or governmenL lssulng Lhem.

Art|c|e 168 - I||ega| possess|on and use of fa|se treasury or bank
notes and other |nstruments of cred|t.
Un|ess the act be one of those com|ng under the prov|s|ons of any
of the preced|ng art|c|es, any person who sha|| know|ng|y use or
have |n h|s possess|on, w|th |ntent to use any of the fa|se or
fa|s|f|ed |nstruments referred to |n th|s sect|on, sha|| suffer the
pena|ty next |ower |n degree than that prescr|bed |n sa|d art|c|es.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (Ik-U)
1. 1haL any Lreasury or bank noLe or cerLlflcaLe or oLher
obllgaLlon and securlLy payable Lo bearer, or any lnsLrumenL
payable Lo order or oLher documenL of credlL noL payable Lo
bearer ls forged or falslfled by anoLher person.
2. 1haL Lhe offender knows LhaL any of Lhose lnsLrumenLs ls
forged or falslfled
3. 1haL he performs any of Lhese acLs:
a. uslng any of such forged or falslfled lnsLrumenLs, or
b. ossesslng wlLh lnLenL Lo use any such forged or
falslfled lnsLrumenLs

II. Intent to possess |s not |ntent to use
lnLenL Lo posses ls noL lnLenL Lo use. 1o be charged under
Lhls arLlcle, Lhere musL be a correspondlng lnLenL Lo use.

III. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Note |s forged or fa|s|f|ed
1o prove LhaL a bank noLe ls forged, evldence musL be
presenLed LhaL Lhe number whlch Lhe quesLloned bank noLe
bears does noL check wlLh Lhe genulne one lssued wlLh Lhe
same number. (eople v. 8arraqula)

IV. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Accused knows of the forged nature
knowledge of Lhe forged characLer of Lhe noLe ls an essenLlal
elemenL ln Lhls offense.
1he conducL of Lhe accused could be used Lo esLabllsh
knowledge of forgery.
o Lxamples: 1he offender refused Lo make any
explanaLlon of hls possesslon of Lhe forged bank
bllls, afLer dlscovery Lhe owner snaLched and Lore
Lhe blll before Lhe examlner.

V. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Us|ng or ossess|ng
use ! A person ln possesslon of falslfled documenL and who
makes use of Lhe same ls presumed Lo be maLerlal auLhor of
falslflcaLlon.
ossesslng wlLh lnLenL Lo use ! lnLenL Lo use ls sufflclenL Lo
consummaLe Lhe crlme when Lhe offender ls ln possesslon of
false or falslfled obllgaLlons or noLes
o 8u1 ln eople v. adllla where Lhe accused, lnsLead
of carrylng ouL hls lnLenLlon, Lhrew away Lhe forged
noLe, lL was held LhaL he was noL llable for Lhe law
wlll noL close Lhe door Lo repenLance.
o Mere possesslon of a false money blll, wlLhouL lnLenL
Lo use lL Lo Lhe damage of anoLher, ls noL a crlme.
8urden of proof: Accused has Lhe burden Lo glve saLlsfacLory
explanaLlon of hls possesslon of forged bllls.
o lallure of Lhe accused Lo explaln saLlsfacLorlly hls
possesslon of Lhe counLerfelL bllls means elLher:
" Pe forged Lhem hlmself
" 1haL he knows who falslfled Lhem buL he
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
does noL wanL Lo dlvulge Lhe ldenLlLy.
o eople v. Luls Sane ! possesslon of 100pcs of forged
20-bllls cannoL lndlcaLe anyLhlng excepL, flrsL, Lhe
knowledge whlch Lhe appellanL had of Lhe falslLy of
sald bllls, and second, Lhe lnLenLlon of Lhe appellanL
Lo uLLer sald bllls.
lL ls noL an lmposslble crlme when Lhe acL performed would
have been a crlme of lllegal possesslon of false Lreasury
noLes.
o lmposslble crlmes falllng under aragraph 2, Art|c|e
4 requlres LhaL Lhe acL be an offense agalnsL persons
or properLy. lorglng or falslflcaLlon of Lreasury noLes
ls nelLher an offense agalnsL persons nor properLy.

Art|c|e 169 - now forgery |s comm|tted.
1he forgery referred to |n th|s sect|on may be comm|tted by any of
the fo||ow|ng means:
1. 8y g|v|ng to a treasury or bank note or any |nstrument,
payab|e to bearer or order ment|oned there|n, the
appearance of a true genu|ne document.
2. 8y eras|ng, subst|tut|ng, counterfe|t|ng or a|ter|ng by any
means the f|gures, |etters, words or s|gns conta|ned
there|n.

CIN1S
AkAGkAn 1: ICkGLk

I. eop|e v. Ga|ano: G|v|ng fake checks the appearances of true and
genu|ne documents
o 1he flrsL paragraph conLemplaLes noL only Lhe slLuaLlons
where a spurlous, false or fake documenLs, buL also Lhe
slLuaLlons lnvolvlng orlglnally Lrue and genulne documenLs
whlch have been wlLhdrawn or demoneLlzed, or have
ouLllved Lhelr usefulness.
____________________
AkAGkAn 2: IALSIIICA1ICN (1ype of forgery under Art|c|e 169)

I. A|ter|ng true and genu|ne documents
o 1he second paragraph conLemplaLes a slLuaLlon whereln a
flgure, leLLer, word or slgn conLalned has been erased,
subsLlLuLed, counLerfelLed or alLered. 1he forgery conslsLs ln
Lhe addlLlon of a word ln an efforL Lo glve Lo Lhe Lo Lhe
presenL documenL Lhe appearance of Lhe Lrue and genulne
cerLlflcaLe LhaL lL used Lo have before lL was wlLhdrawn or
has ouLllves lLs usefulness.
____________________
kLSIDLN1IAL DLCkLL NC. 247

I. Defacement, mut||at|on, tear|ng, burn|ng or destroy|ng of Centra|
8ank notes and co|ns, pena||zed
o Cb[ecL: currency noLes and colns lssued by Lhe CenLral 8ank
of Lhe hlllpplnes.
o enalLy: llne (noL more Lhan 20,000) and/or lmprlsonmenL
(noL more Lhan 3 years).

II. Iorgery and Ia|s|f|cat|on d|st|ngu|shed
ICkGLk (Art|c|e 169) IALSIIICA1ICN (SLC1ICN 4)
Act 8efers Lo falslflcaLlons
and counLerfelLlng
Commlsslon of any of Lhe 8
acLs menLloned ln Art|c|e 171
Cb[ect 1reasury or 8ank noLes LeglslaLlve, publlc or offlclal,
commerclal, or prlvaLe
documenLs, or wlreless, or
Lelegraph messages.

Sect|on 4 - Ia|s|f|cat|on of |eg|s|at|ve, pub||c, commerc|a|, and
pr|vate documents, and w|re|ess, te|egraph, and te|ephone
messages

Art|c|e 170 - Ia|s|f|cat|on of |eg|s|at|ve documents.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts max|mum per|od and a
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
f|ne not exceed|ng 6,000 pesos sha|| be |mposed upon any person
who, w|thout proper author|ty therefor a|ters any b|||, reso|ut|on,
or ord|nance enacted or approved or pend|ng approva| by e|ther
nouse of the Leg|s|ature or any prov|nc|a| board or mun|c|pa|
counc||.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (8ANM)
1. 1haL Lhere be a blll, resoluLlon or ordlnance enacLed or
approved or pendlng approval by elLher Pouse of Lhe
LeglslaLure or any provlnclal board or munlclpal councll.
2. 1haL Lhe offender alLers Lhe same.
3. 1haL he has no proper auLhorlLy Lherefor.
4. 1haL Lhe alLeraLlon has changed Lhe meanlng of Lhe
documenL.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: 8|||, reso|ut|on or ord|nance must be genu|ne
+%$#-#527 !"%$-#7 ! lncludes Lhe clLy councll or munlclpal
board.
A fabrlcaLed or slmulaLed leglslaLlve documenL ls noL
covered by Art|c|e 170.

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Cffender |s any person
1he arLlcle does noL requlre LhaL Lhe offender be a prlvaLe or
publlc lndlvldual, [usL as long as Lhe offender has no proper
auLhorlLy Lo make Lhe alLeraLlon.

IV. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: A|ternat|on changes the mean|ng
1he acL of falslflcaLlon ln leglslaLlve documenLs ls llmlLed Lo
alLerlng lL whlch changes lLs meanlng.
CLher acLs of falslflcaLlon, even ln leglslaLlve documenL, are
punlshed elLher under Art|c|e 171 or Art|c|e 172.

V. kepub||c Act No. 248 proh|b|ts the repr|nt|ng, reproduct|on or
repub||cat|on of government pub||cat|ons and off|c|a| documents
w|thout prev|ous author|ty.

Art|c|e 171 - Ia|s|f|cat|on by pub||c off|cer, emp|oyee or notary or
ecc|es|ast|c m|n|ster.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor and a f|ne not to exceed S,000 pesos
sha|| be |mposed upon any pub||c off|cer, emp|oyee, or notary who,
tak|ng advantage of h|s off|c|a| pos|t|on, sha|| fa|s|fy a document by
comm|tt|ng any of the fo||ow|ng acts:
1. Counterfe|t|ng or |m|tat|ng any handwr|t|ng, s|gnature or
rubr|c,
2. Caus|ng |t to appear that persons have part|c|pated |n any
act or proceed|ng when they d|d not |n fact so part|c|pate,
3. Attr|but|ng to persons who have part|c|pated |n an act or
proceed|ng statements other than those |n fact made by
them,
4. Mak|ng untruthfu| statements |n a narrat|on of facts,
S. A|ter|ng true dates,
6. Mak|ng any a|terat|on or |nterca|at|on |n a genu|ne
document wh|ch changes |ts mean|ng,
7. Issu|ng |n an authent|cated form a document purport|ng to
be a copy of an or|g|na| document when no such or|g|na|
ex|sts, or |nc|ud|ng |n such a copy a statement contrary to,
or d|fferent from, that of the genu|ne or|g|na|, or
8. Interca|at|ng any |nstrument or note re|at|ve to the
|ssuance thereof |n a protoco|, reg|stry, or off|c|a| book.

1he same pena|ty sha|| be |mposed upon any ecc|es|ast|ca| m|n|ster
who sha|| comm|t any of the offenses enumerated |n the preced|ng
paragraphs of th|s art|c|e, w|th respect to any record or document
of such character that |ts fa|s|f|cat|on may affect the c|v|| status of
persons.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (1-|paudaa|-L)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer, employee or noLary
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
publlc.
2. 1haL he Lakes advanLage of hls offlclal poslLlon.
3. 1haL he falslfles a documenL by commlLLlng any of Lhe
followlng acLs:
a. CounLerfelLlng or lmlLaLlng any handwrlLlng,
slgnaLure or rubrlc
b. Causlng lL Lo appear LhaL persons have parLlclpaLed
ln any acL or proceedlng when Lhey dld noL ln facL so
parLlclpaLe,
c. ALLrlbuLlng Lo persons who have parLlclpaLed ln an
acL or proceedlng sLaLemenLs oLher Lhan Lhose ln
facL made by Lhem,
d. Maklng unLruLhful sLaLemenLs ln a narraLlon of facLs,
e. AlLerlng Lrue daLes,
f. Maklng any alLeraLlon or lnLercalaLlon ln a genulne
documenL whlch changes lLs meanlng,
g. lssulng ln an auLhenLlcaLed form a documenL
purporLlng Lo be a copy of an orlglnal documenL
when no such orlglnal exlsLs, or lncludlng ln such a
copy a sLaLemenL conLrary Lo, or dlfferenL from, LhaL
of Lhe genulne orlglnal, or
h. lnLercalaLlng any lnsLrumenL or noLe relaLlve Lo Lhe
lssuance Lhereof ln a proLocol, reglsLry, or offlclal
book.
4. ln case Lhe offender ls an eccleslasLlcal mlnlsLer, Lhe acL of
falslflcaLlon ls commlLLed wlLh respecL Lo any record or
documenL of such characLer LhaL lLs falslflcaLlon may affecL
Lhe clvll sLaLus of persons.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: ersons ||ab|e under Art|c|e 171
Cnly Lhose expressly sLaLed are llable: publlc offlcer,
employee, noLary publlc or eccleslasLlcal mlnlsLer.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: 1akes advantage of h|s off|c|a| pos|t|on
An offender Lakes advanLage when:
o Pe has Lhe duLy Lo make or Lo prepare or oLherwlse
Lo lnLervene ln Lhe preparaLlon of Lhe documenL, or
o Pas Lhe offlclal cusLody of Lhe documenL whlch he
falslfles.
lf Lhe offender dld noL Lake advanLage of hls offlclal poslLlon,
he wlll be llable ln hls prlvaLe capaclLy under Art|c|e 172.
uS v. AusLero
o A courL sLenographer who dellberaLely and
mallclously changed, ln maklng Lhe LranscrlpLlon of
hls noLes, Lhe sLaLemenLs of a wlLness Laken by hlm
ls gullLy under Art|c|e 171.
o A chlef of pollce who alLered courL LranscrlpLlons ls
gullLy of falslflcaLlon of a publlc documenL as a
prlvaLe person under Art|c|e 172.
uS v. lnosanLa ! A munlclpal presldenL who falslfled an
lnscrlpLlon ln Lhe reglsLer of blrLhs under Lhe charge of Lhe
munlclpal secreLary ls noL llable because such documenL
does noL perLaln Lo hls offlce, and Lherefore lL was done
wlLhouL abuse of hls offlce.

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: 1he offender fa|s|f|es a document
?"-%0'$& ! any wrlLLen sLaLemenL by whlch a rlghL ls
esLabllshed or an obllgaLlon ls exLlngulshed.
o Any wrlLlng or lnsLrumenL by whlch a facL may be
proven or afflrmed.
1he documenL musL be of apparenL legal efflcacy.
o A documenL musL be compleLe or aL leasL have Lhe
appearance of a Lrue and genulne documenL.
aragraph 6, 7(|t's second part), and 8 requlre genulne
documenLs LhaL have been alLered.
aragraph 1 to S may be commlLLed wlLh Lhe use of
slmulaLed or fabrlcaLed documenLs.
;#0%72&'1 "( )2:(#-2&'1 1"-%0'$&. ! lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lhe
documenL ls glven Lhe appearance of, or made Lo appear
slmllar Lo, Lhe offlclal form.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
o SlmulaLlon of publlc, offlclal or mercanLlle documenL
ls also conLemplaLed.
"Sha|| fa|s|fy a document"
o Art|c|e 171 does noL speclfy Lhe klnd of documenL
falslfled l.e. wheLher lL ls publlc, offlclal, eLc.
o Whenever a documenL ls falslfled wlLh Lhe
lnLervenLlon of a publlc offlcer, employee or noLary
publlc, such documenLs necessarlly becomes a publlc
or offlclal documenL.
o A documenL LhaL ls orlglnally prlvaLe can become
publlc lf lL ls ln Lhe offlclal cusLody of Lhe publlc
offlcer, or lf lL forms parL of Lhe offlclal record when
lL ls falslfled by Lhe publlc offlcer.
____________________
AkAGkAn 1: CCUN1LkILI1ING Ck IMI1A1ING (ILIGNING) AN
nANDWkI1ING, SIGNA1UkL, Ck kU8kIC

I. Act un|shab|e
1. CounLerfelLlng whlch ls lmlLaLlng any handwrlLlng, slgnaLure
or rubrlc.
2. lelgnlng whlch ls slmulaLlng a slgnaLure, handwrlLlng or
rubrlc ouL of one whlch does noL ln facL exlsL.
noLe: 1he mere drawlng up of a false documenL ls noL sufflclenL.
1he slgnaLure, handwrlLlng or mark of anoLher musL be slgned by
Lhe offender who has no auLhorlLy Lo do so.

II. L|ements of Counterfe|t|ng (Ik)
1. 1here ls an lnLenL Lo lmlLaLe or aLLempL Lo lmlLaLe.
2. 1he Lwo slgnaLure or handwrlLlngs, Lhe genulne and Lhe
forged, bear some resemblance.

A. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Intent or attempt to |m|tate
lf Lhere ls sufflclenL resemblance beLween Lhe genulne and
Lhe forged slgnaLures, lL can be concluded LhaL Lhe accused
had Lhe lnLenLlon and aLLempLed Lo lmlLaLe Lhe slgnaLure of
Lhe offended parLy.
ln counLerfelLlng, lmlLaLlon ls necessary, buL lL need noL be
perfecL.

8. SLCCND kLUISI1L: 1he forged and the or|g|na| s|gnature or
handwr|t|ng must bear some resemb|ance to each other
1he resemblance musL be such LhaL lL ls llkely Lo decelve an
ordlnary person recelvlng or deallng wlLh Lhe documenL.
uS v. LlLon[ua ! lmlLaLlng a person's slgnaLure on a check ln
such a way LhaL lL may pass ln Lhe rush of buslness,"
alLhough Lhe handwrlLlng ls a llLLle blL dlfferenL, consLlLuLes
falslflcaLlon.

C. When any of the requ|s|tes of counterfe|t|ng |s not present
lf Lhere ls noL aLLempL whaLsoever by Lhe accused Lo lmlLaLe
Lhe slgnaLures of oLher persons so LhaL Lhey are enLlrely
unllke Lhe genulne slgnaLures of Lhose persons, Lhe accused
may be found gullLy under aragraph 2, Art|c|e 171.

III. Im|tat|ng (Ie|gn|ng)
1he Spanlsh LexL /)#$*#'$1"3 (for lmlLaLlon). ln felgnlng Lhere
ls no orlglnal slgnaLure, handwrlLlng or rubrlc, buL a forgery
or a slgnaLure, handwrlLlng or rubrlc LhaL does noL exlsL.
1o felgn means Lo represenL by a false appearance, Lo glve
an lmaglnary exlsLence.
Lxample:
o Maklng lL appear LhaL a person - who can'L wrlLe -
slgned a documenL, may be consldered felgnlng.
o uS v. ue los Angeles ! drawlng up a wlll slgned on
March 1901, when Lhe lndlvldual dled on !uly 1900 ls
falslflcaLlon by felgnlng.
____________________
AkAGkAn 2: CAUSING I1 1C ALAk 1nA1 LkSCNS nAVL
Ak1ICIA1LD IN AN AC1 CI A kCCLLDING

!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
I. L|ements of caus|ng |t to appear persons part|c|pated: (AN)
1. 1haL Lhe offender caused lL Lo appear ln a documenL LhaL a
person or persons parLlclpaLed ln an acL or a proceedlng.
2. 1haL such person or persons dld noL ln facL so parLlclpaLed ln
Lhe acL or proceedlng.

II. Lxamp|es
eople v. vlllanueva ! Lven lf Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe parLles
had noL been lmlLaLed on Lhe money orders, Lhe facL LhaL
Lhey were slgned Lhereon Lo make lL appear LhaL Lhey
lnLervened ln Lhe execuLlon when Lhey dld noL ln facL do so,
ls sufflclenL Lo consLlLuLe Lhe crlme of falslflcaLlon of publlc
documenLs.
8U1 |f pr|vate |nd|v|dua|s comm|tted |t, Art|c|e 172 app||es
eople v. Asa, eL al. !1he placlng of Lhe accused of Lhelr
Lhumb marks ln Lhe llsL of voLers opposlLe Lhe names of Lhe
elecLors who have noL acLually voLed ls falslflcaLlon under
aragraph 2, Art|c|e 171, buL belng prlvaLe lndlvlduals, Lhe
accused are llable under Art|c|e 172.
____________________
AkAGkAn 3: A11kI8U1ING 1C LkSCNS WnC nAVL
Ak1ICIA1LD IN AN AC1 Ck kCCLLDING S1A1LMLN1S C1nLk
1nAN 1nCSL IN IAC1 MADL 8 1nLM

I. L|ements of attr|but|ng acts other than those made: (MC)
1. 1haL a person parLlclpaLed ln an acL or a proceedlng.
2. 1haL such person or persons made sLaLemenLs ln LhaL acL or
proceedlng, and
3. 1haL Lhe offender ln maklng a documenL aLLrlbuLed Lo such
person or persons sLaLemenLs oLher Lhan Lhose ln facL made
by such person or persons.

II. US v. Capu|e
1he defendanL execuLed upon sald noLarlal documenL of an
offlclal characLer, acLs consLlLuLlng falslflcaLlon, by
counLerfelLlng Lhereln Lhe lnLervenLlon of Lhe owners of Lhe
land, Lo whom he ascrlbed sLaLemenLs dlfferenL from whaL
Lhey had made Lo hlm and by perverLlng Lhe LruLh ln Lhe
narraLlon of facLs.
____________________
AkAGkAn 4: MAkING UN1kU1nIUL S1A1LMLN1S IN 1nL
NAkkA1ICN CI IAC1S

I. L|ements |n mak|ng untruthfu| statements: (SLAW)
1. 1haL Lhe offender makes ln a documenL sLaLemenL ln a
narraLlon of facLs,
2. 1haL he has a legal obllgaLlon Lo dlsclose Lhe LruLh of Lhe
facLs narraLed by hlm,
3. 1haL Lhe facLs narraLed by Lhe offender are absoluLely false,
4. 1haL Lhe perverslon of Lhe LruLh ln Lhe narraLlon of facLs was
made wlLh Lhe wrongful lnLenL of ln[urlng a Lhlrd person.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: 1here must be a narrat|on of facts
lL musL be narraLlon of facLs, noL a concluslon of law.
eople v. ?anza ! when Lhe accused cerLlfled she was
ellglble for Lhe poslLlon, she wroLe a concluslon of law. Pad
she glven Lhe wrong daLe of blrLh ln order Lo show her
ellglblllLy, she would have been gullLy of falslflcaLlon because
her daLe of blrLh was a maLLer of facL.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Lega| ob||gat|on to d|sc|ose the truth
1here musL be a law requlrlng Lhe dlsclosure of Lhe LruLh of
Lhe facLs narraLed.
eople v. Cuasha ! Lhe accused, a lawyer, prepared Lhe
arLlcles of lncorporaLlon of a publlc uLlllLy corporaLlon and
made lL appear LhaL 8aylon was Lhe ma[orlLy shareholder
when ln facL 8aylon was merely a LrusLee. Accused ls noL
gullLy because for Lhe mere formaLlon of a corporaLlon,
revelaLlon of shares possessed by each sLockholder ls noL
essenLlal and Lhe CorporaLlon Law does noL requlre lL.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
eople v. oserlo ! 1he prosecuLlon falled Lo polnL Lo any
law or ordlnance lmposlng upon Lhe defendanL Lhe legal
obllgaLlon Lo reveal hls prevlous convlcLlon ln fllllng ln Lhe
personal daLa sheeL whlch members of Lhe Manlla ollce
ueparLmenL are requlred Lo flle.
1he legal obllgaLlon Lo dlsclose Lhe LruLh ls lnherenL ln
resldence cerLlflcaLes by C.A. No. 46S. 1he purpose of whlch
ls for esLabllshlng hls Lrue and correcL ldenLlLy (eople v. o
Clok 1o).

IV. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: 1he facts narrated are abso|ute|y fa|se
1he person maklng Lhe narraLlon of facLs musL be aware of
Lhe falslLy of Lhe facLs narraLed by hlm. CLherwlse, he cannoL
be held llable under Lhls arLlcle.
1he narraLlon of facLs musL be absoluLely false.
o 1he rule ls LhaL lf Lhe sLaLemenLs are noL alLogeLher
false, Lhere belng some colorable LruLh ln such
sLaLemenL, Lhe crlme of falslflcaLlon ls noL deemed Lo
have been commlLLed.

V. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: Wrongfu| |ntent of |n[ur|ng another
1he perverslon of Lhe LruLh ln Lhe narraLlon of facLs musL be
made wlLh Lhe wrongful lnLenL of ln[urlng a Lhlrd person.
Lxcept|on: Wrongful lnLenL noL essenLlal when Lhe
documenL falslfled ls publlc documenL.
1here ls no falslflcaLlon by one who acLed ln good falLh.
o uS v. San !ose ! Lhe afflanL who wroLe LhaL he was
Lhe owner of Lhe banca ls noL llable for he belleved
LhaL he was enLlLled Lo lLs ownershlp.
uS v. Mllla ! 1he facL LhaL one's consenL Lo Lhe conLracL was
obLalned by means of vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon does noL
make lL a false conLracL ln Lhe sense LhaL no consenL had
ever been glven and Lhe enLlre documenL had been
slmulaLed slnce Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe parLles are genulne.

VI. Ia|s|f|cat|on by Cm|ss|on
eople v. ulzon ! An asslsLanL bookkeeper of Lhe posL
exchange who, havlng broughL several arLlcles ln Lhe posL
exchange for whlch he slgned several chlLs, lnLenLlonally dld
noL record ln hls personal accounL mosL of Lhem and
desLroyed Lhem so LhaL he could avold paylng Lhe amounL
Lhereof ls gullLy of falslflcaLlon by omlsslon.
____________________
AkAGkAn S: AL1LkING 1kUL DA1LS

I. Dates must be Lssent|a|
1he alLernaLlon of Lhe daLe or daLes ln a documenL musL
affecL elLher Lhe veraclLy or Lhe documenL or Lhe effecLs.
eople v. 8eodlca and Cordera ! 1he alLeraLlon of Lhe daLe
of Lhe acLual paymenL of Lhe salary of Lhe employee dld noL
affecL Lhelr Lhe veraclLy of Lhe documenL or Lhe effecLs
Lhereof, such daLe noL belng essenLlal.
eople v. MonLano and Cabagsang ! 1he chlef of pollce
alLered Lhe daLes ln Lhe bloLLer Lo make lL appear LhaL S was
arresLed and gave bond on SepLember 13, 1930. 1he daLe
alLered was essenLlal because Lhe daLe wlll show LhaL Lhere
was a delay ln Lhe prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon of Lhe case, ln
vlolaLlon of Lhe clrcular of Lhe CourL of llrsL lnsLance.
uaLes of blrLh, marrlage and deaLh are essenLlal, because
wlLhouL Lhem Lhe documenLs won'L produce any legal effecL.
eople v. 8elglca ! AlLerlng daLes ln offlclal recelpLs Lo
prevenL Lhe dlscovery of malversaLlon ls falslflcaLlon.
o Genera| ku|e: lf Lhe alLeraLlon of a daLe does noL
affecL Lhe lnLegrlLy of Lhe documenL, lL ls noL a crlme.
o Lxcept|on: Lhe rule has no appllcaLlon when Lhe acL
ls commlLLed, noL by lgnorance or mlsLake, buL
raLher Lo prevenL Lhe dlscovery of a crlme.
____________________
AkAGkAn 6: MAkING AL1LkA1ICN Ck IN1LkCALA1ICN IN A
GLNUINL DCCUMLN1 WnICn CnANGLS I1S MLANING
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE

I. L|ements of mak|ng a|terat|ons that change the mean|ng: (AIGCI)
1. 1haL Lhere be an alLeraLlon (change) or lnLercalaLlon
(lnserLlon) on a documenL.
2. 1haL lL was made on a genulne documenL.
3. 1haL Lhe alLeraLlon or lnLercalaLlon has changed Lhe meanlng
of Lhe documenL.
4. 1haL Lhe change made Lhe documenL speak someLhlng false.

II. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Changed the mean|ng of the document
1he alLeraLlon musL affecL Lhe lnLegrlLy or change Lhe effecLs
of Lhe documenL.
unless Lhere ls Lhe change ln Lhe effecLs whlch Lhe documenL
would have produced, Lhere could noL exlsL Lhe essenLlal
elemenL of Lhe lnLenLlon Lo commlL Lhe crlme.

III. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: Speaks someth|ng fa|se
AlLeraLlon whlch speaks Lhe LruLh ls noL falslflcaLlon.
uS v. MaLeo ! Cenerally, Lhe word alLeraLlon has lnherenL
ln lL Lhe ldea of decepLlon - of maklng Lhe lnsLrumenL speak
someLhlng whlch Lhe parLles dld noL lnLend lL Lo speak. 1o be
an alLeraLlon ln vlolaLlon of Lhe law lL musL be one whlch
causes Lhe lnsLrumenL Lo speak a language dlfferenL ln legal
effecL from LhaL whlch lL orlglnally spoke"

IV. A|ter|ng the grades |n exam|nat|on papers |nvo|ves severa| acts
of fa|s|f|cat|on
eople v. 8omualdez
o lacLs: 1he grades were wrlLLen by an employee of
Lhe Supreme CourL afLer sLrlklng ouL Lhe prevlous
grades.
o Peld: 1he acLs of falslflcaLlon are (1) maklng
alLeraLlons on genulne documenLs (par. 6), (2)
maklng lL appear LhaL Lhe correcLors had parLlclpaLed
ln Lhe lncreaslng Lhe grades (par. 2), and (3)
aLLrlbuLlng Lo Lhe correcLors sLaLemenLs oLher Lhan
Lhose made by Lhem (par. 3).
____________________
AkAGkAn 7: ISSUING AN AU1nLN1ICA1LD ICkM A DCCUMLN1
UkCk1ING 1C 8L A CC CI AN CkIGINAL DCCUMLN1 WnLN
NC SUCn CkIGINAL LkIS1S, Ck INCLUDING IN SUCn CC A
S1A1LMLN1 CCN1kAk 1C, Ck DIIILkLN1 IkCM, 1nA1 CI 1nL
GLNUINL CkIGINAL.

I. Act un|shab|e:
1. urporLlng Lo be a copy of an orlglnal when no such exlsLs.
2. lncludlng ln a copy a sLaLemenL conLrary Lo, or dlfferenL
from, LhaL of Lhe genulne orlglnal.

II. ersons L|ab|e
Such acLs of falslflcaLlon can be commlLLed only by a publlc
offlcer or noLary publlc who Lakes advanLage of hls offlclal
poslLlon, slnce Lhe auLhenLlcaLlon of a documenL can be
made only by Lhe cusLodlan or Lhe one who prepared and
reLalned a copy of Lhe orlglnal documenL.
A prlvaLe person who cooperaLes wlLh a publlc offlcer ln Lhe
falslflcaLlon of a publlc documenL ls gullLy of Lhls crlme and
lncurs Lhe same llablllLy and penalLy as Lhe publlc offlcer.

III. Intent to ga|n or pre[ud|ce |s not necessary
under Art|c|e 171, Lhe offlclal characLer of Lhe offender ls
Lhe maln conslderaLlon.
WhaL ls proLecLed ls Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe communlLy whlch ls
lnLended Lo be guaranLeed by Lhe sLrlcLesL falLhfulness of Lhe
offlclals charged wlLh Lhe preparaLlon and preservaLlon of
Lhe acLs ln whlch Lhey lnLervene.

Art|c|e 172 - Ia|s|f|cat|on by pr|vate |nd|v|dua| and use of fa|s|f|ed
documents.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and max|mum
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
per|ods and a f|ne of not more than S,000 pesos sha|| be |mposed
upon:
1. Any pr|vate |nd|v|dua| who sha|| comm|t any of the
fa|s|f|cat|ons enumerated |n the next preced|ng art|c|e |n
any pub||c or off|c|a| document or |etter of exchange or any
other k|nd of commerc|a| document, and
2. Any person who, to the damage of a th|rd party, or w|th the
|ntent to cause such damage, sha|| |n any pr|vate document
comm|t any of the acts of fa|s|f|cat|on enumerated |n the
next preced|ng art|c|e.

Any person who sha|| know|ng|y |ntroduce |n ev|dence |n any
[ud|c|a| proceed|ng or to the damage of another or who, w|th the
|ntent to cause such damage, sha|| use any of the fa|se documents
embraced |n the next preced|ng art|c|e, or |n any of the forego|ng
subd|v|s|ons of th|s art|c|e, sha|| be pun|shed by the pena|ty next
|ower |n degree.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e
1. lalslflcaLlon of publlc, offlclal or commerclal documenLs by
prlvaLe lndlvlduals.
2. lalslflcaLlon of prlvaLe documenL by any person.
3. use of falslfled documenL.

II. No attempted or frustrated stage
lalslflcaLlon ls consummaLed Lhe momenL Lhe genulne
documenL ls alLered or Lhe momenL Lhe false documenL ls
execuLed. lL ls lmmaLerlal LhaL Lhe offender dld noL achleve
hls ob[ecLlves.
1here may be a frusLraLed crlme of falslflcaLlon, lf Lhe
falslflcaLlon ls lmperfecL.
____________________
AkAGkAn 1: IALSIIICA1ICN CI U8LIC, CIIICIAL Ck
CCMMLkCIAL DCCUMLN1S 8 kIVA1L INDIVIDUALS

I. L|ements of Ia|s|f|cat|on of pub||c, off|c|a| or commerc|a|
documents by pr|vate |nd|v|dua|s: (171)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a prlvaLe lndlvldual or a publlc offlcer or
employee who dld noL Lake advanLage of hls offlclal poslLlon.
2. 1haL he commlLLed any of Lhe acLs of falslflcaLlon
enumeraLed ln Art|c|e 171.
3. 1haL Lhe falslflcaLlon was commlLLed ln a publlc or offlclal or
commerclal documenL.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Cffender acts |n h|s pr|vate capac|ty
1he offender should noL be a publlc offlcer, employee or
noLary publlc who Lakes advanLage of hls offlclal poslLlon.
CLherwlse, he wlll be llable under Art|c|e 171.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Comm|tted any of the acts |n Art|c|e 171
Any one of Lhe dlfferenL modes of falslflcaLlon ln paragraphs
1 to 6 of Art|c|e 171 musL be employed by Lhe offender ln
commlLLlng Lhe crlmes deflned ln paragraphs 1 and 2 of
Art|c|e 172.
1he acLs of falslflcaLlon menLloned ln paragraph 7 of Art|c|e
171 cannoL be commlLLed by a prlvaLe lndlvldual slnce
auLhenLlcaLlon of a documenL can be made only by Lhe
cusLodlan or Lhe one who prepared and reLalned a copy of
Lhe orlglnal documenL.

IV. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: ub||c, off|c|a| or commerc|a| document
A. Iour k|nds of Document
1. ubllc uocumenL ! a documenL creaLed, execuLed or lssued
by a publlc offlclal ln response Lo Lhe exlgencles of Lhe publlc
servlce, or ln Lhe execuLlon of whlch a publlc offlclal
lnLervened.
a. A publlc documenL ls any lnsLrumenL auLhorlzed by a
noLary publlc or a compeLenL publlc offlclal, wlLh Lhe
solemnlLles requlred by law.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
2. Cfflclal uocumenL ! a documenL lssued by a publlc offlclal
ln Lhe exerclse of Lhe funcLlons of hls offlce. lL falls wlLhln Lhe
larger class called publlc documenLs.
a. Lxamples:
l. lorm requlred by a bureau Lo be fllled by lLs
offlcers for purposes of record and
lnformaLlon.
ll. 8ecelpL lssued by Lhe ueparLmenL of
AssessmenLs and CollecLlons.
lll. 8urlal permlL lssued by Lhe 8oard of ubllc
PealLh of Lhe ClLy of Manlla
lv. Cfflclal cashbook kepL by Lhe dlsburslng
offlcer of Lhe CoasL Cuard
3. rlvaLe uocumenL ! a deed or lnsLrumenL execuLed by a
prlvaLe person wlLhouL Lhe lnLervenLlon of a noLary publlc or
oLher person legally auLhorlzed, by whlch documenL some
dlsposlLlon or agreemenL ls proved, evldenced or seL forLh.
a. Lxample: 1heaLer LlckeLs evldence Lhe agreemenL for
Lhe resL of a place ln Lhe LheaLer Lo enable a
possessor Lo wlLness a LheaLrlcal performance.
4. Commerclal uocumenL ! any documenL deflned and
regulaLed by Lhe Code of Commerce or any oLher
commerclal law.
a. Cash dlsbursemenL vouchers are noL commerclal
documenLs.

8. ub||c and r|vate Wr|t|ngs under the ku|es of Court
1he followlng wrlLlngs are publlc:
1. 1he wrlLLen offlclal acLs, or records of Lhe offlclal acLs of Lhe
soverelgn auLhorlLy, offlclal bodles and Lrlbunals, and publlc
offlcers, wheLher of Lhe hlllpplnes, or of a forelgn counLry.
2. uocumenLs acknowledged before a noLary publlc excepL lasL
wllls and LesLlmonles
3. ubllc records kepL ln Lhe hlllpplnes, of prlvaLe documenLs
requlred by law Lo be enLered Lhereln.
All oLher wrlLlngs are prlvaLe.

C. r|vate document cons|dered pub||c document

D. Cther Notes
Mere blank form of an offlclal documenL ls noL ln lLself a
documenL
o ln order LhaL a blank form mlghL come wlLhln Lhe
purvlew of Art|c|e 166, 167, 171 and 172 of Lhe
Code, lL ls necessary LhaL Lhe blank spaces by fllled
and Lhe slgnaLure of a parLy purporLed Lo be
auLhorlzed Lo lssue lL be wrlLLen by anoLher ln Lhe
counLerfelLed lnsLrumenL.

V. resumpt|ons
1he possessor of Lhe falslfled documenL ls presumed Lo be
Lhe auLhor of Lhe falslflcaLlon.
1he rule ls LhaL lf a person had ln hls possesslon a falslfled
documenL and he made use of lL (uLLered lL) Laklng
advanLage of lL and proflLlng Lhereby, Lhe presumpLlon ls
LhaL he ls Lhe maLerlal auLhor of Lhe falslflcaLlon.
Lxcept|on: 1he presumpLlon cannoL arlse when lL was parL of
Lhe accused's offlclal duLy Lo prepare Lhe documenLs (Alonzo
v. lnLermedlaLe AppellaLe CourL).

VI. Damage or Intent to cause damage |s not necessary
uamage Lo Lhlrd parLles are noL necessary slnce Lhe prlnclpal
Lhlng punlshed ls Lhe vlolaLlon of Lhe publlc falLh and Lhe
desLrucLlon of Lhe LruLh.
8U1 lack of mallce or crlmlnal lnLenL ls a defense ln
falslflcaLlon of publlc documenL.
____________________
AkAGkAn 2: IALSIIICA1ICN CI kIVA1L DCCUMLN1S

I. L|ements of fa|s|f|cat|on of pr|vate document: (171D)
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1. 1haL Lhe offender commlLLed any of Lhe acLs of falslflcaLlon,
excepL Lhose ln paragraph 7, enumeraLed ln ArLlcle 171
2. 1haL Lhe falslflcaLlon was commlLLed ln any prlvaLe
documenL.
3. 1haL Lhe falslflcaLlon caused damage Lo a Lhlrd parLy or aL
leasL Lhe falslflcaLlon was commlLLed wlLh lnLenL Lo cause
such damage.

II. Mere fa|s|f|cat|on of a pr|vate document |s not suff|c|ent
1wo Lhlngs are requlred:
1. Pe musL have counLerfelLed Lhe false documenL.
2. Pe musL have performed an lndependenL acL whlch operaLes
Lo Lhe pre[udlce of a Lhlrd person.

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Damage to th|rd party
uamage need noL be maLerlal. 1he lasL does noL make any
dlsLlncLlon beLween pre[uclo" and dano." uamage Lo one's
honor ls lncluded.
lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe offender proflLed or hoped Lo
proflL by Lhe falslflcaLlon so long as Lhere ls an lnLenL Lo
pre[udlce anoLher person.

IV. Ia|s|f|cat|on as a necessary means to comm|t other cr|mes
A. Ma|n o|nt (Atty. De Castro)
lalslflcaLlon ls ofLen commlLLed as a means Lo an end.
Art|c|e 48 usually applles LxCL1 lf falslflcaLlon ls done Lo
cover up a crlme already commlLLed.
o 1he documenL falslfled musL be publlc, offlclal or
commerclal.

8. ub||c v. r|vate Documents
ln falslflcaLlon of publlc, offlclal or commerclal documenLs,
Lhe falslflcaLlon has been commlLLed prlor Lo lLs uLlllzaLlon.
AcLually uLlllzlng lL Lo defraud anoLher would consLlLuLe
esLafa. 8uL Lhe damage Lo anoLher ls caused by Lhe
commlsslon of esLafa, noL by Lhe falslflcaLlon of Lhe
documenL. 1herefore, Lhe falslflcaLlon of Lhe publlc
documenL ls only a necessary means Lo commlL esLafa.
ln falslflcaLlon of prlvaLe documenL, Lhere ls no crlme unless
damage occurred. 1he lnLenL Lo defraud anoLher Lhrough Lhe
use of falslfled prlvaLe documenL does noL glve rlse Lo esLafa
because Lhe damage resulLlng from lL would be an elemenL
of Lhe crlme falslflcaLlon of a prlvaLe documenL. 1here ls no
complex crlme of esLafa Lhrough falslflcaLlon of a prlvaLe
documenL.
o lf Lhe esLafa was already consummaLed aL Lhe Llme
of Lhe falslflcaLlon of Lhe prlvaLe documenL, or lf Lhe
falslflcaLlon was commlLLed for Lhe purpose of
conceallng Lhe esLarafa, Lhe falslflcaLlon ls noL
punlshable slnce Lhere ls no damage or lnLenL Lo
cause damage.

C. Cther cr|mes comp|exed w|th fa|s|f|cat|on of documents
1hefL Lhrough falslflcaLlon of offlclal documenL (p. 236)
LsLafa Lhrough falslflcaLlon of commerclal documenL by
reckless lmprudence (p 236)
MalversaLlon Lhrough falslflcaLlon of publlc doc (p. 237)
lalslflcaLlon Lhrough reckless lmprudence (p. 238)
o 1here ls noL falslflcaLlon of prlvaLe documenL
Lhrough reckless lmprudence (p. 239)

V. ub||c Documents v|s--v|s r|vate Documents
A. When r|vate Documents become ub||c Documents
When Lhe prlvaLe documenL was falslfled before lL becomes
parL of Lhe offlclal record, Lhe lndlvldual ls llable for
falslflcaLlon of prlvaLe documenL only.
1he crlme ls falslflcaLlon of publlc documenL, even lf Lhe
falslflcaLlon Look place before Lhe prlvaLe documenL
becomes parL of Lhe publlc records, lf Lhe documenL ls
lnLended by law Lo be parL of Lhe publlc or offlclal record.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
o lLs preparaLlon belng ln accordance wlLh Lhe rules
and regulaLlons lssued by Lhe CovernmenL, Lhe
falslflcaLlon of LhaL documenL, alLhough lL was a
prlvaLe documenL aL Lhe Llme of Lls falslflcaLlon ls
regarded as falslflcaLlon of a publlc or offlclal doc.

8. D|fference between fa|s|f|cat|on of pub||c and pr|vate documents
ub||c Documents r|vate Documents
rlnclpal Lhlng punlshed ls Lhe
vlolaLlon of publlc falLh and Lhe
perverslon of Lhe LruLh whlch Lhe
documenL solemnly proclalms
rlnclpal Lhlng punlshed ls Lhe
pre[udlce caused or lnLended Lo
be caused Lo a Lhlrd parLy

____________________
AkAGkAn 3: USL CI IALSIIILD DCCUMLN1

I. L|ement of use of fa|s|f|ed document
A. Introduc|ng |n a [ud|c|a| proceed|ng (kLI)
1. 1haL Lhe offender knew LhaL a documenL was falslfled by
anoLher person.
2. 1haL Lhe false documenL ls embraced ln Art|c|e 171 or ln any
subd|v|s|on No.1 or 2 of Art|c|e 172
3. 1haL he lnLroduced sald documenL ln evldence ln any [udlclal
proceedlng.
8. Use |n any other transact|on (kL-NI-D)
1. 1haL Lhe offender knew LhaL a documenL was falslfled by
anoLher person.
2. 1haL Lhe false documenL ls embraced ln Art|c|e 171 or ln any
of Lhe subd|v|s|on No. 1 or 2 or Art|c|e 172
3. 1haL he used such documenL (noL ln [udlclal proceedlngs)
4. 1haL Lhe use of Lhe false documenL caused damage Lo
anoLher or aL leasL lL was used wlLh lnLenL Lo cause such
damage.

II. Use |n Iud|c|a| roceed|ngs v. Use |n Non-Iud|c|a| roceed|ngs
Iud|c|a| roceed|ngs Non-Iud|c|a| roceed|ngs
uamage ls noL necessary AL leasL lnLenL Lo cause damage
ls necessary

III. Cffender
1he person who used Lhe falslfled documenL ls noL Lhe one
who falslfled Lhe documenL. lf Lhe one who used Lhe falslfled
documenL ls Lhe same person who falslfled lL, Lhe crlme ls
noL falslflcaLlon and Lhe use of Lhe same ls noL a separaLe
crlme.
1he user of the fa|s|f|ed document |s deemed the author of
Lhe falslflcaLlon lf (1) Lhe use was so closely connecLed ln
Llme wlLh Lhe falslflcaLlon, and (2) Lhe user had Lhe capaclLy
of falslfylng Lhe documenL.

IV. Cther o|nts
use of falslfled documenL ls noL necessarlly lncluded ln Lhe
crlme of falslflcaLlon.

Art|c|e 173 - Ia|s|f|cat|on of w|re|ess, cab|e, te|egraph and
te|ephone messages, and use of sa|d fa|s|f|ed messages.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and max|mum
per|ods sha|| be |mposed upon off|cer or emp|oyee of the
Government or of any pr|vate corporat|on or concern engaged |n
the serv|ce of send|ng or rece|v|ng w|re|ess, cab|e or te|ephone
message who utters a f|ct|t|ous w|re|ess, te|egraph or te|ephone
message of any system or fa|s|f|es the same.

Any person who sha|| use such fa|s|f|ed d|spatch to the pre[ud|ce of
a th|rd party or w|th the |ntent of cause such pre[ud|ce, sha|| suffer
the pena|ty next |ower |n degree.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e
1. uLLerlng flcLlLlous wlreless, Lelegraph or Lelephone message.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
2. lalslfylng wlreless, Lelegraph or Lelephone message.
3. uslng such falslfled message
____________________
AkAGkAn 1: U11LkING IIC1I1ICUS Ck IALSIIING MLSSAGL

I. L|ements: (G-UI)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls an offlcer or employee of Lhe
CovernmenL or an offlcer or employee of a prlvaLe
corporaLlon, engaged ln Lhe servlce of sendlng or recelvlng
wlreless, cable or Lelephone message.
2. 1haL Lhe offender commlLs any of Lhe followlng acLs.
a. uLLerlng flcLlLlous wlreless, Lelegraph or Lelephone
message.
b. lalslfylng wlreless, Lelegraph or Lelephone message.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: 1he offender
1he publlc offlcer, Lo be llable, musL be engaged ln Lhe
servlce of sendlng or recelvlng wlreless, cable, Lelegraph or
Lelephone message.
Lxample: 1elegraph operaLor of Lhe 8ureau of osLs or Lhe
operaLor of CovernmenL Lelephone

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Utter|ng or fa|s|fy|ng messages
uS v. 8omero ! 1he accused reduced Lhe number of words
of Lhe Lelegraph message wlLhouL havlng been auLhorlzed Lo
do so by Lhe sender.

____________________
AkAGkAn 2: USL CI IALSIIILD MLSSAGLS

I. L|ements: (kU)
1. 1haL Lhe accused knew LhaL wlreless, cable, Lelegraph or
Lelephone message was falslfled by any of Lhe persons
speclfled ln Lhe flrsL paragraph of Art|c|e 173.
2. 1haL Lhe accused used such falslfled dlspaLch.
3. 1haL Lhe use of Lhe falslfled dlspaLch resulLed ln Lhe
pre[udlce of a Lhlrd parLy, or LhaL Lhe use Lhereof was wlLh
lnLenL Lo cause such pre[udlce.

II. r|vate |nd|v|dua| cannot be a pr|nc|pa| by d|rect part|c|pat|on |n
fa|s|f|cat|on of te|egraph|c d|spatches under Art|c|e 173
unless he ls an employee of a corporaLlon ln Lhe buslness of
sendlng or recelvlng wlreless Lelegraph or Lelephone
messages.
8uL a prlvaLe lndlvldual can be held crlmlnally llable as
prlnclpal by lnducemenL ln Lhe falslflcaLlon of Lelegraph
dlspaLches or Lelephone messages.

III. Act No. 18S1, Sect|on 4, pun|shes pr|vate |nd|v|dua|s who forge
or a|ter te|egram
Any person who wlllfully forges or subsLanLlally alLers a
Lelegraph or who uLLers a Lelegram knowlng Lhe same Lo be
forged, or who uLLers as a Lelegraph any message or
communlcaLlon whlch he knows Lo be noL a Lelegraph, ls
punlshed by a flne noL exceedlng 100 pesos.

Sect|on S Ia|s|f|cat|on of med|ca| cert|f|cates, cert|f|cates of
mer|t or serv|ces and the ||ke.

Art|c|e 174 - Ia|se med|ca| cert|f|cates, fa|se cert|f|cates of mer|ts
or serv|ce, etc.
1he pena|t|es of arresto mayor |n |ts max|mum per|od to pr|s|on
correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od and a f|ne not to exceed 1,000
pesos sha|| be |mposed upon:
1. Any phys|c|an or surgeon who, |n connect|on, w|th the
pract|ce of h|s profess|on, sha|| |ssue a fa|se cert|f|cate, and
2. Any pub||c off|cer who sha|| |ssue a fa|se cert|f|cate of mer|t
of serv|ce, good conduct or s|m||ar c|rcumstances.

1he pena|ty of arresto mayor sha|| be |mposed upon any pr|vate
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
person who sha|| fa|s|fy a cert|f|cate fa|||ng w|th|n the c|asses
ment|oned |n the two preced|ng subd|v|s|ons.

CIN1S
I. Def|n|t|ons
!'(&#)#-2&' ! ls any wrlLlng by whlch LesLlmony ls glven LhaL
a facL has or noL has noL Laken place.

II. ersons ||ab|e for fa|s|f|cat|on of cert|f|cates
1. Ia|se Med|ca| Cert|f|cate by a phys|c|an ! hyslclan or
surgeon who ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe pracLlce of hls
professlon lssued a false cerLlflcaLe referrlng Lo Lhe lllness or
ln[ury of a person.
2. Ia|se Cert|f|cate of Mer|t or Serv|ce by a pub||c off|cer !
ubllc offlcer who lssued a false cerLlflcaLe of merlL or
servlce, good conducL or slmllar clrcumsLance.
3. Ia|se Med|ca| Cert|f|cate by a pr|vate |nd|v|dua| or Ia|se
Cert|f|cate of Mer|t or Serv|ce by a pr|vate |nd|v|dua| !
rlvaLe lndlvldual who falslfled a cerLlflcaLe falllng ln Lhe
classes menLloned ln nos. 1 and 2.

III. Ia|s|f|cat|on of the cert|f|cate of |arge catt|e |s not now covered
by Art|c|e 174
ln vlew of Lhe omlsslon of Lhe word of properLy".
1he phrase or slmllar clrcumsLances" ln Art|c|e 174 does noL
seem Lo cover properLy, because Lhe clrcumsLances
conLemplaLed musL be slmllar Lo merlL", servlce" or good
conducL"
8u1 cerLlflcaLe of resldence for voLlng purposes ls cerLlflcaLe
of slmllar clrcumsLances"

Art|c|e 17S - Us|ng fa|se cert|f|cates.
1he pena|ty of arresto menor sha|| be |mposed upon any one who
sha|| know|ng|y use any of the fa|se cert|f|cates ment|oned |n the
next preced|ng art|c|e.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (IkU)
1. 1haL a physlclan or surgeon had lssued a false medlcal
cerLlflcaLe or a publlc offlcer had lssued a false cerLlflcaLe of
merlL or servlce, good conducL, or slmllar clrcumsLances, or a
prlvaLe person had falslfled any of sald cerLlflcaLes.
2. 1haL Lhe offender knew LhaL Lhe cerLlflcaLe was false.
3. 1haL he used Lhe same

II. Use of fa|se cert|f|cates under Art|c|e 174 |n [ud|c|a| proceed|ngs
When any of Lhe false cerLlflcaLes menLloned ln Art|c|e 174 ls
used ln Lhe [udlclal proceedlng, Art|c|e 172 does noL apply.
1he use of false documenLs ln [udlclal proceedlngs under
Art|c|e 172 are llmlLed Lo Lhose llsLed ln Art|c|e 171 and 172.

Sect|on 6 Manufactur|ng, |mport|ng and possess|on of
|nstruments or |mp|ements |ntended for the comm|ss|on of
fa|s|f|cat|on.

Art|c|e 176 - Manufactur|ng and possess|on of |nstruments or
|mp|ements for fa|s|f|cat|on.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and max|mum
per|ods and a f|ne not to exceed 10,000 pesos sha|| be |mposed
upon any person who sha|| make or |ntroduce |nto the h|||pp|ne
Is|ands any stamps, d|es, marks, or other |nstruments or
|mp|ements |ntended to be used |n the comm|ss|on of the offenses
of counterfe|t|ng or fa|s|f|cat|on ment|oned |n the preced|ng
sect|ons of th|s Chapter.

Any person who, w|th the |ntent|on of us|ng them, sha|| have |n h|s
possess|on any of the |nstruments or |mp|ements ment|oned |n the
preced|ng paragraphs, sha|| suffer the pena|ty next |ower |n degree
than that prov|ded there|n.

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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e
1. Maklng or lnLroduclng ln Lhe hlllpplnes any sLamps, dles,
marks, or oLher lnsLrumenLs or lmplemenLs for
counLerfelLlng or falslflcaLlon.
2. ossesslng wlLh lnLenL Lo use Lhe lnsLrumenLs or lmplemenLs
for counLerfelLlng or falslflcaLlon made ln or lnLroduced ln
Lhe hlllpplnes by anoLher person.

II. Mak|ng or Introduc|ng
uS v. Angeles ! A person who manufacLured a seal ln
lmlLaLlon of Lhe seal of Llpa for maklng false cerLlflcaLes for
Lhe Lransfer of llvesLock.
1he lmplemenLs conflscaLed need noL form a compleLe seL.
o lL ls enough LhaL Lhey may be employed by
Lhemselves or LogeLher wlLh oLher lmplemenLs Lo
commlL Lhe crlme of counLerfelLlng or falslflcaLlon.

III. ossess|on w|th |ntent to use
eople v. Magpale ! A person who possessed an lron brand
Lo be used ln falslfylng Lhe offlclal brand of a munlclpallLy for
caLLle brandlng ls gullLy of lllegal possesslon of lnsLrumenL
for falslflcaLlon.
Art|c|es 16S and 176, also punlsh consLrucLlve possesslon.

Chapter 1wo: Cther Ia|s|f|cat|ons

Sect|on 1 Usurpat|on of author|ty, rank, t|t|e, and |mproper use
of names, un|forms and |ns|gn|a.

Art|c|e 177 - Usurpat|on of author|ty or off|c|a| funct|ons.
Any person who sha|| know|ng|y and fa|se|y represent h|mse|f to be
an off|cer, agent or representat|ve of any department or agency of
the h|||pp|ne Government or of any fore|gn government, or who,
under pretense of off|c|a| pos|t|on, sha|| perform any act perta|n|ng
to any person |n author|ty or pub||c off|cer of the h|||pp|ne
Government or any fore|gn government, or any agency thereof,
w|thout be|ng |awfu||y ent|t|ed to do so, sha|| suffer the pena|ty of
pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um per|ods. (!"
$%&'(&( )* +.!. ,-. <=9).

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e
1. usurpaLlon of auLhorlLy
a. 8y knowlngly and falsely represenLlng oneself Lo be
an offlcer, agenL, or represenLaLlve of any
deparLmenL or agency of Lhe hlllpplne CovernmenL
or any forelgn governmenL.
b. ln usurpaLlon of auLhorlLy, Lhe mere acL of knowlngly
and falsely represenLlng oneself Lo be an offlcer, eLc.
ls sufflclenL. lL ls noL necessary LhaL he performs an
acL perLalnlng Lo a publlc offlcer.
2. usurpaLlon of offlclal funcLlons
a. 8y performlng any acL perLalnlng Lo any person ln
auLhorlLy or publlc offlcer of Lhe hlllpplne
CovernmenL or of a forelgn governmenL or any
agency Lhereof, under preLense of offlclal poslLlon,
and wlLhouL belng lawfully enLlLled Lo do so.
b. ln usurpaLlon of offlclal funcLlons, lL ls essenLlal LhaL
Lhe offender should have performed an acL
perLalnlng Lo a person ln auLhorlLy or publlc offlcer,
ln addlLlon Lo oLher requlremenLs.

II. L|ements (need not concur as presence of one or the other |s
a|ready a cr|me):
1. 1haL Lhe offender represenLed hlmself Lo be an offlcer, agenL
or represenLaLlve of any deparLmenL or agency of Lhe
governmenL.
2. 1haL Lhe offender performed an acL perLalnlng Lo a person ln
auLhorlLy or a publlc offlcer.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE

III. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: os|t|ve, express and exp||c|t representat|on
eople v. Callnlsan ! 1he crlme ls noL commlLLed lf Lhe
accused merely dld noL deny LhaL he was an agenL of Lhe
hlllpplne CovernmenL when lnLroduced as such.
lalse represenLaLlon may be shown by acLs.
Art|c|e 177 may be vlolaLed by a publlc offlcer such as when
a Councllor conLlnues Lo exerclse Lhe powers of a Mayor ln
Lhe laLLer's absence desplLe noLlce from LxecuLlve SecreLary
LhaL lL should be handed over Lo Lhe vlce Mayor.
8U1 Lhls arLlcle does noL cover Lhe usurpaLlon of one offlcer
or employee of a glven deparLmenL of Lhe power of anoLher
offlcer ln Lhe same deparLmenL. Lxample, Lhe exerclse of a
bureau employee of Lhe power of hls dlrecLor.
Art|c|e 177 as amended does noL apply Lo occupanL under
color of LlLle.
o A usurper ls one who lnLroduces hlmself lnLo an
offlce LhaL ls vacanL, or who, wlLhouL color of LlLle,
ousLs Lhe lncumbenL and assumes Lo acL as an
offlcer, by exerclslng some of Lhe funcLlons of Lhe
offlce.

IV. Art|c|e 177 pena||zes usurpat|on of fore|gn off|c|a|s
Art|c|e 177 punlshes usurpaLlon of auLhorlLy or offlclal
funcLlons of any offlcer of any forelgn governmenL.
k.A. No. 7S
o AddlLlonal penalLy for usurplng Lhe auLhorlLy of
dlplomaLlc or consular or any oLher offlclal of a
forelgn governmenL.
o 1he offender musL have Lhe lnLenL Lo defraud boLh
governmenLs.
k.A. No. 10
o enallzes anyone who performs acLs perLalnlng Lo
governmenL auLhorlLles.
o 1he acL performed, wlLhouL Lhe offender belng
lawfully enLlLled Lo do so, musL perLaln (1) Lo Lhe
CovernmenL, or (2) Lo any person ln auLhorlLy, or (3)
Lo any publlc offlcer.
o 1hls acL ls appllcable only Lo members of sedlLlous
organlzaLlon engaged ln subverslve acLlvlLles.

Art|c|e 178 - Us|ng f|ct|t|ous name and concea||ng true name.
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor and a f|ne not to exceed S00 pesos
sha|| be |mposed upon any person who sha|| pub||c|y use a f|ct|t|ous
name for the purpose of concea||ng a cr|me, evad|ng the execut|on
of a [udgment or caus|ng damage.

Any person who concea|s h|s true name and other persona|
c|rcumstances sha|| be pun|shed by arresto menor or a f|ne not to
exceed 200 pesos.

CIN1S
AkAGkAn 1: USL CI IIC1I1ICUS NAML

I. L|ements: (N-CLD)
1. 1haL Lhe offender uses a name oLher Lhan hls real name
2. 1haL he uses Lhe flcLlLlous name publlcly
3. 1haL Lhe purpose of Lhe offender ls -
a. 1o conceal a crlme
b. 1o evade Lhe execuLlon of a [udgmenL
c. 1o cause damage Lo publlc lnLeresL

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: I|ct|t|ous name
8#-&#&#"%. @20' ! any oLher name whlch a person publlcly
applles Lo hlmself wlLhouL auLhorlLy of law.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Use of f|ct|t|ous name pub||c|y
Slgnlng flcLlLlous name ln an appllcaLlon for passporL ls publlc
uslng such flcLlLlous name

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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
IV. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: urpose -
A. Concea| a cr|me Ck 8. Lvade [udgment
Where a person Lakes Lhe place of anoLher who has been
convlcLed by flnal [udgmenL, he ls gullLy of uslng a flcLlLlous
name, and noL of evaslon of Lhe servlce of Lhe senLence
because Lhe real convlcL ls gullLy Lhereof.

C. Cause Damage
Causlng damage musL Lo Lhe publlc lnLeresL. lf lL ls lL damage
Lo prlvaLe lnLeresL, Lhe crlme wlll be esLafa under Art|c|e 31S
____________________
AkAGkAn 2: CCNCLALING 1kUL NAML

I. L|ements: (C-tp-I)
1. 1haL Lhe offender conceals -
a. Pls Lrue name
b. All oLher personal clrcumsLances
2. 1haL Lhe purpose ls Lo conceal hls ldenLlLy.

II. D|st|nct|on between use of f|ct|t|ous name and concea||ng true
name
Use of I|ct|t|ous Name Concea||ng of 1rue Name
1he elemenL of publlclLy musL be
presenL
ubllclLy ls noL necessary
urpose ls any of Lhose
enumeraLed
urpose ls merely Lo conceal
ldenLlLy
____________________
CCMMCNWLAL1n AC1 NC. 142 as amended by k.A. NC. 608S

I. Law on I||ega| Use of A||as
lnLenL Lo publlcly use Lhe allas musL be manlfesL.
8equlred publlclLy ln Lhe use of allas ls more Lhan mere
communlcaLlon Lo a Lhlrd person, Lhe use of Lhe allas, Lo be
consldered publlc, musL be made openly ln an open manner
or place, or Lo cause lL Lo become generally known.

II. Lxamp|e of V|o|at|on of Ant|-A||as Law
Pock Llan v. 8epubllc ! Aslde from Lhe name Cng Plck
Llan," appellee ls uslng Lhe allas !ullan Cng." 1here ls noL
evldence LhaL Lhe appellee has been bapLlzed wlLh Lhe laLer
name or LhaL he has been known by lL slnce chlldhood, or
LhaL Lhe courL has auLhorlzed Lhe use Lhereof. Appellee has,
Lherefore, commlLLed a vlolaLlon of Lhe AnLl-Allas Law.

Art|c|e 179 - I||ega| use of un|forms or |ns|gn|a.
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor sha|| be |mposed upon any person
who sha|| pub||c|y and |mproper|y make use of |ns|gn|a, un|forms or
dress perta|n|ng to an off|ce not he|d by such person or to a c|ass of
persons of wh|ch he |s not a member.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (UNI)
1. 1haL Lhe offender makes use of Lhe lnslgnla, unlform or
dress.
2. 1haL Lhe lnslgnla, unlform or dress perLalns Lo an offlce noL
held by Lhe offender or Lo a class of persons of whlch he ls
noL a member.
3. 1haL sald lnslgnla, unlform or dress ls used publlcly and
lmproperly.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: An exact |m|tat|on of a un|form or dress |s
unnecessary
eople v. 8omero ! an exacL lmlLaLlon of Lhe unlform ls noL
necessary. A colorable resemblance calculaLed Lo decelve
Lhe common run of people - noL Lhose Lhoroughly famlllar
wlLh every deLall or accessory Lhereof - ls sufflclenL.
A layman who wears publlcly Lhe eccleslasLlcal hablL of a
CaLhollc prlesL ls llable under Art|c|e 179.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Un|form of an off|ce not he|d by offender
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
Wearlng Lhe unlform of an lmaglnary offlce, noL punlshable.
1he lnslgnla, unlform or dress should perLaln Lo an offlce or
class of persons.

IV. k.A. No. 7S
uslng unlform, decoraLlon or regalla of forelgn SLaLe wlLh
lnLenL Lo decelve or mlslead ls punlshed under Lhls acL.
o Wearlng lnslgnla, badge or emblem of rank of Lhe
member of Lhe Armed lorces of Lhe hlllpplnes or
ConsLabulary ls punlshed by k.A. No. 493.
1hls ls noL appllcable Lo Lhe use or wearlng of such aLLlres for
purposes of LheaLer or fllm producLlon.

V. L.C. No. 297
1hls penallzes Lhe lllegal manufacLure, sale, dlsLrlbuLlon and
use of n unlforms, lnslgnlas and oLher accouLermenLs.
Any person who shall publlcly and lmproperly make use of
lnslgnlas, unlforms or dress perLalnlng excluslvely for
unlformed n personnel and n of whlch he/she ls noL a
member shall be crlmlnally llable pursuanL Lo Art|c|e 179.

Sect|on 2 Ia|se test|mony

I. Def|n|t|ons
827.' A'.&#0"$< ! commlLLed by a person who, beln under
oaLh and requlred Lo LesLlfy as Lo Lhe LruLh of a cerLaln
maLLer aL a hearlng before a compeLenL auLhorlLy, shall deny
Lhe LruLh or say someLhlng conLrary Lo lL.
lalsehood ls parLlcularly odlous when commlLLed ln [udlclal
proceedlngs as lL consLlLuLes an lmposlLlon upon Lhe courL
and serlously exposes lL Lo a mlscarrlage of [usLlce.

Art|c|e 180 - Ia|se test|mony aga|nst a defendant.
Any person who sha|| g|ve fa|se test|mony aga|nst the defendant |n
any cr|m|na| case sha|| suffer:
1. 1he pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora|, |f the defendant |n sa|d
case sha|| have been sentenced to death,
2. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor, |f the defendant sha|| have
been sentenced to rec|us|on tempora| or rec|us|on
perpetua,
3. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona|, |f the defendant sha||
have been sentenced to any other aff||ct|ve pena|ty, and
4. 1he pena|ty of arresto mayor, |f the defendant sha|| have
been sentenced to a correct|ona| pena|ty or a f|ne, or sha||
have been acqu|tted.

In cases prov|ded |n subd|v|s|ons 3 and 4 of th|s art|c|e the offender
sha|| further suffer a f|ne not to exceed 1,000 pesos.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (CIkI)
1. 1haL Lhere be a crlmlnal proceedlng
2. 1haL Lhe offender LesLlfles falsely under oaLh agalnsL Lhe
defendanL Lhereln.
3. 1haL Lhe offender who glves false LesLlmony knows LhaL lL ls
false.
4. 1haL Lhe defendanL agalnsL whom Lhe false LesLlmony ls
glven ls elLher acqulLLed or convlcLed ln a flnal [udgmenL.

II. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: Defendant |s e|ther acqu|tted or conv|cted
enalLy depends upon Lhe senLence of Lhe defendanL agalnsL
whom false LesLlmony was glven.
uefendanL musL be senLenced aL leasL Lo (1) a correcLlonal
penalLy, (2) a flne, or (3) musL be acqulLLed.
o lacLs: A ls accused and of sllghL physlcal ln[urles and
was convlcLed afLer 8 LesLlfled falsely agalnsL hlm. A
ls senLenced Lo 13 days of arresLo menor.
o Peld: 8 ls nC1 gullLy of false LesLlmony because
arresLo menor ls noL a correcLlonal penalLy.

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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
III. Cffender |s ||ab|e even |f h|s test|mony was not cons|dered by
the court.
1he law lnLends Lo punlsh mere glvlng of false LesLlmony.

Art|c|e 181 - Ia|se test|mony favorab|e to the defendants.
Any person who sha|| g|ve fa|se test|mony |n favor of the defendant
|n a cr|m|na| case, sha|| suffer the pena|t|es of arresto mayor |n |ts
max|mum per|od to pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od a
f|ne not to exceed 1,000 pesos, |f the prosecut|on |s for a fe|ony
pun|shab|e by an aff||ct|ve pena|ty, and the pena|ty of arresto
mayor |n any other case.

CIN1S
I. keason for pun|sh|ng the cr|me of fa|se test|mony
lalse LesLlmony ls punlshed noL because of Lhe effecL lL
acLually produces, buL because of lLs Lendency Lo favor or Lo
pre[udlce Lhe defendanL.

II. Ia|se 1est|mony favorab|e to the defendant |s equa||y repugnant
to the order|y adm|n|strat|on of [ust|ce and deserves repress|on
lalse LesLlmony by negaLlve sLaLemenLs ln ls favor of
defendanL
o A wlLness who falsely LesLlfled LhaL he nelLher saw
nor was presenL aL Lhe kllllng of Lhe deceased, ls
gullLy of false LesLlmony because by noL LesLlfylng for
Lhe prosecuLlon, he favored Lhe defendanL.
1he defendanL who falsely LesLlfled ln hls own behalf ln a
crlmlnal case ls gullLy of false LesLlmony favorable Lo Lhe
defendanL.
o uS v. Sollman ! 1he rlghL of an accused person Lo
LesLlfy ln hls own behalf ls secured Lo hlm, noL LhaL
he may be enabled Lo lnLroduce false LesLlmony lnLo
Lhe record, buL Lo enable hlm Lo spread upon Lhe
record Lhe LruLh as Lo any maLLer wlLhln hls
knowledge whlch wlll Lend Lo esLabllsh hls
lnnocence. 1hls rullng ls appllcable only when Lhe
defendanL volunLarlly goes upon Lhe wlLness sLand
and falsely lmpuLes Lo some oLher person Lhe
commlsslon of a grave offense. lf he merely denles
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme or hls parLlclpaLlon
Lhereln, he should noL be prosecuLed for false
LesLlmony.

III. 1he fa|se test|mony |n favor of the defendant need not d|rect|y
|nf|uence the dec|s|on
eople v. 8eyes ! lL ls sufflclenL LhaL such false LesLlmony
was glven wlLh Lhe lnLenL Lo favor Lhe accused. ln Lhls case,
such lnLenL ls lndlcaLed by Lhe repeaLed sLaLemenL of Lhe
accused LhaL he was noL lnLeresLed ln Lhe prosecuLlon of Lhe
defendanL ln Lhe crlmlnal case where he gave Lhe false
LesLlmony.
uS v. Adolfo ! 1he false LesLlmony favorable Lo Lhe
defendanL need noL beneflL Lhe defendanL.
uS v. McCovern ! A sLaLemenL by a wlLness LhaL he ls an
experL ln handwrlLlng ls a sLaLemenL of a mere oplnlon, Lhe
falslLy of whlch ls noL sufflclenL Lo convlcL hlm. upon such
sLaLemenL, he ls noL allowed Lo LesLlfy as an experL. Pe ls
requlred Lo glve Lhe experlence whlch he has had ln Lhe arL
ln quesLlon. lf lL lshls LesLlmony relaLlve Lo hls experlence
whlch ls false, Lhls noL belng a sLaLemenL of mere oplnlon, he
may be llable.

IV. Conv|ct|on or acqu|tta| of defendant |n pr|nc|pa| case, not
necessary
lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lhe defendanL ln Lhe prlnclpal case ls
prosecuLed for a felony punlshable by affllcLlve penalLy or by
anoLher penalLy.
8uL Lhe gravlLy of Lhe crlme for whlch Lhe defendanL was
prosecuLed ln Lhe case where Lhe false LesLlmony was glven
should be shown ln order Lo deLermlne Lhe proper penalLy Lo
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
be lmposed on Lhe false wlLness.

V. kect|f|cat|on made spontaneous|y after rea||z|ng the m|stake |s
not fa|se test|mony
eople v. Ambal ! 1he wlLness was noL llable because Lhere
was lnsufflclenL evldence Lo prove LhaL he acLed wlLh mallce
or wlLh crlmlnal lnLenL Lo LesLlfy falsely.

Art|c|e 182 - Ia|se test|mony |n c|v|| cases.
Any person found gu||ty of fa|se test|mony |n a c|v|| case sha|| suffer
the pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od and a f|ne
not to exceed 6,000 pesos, |f the amount |n controversy sha||
exceed S,000 pesos, and the pena|ty of arresto mayor |n |ts
max|mum per|od to pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od and
a f|ne not to exceed 1,000 pesos, |f the amount |n controversy sha||
not exceed sa|d amount or cannot be est|mated.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (CkIkI)
1. 1haL Lhe LesLlmony musL be glven ln a clvll case
2. 1haL Lhe LesLlmony musL relaLe Lo Lhe lssues presenLed ln
sald case.
3. 1haL Lhe LesLlmony musL be false.
4. 1haL Lhe false LesLlmony was glven by Lhe defendanL
knowlng Lhe same Lo be false.
3. 1haL Lhe LesLlmony be mallclous and glven wlLh an lnLenL Lo
affecL Lhe lssues presenLed ln sald case.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: G|ven |n a c|v|| case.
Art|c|e 182 ls appllcable only ln ordlnary clvll cases (Sect|on
1, ku|e 2, ku|es of Court)
o Clvll acLlons are deflned as an ordlnary sulL ln a courL
of [usLlce, by whlch one parLy prosecuLes anoLher for
Lhe enforcemenL or proLecLlon of a rlghL, or Lhe
prevenLlon or redress of a wrong." Lvery oLher
remedy ls a speclal proceedlng.
Art|c|e 182 ls noL appllcable when Lhe false LesLlmony ls
glven ln speclal proceedlngs such as summary seLLlemenL of
esLaLes of small value, whlch may fall under Lhe caLegory of
oLher cases" conLemplaLed ln Art|c|e 183 (Sect|on 2, ku|e
74, ku|es of Court).

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: 1he test|mony g|ven |s fa|se
1. lalslLy of LesLlmony musL flrsL be esLabllshed.
a. lf Lhe clvll case ls deLermlnaLlve of Lhe LruLhfulness
of Lhe LesLlmonles belng alleged as false ln a crlmlnal
case (l.e. pre[udlclal quesLlons), Lhen Lhe clvll case
musL flrsL be resolved before Lhe crlmlnal case of
false LesLlmony may proceed.

IV. ena|ty depends on the amount of the controversy

Art|c|e 183 - Ia|se test|mony |n other cases and per[ury |n so|emn
aff|rmat|on.
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor |n |ts max|mum per|od to pr|s|on
correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od sha|| be |mposed upon any
person, who know|ng|y makes untruthfu| statements and not be|ng
|nc|uded |n the prov|s|ons of the next preced|ng art|c|es, sha||
test|fy under oath, or make an aff|dav|t, upon any mater|a| matter
before a competent person author|zed to adm|n|ster an oath |n
cases |n wh|ch the |aw so requ|res.

Any person who, |n case of a so|emn aff|rmat|on made |n ||eu of an
oath, sha|| comm|t any of the fa|sehoods ment|oned |n th|s and the
three preced|ng art|c|es of th|s sect|on, sha|| suffer the respect|ve
pena|t|es prov|ded there|n.

CIN1S
I. 1wo ways of comm|tt|ng er[ury
1. 8y falsely LesLlfylng under oaLh
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
2. 8y maklng a false affldavlL
noLe: lalsely LesLlfylng under oaLh should nC1 be ln a [udlclal
proceedlng.

II. L|ements of er[ury: (SCDk)
1. 1haL Lhe accused made a sLaLemenL under oaLh or execuLed
an affldavlL upon a maLerlal maLLer.
2. 1haL Lhe sLaLemenL or affldavlL was made before a
compeLenL offlcer, auLhorlzed Lo recelve and admlnlsLer oaLh
3. 1haL ln LhaL sLaLemenL or affldavlL, Lhe accused made a
wlllful and dellberaLe asserLlon of a falsehood.
4. 1haL Lhe sworn sLaLemenL or affldavlL conLalnlng Lhe falslLy ls
requlred by law.

III. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Statement under oath or executed aff|dav|t
A. Made a statement under oath
92&= ! any form of aLLesLaLlon by whlch a person slgnlfles
LhaL he ls bound ln consclence Lo perform an acL falLhfully
and LruLhfully.
eople v. 8auLlsLa ! 8 made a sLaLemenL falsely charglng C
wlLh esLafa, LhaL ls LhaL Lhe laLLer borrowed from hlm an
Lngllsh manuscrlpL, and LhereafLer denled havlng recelved lL.
8e made lL under oaLh ln Lhe prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon
before Lhe !usLlce of eace. CullLy.

8. Lxecuted an aff|dav|t
B))#12C#& ! ls a sworn sLaLemenL ln wrlLlng, a declaraLlon ln
wrlLlng, made upon oaLh before an auLhorlzed maglsLraLe or
offlcer.
o 1he lower courL had Lhe oplnlon LhaL an affldavlL Lo a
crlmlnal complalnL has an enLlrely dlfferenL sLaLus
from an affldavlL for oLher purposes.
o eople v. 8lvera ! Lhe false affldavlL was noL a
vlolaLlon of Art|c|e 363 of Lhe 8evlsed enal Code,
buL lL was noL held LhaL lL would noL vlolaLe Art|c|e
183 of Lhe sald Code.
eople v. Cruz ! Cruz fllled up a blank appllcaLlon (Clvll
Servlce lorm no. 2) for Lhe paLrolman examlnaLlon where he
sLaLed LhaL he had never been accused, lndlcLed, or Lrled for
vlolaLlons before any courL, when ln facL he had been
prosecuLed for dlfferenL crlmes. 1he appllcaLlons was slgned
and sworn Lo hlm before Lhe munlclpal mayor. CullLy.

C. Mater|a| Matter
+2&'(#27 +2&&'( ! Lhe maln facL whlch ls Lhe sub[ecL of Lhe
lnqulry or any clrcumsLance whlch Lends Lo prove LhaL facL,
or any facL or clrcumsLance whlch Lends Lo corroboraLe or
sLrengLhen Lhe LesLlmony relaLlve Lo Lhe sub[ecL of lnqulry or
whlch leglLlmaLely affecLs Lhe credlL of any wlLness who
LesLlfles.
1he LesL of maLerlallLy ls wheLher a false sLaLemenL can
lnfluence Lhe Lrlbunal, noL wheLher lL does, or could
probably lnfluence Lhe resulL of Lhe Lrlal.
eople v. 8auLlsLa ! Lhe charge of wheLher or noL Lhe lLem
was ln Lhe possesslon of C ls deLermlnaLlve of wheLher or
noL Lhe charge of esLafa would prosper.
eople v. 8anzll ! 1he accused sLaLed LhaL he was slngle,
when ln LruLh he was marrled. Powever, such facL ls
lnslgnlflcanL Lo Lhe charge of lmmorallLy as a governmenL
employee.
Co||atera| matter does noL become maLerlal maLLer" merely
because Lhe declaranL mlsLakenly Lhlnks lL ls ln connecLlon
wlLh Lhe maln sub[ecL of lnvesLlgaLlon.
o lf Lhe false LesLlmony glven Lhe wlLness ls noL
lmporLanL, essenLlal or maLerlal Lo Lhe prlnclpal
maLLer under lnvesLlgaLlon, lL cannoL properly be
held LhaL per[ury ls commlLLed.
Where maLerlallLy ls a sLaLuLory elemenL of Lhe crlme, lL ls
seLLled LhaL Lhere musL be compeLenL proof of maLerlallLy of
Lhe false LesLlmony.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
Mater|a| v. ke|evant v. ert|nent
o MaLerlal ! when lL ls declared Lo prove a facL ln
lssue.
o 8elevanL ! when lL Lends ln any reasonable degree
Lo esLabllsh Lhe probablllLy or lmprobablllLy of a facL
ln lssue.
o erLlnenL ! when lL concerns collaLeral maLLers
whlch make more or less probable Lhe proposlLlon aL
lssue.

IV. SLCCND kLUISI1L: erson author|zed to adm|n|ster oaths
!"05'&'$& 5'(."$ 2%&="(#D'1 &" 210#$#.&'( 2$ "2&= !
means a person who has a rlghL Lo lnqulre lnLo Lhe quesLlons
presenLed Lo hlm upon maLLers under hls [urlsdlcLlon.
eople v. 8ella uavld ! a false affldavlL made before a clerk
of Lhe munlclpal Lreasurer's offlce ls noL punlshable under
aragraph 3, Art|c|e 183 because such clerk ls noL a
compeLenL person auLhorlzed Lo admlnlsLer oaLhs.

V. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: W|||fu| and de||berate assert|on of fa|sehood
E$"F#$*7< ! suggesLs LhaL Lhe asserLlon of falsehood musL
be wlllful and dellberaLe.
Cood falLh or lack of mallce ls a defense ln per[ury
o eople v. Abaya ! 1he accused dld noL acL wlLh
mallce even Lhough he knew LhaL Lhe properLy no
longer supposedly belonged Lo hlm as lL was already
owned by anoLher. Slnce Lhe land was sLlll reglsLered
ln hls name, Lhe accused who could noL be expecLed
Lo deLermlne Lhe properLy from a legal polnL of vlew
of Lhe lncluslon, merely sLaLed a facL.

VI. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: 1he |nformat|on |s requ|red by |aw
G'H%#('. ! should have a permlsslve - noL mandaLory -
effecL.
Where affldavlLs are requlred by law are:
o AffldavlL aLLached Lo Lhe peLlLlon for recelvershlp.
o AffldavlL aLLached Lo complalnL for e[ecLmenL.
o AffldavlL for appllcaLlon for marrlage llcense.
1he world requlres" may be glven Lhe meanlng of
auLhorlzes." Pence, Lhe 4
Lh
elemenL may be read LhaL Lhe
sworn sLaLemenL conLalnlng Lhe falslLy ls auLhorlzed by law."
Pence, eve lf Lhere ls noL law requlrlng Lhe sLaLemenL Lo be
made under oaLh, as long as lL ls made for a legal purpose, lL
ls sufflclenL.
lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lhe oaLh had been admlnlsLered wlLh a
vlew of carrylng lnLo effecL a legal purpose lnLended.

VII. o||cy of the |aw on per[ury
lL ls ln Lhe lnLeresL of publlc pollcy LhaL per[ury be noL
shlelded for per[ury sLrlkes aL Lhe very admlnlsLraLlon of
laws. lf ls Lhe pollcy of Lhe law LhaL [udlclal proceedlngs and
[udgmenL shall be falr and free from fraud, and LhaL llLlganLs
and parLles be encouraged Lo Lell Lhe LruLh and LhaL Lhey be
punlshed lf Lhey do noL.
Are Lwo conLradlcLory sworn sLaLemenLs sufflclenL Lo convlcL
one of per[ury? nC. 1he prosecuLlon musL prove whlch of
Lhe Lwo sLaLemenL ls false, and musL show LhaL sLaLemenL Lo
be false by oLher evldence Lhan Lhe conLradlcLory sLaLemenL.

VIII. "Not be|ng |nc|uded |n the prov|s|ons of the next preced|ng
art|c|es"
er[ury ls an offense whlch covers false oaLhs oLher Lhan
Lhose Laken ln Lhe course of [udlclal proceedlngs.
lalse LesLlmonles ln [udlclal proceedlngs conLemplaLes an
acLual Lrlal where a [udgmenL of convlcLlon or acqulLLal ls
rendered. 1hus, false LesLlmony before Lhe [usLlce of peace
or flscal durlng Lhe prellmlnary lnvesLlgaLlon may glve rlse Lo
Lhe crlme of per[ury.

Ik. Subornat|on of per[ury
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
;%:"($2&#"$ ") 5'(I%(< ! ls commlLLed by a person who
knowlngly and wlllfully procures anoLher Lo swear falsely and
Lhe wlLness suborned does LesLlfy under clrcumsLances
renderlng hlm gullLy of per[ury.
Lxample: 8 lnduces A Lo LesLlfy falsely LhaL Lhe flscal
aLLempLed Lo rape Lhe laLLer's daughLer. 8 ls gullLy of
subornaLlon of per[ury. 8 noL only knowlngly and wlllfully
lnduced A Lo swear falsely, buL he dld so mallclously, as lL
appeared LhaL he was an enemy of Lhe flscal.
SubornaLlon of per[ury ls no expressly penallzed ln Lhe 8C,
buL Lhe dlrecL lnducLlon of a person by anoLher Lo commlL
per[ury under Art|c|e 183 ln relaLlon Lo Art|c|e 17.
Cne who commlLs subornaLlon ls a prlnclpal by lnducemenL
ln Lhe crlme of plaln per[ury.

Art|c|e 184 - Cffer|ng fa|se test|mony |n ev|dence.
Any person who sha|| know|ng|y offer |n ev|dence a fa|se w|tness or
test|mony |n any [ud|c|a| or off|c|a| proceed|ng, sha|| be pun|shed as
gu||ty of fa|se test|mony and sha|| suffer the respect|ve pena|t|es
prov|ded |n th|s sect|on.

CIN1S
I. L|ements of offer|ng fa|se test|mony |n ev|dence: (Lk)
1. 1haL Lhe offender offered ln evldence a false wlLness or false
LesLlmony
2. 1haL he knew LhaL Lhe wlLness or Lhe LesLlmony ls was false.
3. 1haL Lhe offer was made ln [udlclal or offlclal proceedlng

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: know|ng offer fa|se ev|dence
(Sect|on 3S, ku|e 132, ku|es of Court) Cfferlng of evldence,
lnsofar as LesLlmonlal evldence ls concerned, beglns Lhe
momenL a wlLness ls called Lo Lhe wlLness sLand and
lnLerrogaLed by counsel. 1he wlLness musL have Lo LesLlfy.
lf Lhe false wlLness deslsLed before he could LesLlfy on any
maLerlal maLLer, he ls noL llable because deslsLance durlng
Lhe aLLempLed sLage of Lhe execuLlon ls an absoluLory cause.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: knew the w|tness to be fa|se
Art|c|e 184 conLemplaLes a slLuaLlon whereln a person,
wlLhouL lnduclng, anoLher, buL knowlng hlm Lo be a false
wlLness, presenLed hlm and Lhe laLLer LesLlfled falsely ln a
[udlclal or offlclal proceedlng.
lf Lhere ls lnducemenL, Art|c|e 180, 181, 182 or 183 ln
relaLlon Lo Art|c|e 7, par. 2 wlll apply.

IV. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Made |n off|c|a| or [ud|c|a| proceed|ng
enalLy ls LhaL for false LesLlmony lf commlLLed ln a [udlclal
proceedlng or LhaL per[ury lf commlLLed ln oLher offlclal
proceedlng.

Chapter 1hree: Irauds

Sect|on 1 Mach|nat|ons, monopo||es and comb|nat|ons

Art|c|e 18S - Mach|nat|ons |n pub||c auct|ons.
Any person who sha|| so||c|t any g|ft or prom|se as a cons|derat|on
for refra|n|ng from tak|ng part |n any pub||c auct|on, and any
person who sha|| attempt to cause b|dders to stay away from an
auct|on by threats, g|fts, prom|ses, or any other art|f|ce, w|th |ntent
to cause the reduct|on of the pr|ce of the th|ng auct|oned, sha||
suffer the pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od and
a f|ne rang|ng from 10 to S0 per centum of the va|ue of the th|ng
auct|oned.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e
1. 8y sollclLlng any glfL or promlse as a conslderaLlon for
refralnlng from Laklng parL ln any publlc aucLlon.
2. 8y aLLempLlng Lo cause bldders Lo sLay away from an aucLlon
by LhreaLs, glfLs, promlses, or any oLher arLlflce.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE

II. So||c|t|ng any g|ft or prom|se as cons|derat|on to refra|n
A. L|ements of so||c|t|ng g|ft or prom|se (Skk)
1. 1haL Lhere be a publlc aucLlon.
2. 1haL Lhe accused sollclLed any glfL or a promlse from any of
Lhe bldders.
3. 1haL such glfL or promlse was Lhe conslderaLlon for hls
refralnlng from Laklng parL ln LhaL publlc aucLlon.
4. 1haL Lhe accused had Lhe lnLenL Lo cause Lhe reducLlon of
Lhe prlce of Lhe Lhlng aucLloned.

8. Consummat|on by mere so||c|tat|on
lL ls noL requlred LhaL Lhe person maklng Lhe proposal
acLually refralns from Laklng parL ln any publlc aucLlon.
lL ls consummaLed by mere sollclLaLlon of glfL as
conslderaLlon for noL blddlng.
lf Lhe person Lo whom Lhe sollclLaLlon ls made agrees Lo pay
or glves Lhe glfL or makes a promlse, Lhen he wlll be a
prlnclpal ln Lhe crlme. Pls acL wlll be slmllar Lo Lhe second
way of commlLLlng Lhe crlme.

III. Attempt|ng to cause b|dders to stay away
A. L|ements of Attempt|ng to cause b|dders to stay away (AAk)
1. 1haL Lhere be a publlc aucLlon.
2. 1haL Lhe accused aLLempLed Lo cause Lhe bldders Lo sLay
away from Lhe publlc aucLlon.
3. 1haL lL was done by LhreaLs, glfLs, promlses or any oLher
arLlflce.
4. 1haL Lhe accused had Lhe lnLenL Lo cause Lhe reducLlon of
Lhe prlce of Lhe Lhlng aucLloned.

8. "Cther art|f|ce"
Mere aLLempL consummaLes Lhe crlme.
1he LhreaL need noL be effecLlve nor Lhe offer or glfL
accepLed for Lhe crlme Lo arlse.
1he bldders may be caused Lo sLay away from publlc aucLlon
by Lrlcks.

Art|c|e 186 - Monopo||es and comb|nat|ons |n restra|nt of trade.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od or a f|ne
rang|ng from 200 to 6,000 pesos, or both, sha|| be |mposed upon:
1. Any person who sha|| enter |nto any contract or agreement
or sha|| take part |n any consp|racy or comb|nat|on |n the
form of a trust or otherw|se, |n restra|nt of trade or
commerce or to prevent by art|f|c|a| means free
compet|t|on |n the market,
2. Any person who sha|| monopo||ze any merchand|se or
ob[ect of trade or commerce, or sha|| comb|ne w|th any
other person or persons to monopo||ze and merchand|se or
ob[ect |n order to a|ter the pr|ce thereof by spread|ng fa|se
rumors or mak|ng use of any other art|c|e to restra|n free
compet|t|on |n the market,
3. Any person who, be|ng a manufacturer, producer, or
processor of any merchand|se or ob[ect of commerce or an
|mporter of any merchand|se or ob[ect of commerce from
any fore|gn country, e|ther as pr|nc|pa| or agent, who|esa|er
or reta||er, sha|| comb|ne, consp|re or agree |n any manner
w|th any person ||kew|se engaged |n the manufacture,
product|on, process|ng, assemb||ng or |mportat|on of such
merchand|se or ob[ect of commerce or w|th any other
persons not so s|m||ar|y engaged for the purpose of mak|ng
transact|ons pre[ud|c|a| to |awfu| commerce, or of
|ncreas|ng the market pr|ce |n any part of the h|||pp|nes, of
any such merchand|se or ob[ect of commerce
manufactured, produced, processed, assemb|ed |n or
|mported |nto the h|||pp|nes, or of any art|c|e |n the
manufacture of wh|ch such manufactured, produced, or
|mported merchand|se or ob[ect of commerce |s used.

If the offense ment|oned |n th|s art|c|e affects any food substance,
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
motor fue| or |ubr|cants, or other art|c|es of pr|me necess|ty, the
pena|ty sha|| be that of pr|s|on mayor |n |ts max|mum and med|um
per|ods |t be|ng suff|c|ent for the |mpos|t|on thereof that the |n|t|a|
steps have been taken toward carry|ng out the purposes of the
comb|nat|on.

Any property possessed under any contract or by any comb|nat|on
ment|oned |n the preced|ng paragraphs, and be|ng the sub[ect
thereof, sha|| be forfe|ted to the Government of the h|||pp|nes.

Whenever any of the offenses descr|bed above |s comm|tted by a
corporat|on or assoc|at|on, the pres|dent and each one of |ts agents
or representat|ves |n the h|||pp|nes |n case of a fore|gn
corporat|on or assoc|at|on, who sha|| have know|ng|y perm|tted or
fa||ed to prevent the comm|ss|on of such offense, sha|| be he|d
||ab|e as pr|nc|pa|s thereof. (!" $%&'(&( )* +.!. ,-. 89;:)

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e
1. ComblnaLlon Lo prevenL free compeLlLlon ln Lhe markeL
2. Monopoly Lo resLraln free compeLlLlon ln Lhe markeL
3. ManufacLurer, producer, or processor or lmporLer
comblnlng, consplrlng or agreelng wlLh any person Lo make
LransacLlons pre[udlclal Lo lawful commerce or Lo lncrease
Lhe markeL prlce of merchandlse.

II. 1heory of the |aw |n pena||z|ng monopo||es and comb|nat|ons |n
restra|nt of trade
CompeLlLlon, noL comblnaLlon, should be Lhe law of Lrade.
____________________
AkAGkAn 1:

I. Mere consp|racy or comb|nat|on |s pun|shed
lf Lhe offense affecLs any food subsLance, moLor fuel, or
lubrlcanLs, or oLher arLlcles of prlme necesslLy, lL ls sufflclenL
LhaL lnlLlal sLeps are Laken Lo carry ouL Lhe purposes of
comblnaLlon for Lhe lmposlLlon of a hlgher penalLy.

II. ersons ||ab|e
When Lhe offense ls commlLLed by a corporaLlon or
assoclaLlon, Lhe presldenL and dlrecLors or managers who
knowlngly permlLLed or falled Lo prevenL Lhe commlsslon of
such offenses are llable.
o 1hls ls an excepLlon Lo Lhe rule LhaL a dlrecLor or
offlcer of a corporaLlon ls noL llable crlmlnally for Lhe
corporaLe acLs of oLher offlcers or agenLs.
____________________
AkAGkAn 2: Monopo|y or comb|nat|on by spread fa|se rumors

I. Spread|ng fa|se rumors to restra|n free compet|t|on
uS v. lulgueras ! a person dlsLrlbuLed flyers sLaLlng LhaL
unless Lhe prlces of needful commodlLles are lowered, Lhe
Lown would be vlslLed by floodlng. 1hls ls spreadlng false
rumors or maklng use of any oLher arLlflce Lo resLraln free
compeLlLlon ln Lhe markeL.
____________________
AkAGkAn 3: r|ce Man|pu|at|on

I. k.A. No. 7S81 or "1he r|ce Act" (p.283-28S)
1. Poardlng
a. 1he undue accumulaLlon by a person or comblnaLlon
of persons of any baslc commodlLy beyond hls or
Lhelr normal lnvenLory levels
b. 1he unreasonable llmlLaLlon or refusal Lo dlspose of,
sell or dlsLrlbuLe Lhe sLocks of any baslc necesslLy or
prlme commodlLy Lo Lhe general publlc
c. 1he un[usLlfled Laklng ouL of any baslc necesslLy of
prlme commodlLy from Lhe channels of
reproducLlon, Lrade, commerce and lndusLry
2. roflLeerlng: Lhe sale or offerlng for sale of any baslc
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
necesslLy or prlme commodlLy aL a prlce grossly ln excess of
lLs Lrue worLh.
3. CarLel: any comblnaLlon or of agreemenL beLween 2 or more
persons engaged ln Lhe producLlon, manufacLure,
processlng, sLorage, supply, dlsLrlbuLlon, markeLlng, sale or
dlsposlLlon of any baslc necesslLy or prlme commodlLy
deslgned Lo arLlflclally and unreasonably lncrease or
manlpulaLe lLs prlce.

Sect|on 2 Irauds |n commerce and |ndustry

Art|c|e 187 - Importat|on and d|spos|t|on of fa|se|y marked art|c|es
or merchand|se made of go|d, s||ver, or other prec|ous meta|s or
the|r a||oys.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| or a f|ne rang|ng from 200 to
1,000 pesos, or both, sha|| be |mposed on any person who sha||
know|ng|y |mport or se|| or d|spose of any art|c|e or merchand|se
made of go|d, s||ver, or other prec|ous meta|s, or the|r a||oys, w|th
stamps, brands, or marks wh|ch fa|| to |nd|cate the actua| f|neness
or qua||ty of sa|d meta|s or a||oys.

Any stamp, brand, |abe|, or mark sha|| be deemed to fa|| to |nd|cate
the actua| f|neness of the art|c|e on wh|ch |t |s engraved, pr|nted,
stamped, |abe|ed or attached, when the rest of the art|c|e shows
that the qua||ty or f|neness thereof |s |ess by more than one-ha|f
karat, |f made of go|d, and |ess by more than four one-thousandth,
|f made of s||ver, than what |s shown by sa|d stamp, brand, |abe| or
mark. 8ut |n case of watch cases and f|atware made of go|d, the
actua| f|neness of such go|d sha|| not be |ess by more than three
one-thousandth than the f|neness |nd|cated by sa|d stamp, brand,
|abe|, or mark.

CIN1S
I. Art|c|e or merchand|se |nvo|ved
1. Cold
2. Sllver
3. CLher prevlous meLals
4. 1helr alloys

II. L|ements (kII)
1. 1haL Lhe offender lmporLs, sells or dlsposes of any of Lhose
arLlcles or merchandlse.
2. 1haL Lhe sLamps, brands, or marks of Lhose arLlcles of
merchandlse fall Lo lndlcaLe Lhe acLual flneness or quallLy of
sald meLals or alloys.
3. 1haL Lhe offender knows LhaL Lhe sLamps, brands, or marks
of Lhose arLlcles of merchandlse fall Lo lndlcaLe Lhe acLual
flneness or quallLy of sald meLals or alloys.

III. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Cffender, |mports, se||s or d|sposes
Selllng Lhe mlsbranded arLlcles ls noL necessary.
ossesslon afLer lmporLlng Lhe same ls conLemplaLed. lL ls
noL necessary LhaL Lhey be sold and Lhe publlc be acLually
decelved. 8uL Lhere musL be evldence showlng LhaL Lhe
arLlcles were lmporLed.
Art|c|e 187 does noL apply Lo manufacLurer of mlsbranded
arLlcles made of gold, sllver, eLc. Such manufacLurer would
be llable under esLafa of Art|c|e 31S, subd|v|s|on 2(b).

____________________
kLU8LIC AC1 NC. 8293 (Inte||ectua| roperty Code of the
h|||pp|nes) repea|ed Art|c|es 188 and 189 wh|ch are |ncons|stent
therew|th.

Art|c|e 188 - Subs|st|ng and a|ter|ng trade-mark, trade-names, or
serv|ce marks.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od or a f|ne
rang|ng from S0 to 2,000 pesos, or both, sha|| be |mposed upon:
1. Any person who sha|| subst|tute the trade name or trade-
mark of some other manufacturer or dea|er or a co|orab|e
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
|m|tat|on thereof, for the trademark of the rea|
manufacturer or dea|er upon any art|c|e of commerce and
sha|| se|| the same,
2. Any person who sha|| se|| such art|c|es of commerce or
offer the same for sa|e, know|ng that the trade-name or
trade- mark has been fraudu|ent|y used |n such goods as
descr|bed |n the preced|ng subd|v|s|on,
3. Any person who, |n the sa|e or advert|s|ng of h|s serv|ces,
sha|| use or subst|tute the serv|ce mark of some other
person, or a co|orab|e |m|tat|on of such mark, or
4. Any person who, know|ng the purpose for wh|ch the trade-
name, trade-mark, or serv|ce mark of a person |s to be
used, pr|nts, ||thographs, or |n any way reproduces such
trade-name, trade-mark, or serv|ce mark, or a co|orab|e
|m|tat|on thereof, for another person, to enab|e that other
person to fraudu|ent|y use such trade-name, trade-mark, or
serv|ce mark on h|s own goods or |n connect|on w|th the
sa|e or advert|s|ng of h|s serv|ces.

A trade-name or trade-mark as here|n used |s a word or words,
name, t|t|e, symbo|, emb|em, s|gn or dev|ce, or any comb|nat|on
thereof used as an advert|sement, s|gn, |abe|, poster, or otherw|se,
for the purpose of enab||ng the pub||c to d|st|ngu|sh the bus|ness of
the person who owns and uses sa|d trade-name or trade-mark.

A serv|ce mark as here|n used |s a mark used |n the sa|e or
advert|s|ng of serv|ces to |dent|fy the serv|ces of one person and
d|st|ngu|sh them from the serv|ces of others and |nc|udes w|thout
||m|tat|on the marks, names, symbo|s, t|t|es, des|gnat|ons, s|ogans,
character names, and d|st|nct|ve features of rad|o or other
advert|s|ng.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e
1. 8y (1) subsLlLuLlng Lhe Lrade name or Lrademark of some
oLher manufacLurer or dealer, or a colorable lmlLaLlon
Lhereof, for Lhe Lrade name or Lrademark of Lhe real
manufacLurer or dealer upon any arLlcle of commerce, and
(2) selllng Lhe same.
2. 8y selllng or by offerlng for sale such arLlcle of commerce,
knowlng LhaL Lhe Lrade name or Lrademark has been
fraudulenLly used.
3. 8y uslng or subsLlLuLlng Lhe servlce mark or some oLher
person or a colorable lmlLaLlon of such mark, ln Lhe sale or
adverLlslng of hls servlces.
4. 8y prlnLlng, llLhographlng or reproduclng Lrade name,
Lrademark or servlce mark of one person, or a colorable
lmlLaLlon Lhereof, Lo enable anoLher person Lo fraudulenLly
use Lhe same, knowlng Lhe fraudulenL purpose for whlch lL ls
Lo be used.

Art|c|e 189 - Unfa|r compet|t|on, fraudu|ent reg|strat|on of trade-
mark, trade-name or serv|ce mark, fraudu|ent des|gnat|on of or|g|n,
and fa|se descr|pt|on.
1he pena|ty prov|ded |n the next proceed|ng art|c|e sha|| be
|mposed upon:
1. Any person who, |n unfa|r compet|t|on and for the purposes
of dece|v|ng or defraud|ng another of h|s |eg|t|mate trade
or the pub||c |n genera|, sha|| se|| h|s goods g|v|ng them the
genera| appearance of goods of another manufacturer or
dea|er, e|ther as to the goods themse|ves, or |n the
wrapp|ng of the packages |n wh|ch they are conta|ned or
the dev|ce or words thereon or |n any other features of
the|r appearance wh|ch wou|d be ||ke|y to |nduce the pub||c
to be||eve that the goods offered are those of a
manufacturer or dea|er other than the actua| manufacturer
or dea|er or sha|| g|ve other persons a chance or
opportun|ty to do the same w|th a ||ke purpose.
2. Any person who sha|| aff|x, app|y, annex or use |n
connect|on w|th any goods or serv|ces or any conta|ner or
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
conta|ners for goods a fa|se des|gnat|on of or|g|n or any
fa|se descr|pt|on or representat|on and sha|| se|| such goods
or serv|ces.
3. Any person who by means of fa|se or fraudu|ent
representat|on or dec|arat|ons ora||y or |n wr|t|ng or by
other fraudu|ent means sha|| procure from the patent
off|ce or from any other off|ce wh|ch may hereafter be
estab||shed by |aw for the purposes the reg|strat|on of a
trade-name, trade-mark or serv|ce mark or of h|mse|f as the
owner of such trade-name, trade-mark or serv|ce mark or
an entry respect|ng a trade-name, trade-mark or serv|ce
mark.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e
1. 8y selllng hls goods, or glvlng Lhem Lhe general appearance
of Lhe goods of anoLher manufacLurer or dealer (unfalr
CompeLlLlon)
2. 8y (a) afflxlng Lo hls goods or uslng ln connecLlon wlLh hls
servlces a false deslgnaLlon of orlgln, or any false descrlpLlon
or represenLaLlon, and (b) selllng such goods or servlces
(lraudulenL deslgnaLlon of orlgln, lalse descrlpLlon)
3. 8y procurlng fraudulenLly from Lhe paLenL offlce Lhe
reglsLraLlon of Lrade name, Lrademark or servlce mark
(lraudulenL 8eglsLraLlon)
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1I1LL VI: CkIMLS AGAINS1 U8LIC MCkALS

Chapter 1: Gamb||ng and 8ett|ng

kLSIDLN1IAL DLCkLL 1602

rescr|bes St|ffer ena|t|es on I||ega| Gamb||ng

Sect|on 1. !"#$%&'"(. 1he fo||ow|ng pena|t|es are hereby |mposed:

(a) 1he pena|ty of pr|son correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um per|od of a f|ne
rang|ng from one thousand to s|x thousand pesos, and |n case of
rec|d|v|sm, the pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor |n |ts med|um per|od or a f|ne
rang|ng from f|ve thousand to ten thousand pesos sha|| be |mposed
upon:

1. Any person other than those referred to |n the succeed|ng
sub-sect|ons who |n any manner, sha|| d|rect|y or |nd|rect|y
take part |n any |||ega| or unauthor|zed act|v|t|es or games of
cockf|ght|ng, [ueteng, [a| a|a| or horse rac|ng to |nc|ude book|e
operat|ons and game f|x|ng, numbers, b|ngo and other forms
of |otter|es, cara y cruz, pomp|ang and the ||ke, 7-11 and any
game us|ng d|ce, b|ack [ack, |ucky n|ne, poker and |ts
der|vat|ves, monte, baccarat, cua[ao, panggu|ngue and other
card games, pa|k que, h|gh and |ow, mah[ong, dom|no and
other games us|ng p|ast|c t||es and the ||kes, s|ot mach|nes,
rou|ette, p|nba|| and other mechan|ca| contrapt|ons and
dev|ces, dog rac|ng, boat rac|ng, car rac|ng and other forms of
races, basketba||, box|ng, vo||eyba||, bow||ng, p|ngpong and
other forms of |nd|v|dua| or team contests to |nc|ude game
f|x|ng, po|nt shav|ng and other mach|nat|ons, bank|ng or
percentage game, or any other game scheme, whether upon
chance or sk|||, where|n wagers cons|st|ng of money, art|c|es
of va|ue or representat|ve of va|ue are at stake or made,

2. Any person who sha|| know|ng|y perm|t any form of gamb||ng
referred to |n the preced|ng subparagraph to be carr|ed on |n
|nhab|ted or un|nhab|ted p|ace or |n any bu||d|ng, vesse| or
other means of transportat|on owned or contro||ed by h|m. If
the p|ace where gamb||ng |s carr|ed on has a reputat|on of a
gamb||ng p|ace or that proh|b|ted gamb||ng |s frequent|y
carr|ed on there|n, or the p|ace |s a pub||c or government
bu||d|ng or barangay ha||, the ma|factor sha|| be pun|shed by
pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts max|mum per|od and a f|ne of s|x
thousand pesos.

(b) 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts max|mum per|od or a f|ne
of s|x thousand pesos sha|| be |mposed upon the ma|nta|ner or
conductor of the above gamb||ng schemes.

(c) 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor |n |ts med|um per|od w|th temporary
abso|ute d|squa||f|cat|on or a f|ne of s|x thousand pesos sha|| be
|mposed |f the ma|nta|ner, conductor or banker of sa|d gamb||ng
schemes |s a government off|c|a|, or where such government off|c|a|
|s the p|ayer, promoter, referee, ump|re, [udge or coach |n case of
game f|x|ng, po|nt shav|ng and mach|nat|on.

(d) 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um per|od or a f|ne
rang|ng from four hundred to two thousand pesos sha|| be |mposed
upon any person who sha||, know|ng|y and w|thout |awfu| purpose |n
any hour of any day, possess any |ottery ||st, paper or other matter
conta|n|ng |etters, f|gures, s|gns or symbo|s perta|n|ng to or |n any
manner used |n the games of [ueteng, [a|-a|a| or horse rac|ng book|es,
and s|m||ar games of |otter|es and numbers wh|ch have taken p|ace
or about to take p|ace.

(e) 1he pena|ty of temporary abso|ute d|squa||f|cat|ons sha|| be
|mposed upon any barangay off|c|a| who, w|th know|edge of the
ex|stence of a gamb||ng house or p|ace |n h|s [ur|sd|ct|on fa||s to abate
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
the same or take act|on |n connect|on therew|th.

(f) 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts max|mum per|od or a f|ne
rang|ng from f|ve hundred pesos to two thousand pesos sha|| be
|mposed upon any secur|ty off|cer, secur|ty guard, watchman, pr|vate
or house detect|ve of hote|s, v|||ages, bu||d|ngs, enc|osures and the
||ke wh|ch have the reputat|on of a gamb||ng p|ace or where gamb||ng
act|v|t|es are be|ng he|d.

CIN1S
I. What |s Gamb||ng?
Cambllng ls any game or scheme, wheLher upon chance or
sklll, whereln wagers conslsLlng of money, arLlcles or value or
represenLaLlve of value are aL sLake or made.

A. .D. No. 1602 prov|des st|ffer pena|t|es for gamb||ng |aw v|o|at|ons

8. .D. No. 1602
Sect|on 1(a) makes a game or scheme punlshable even lf Lhe
wlnnlng depends upon sklll, when wagers conslsLlng of
money, arLlcles or value or represenLaLlve of value are aL sLake
or made."

C. k.A. No. 9287 |ncreased the pena|t|es for |||ega| number games
1hls acL amended cerLaln provlslons of .D. No. 1602 by
lncreaslng Lhe penalLles for some lllegal number games.
!""#$%" '()*#+ ,%)#- ! any form of lllegal gambllng acLlvlLy
whlch uses numbers or comblnaLlons Lhereof as facLors ln
glvlng ouL [ackpoLs/prlzes/reLurns.

D. ena|t|es under k.A. No. 9287

L. L|ab|||ty of Government Cff|c|a|s and Lmp|oyees |n k.A. No. 9287

I. urpose of proh|b|t|ng gamb||ng
1o repress an evll LhaL undermlnes Lhe soclal, moral and
economlc growLh of Lhe naLlon.
1he purpose of .D. No. 1602 ls Lo prohlblL compleLely all
games named Lhereln, and Lo punlsh all persons who Lake parL
ln such game - even Lhough lL was noL played for money.

G. L|ab|||ty of spectators
A mere bysLander or specLaLor ln a gambllng game ls noL
crlmlnally llable, because he does noL Lake parL Lhereln,
dlrecLly or lndlrecLly.
Mere presence ln a gambllng house ls noL an offense.

n. Cther Notes
lor gambllng Lo be legal, llcenslng ls requlred.
C: lsko Moreno's acL of holdlng a 8lngo game. ls Lhls a vlolaLlon
of .D. No. 1602.

II. Lottery
./00#+1 ! ls a scheme for Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon of prlzes by chance
among persons who have pald, or agreed Lo pay, a valuable
conslderaLlon for Lhe chance Lo obLaln a prlze.
LoLLery embraces all schemes for dlsLrlbuLlon of prlzes by
chance.
lf Lhe scheme ls such LhaL human reason, foreslghL, sagaclLy, or
deslgn cannoL enable one Lo know or deLermlne Lhe resulL
unLll Lhe same has been accompllshed, Lhen lL ls loLLery.

A. L|ements of Lottery (CC)
1. ConslderaLlon
2. Chance
3. rlze, or some advanLage or lnequallLy ln amounL or value
whlch ls ln Lhe naLure of a prlze

8. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Chance
Cuesslng compeLlLlon consLlLuLes loLLery.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
Ll uebaLe v. 1opaclo ! a clvll case deallng excluslvely wlLh Lhe
consLrucLlon and appllcaLlon of Lhe provlslon of SecLlon
1934(a) of Lhe old AdmlnlsLraLlve Code regardlng non-mallable
maLLer.
o lacLs: Cne musL subscrlbe Lo Lhe Ll uebaLe
newspaper. A prlze wlll be glven (1) for Lhe nearesL
approxlmaLe guesses as Lo Lhe LoLal number of voLes
LhaL wlll be casL for any wlnnlng candldaLes for
Carnlval Cueen, and (2) for Lhe nearesL approxlmaLe
guesLs as Lo Lhe LoLal number of voLes LhaL Lhe Cueen-
elecL wlll recelve.
o Peld: Cnly Lhose who subscrlbe Lo Ll uebaLe -
regardless of Lhe conLesL - wlll recelve Lhe full value of
Lhelr money. 1hls argumenL doesn'L apply Lo people
who subscrlbe merely Lo quallfy for Lhe conLesL.
no loLLery where Lhere ls full value of money
uS v. Clsen ! a crlmlnal case LhaL deals dlrecLly wlLh loLLery as
penallzed ln Lhe sLaLuLes.
o lacLs: 300 packeLs of clgareLLes wlll be sold ln lLs
regular prlce. ln one of Lhese ls a wlnnlng coupon.
o Peld: 1he person obLalns full value for hls money. 1he
wlnnlng of Lhe waLch ls a mere lncldenL.
Whlle Lhe Cambllng Law musL be lnLerpreLed sLrlcLly for belng
a penal sLaLues. 1he osLal Law has been lnLerpreLed llberally
by Lhe Supreme CourL, followlng Amerlcan [urlsprudence.
o 8evlsed enal Code deflnes "/00#+1 as games
dependenL WPCLL? on CPlLlL? upon chance.
o osLal Law classlfles "/00#+1 as a scheme dependlng ln
whole or ln parL upon luck or chance.

C. Cther Notes:
C: ln famlly occaslons, ls lL lllegal? nC. 8ecause lL may Lake Lhe
form of graLulLousness and Lhere ls noL conslderaLlon.

III. Cther Notes
A. L|ements of know|ng|y perm|tt|ng gamb||ng to be carr|ed on |n a
p|ace owned or contro||ed by the offender (GCk)
1. 1haL a gambllng game was carrled on ln an lnhablLed or
unlnhablLed place or ln any bulldlng, vessel or oLher means of
LransporLaLlon.
2. 1haL Lhe place, bulldlng, vessel, or oLher means of
LransporLaLlon ls owned or conLrolled by Lhe offender.
3. 1haL Lhe offender permlLLed Lhe carrylng on of such game,
knowlng LhaL lL ls a gambllng game.

8. Ma|nta|ner or conductor |n a gamb||ng game or scheme
2%340%34#+ ! Lhe person who seLs up and furnlshes Lhe means
wlLh whlch Lo carry on Lhe gambllng game or scheme.
5/46(70/+ ! Lhe person who manages or carrles on Lhe
gambllng game or scheme.

C. roof that game took p|ace or |s about to take p|ace |sn't necessary
1he reason for Lhls presumpLlon ls LhaL ln games llke [ueLeng,
Lhe accused would noL keep ln hls possesslon lLems relaLed
LhereLo such as a [ueLeng llsL, unless lL ls Lo be used for such.
1he burden of proof ls on Lhe accused Lo shoL LhaL hls
possesslon ls lawful and LhaL Lhe lLem (e.g. [ueLeng llsL) ls ln no
way connecLed wlLh Lhe game LhaL has Lake place or abouL Lo
Lake place.

D. roof to the contrary |s necessary when the [ueteng ||st perta|n to
games p|ayed on other dates
1he burden of proof shlfLs Lo Lhe prosecuLlon Lo show LhaL old
[ueLeng llsLs were acLually used on Lhose prevlous daLes.

IV. Gamb||ng Laws kepea|ed
Cambllng Laws repealed Art|c|es 19S - 199 of the kC

Art|c|e 19S - What acts are pun|shab|e |n gamb||ng.
(a) 1he pena|ty of arresto mayor or a f|ne not exceed|ng two hundred
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
pesos, and, |n case of rec|d|v|sm, the pena|ty of arresto mayor or a
f|ne rang|ng from two hundred or s|x thousand pesos, sha|| be
|mposed upon:
1. Any person other than those referred to |n subsect|ons (b)
and (c) who, |n any manner sha|| d|rect|y, or |nd|rect|y take
part |n any game of monte, [ueteng or any other form of
|ottery, po||cy, bank|ng, or percentage game, dog races, or
any other game of scheme the resu|t of wh|ch depends
who||y or ch|ef|y upon chance or hazard, or where|n wagers
cons|st|ng of money, art|c|es of va|ue or representat|ve of
va|ue are made, or |n the exp|o|tat|on or use of any other
mechan|ca| |nvent|on or contr|vance to determ|ne by chance
the |oser or w|nner of money or any ob[ect or representat|ve
of va|ue.
2. Any person who sha|| know|ng|y perm|t any form of gamb||ng
referred to |n the preced|ng subd|v|s|on to be carr|ed on |n
any unhab|ted or un|nhab|ted p|ace of any bu||d|ng, vesse| or
other means of transportat|on owned or contro||ed by h|m. If
the p|ace where gamb||ng |s carr|ed on has the reputat|on of
a gamb||ng p|ace or that proh|b|ted gamb||ng |s frequent|y
carr|ed on there|n, the cu|pr|t sha|| be pun|shed by the
pena|ty prov|ded for |n th|s art|c|e |n |ts max|mum per|od.

(b) 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts max|mum degree sha|| be
|mposed upon the ma|nta|ner, conductor, or banker |n a game of
[ueteng or any s|m||ar game.

(c) 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um degree sha|| be
|mposed upon any person who sha||, know|ng|y and w|thout |awfu|
purpose, have |n h|s possess|on and |ottery ||st, paper or other matter
conta|n|ng |etters, f|gures, s|gns or symbo|s wh|ch perta|n to or are |n
any manner used |n the game of [ueteng or any s|m||ar game wh|ch
has taken p|ace or about to take p|ace.

Art|c|e 196 - Importat|on, sa|e and possess|on of |ottery t|ckets or
advert|sements.
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor |n |ts max|mum per|od to pr|s|on
correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od or a f|ne rang|ng from 200 to
2,000 pesos, or both, |n the d|scret|on of the court, sha|| be |mposed
upon any person who sha|| |mport |nto the h|||pp|ne Is|ands from
any fore|gn p|ace or port any |ottery t|cket or advert|sement or, |n
conn|vance w|th the |mporter, sha|| se|| or d|str|bute the same.

Any person who sha|| know|ng|y and w|th |ntent to use them, have |n
h|s possess|on |ottery t|ckets or advert|sements, or sha|| se|| or
d|str|bute the same w|thout conn|vance w|th the |mporter of the
same, sha|| be pun|shed by arresto menor, or a f|ne not exceed|ng
200 pesos, or both, |n the d|scret|on of the court.

1he possess|on of any |ottery t|cket or advert|sement sha|| be pr|ma
fac|e ev|dence of an |ntent to se||, d|str|bute or use the same |n the
h|||pp|ne Is|ands.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shed re|at|ve to |ottery t|ckets or advert|sements
1. 8y lmporLlng lnLo Lhe hlllpplnes form any forelgn place or
porL any loLLery LlckeL or adverLlsemenL.
2. 8y selllng or dlsLrlbuLlng Lhe name ln connlvance wlLh Lhe
lmporLer.
3. 8y possesslng, knowlngly and wlLh lnLenL Lo use, loLLery LlckeLs
or adverLlsemenL.
4. 8y selllng or dlsLrlbuLlng Lhe same wlLhouL connlvance wlLh Lhe
lmporLer.

II. resumpt|on of |ntent to se||, d|str|bute or use |ottery t|cket or
advert|sements
ossesslon ls prlma facle evldence of lnLenL Lo sell, dlsLrlbuLe
or use Lhe same (Art|c|e 196).
8uL lf Lhe defendanL can esLabllsh LhaL he dld noL know of Lhe
exlsLence of Lhe loLLery LlckeL wlLhln hls premlses, Lhe
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
presumpLlon ls desLroyed and Lhe defendanL musL be
acqulLLed.

III. Lottery t|ckets need on|y to appear genu|ne
uS v. 8eyes ! lL appears LhaL Lhe accused dld noL represenL a
loLLery and LhaL Lhe sole purpose of Lhe accused ln prlnLlng Lhe
loLLery LlckeLs and dlsposlng of Lhem was Lo secure money by
fraudulenL represenLaLlon.
8eyes (ersonal CommenL): lf Lhe loLLery LlckeLs are
counLerfelL, Lhey cannoL glve rlse Lo Lhe evll soughL Lo be
eradlcaLed.

Art|c|e 197 - 8ett|ng |n sports contests.
1he pena|ty of arresto menor or a f|ne not exceed|ng 200 pesos, or
both, sha|| be |mposed upon any person who sha|| bet money or any
ob[ect or art|c|e of va|ue or representat|ve of va|ue upon the resu|t of
any box|ng or other sports contests.

CIN1S
Art|c|e 197 was repea|ed by kLSIDLN1IAL DLCkLL NC. 483
(ena||z|ng 8ett|ng, Game-I|x|ng or o|nt-Shav|ng and Mach|nat|ons
|n Sport Contests)

I. Def|n|t|ons
,%)#83934$ ! dellberaLely brlnglng abouL an ouLcome ln a
game for a conslderaLlon or favor.

Art|c|e 198 - I||ega| bett|ng on horse race.
1he pena|ty of arresto menor or a f|ne not exceed|ng 200 pesos, or
both, sha|| be |mposed upon any person who except dur|ng the
per|od a||owed by |aw, sha|| be on horse races. 1he pena|ty of arresto
mayor or a f|ne rang|ng from 200 to 2,000 pesos, or both, sha|| be
|mposed upon any person who, under the same c|rcumstances, sha||
ma|nta|n or emp|oy a tota||zer or other dev|ce or scheme for bett|ng
on horse races or rea||z|ng any prof|t therefrom.

Ior the purposes of th|s art|c|e, any race he|d |n the same day at the
same p|ace sha|| be he|d pun|shab|e as a separate offense, and |f the
same be comm|tted by any partnersh|p, corporat|on or assoc|at|on,
the pres|dent and the d|rectors or managers thereof sha|| be deemed
to be pr|nc|pa|s |n the offense |f they have consented to or know|ng|y
to|erated |ts comm|ss|on.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e
1. 8y beLLlng on horse races durlng Lhe perlods noL allowed by
law.
2. 8y malnLalnlng or employlng a LoLallzer or oLher devlce or
scheme for beLLlng on races or reallzlng proflL Lherefrom,
durlng Lhe perlods noL allowed by law.

II. IIkS1 AkAGkAn
1he penalLy ls hlgher for a person who employ a LoLallzer or
oLher devlce.
:/0%"3;#+ ! anyLhlng used Lo recelve or Lake beLs

III. SLCCND AkAGkAn
8aclng uays are seL by Lhe Cames and AmusemenLs 8oard.
Porse 8aces nC1 ALLCWLu by law on:
o !uly 4
Lh
of each year (k.A. No. 137)
o uecember 30
Lh
of each year (k.A. No. 229)
o Any reglsLraLlon or voLlng days (k.A. No. 180, kev|sed
L|ect|on Code).
o Poly 1hursday and Cood lrlday (k.A. No. 946)

Art|c|e 199 - I||ega| cockf|ght|ng
1he pena|ty of arresto menor or a f|ne not exceed|ng 200 pesos, or
both, |n the d|scret|on of the court, sha|| be |mposed upon:
1. Any person who d|rect|y or |nd|rect|y part|c|pates |n
cockf|ghts, by bett|ng money or other va|uab|e th|ngs, or who
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
organ|zes cockf|ghts at wh|ch bets are made, on a day other
than those perm|tted by |aw.
2. Any person who d|rect|y or |nd|rect|y part|c|pates |n
cockf|ghts, at a p|ace other than a ||censed cockp|t.

CIN1S
Art|c|e 199 was repea|ed by kLSIDLN1IAL DLCkLL NC. 449
(CCCkIIGn1ING LAW CI 1974)
1o the extent that |t |s |ncons|stent w|th the decree

I. erm|tt|ng gamb||ng of any k|nd |n cockp|t |s pun|shed under the
same Decree

II. Spectators |n a cockf|ght are not ||ab|e

Chapter 2: Cffenses Aga|nst Decency and Good Customs

Art|c|e 200 - Grave scanda|.
1he pena|t|es of arresto mayor and pub||c censure sha|| be |mposed
upon any person who sha|| offend aga|nst decency or good customs
by any h|gh|y scanda|ous conduct not express|y fa|||ng w|th|n any
other art|c|e of th|s Code.

CIN1S
I. Def|n|t|ons
Crave scandal conslsLs of acLs whlch are offenslve Lo decency
and good cusLoms whlch, havlng been commlLLed publlcly,
have glven rlse Lo publlc scandal Lo persons who have
accldenLally wlLnessed Lhe same.

II. L|ements (SN)
1. 1haL Lhe offender performs an acL or acLs.
2. 1haL such acL or acLs be hlghly scandalous as offendlng agalnsL
decency or good cusLoms.
3. 1haL Lhe hlghly scandalous conducL ls noL expressly falllng
wlLhln any oLher arLlcle of Lhls Code.
4. 1haL Lhe acL or acLs complalned of be commlLLed ln a publlc
place or wlLhln Lhe publlc knowledge or vlew.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: n|gh|y Scanda|ous
"Sha|| offend aga|nst decency or good customs"
o <#7#471 ! proprleLy of conducL, proper observance of
Lhe requlremenLs of modesLy, good LasLe, eLc.
o 5(-0/)- ! esLabllshed usage, soclal convenLlons
carrled on by LradlLlon and enforced by soclal
dlsapproval of any vlolaLlon Lhereof.

IV. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Acts do not fa|| |n any other art|c|e
eople v. uumlao ! Where Lhe accused scaLLered coconuL
remnanLs wlLh human excremenLs on Lhe sLalrs and doors of
Lhe balcony of a publlc elemenLary school, lL was held LhaL Lhe
acLs fall under Art|c|e 329, and noL Art|c|e 200.

V. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: Acts are comm|tted pub||c|y
1he acLs musL be performed ln a publlc place or wlLhln Lhe
publlc knowledge or vlew.
As a condlLlon precedenL for Lhe exlsLence of Lhls crlme, Lhe
offense agalnsL decency and good cusLoms musL have been
made publlcly.
uS v. CaLa[ay ! When Lhe acLs were performed ln a prlvaLe
house and seen by one person, Lhe crlme was noL commlLLed.

VI. Cther Notes
C: A resLs nakedly ln a hammock locaLed ln hls condomlnlum
balcony (a prlvaLe place), ln full vlew of Lhe sLudenLs whose
classroom wlndows were rlghL across.
o lL ls grave scandal because lL was ln publlc vlew.

Art|c|e 201 - Immora| doctr|nes, obscene pub||cat|ons and exh|b|t|ons
and |ndecent shows
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor or a f|ne rang|ng from s|x thousand to
twe|ve thousand pesos, or both such |mpr|sonment and f|ne, sha|| be
|mposed upon:
1. 1hose who sha|| pub||c|y expound or proc|a|m doctr|nes
open|y contrary to pub||c mora|s,
2. (a) the authors of obscene ||terature, pub||shed w|th the|r
know|edge |n any form, the ed|tors pub||sh|ng such ||terature,
and the owners]operators of the estab||shment se|||ng the
same,
(b) 1hose who, |n theaters, fa|rs, c|nematographs or any other
p|ace, exh|b|t, |ndecent or |mmora| p|ays, scenes, acts or
shows, whether ||ve or |n f||m, wh|ch are prescr|bed by v|rtue
hereof, sha|| |nc|ude those wh|ch (1) g|or|fy cr|m|na|s or
condone cr|mes, (2) serve no other purpose but to sat|sfy the
market for v|o|ence, |ust or pornography, (3) offend any race
or re||g|on, (4) tend to abet traff|c |n and use of proh|b|ted
drugs, and (S) are contrary to |aw, pub||c order, mora|s, and
good customs, estab||shed po||c|es, |awfu| orders, decrees
and ed|cts,
3. 1hose who sha|| se||, g|ve away or exh|b|t f||ms, pr|nts,
engrav|ngs, scu|pture or ||terature wh|ch are offens|ve to
mora|s. ()( $+"#,", -. !/ 01(2 345 $#, 3436.

CIN1S
I. ub||c|ty |s essent|a|
1hls offense ln any of Lhe forms menLloned ln Lhe arLlcle ls
commlLLed only when Lhere ls publlclLy.

II. urpose of the Law
1he purpose of Lhe provlslon ls Lhe proLecLlon of publlc morals,
l.e. morals of socleLy as a whole, and noL merely Lhe morals of
a slngle lndlvldual.

III. D|spos|t|on of proh|b|ted art|c|es
1. upon convlcLlon of Lhe offender ! Lo be forfelLed ln favor of
Lhe governmenL Lo be desLroyed.
2. Where Lhe crlmlnal case agalnsL Lhe vlolaLor of Lhe decree
resulLs ln an acqulLLal ! Lo be forfelLed ln favor of Lhe
governmenL Lo be desLroyed afLer forfelLure proceedlngs
conducLed by Lhe Chlef of ConsLabulary.
3. 1he person aggrleved by Lhe forfelLure acLlon of Lhe Chlef of
ConsLabulary may, wlLhln 13 days afLer hls recelpL of a copy of
Lhe declslon, appeal Lhe maLLer Lo Lhe Sec. of naLlonal uefense
for revlew. 1he declslon LhereafLer shall be flnal.

IV. Add|t|ona| ena|t|es
k.A. No. 7610 ! Any person who shall hlre, employ, use,
persuade or coerce a chlld Lo perform ln obscene exhlblLlon
shall be punlshed by prlslon mayor ln lLs medlum perlod.
____________________
AkAGkAn 1: LkCUNDING DCC1kINL CCN1kAk 1C MCkALS

I. ub||c|y expound|ng or proc|a|m|ng "doctr|nes open|y contrary to
pub||c mora|s"
2/+%" ! lmplles conformlLy wlLh Lhe generally accepLed
sLandards of goodness or rlghLness ln conducL or characLer,
someLlmes, speclflcally, Lo sexual conducL.
____________________
AkAGkAn 2: C8SCLNI1

I. Authors of obscene ||terature |s ||ab|e on|y when |t |s pub||shed w|th
h|s know|edge
=*-7#4# ! someLhlng offenslve Lo chasLlLy, decency or
dellcacy.

II. 1est of obscen|ty
WheLher or noL such publlcaLlon or acL shocks Lhe ordlnary and
common sense of men as lndecency.
o !46#7#471 ! an acL agalnsL Lhe good behavlor and a
[usL dellcacy.
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
lL may be conceded LhaL nudlLy lLself ls noL lnherenLly lndecenL
or obscene. Mere nudlLy ln palnLlngs and sculpLures are noL
obscenlLy as Lhey may be consldered pleces of arL.
o 1he proper LesL ls wheLher Lhe moLlve of Lhe plcLure,
as lndlcaLed by lL, ls pure or lmpure, or wheLher lL ls
naLurally calculaLed Lo exclLe lmpure LhoughLs.
8eacLlon of Lhe publlc ls a LesL of obscenlLy
o eople v. Aparlcl ! 1he reacLlon of Lhe publlc durlng
Lhe performance of Lhe accused who had noLhlng on
excepL nylon paLches over her breasLs and a Loo
abbrevlaLed palr of nylon panLles Lo lnLerrupL her sLark
nakedness ls deLermlnaLlve LhaL her danclng was
lndecenL and eroLlc.
lndecenL phoLograph and llLeraLure publlshed ln newspaper
o eople v. SarLe ! When lL appears LhaL such
publlcaLlon ls deslgned Lo sLlr Lhe lmaglnaLlon and
suggesL a menLal plcLure noL Lo promoLe buL raLher Lo
debase senslblllLles, such publlcaLlon has ceased Lo be
decenL.

III. Mere possess|on of obscene mater|a|s |s not pun|shab|e
Mere possesslon of obscene maLerlals, wlLhouL lnLenLlon Lo
sell, exhlblL, or glve Lhem away, ls noL punlshable under Art|c|e
201, conslderlng Lhe purpose of Lhe law ls Lo prohlblL Lhe
dlssemlnaLlon of obscene maLerlals Lo Lhe publlc.
1he law does noL requlre LhaL a person be caughL ln Lhe acL of
selllng, glvlng away or exhlblLlng obscene maLerlals Lo be llable
for as long as Lhe sald maLerlals are offered for sale, dlsplayed
or exhlblLed Lo Lhe publlc.
____________________
AkAGkAn 3: SLLL, GIVL AWA Ck LknI8I1

I. 1he words "g|ve away" shou|d read "d|str|bute"
ulsLrlbuLlon of lndecenL llLeraLure, eLc. Lo many people and noL
merely Lhe lsolaLed, casual or occaslonal acL of glvlng such klnd
of llLeraLure Lo a slngle reclplenL.
Clve away" necessarlly lncludes Lhe acL of exhlblLlng obscene
plcLures or llLeraLure, because when one glves away obscene
plcLures or llLeraLure, he has Lhe lnLenLlon and purpose of
exhlblLlng or showlng Lhe same Lo Lhe reclplenL.

II. |ctures w|th ||ght degree of obscen|ty, not used for art's sake but
for commerc|a| purposes, fa|| under th|s art|c|e
lf Lhose plcLures were shown ln arL exhlblLs and arL gallerles for
Lhe cause of arL Lo be vlewed and appreclaLed by people
lnLeresLed ln arL, Lhere would be no offense.

Art|c|e 202 - Vagrants and prost|tutes, pena|ty
1he fo||ow|ng are vagrants:
1. Any person hav|ng no apparent means of subs|stence, who
has the phys|ca| ab|||ty to work and who neg|ects to app|y
h|mse|f or herse|f to some |awfu| ca|||ng,
2. Any person found |o|ter|ng about pub||c or sem|-pub||c
bu||d|ngs or p|aces or tramp||ng or wander|ng about the
country or the streets w|thout v|s|b|e means of support,
3. Any |d|e or d|sso|ute person who |edges |n houses of ||| fame,
ruff|ans or p|mps and those who hab|tua||y assoc|ate w|th
prost|tutes,
4. Any person who, not be|ng |nc|uded |n the prov|s|ons of other
art|c|es of th|s Code, sha|| be found |o|ter|ng |n any |nhab|ted
or un|nhab|ted p|ace be|ong|ng to another w|thout any |awfu|
or [ust|f|ab|e purpose,
S. rost|tutes.

Ior the purposes of th|s art|c|e, women who, for money or prof|t,
hab|tua||y |ndu|ge |n sexua| |ntercourse or |asc|v|ous conduct, are
deemed to be prost|tutes.

Any person found gu||ty of any of the offenses covered by th|s art|c|es
sha|| be pun|shed by arresto menor or a f|ne not exceed|ng 200 pesos,
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
and |n case of rec|d|v|sm, by arresto mayor |n |ts med|um per|od to
pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od or a f|ne rang|ng from 200
to 2,000 pesos, or both, |n the d|scret|on of the court.

CIN1S
Art|c|e 202 has been comp|ete|y repea|ed by
kLU8LIC AC1 NC. 101S8
(AN AC1 DLCkIMINALI2ING VAGkANC, AMLNDING ICk 1nIS
UkCSL Ak1ICLL 202 CI AC1 NC. 381S, AS AMLNDLD, C1nLkWISL
kNCWN AS 1nL kLVISLD LNAL CCDL)

I. Art|c|e 202 not app||cab|e to m|nors
Mlnors shall be exempL from prosecuLlon from Lhe crlmes of:
o vagrancy and prosLlLuLlon under Art|c|e 202
o Mendlcancy under .D. No. 1S63
o Snlfflng of rugby under .D. No. 1619
As such prosecuLlons are lnconslsLenL wlLh Lhe Un|ted Nat|ons
Convent|on on the k|ghts of the Ch||d
>+/?36#6@ such chlld wlll undergo counsellng and LreaLmenL.

II. CNL AkAGkAnS 1 AND 2 requ|re absence of v|s|b|e means of
support
"Apparent means of subs|stence" and "v|s|b|e means of
support"
o uS v. Mollna ! An able-bodled 23-year-old person
who makes no preLense Lo follow a lawful calllng, and
lnsLead spends hls Llme gambllng ln Lhe sLreeLs, and
has no legal or moral clalm of supporL from hls
moLher. Clearly, Lhe supporL from Lhe moLher does noL
consLlLuLe vlslble means of supporL"
LolLerlng around saloons and gambllng houses ls vagrancy only
when Lhere ls evldence of absence of vlslble means of supporL.
Mendlcancy ls commlLLed by one who has no vlslble and legal
means of supporL, or lawful employmenL and who ls physlcally
able Lo work buL neglecLs Lo apply hlmself Lo some lawful
calllng and lnsLead uses begglng as a means of llvlng.
o Cne who surrenders a chlld for such Lo become a
mendlcanL shall be flned by noL more Lhan 20.
o A vagranL wlLhouL vlslble means of supporL may
become a mendlcanL lf he uses begglng as a means of
llvlng.

III. AkAGkAn 3:
vagranLs under aragraph 3 musL be elLher:
o An ldle or dlssoluLe person who lodges ln houses of lll-
fame
o 8ufflan or plmp
o Cne who hablLually assoclaLes wlLh prosLlLuLes
<3--/"(0# ! means lax, unresLralned, lmmoral.
A malnLalner of a house of prosLlLuLlon may be consldered a
vagranL wlLhln Lhe meanlng of Lhe provlslon: Any ldle or
dlssoluLe person who lodges ln houses of lll-fame"
A(883%4- ! bruLal, vlolenL, lawless persons
>3)B ! one who provldes graLlflcaLlon for Lhe lusL of oLhers.

IV. AkAGkAn S: rost|tutes
rosLlLuLes are women who hablLually lndulge ln (1) Sexual
lnLercourse or (2) Lasclvlous conducL for money or proflL.
o C%*30(%""1 ! one sexual lnLercourse wlLh a man for
money and proflL does noL make a woman a
prosLlLuLe. And several lnLercourses wlLh dlfferenL
men do noL make her a prosLlLuLe, lf Lhere ls noL
evldence LhaL she lndulged ln sexual lnLercourse for
money or proflL.

kLU8LIC AC1 NC. 101S8

AN AC1 DLCkIMINALI2ING VAGkANC, AMLNDING ICk 1nIS
UkCSL Ak1ICLL 202 CI AC1 NC. 381S, AS AMLNDLD, C1nLkWISL
kNCWN AS 1nL kLVISLD LNAL CCDL
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE

8e |t enacted by the Senate and nouse of kepresentat|ves of the
h|||pp|nes |n Congress assemb|ed:

SLC1ICN 1. Art|c|e 202 of the kev|sed ena| Code |s hereby, amended
to read as fo||ows:

"Art|c|e 202. rost|tutes, ena|ty. - Ior the purposes of th|s art|c|e,
women who, for money or prof|t, hab|tua||y |ndu|ge |n sexua|
|ntercourse or |asc|v|ous conduct, are deemed to be prost|tutes.

"Any person found gu||ty of any of the offenses covered by th|s art|c|e
sha|| be pun|shed by arresto menor or a f|ne not exceed|ng 200 pesos,
and |n case of rec|d|v|sm, by arresto mayor |n |ts med|um per|od to
pr|s|on correct|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od or a f|ne rang|ng from 200
to 2,000 pesos, or both, |n the d|scret|on of the court."

Sect|on 2. Lffect on end|ng Cases. - A|| pend|ng cases under the
prov|s|ons of Art|c|e 202 of the kev|sed ena| Code on Vagrancy pr|or
to |ts amendment by th|s Act sha|| be d|sm|ssed upon effect|v|ty of
th|s Act.

Sect|on 3. Immed|ate ke|ease of Conv|cted ersons. - A|| persons
serv|ng sentence for v|o|at|on of the prov|s|ons of Art|c|e 202 of the
kev|sed ena| Code on Vagrancy pr|or to |ts amendment by th|s Act
sha|| be |mmed|ate|y re|eased upon effect|v|ty of th|s Act: rov|ded,
1hat they are not serv|ng sentence or deta|ned for any other offense
or fe|ony.

Sect|on 4. kepea||ng C|ause. - A|| |aws, pres|dent|a| decrees,
execut|ve orders, ru|es and regu|at|ons and other |ssuances, or any
part thereof, |ncons|stent w|th th|s Act are hereby repea|ed, mod|f|ed
or amended accord|ng|y.

Sect|on S. Lffect|v|ty C|ause. - 1h|s Act sha|| take effect f|fteen (1S)
days after |ts pub||cat|on |n the Cff|c|a| Gazette or |n at |east two (2)
newspapers of genera| c|rcu|at|on.


kLU8LIC AC1 NC. 9208
1nL AN1I-1kAIIICkING IN LkSCNS AC1 CI 2003
(see p.368 - p.372 for excertps)


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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1I1LL VII: CkIMLS AGAINS1 U8LIC MCkALS

Chapter 1: re||m|nary rov|s|ons

Art|c|e 203 - Who are pub||c off|cers.
Ior the purpose of app|y|ng the prov|s|ons of th|s and the preced|ng
t|t|es of th|s book, any person who, by d|rect prov|s|on of the |aw,
popu|ar e|ect|on or appo|ntment by competent author|ty, sha|| take
part |n the performance of pub||c funct|ons |n the Government of
the h|||pp|ne Is|ands, of sha|| perform |n sa|d Government or |n any
of |ts branches pub||c dut|es as an emp|oyee, agent or subord|nate
off|c|a|, of any rank or c|ass, sha|| be deemed to be a pub||c off|cer.

CIN1S
I. Def|n|t|on
!"#$%& ())%&*+, ! embrace every publlc servanL from Lhe
hlghesL Lo Lhe lowesL.
1he code does noL dlsLlngulsh beLween offlcer and employee.

II. kequ|s|tes to be cons|dered a pub||c off|cer (1-LLA)
1. 1aklng parL ln Lhe performance of publlc funcLlons ln Lhe
CovernmenL or performlng ln sald CovernmenL or ln any of
lLs branches publlc duLles as an employee, agenL or
subordlnaLe offlclal, of any rank or class.
2. 1haL hls auLhorlLy Lo Lake parL ln Lhe performance of publlc
funcLlons or Lo perform publlc duLles musL be
a. 8y dlrecL provlslon of law
b. 8y popular elecLlon
c. 8y appolnLmenL by compeLenL auLhorlLy

III. Cther Notes
Cne appolnLed as a laborer ln Lhe governmenL ls noL a publlc
offlcer 8u1 Lemporary performance of publlc funcLlons by a
laborer makes hlm a publlc offlcer.
Manlego v. eople and eople v. aloma ! one appolnLed by
Lhe AcLlng ulrecLor as sorLer or fller of money orders
performs a publlc funcLlon or duLy.
eople v. 8ulangao and eople v. lreneo ! An emergency
helper of Lhe 8ureau of 1reasury on a dally wage and wlLhouL
appolnLmenL sLlll performs a publlc funcLlon as he has been
enLrusLed wlLh Lhe cusLody of an offlclal documenL.

Chapter 2: Ma|feasance and M|sfeasance of Cff|ce

I. Def|n|t|ons
-%,)*.,./&* ! Lhe lmproper performance of some acL whlch
mlghL lawfully be done.
-.$)*.,./&* ! performance of some acL whlch oughL noL Lo
be done.
01/)*.,./&* ! Lhe omlsslon of some acL whlch oughL Lo be
performed.

Sect|on 1 Dere||ct|on of duty

Art|c|e 204 - know|ng|y render|ng un[ust [udgment.
Any [udge who sha|| know|ng|y render an un[ust [udgment |n any
case subm|tted to h|m for dec|s|on, sha|| be pun|shed by pr|s|on
mayor and perpetua| abso|ute d|squa||f|cat|on.

CIN1
I. L|ement (IIUk)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a [udge
2. 1haL he renders a [udgmenL ln a case submlLLed Lo hlm for
declslon
3. 1haL Lhe [udgmenL ls un[usL
4. 1haL Lhe [udge knows LhaL hls [udgmenL ls un[usL

II. SLCCND kLUISI1L: kenders a [udgment
2"345*/6 ! Lhe flnal conslderaLlon and deLermlnaLlon of a
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
courL of compeLenL [urlsdlcLlon upon Lhe maLLers submlLLed
Lo lL, ln an acLlon or proceedlng.

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Un[ust [udgment
7/8",6 ! conLrary Lo law, or ls noL supporLed by Lhe evldence
or boLh.
1he source of un[usL [udgmenL may be elLher (a) error, (b) lll-
wlll or revenge, or (3) brlbery
1here musL be evldence LhaL Lhe [udgmenL ls un[usL - lL ls noL
presumed.
o 1he mere facL LhaL Lhe [udge promlsed Lo rule ln
favor of one parLy does noL prove LhaL Lhe [udgmenL
ls un[usL.
o !udgmenL musL be conLrary Lo law and noL supporLed
by evldence (and LhaL Lhe same was made wlLh
consclous and dellberaLe lnLenL Lo do an ln[usLlce)

IV. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: know|ng|y rendered
Made dellberaLely and mallclously
o Mere error ls noL a ground for llablllLy lf done ln good
falLh.
o lf ln renderlng [udgmenL, Lhe [udge fully knew LhaL
Lhe same was un[usL ln Lhe sense aforesald, Lhen he
acLed mallclously and musL have been acLuaLed and
prevalled upon by haLred, envy, revenge, greed or
some oLher slmllar moLlve.
9/1:%/4$; ! consclously, lnLelllgenLly, wlllfully or
lnLenLlonally.
o 1here musL be evldence LhaL Lhe [udge knew LhaL Lhe
[udgmenL ls un[usL.

V. 1h|s art|c|e |s not app||cab|e to members of a co||eg|ate court
Members of colleglaLe courLs llke Lhe CourL of Appeals and
Lhe Supreme CourL rule elLher ln ulvlslons of aL leasL 3 or en
banc. 1hey reach Lhelr concluslons noL lndlvldually buL render
collecLlve [udgmenL afLer due dellberaLlon.

Art|c|e 20S - Iudgment rendered through neg||gence
Any [udge who, by reason of |nexcusab|e neg||gence or |gnorance
sha|| render a man|fest|y un[ust [udgment |n any case subm|tted to
h|m for dec|s|on sha|| be pun|shed by arresto mayor and temporary
spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (IIMN)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a [udge
2. 1haL he renders a [udgmenL ln a case submlLLed Lo hlm for
declslon.
3. 1haL Lhe [udgmenL ls manlfesLly un[usL
4. 1haL lL ls due Lo hls lnexcusable negllgence or lgnorance.

II. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Man|fest|y un[ust
lL ls so manlfesLly conLrary Lo law LhaL even a person havlng a
meager knowledge of Lhe law cannoL doubL Lhe ln[usLlce.
Abuse of dlscreLlon or mere error of [udgmenL ls noL
punlshable.
o Mere error ln [udgmenL does noL necessarlly slgnlfy
lgnorance on Lhe parL of Lhe [udge.
o Abuse of dlscreLlon does noL necessarlly mean
ulLerlor moLlve, arblLrary conducL or wlllful dlsregard
of a llLlganL's rlghLs.

Art|c|e 206 - Un[ust |nter|ocutory order
Any [udge who sha|| know|ng|y render an un[ust |nter|ocutory order
or decree sha|| suffer the pena|ty of arresto mayor |n |ts m|n|mum
per|od and suspens|on, but |f he sha|| have acted by reason of
|nexcusab|e neg||gence or |gnorance and the |nter|ocutory order or
decree be man|fest|y un[ust, the pena|ty sha|| be suspens|on.

CIN1S
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
I. L|ements (IUM)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a [udge
2. 1haL he performs any of Lhe followlng acLs:
a. knowlngly renders un[usL lnLerlocuLory order or
decree
b. 8enders a manlfesLly un[usL lnLerlocuLory order or
decree Lhrough lnexcusable negllgence or lgnorance

II. Inter|ocutory Crder
A. Def|n|t|on
An order whlch ls lssued by Lhe courL beLween Lhe
commencemenL and Lhe end of a sulL or acLlon and whlch
decldes some polnL or maLLer, buL whlch, however ls noL a
flnal declslon of Lhe maLLer ln lssue

8. 1est to determ|ne whether an order |s |nter|ocutory or not
uoes lL leave someLhlng Lo be done ln Lhe Lrlal courL wlLh
respecL Lo Lhe merlLs of Lhe case? lf lL does, lL lnLerlocuLory, lf
lL does noL, lL ls flnal.

C. Lxamp|e
CranLlng prellmlnary ln[uncLlon or appolnLlng a recelver.

Art|c|e 207 - Ma||c|ous de|ay |n the adm|n|strat|on of [ust|ce
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od sha|| be
|mposed upon any [udge gu||ty of ma||c|ous de|ay |n the
adm|n|strat|on of [ust|ce.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (IDM)
1. Cffender ls a [udge
2. 1haL Lhere ls a proceedlng ln hls courL
3. 1haL he delays Lhe admlnlsLraLlon of [usLlce
4. 1haL Lhe delay ls mallclous, LhaL ls, Lhe delay ls caused by Lhe
[udge wlLh dellberaLe lnLenL Lo lnfllcL damage on elLher parLy
ln Lhe case.

II. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: Ma||c|ous de|ay
Mere delay wlLhouL mallce ls noL a felony under Lhls arLlcle.

Art|c|e 208 - rosecut|on of offenses, neg||gence and to|erance
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od and
suspens|on sha|| be |mposed upon any pub||c off|cer, or off|cer of
the |aw, who, |n dere||ct|on of the dut|es of h|s off|ce, sha||
ma||c|ous|y refra|n from |nst|tut|ng prosecut|on for the pun|shment
of v|o|ators of the |aw, or sha|| to|erate the comm|ss|on of offenses.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e
1. 8y mallclously refralnlng from lnsLlLuLlng prosecuLlon agalnsL
vlolaLors of Lhe law
2. 8y mallclously LoleraLlng Lhe commlsslon of offenses.

II. L|ements (DDM)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or offlcer of Lhe law who
has a duLy Lo cause Lhe prosecuLlon of, or Lo prosecuLe,
offenses.
2. 1haL Lhere ls derellcLlon of Lhe duLles of hls offlce, LhaL ls,
knowlng Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, he does noL cause Lhe
prosecuLlon of Lhe crlmlnal or knowlng LhaL a crlme ls abouL
Lo be commlLLed, he LoleraLes lLs commlsslon.
3. 1haL Lhe offender acLs wlLh mallce and dellberaLe lnLenL Lo
favor Lhe vlolaLor of Lhe law

III. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: ub||c off|cer w|th a duty to prosecute cr|mes
!"#$%& ())%&*+, ! exLends Lo offlcers of Lhe prosecuLlon
deparLmenL, whose duLy ls Lo lnsLlLuLe crlmlnal proceedlngs
for felonles upon becomlng lnformed of Lhelr perpeLraLlon.
())%&*+ 1) 6<* $.: ! lncludes Lhose who, by reason of Lhe
poslLlon held by Lhem, are duLy-bound Lo cause Lhe
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
prosecuLlon and punlshmenL of Lhe offenders.
1here musL be a duLy on Lhe parL of Lhe publlc offlcer Lo
prosecuLe or Lo move Lhe prosecuLlon of Lhe offender
o 1he followlng have such duLy:
" Chlef of pollce
" 8arrlo lleuLenanL/capLaln
noL appllcable Lo revenue offlcers
o Cfflcers, agenLs or employees of Lhe 8ureau of
lnLernal 8evenue who, desplLe Lhelr knowledge of
vlolaLlons, fall Lo reporL such are llable under Lhe
Interna| kevenue Law.

IV. SLCCND kLUISI1L: kefra|n from prosecut|ng such cr|mes
A. "Sha|| ma||c|ous|y refra|n from |nst|tut|ng prosecut|on
8u1 a prosecuLlng offlcer ls under no compulslon Lo flle any
lnformaLlon based upon a complalnL where he ls noL
convlnced LhaL Lhe evldence gaLhered or presenLed would
warranL Lhe flllng of an acLlon ln courL.
lf Lhe complalnanL belleves LhaL Lhe prosecuLlng offlcer ls
mallclously refralnlng from flllng Lhe lnformaLlon, Lhe remedy
ls Lhe flllng wlLh Lhe proper auLhorlLles or courL of crlmlnal or
admlnlsLraLlve charges lf Lhe alleged offended parLles belleve
LhaL Lhe former mallclously refralned from lnsLlLuLlng acLlons
for Lhe punlshmenL of vlolaLors of Lhe law.

8. "Sha|| to|erate the comm|ss|on of offenses"
A approached Lhe Chlef of ollce, who ln Lurn ordered hls
pollcemen, noL Lo rald hls gambllng house for Lwo days. 1he
chlef of pollce ls llable under Art|c|e 208.

V. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Acts w|th ma||ce or |ntent to favor the v|o|ator
-.$%&%1",$; ! means LhaL Lhe acLlon complalned of musL be
Lhe resulL of a dellberaLe evll lnLenL and does noL cover a
mere volunLary acL.
o A derellcLlon caused by poor [udgmenL or honesL
mlsLake ls noL punlshable

VI. Cr|me must be proved before conv|ct|on for dere||ct|on
lf Lhe gullL of Lhe law-vlolaLor ls noL proved, Lhe person
charged wlLh derellcLlon of duLy ls noL llable here.
lf Lhe offlcer charged wlLh Lhe duLy Lo prosecuLe asslsLed,
harbored, or concealed Lhe accused, he ls Lhe prlnclpal ln Lhe
crlme of derellcLlon. As such, he ls noL merely an accessory ln
Lhe crlme commlLLed.

Art|c|e 209 - 8etraya| of trust by an attorney or so||c|tor.
keve|at|on of secrets.
In add|t|on to the proper adm|n|strat|ve act|on, the pena|ty of
pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od, or a f|ne rang|ng from
200 to 1,000 pesos, or both, sha|| be |mposed upon any attorney-at-
|aw or so||c|tor ( procurador [ud|c|a|) who, by any ma||c|ous breach
of profess|ona| duty or of |nexcusab|e neg||gence or |gnorance, sha||
pre[ud|ce h|s c||ent, or revea| any of the secrets of the |atter |earned
by h|m |n h|s profess|ona| capac|ty.

1he same pena|ty sha|| be |mposed upon an attorney-at-|aw or
so||c|tor (procurador [ud|c|a|) who, hav|ng undertaken the defense
of a c||ent or hav|ng rece|ved conf|dent|a| |nformat|on from sa|d
c||ent |n a case, sha|| undertake the defense of the oppos|ng party |n
the same case, w|thout the consent of h|s f|rst c||ent.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shed
1. 8y causlng damage Lo hls cllenL elLher:
a. 8y any mallclous breach of professlonal duLy
b. 8y lnexcusable negllgence or lgnorance
noLe: 1here musL be damage
2. 8y reveallng any of Lhe secreLs of hls cllenL learned by hlm ln
hls professlonal capaclLy
noLe: uamage ls noL necessary.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
3. 8y underLaklng Lhe defense of Lhe opposlng parLy ln Lhe same
case, wlLhouL consenL of hls flrsL cllenL, afLer havlng
underLaken Lhe defense of sald flrsL cllenL or afLer havlng
recelved confldenLlal lnformaLlon from sald cllenL.
noLe: lf Lhe cllenL consenLs, Lhere ls no crlme.

II. No So||c|tor or rocurador Iud|c|a| under the ku|es of Court
!+1&"+.31+ 2"3%&%.$ ! a person who possesses pracLlcal
knowledge of law and procedure, buL noL a lawyer, and was
permlLLed Lo represenL a parLy ln a case before an lnferlor
courL.
Sect|on 34. ku|e 138 ! ln Lhe courL of a [usLlce of peace, a
parLy may conducL hls llLlgaLlon ln person, wlLh Lhe ald of an
agenL or frlends or wlLh Lhe ald of an aLLorney.

Sect|on 2 8r|bery

Art|c|e 210 - D|rect br|bery
Any pub||c off|cer who sha|| agree to perform an act const|tut|ng a
cr|me, |n connect|on w|th the performance of th|s off|c|a| dut|es, |n
cons|derat|on of any offer, prom|se, g|ft or present rece|ved by such
off|cer, persona||y or through the med|at|on of another, sha|| suffer
the pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor |n |ts med|um and max|mum per|ods
and a f|ne [of not |ess than the va|ue of the g|ft and] not |ess than
three t|mes the va|ue of the g|ft |n add|t|on to the pena|ty
correspond|ng to the cr|me agreed upon, |f the same sha|| have
been comm|tted.

If the g|ft was accepted by the off|cer |n cons|derat|on of the
execut|on of an act wh|ch does not const|tute a cr|me, and the
off|cer executed sa|d act, he sha|| suffer the same pena|ty prov|ded
|n the preced|ng paragraph, and |f sa|d act sha|| not have been
accomp||shed, the off|cer sha|| suffer the pena|t|es of pr|s|on
correcc|ona|, |n |ts med|um per|od and a f|ne of not |ess than tw|ce
the va|ue of such g|ft.

If the ob[ect for wh|ch the g|ft was rece|ved or prom|sed was to
make the pub||c off|cer refra|n from do|ng someth|ng wh|ch |t was
h|s off|c|a| duty to do, he sha|| suffer the pena|t|es of pr|s|on
correcc|ona| |n |ts max|mum per|od and a f|ne [of not |ess than the
va|ue of the g|ft and] not |ess than three t|mes the va|ue of such g|ft.

In add|t|on to the pena|t|es prov|ded |n the preced|ng paragraphs,
the cu|pr|t sha|| suffer the pena|ty of spec|a| temporary
d|squa||f|cat|on. chan rob|es v|rtua| |aw ||brary

1he prov|s|ons conta|ned |n the preced|ng paragraphs sha|| be made
app||cab|e to assessors, arb|trators, appra|sa| and c|a|m
comm|ss|oners, experts or any other persons perform|ng pub||c
dut|es. (!" $%&'(&( )* +$,$" -$%)$'"$ +./0 1234 56'& 784 791:).

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e
1. 8y agreelng Lo perform, or by performlng, ln conslderaLlon of
any offer, promlse, glfL or presenL - an acL consLlLuLlng a
crlme, ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe performance of hls offlclal
duLles.
2. 8y accepLlng a glfL ln conslderaLlon of Lhe execuLlon of an acL
whlch does noL consLlLuLe a crlme, ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe
performance of hls offlclal duLy.
3. 8y agreelng Lo refraln or by refralnlng from dolng someLhlng
whlch lL ls hls offlclal duLy Lo do, ln conslderaLlon of glfL or
promlse.

II. L|ements of D|rect 8r|bery (203-A-CUk-C)
1. 1haL Lhe offender be a publlc offlcer wlLhln Lhe scope of
Art|c|e 203
2. 1haL Lhe offender accepLs an offer or promlse or recelves a
glfL or presenL by hlmself or Lhrough anoLher.
3. 1haL such offer or promlse be accepLed, or glfL or presenL
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
recelved by Lhe publlc offlcer -
a. WlLh a vlew of commlLLlng some crlme
b. ln conslderaLlon of Lhe execuLlon of an acL whlch
does noL consLlLuLe a crlme buL Lhe acL musL be
un[usL
c. 1o refraln from dolng someLhlng whlch lL ls hls offlclal
duLy Lo do.
4. 1haL Lhe acL whlch Lhe offender agrees Lo perform or whlch
he execuLes be connecLed wlLh Lhe performance of hls offlclal
duLles.

III. IIkS1 kLUIS1L: 1he offender |s a pub||c off|cer
1here ls no dlsLlncLlon beLween offlcer and employee, so long
as Lhe funcLlons performed are publlc funcLlons.
Appllcable Lo assessors, arblLraLors, appralsal and clalm
commlssloners, experLs or any oLher person performlng
publlc duLles.

IV. SLCCND kLUIS1L: G|ft rece|ved persona||y or through another
1he glfL may be recelved by Lhe publlc offlcer personally or
Lhrough a Lhlrd person acLlng as an lnLermedlary.
ClfL ls elLher (1) volunLarlly offered by a prlvaLe person, (2)
sollclLed by Lhe publlc offlcer and Lhe prlvaLe person
volunLarlly dellvers lL Lo Lhe publlc offlcer, or (3) sollclLed by
Lhe publlc offlcer as Lhe conslderaLlon and Lhe prlvaLe person
glves Lhe glfL for fear of Lhe consequences.
ln paragraph 1, accepLance of Lhe offer or promlse ls
sufflclenL. no accepLance, no crlme.
ln paragraph 2, accepLance of Lhe acLual glfL ls needed.
1he glfL or presenL musL be of some value and capable of
pecunlary esLlmaLlon regardless of Lhe form lL comes (servlce,
money, properLy) as Lhe flne (penalLy) ls based on Lhe value.
o eople ex rel ulckenson v. van ue Carr ! An
agreemenL Lo relnsLaLe a frlend of Lhe mayor who
was dlsmlssed, provlded Lhe laLLer execuLes a cerLaln
acL ln connecLlon wlLh hls offlclal duLy ls brlbe.
1he glfL or presenL musL be glven wlLh Lhe lnLenL Lo corrupL
o uS v. !ader ! 1he barrlo lleuLenanL commlLLed esLafa
- noL brlbery - by demandlng and accepLlng chlckens
under promlse Lo relleve Lhe persons from whom he
had obLalned Lhem of Lhe obllgaLlon Lo perform
cerLaln duLles. LsLafa by means of decelL because he
preLended Lo possess Lhe auLhorlLy Lo do so.

V. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: 1hree ways of comm|tt|ng d|rect br|bery
A. W|th a v|ew of comm|tt|ng a cr|me
lour Lhlngs musL concur for Lhe flrsL form of brlbery:
1. 1haL Lhe defendanL be a publlc offlcer (Art|c|e 203)
2. 1haL he has recelved elLher personally or Lhrough anoLher
glfLs or presenL or accepLed offers or promlses.
3. 1haL such recepLlon of glfLs or presenLs or accepLance of
offers or promlses has been for Lhe purpose of execuLlng a
crlme
4. 1haL Lhe acL consLlLuLlng Lhe crlme relaLes Lo Lhe exerclse of
Lhe offlce whlch Lhe publlc offlcer possess.
A promlse Lo glve glfL Lo, and a promlse Lo commlL an
unlawful acL by, a publlc offlcer wlll be sufflclenL ln dlrecL
brlbery under Lhe paragraph 1, Art|c|e 210.
o lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe evldence show an express
promlse. An lmplled promlse may be lnferred from
Lhe clrcumsLances of Lhe case.
1he publlc offlcer shall suffer Lhe penalLy correspondlng Lo
Lhe crlme agreed upon, lf Lhe same ls commlLLed.
1he acL commlLLed musL relaLe Lo hls offlclal duLy (such as
obeylng Lhe orders provlnclal governor wlLh respecL Lo a
prlsoner under Lhe charge of Lhe munlclpal presldenL ! uS v.
valdehueza), alLhough lL does noL necessarlly have Lo be a
sLaLuLory duLy.
o SufflclenL lf Lhe acLlon Lo be affecLed by Lhe brlbe ls
parL of Lhe esLabllshed procedure of a governmenLal
Rachelle Anne Gutierrez 3/5/13 9:00 PM
Comment [1]: lf he really dld possess Lhe
auLhorlLy Lo relleve Lhe persons of Lhelr
obllgaLlons, Lhen lL ls brlbery.
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
agency. 1hls lncludes Lhose acLs LhaL may be ln excess
of Lhe publlc offlcer's auLhorlLy Lo commlL.
8u1
o lf Lhe acL agreed Lo be perform ls so forelgn Lo Lhe
duLles of Lhe offlce as Lo lack even color of auLhorlLy,
Lhere ls no brlbery.

8. In cons|derat|on of an act not const|tut|ng a cr|me
lour Lhlngs musL concur for Lhe second form of brlbery:
1. 1haL Lhe defendanL be a publlc offlcer (Art|c|e 203)
2. 1haL he has recelved elLher personally or Lhrough anoLher
glfLs or presenL or accepLed offers or promlses.
3. 1haL such recepLlon of glfLs or presenLs or accepLance of
offers or promlses has been for Lhe purpose of execuLlng an
un[usL acL whlch does noL consLlLuLe a crlme.
4. 1haL Lhe acL consLlLuLlng Lhe crlme relaLes Lo Lhe exerclse of
Lhe offlce whlch Lhe publlc offlcer possess.
Lxamples of Lhe second form of brlbery:
o 1he Lreasurer, ln conslderaLlon of a glfL, awards sLalls
ln Lhe publlc markeL Lo a Chlnaman, ln splLe of Lhe
facL LhaL Lhere are llllplnos wlLh beLLer rlghLs.
o A [usLlce of peace who, ln favor of a parLy who gave
hlm a carabao and wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe evldence,
ruled ln favor of such parLy (uS v. CacuLan).
aragraph 2, Art|c|e 210 provldes Lwo penalLles
1. lf Lhe offender *=*&"6*3 sald acL
2. lf Lhe offender shall noL have .&&15>$%,<*3 sald acL
noLe: Lhe word .&&15>$%,< presupposes an overL acL an ouLward
acL done ln pursuance and ln manlfesLaLlon of an lnLenL or deslgn.
1he acL ls nC1 accompllshed when Lhe overL acL ls noL broughL Lo
compleLeness.
noLe: under paragraph 2, mere agreemenL or promlse of Lhe parL
of Lhe publlc offlcer Lo execuLe an acL noL consLlLuLlng a crlme ls
nC1 A vlCLA1lCn. AL Lhe same Llme, mere promlse Lo glve a glfL
ls noL sufflclenL under paragraph 2.
noLe: lf Lhe lnformaLlon does noL allege wheLher Lhe publlc
offlcer execuLed Lhe acL or noL, Lhe case would fall here.

C. 1o refra|n from do|ng the pub||c off|cer has to do
Lxample: uS v. navarro ! a sanlLary lnspecLor who accepLs a
glfL from a LenanL of an unsanlLary bulldlng and ln
conslderaLlon Lhereof refralns from performlng hls duLy Lo
reporL lLs condlLlon ls gullLy under paragraph 3, Art|c|e 210.
lf by refralnlng Lo do hls duLy, Lhe publlc offlcer commlLs a
crlme, he ls llable under paragraph 1, Art|c|e 210.
o A publlc offlcer who, for a glfL, absLalns from
lnsLlLuLlng an acLlon for Lhe punlshmenL of an offense
commlLs Lhe crlme of prevarlcaclon (Art|c|e 208).
Art|c|e 208 (revar|cac|on) Art|c|e 210 (D|rect 8r|bery)
1he publlc offlcer neglecLs Lo prosecuLe someone who commlLs a
crlme.
ConslderaLlon of a glfL ls noL
necessary
1he publlc offlcer refralns on
conslderaLlon of a glfL

VI. D|rect 8r|bery |s a cr|me |nvo|v|ng mora| turp|tude
1he facL of accepLlng a glfL under Lhe promlse Lo commlL a
crlmlnal or un[usL acL or refraln from performlng one's duLy
denoLes a mallclous lnLenL on Lhe parL of Lhe offender Lo
renege on Lhe duLles whlch he owed hls fellowmen.
1he facL LhaL he Lakes advanLage of hls offlce ls a beLrayal of
Lhe LrusL reposed on hlm by Lhe publlc.

Art|c|e 211 - Ind|rect br|bery
1he pena|t|es of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and max|mum
per|ods, and pub||c censure sha|| be |mposed upon any pub||c off|cer
who sha|| accept g|fts offered to h|m by reason of h|s off|ce. (!"
$%&'(&( )* +$,$" -$%)$'"$ +./0 1234 56'& 784 791:).

CIN1S
I. L|ements (Ck)
Rachelle Anne Gutierrez 3/5/13 8:51 PM
Comment [2]: Why?
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer
2. 1haL he accepLs glfLs
3. 1haL Lhe sald glfLs are offered Lo hlm by reason of hls offlce.

II. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Accepts g|fts offered to h|m
romlses do noL fall wlLhln Lhe purvlew of Lhls arLlcle.
LssenLlal ln Lhls crlme ls Lhe accepLance or aL leasL lnLenL Lo
accepL Lhe glfL offered.
o Mere physlcal recelpL unaccompanled by any oLher
slgn, clrcumsLance or acL Lo show such accepLance ls
noL sufflclenL Lo lead Lhe courL Lo conclude LhaL Lhe
crlme of lndlrecL brlbery has been commlLLed.
8ecelvlng of glfLs by publlc offlclals and employees, and glvlng
of glfLs by prlvaLe persons, on any occaslon, lncludlng
ChrlsLmas ls punlshable (.D. No. 46)

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: G|fts are g|ven by reason of h|s off|ce
A glfL recelved now may ln Lhe fuLure corrupL hlm.
uS v. 8lchardson ! a veLerlnarlan of Lhe 8oard of PealLh,
enLrusLed wlLh Lhe duLy of examlnlng mules, recelved a
cerLaln amounL of money from Lhe vendor of mules afLer Lhe
laLLer had recelved from Lhe CovernmenL Lhe purchase prlce
of Lhe mules sold. 1here was no evldence Lo Lhe effecL LhaL
Lhe money was glven for Lhe purpose of prevenLlng Lhe
veLerlnarlan from dolng or lnduclng hlm Lo do someLhlng
perLalnlng Lo hls offlce.

IV. 1here |s no attempted or frustrated |nd|rect br|bery
lf Lhe publlc offlcer accepLs Lhe glfL, lL ls consummaLed.
lf Lhe publlc offlcer does noL accepL Lhe glfL, Lhere ls no crlme.

V. D|rect 8r|bery v. Ind|rect 8r|bery
A. In genera|
D|rect 8r|bery (Art|c|e 210) Ind|rect 8r|bery (Art|c|e 211)
1he publlc offlcer recelves Lhe glfL
1here ls an agreemenL beLween
Lhe glver and Lhe publlc offlcer
1here ls no agreemenL beLween
Lhe glver and Lhe publlc offlcer
lL ls necessary LhaL Lhe offender
agrees Lo perform someLhlng ln
conslderaLlon of a glfL
lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhere ls an
acL so long as such ls glven by
reason of hls offlce

8. D|rect 8r|bery (paragraph 2) v. Ind|rect 8r|bery
D|rect 8r|bery (Art|c|e 210) Ind|rect 8r|bery (Art|c|e 211)
1he agreemenL lnvolves Lhe
execuLlon of an un!uS1 acL by
Lhe publlc offlcer
1he agreemenL (eople v.
amplona ! preparlng a voucher
LhaL ls Lhe offlcer's obllgaLlon Lo
prepare) ls nC1 un[usL.

VI. ena|t|es
Crlmlnal penalLy of lmprlsonmenL ls dlsLlncL from Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve penalLy of separaLlon from Lhe [udlclal servlce.

Art|c|e 211-A - ua||f|ed 8r|bery
If any pub||c off|cer |s entrusted w|th |aw enforcement and he
refra|ns from arrest|ng and prosecut|ng an offender who has
comm|tted a cr|me pun|shab|e by rec|us|on perpetua and]or death
|n cons|derat|on of any offer, prom|se, g|ft or present, he sha|| suffer
the pena|ty for the offense wh|ch was not prosecuted.

If |t |s a pub||c off|cer who asks or demands such g|ft or present,
sha|| suffer the pena|ty of death. (!" $((&( )* ;0!0 <=0 2>:9)

CIN1S
I. L|ements (AC)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer enLrusLed wlLh law
enforcemenL
2. 1haL Lhe offender refralns from arresLlng or prosecuLlng an
offender who has commlLLed a crlme punlshable by recluslon
perpeLua and/or deaLh.
3. 1haL Lhe offender refralns from arresLlng or prosecuLlng Lhe
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offender ln conslderaLlon of any promlse, glfL or presenL.

Art|c|e 212 - Corrupt|on of pub||c off|c|a|s.
1he same pena|t|es |mposed upon the off|cer corrupted, except
those of d|squa||f|cat|on and suspens|on, sha|| be |mposed upon any
person who sha|| have made the offers or prom|ses or g|ven the
g|fts or presents as descr|bed |n the preced|ng art|c|es.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (C)
1. 1haL Lhe offender makes offers or promlses or glves glfLs or
presenLs Lo a publlc offlcer.
2. 1haL Lhe offers or promlses are made or Lhe glfLs or presenL
glven Lo a publlc offlcer, under clrcumsLances LhaL wlll make
Lhe publlc offlcer llable for dlrecL brlbery or lndlrecL brlbery.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Cffender g|ves to a pub||c off|cer
1he publlc offlcer soughL Lo be brlbed ls noL crlmlnally llable,
unless he accepLs Lhe glfL or consenLs Lo Lhe offer of Lhe
offender.
Art|c|e 212 punlshes Lhe person who made Lhe offer or
promlse even lf such was demanded by Lhe publlc offlcer and
Lhe offer was noL made volunLarlly by offender.
8rlbery ls usually proved by evldence acqulred ln enLrapmenL.

kLSIDLN1IAL DLCkLL NC. 749

CranLs lmmunlLy from prosecuLlon Lo glvers of brlbes and oLher glfLs
and Lo Lhelr accompllces ln brlbery and oLher grafL cases agalnsL
publlc offlcers provlded Lhe followlng condlLlons concur:
1. 1he lnformaLlon musL refer Lo Lhe consummaLed vlolaLlons of
any of Lhe above-menLloned provlslons of law, rules and
regulaLlons
2. 1he lnformaLlon and LesLlmony are necessary for Lhe
convlcLlon of Lhe accused publlc offlcer
3. Such lnformaLlon and LesLlmony are noL yeL ln Lhe possesslon
of Lhe SLaLe
4. Such lnformaLlon and LesLlmony can be corroboraLed on lLs
maLerlal polnLs
3. 1he lnformanL or wlLness has noL been prevlously convlcLed
of a crlme lnvolvlng moral LurplLude
1he lmmunlLy shall noL aLLach lf Lhe LesLlmony ls laLer proved false.

AN1I-GkAI1 AND CCkkU1 kAC1ICLS AC1
(k.A. No. 3019 as amended by k.A. No. 3047, .D. No. 77
and 8.. 8|g. 19S)

Chapter 3: Irauds and I||ega| Lxact|ons and 1ransact|ons

Art|c|e 213 - Irauds aga|nst the pub||c treasury and s|m||ar offenses.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um per|od to pr|s|on
mayor |n |ts m|n|mum per|od, or a f|ne rang|ng from 200 to 10,000
pesos, or both, sha|| be |mposed upon any pub||c off|cer who:
1. In h|s off|c|a| capac|ty, |n dea||ng w|th any person w|th regard
to furn|sh|ng supp||es, the mak|ng of contracts, or the
ad[ustment or sett|ement of accounts re|at|ng to pub||c
property or funds, sha|| enter |nto an agreement w|th any
|nterested party or specu|ator or make use of any other
scheme, to defraud the Government,
2. 8e|ng entrusted w|th the co||ect|on of taxes, ||censes, fees
and other |mposts, sha|| be gu||ty or any of the fo||ow|ng acts
or om|ss|ons:
a. Demand|ng, d|rect|y, or |nd|rect|y, the payment of
sums d|fferent from or |arger than those author|zed
by |aw.
b. Ia|||ng vo|untar||y to |ssue a rece|pt, as prov|ded by
|aw, for any sum of money co||ected by h|m off|c|a||y.
c. Co||ect|ng or rece|v|ng, d|rect|y or |nd|rect|y, by way
of payment or otherw|se th|ngs or ob[ects of a nature
d|fferent from that prov|ded by |aw.
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE

When the cu|pr|t |s an off|cer or emp|oyee of the 8ureau of Interna|
kevenue or the 8ureau of Customs, the prov|s|ons of the
Adm|n|strat|ve Code sha|| be app||ed.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e as frauds aga|nst pub||c treasury and |||ega|
exact|ons
1. 8y enLerlng lnLo an agreemenL wlLh any lnLeresLed parLy or
speculaLor or maklng use of any oLher scheme, Lo defraud Lhe
CovernmenL ln deallng wlLh any person wlLh regard Lo
furnlshlng supplles, Lhe maklng of conLracLs, or Lhe ad[usLmenL
or seLLlemenL of accounLs relaLlng Lo publlc properLy or funds.
2. 8y demandlng, dlrecLly or lndlrecLly, Lhe paymenL of sums
dlfferenL from or larger Lhan Lhose auLhorlzed by law, ln Lhe
collecLlon of Laxes, llcenses, fees, and oLher lmposLs.
3. 8y falllng volunLarlly Lo lssue a recelpL, as provlded by law, for
any sum of money collecLed by hlm offlclally, ln Lhe collecLlon
of Laxes, llcenses, fees and oLher lmposLs.
4. 8y collecLlng or recelvlng, dlrecLly or lndlrecLly, by way of
paymenL or oLherwlse, Lhlngs or ob[ecLs of a naLure dlfferenL
from LhaL provlded by law, ln Lhe collecLlon of Laxes, llcenses,
fees and oLher lmposLs.
____________________
AkAGkAn 1: IkAUDS AGAINS1 U8LIC 1kLASUk

I. L|ements of frauds aga|nst pub||c treasury (1-fma-I)
1. 1haL Lhe offender be a publlc offlcer
2. 1haL he should have Laken advanLage of hls offlce, LhaL ls, he
lnLervened ln Lhe LransacLlon ln hls offlclal capaclLy.
3. 1haL he enLered lnLo an agreemenL wlLh any lnLeresLed parLy
or speculaLor or made use of ay oLher scheme wlLh regard Lo:
a. lurnlshlng supplles
b. 1he maklng of conLracLs
c. 1he ad[usLmenL or seLLlemenL of accounLs relaLlng Lo
publlc properLy or funds.
4. 1haL Lhe accused had lnLenL Lo defraud Lhe governmenL

II. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Intervene |n h|s off|c|a| capac|ty
1he publlc offlcer musL acL ln hls offlclal capaclLy. 1he offender
musL have Lhe duLy as a publlc offlcer Lo deal wlLh any person
wlLh regard Lo Lhe Lhree schemes llsLed.

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Intent to defraud the government
1he crlme of frauds agalnsL publlc Lreasury ls consummaLed by
merely enLerlng lnLo an agreemenL wlLh any lnLeresLed parLy
or speculaLor or by merely maklng use of any oLher scheme Lo
defraud Lhe governmenL.
lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe governmenL be acLually defrauded.
____________________
AkAGkAn 2: ILLLGAL LkAC1ICNS

I. L|ements of |||ega| exact|ons (-DkC)
1. 1he offender ls a publlc offlcer enLrusLed wlLh Lhe collecLlon of
Laxes, llcense, fees, and oLher lmposLs.
2. Pe ls gullLy of any of Lhe followlng acLs or omlsslons:
a. uemandlng, dlrecLly or lndlrecLly, Lhe paymenL of sums
dlfferenL from or larger Lhan Lhose auLhorlzed by law
b. lalllng volunLarlly Lo lssue a recelpL, as provlded by
law, for any sum of money collecLed by hlm offlclally
c. CollecLlng or recelvlng, dlrecLly or lndlrecLly, by way of
paymenL or oLherwlse, Lhlngs or ob[ecLs of a naLure
dlfferenL from LhaL provlded by law

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Cff|cer entrusted w|th the co||ect|on of taxes
When a publlc offlcer (whose offlclal duLy ls Lo collecL Laxes)
recelves a paymenL as Laxes he makes hlmself dlrecLly
accounLable Lo Lhe governmenL for Lhe money collecLed as
such money acqulres Lhe characLer of publlc funds.
o 1he amounL collecLed LhaL exceeds LhaL allowable by
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
law sLlll forms parL of publlc funds. 1he CovernmenL
may refund Lhe dlfference beLween Lhe amounL LhaL
should have been collecLed and Lhe amounL acLually
collecLed.
A Lax collecLor who collecLs a sum larger Lhan LhaL auLhorlzed
by law commlLs 2 felonles:
o lllegal exacLlon for demandlng Lhe greaLer amounL.
o MalversaLlon for mlsapproprlaLlng Lhe amounL.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Gu||ty of any of the three acts or om|ss|ons
A. Demand|ng sums d|fferent from those author|zed by |aw
Mere demand for larger or dlfferenL sums ls sufflclenL Lo
consummaLe Lhe crlme.
AcLual paymenL of Lhe amounL demanded ls noL necessary.
Lstafa and noL lllegal exacLlon ls commlLLed when Lhere ls
decelL employed ln demandlng greaLer fees Lhan Lhose
prescrlbed by law.

8. Ia|||ng to |ssue a rece|pt
1he collecLlng offlcer musL lssue offlclal recelpLs.
Canaden v. 8olasco ! 1he depuLy sherlff recelved cerLaln
amounLs ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe performance of hls duLles
wlLhouL lssulng Lhe correspondlng offlclal recelpLs. As a resulL
he also vlolaLed Sect|on 113, Art|c|e III, Chapter V, Nat|ona|
Account|ng and Aud|t|ng Manua| provldlng LhaL no paymenL
of any naLure shall be recelved by a collecLlng offlcer wlLhouL
lmmedlaLely lssulng an offlclal recelpL.

Art|c|e 214 - Cther frauds.
In add|t|on to the pena|t|es prescr|bed |n the prov|s|ons of Chapter
S|x, 1|t|e 1en, 8ook 1wo, of th|s Code, the pena|ty of temporary
spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on |n |ts max|mum per|od to perpetua| spec|a|
d|squa||f|cat|on sha|| be |mposed upon any pub||c off|cer who, tak|ng
advantage of h|s off|c|a| pos|t|on, sha|| comm|t any of the frauds or
dece|ts enumerated |n sa|d prov|s|ons.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (131S-318)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer
2. 1haL he Lakes advanLage of hls offlclal poslLlon
3. 1haL he commlLs any of Lhe frauds or decelLs enumeraLed ln
Art|c|es 31S to 318

II. SLCCND kLUISI1L: 1akes advantage of h|s off|c|a| pos|t|on
uS v. 1orrlda ! Slnce Lhe councllor commlLLed esLafa as a
prlvaLe lndlvldual, lL ls noL proper Lo lmpose on hlm Lhe penalLy
prescrlbed ln Art|c|e 214.

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Irauds or dece|ts |n Art|c|es 31S to 318
"Any of the frauds or dece|ts enumerated" |n "the prov|s|ons
of Chapter S|x, 1|t|e 1en, 8ook 1wo, of th|s Code"
o LsLafa (Art|c|e 31S)
o CLher forms of swlndllng (Art|c|e 316)
o Swlndllng a mlnor (Art|c|e 317)
o CLher decelLs (Art|c|e 318)

IV. 1he keg|ona| 1r|a| Court has [ur|sd|ct|on when th|s art|c|e |s
|nvo|ved
1he munlclpal Lrlal courLs have no [urlsdlcLlon Lo lmpose Lhe
penalLy of dlsquallflcaLlon.

Art|c|e 21S - roh|b|ted transact|ons.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts max|mum per|od or a f|ne
rang|ng from 200 to 1,000 pesos, or both, sha|| be |mposed upon any
appo|nt|ve pub||c off|cer who, dur|ng h|s |ncumbency, sha|| d|rect|y or
|nd|rect|y become |nterested |n any transact|on of exchange or
specu|at|on w|th|n the terr|tory sub[ect to h|s [ur|sd|ct|on.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (AIII)
Rachelle Anne Gutierrez 3/4/13 1:17 PM
Comment [3]: MusL Lhere be a law
requlrlng LhaL Lhe offlcer lssue recelpLs?
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls an appolnLlve publlc offlcer
2. 1haL he becomes lnLeresLed, dlrecLly or lndlrecLly, ln any
LransacLlon of exchange or speculaLlon.
3. 1haL Lhe LransacLlon Lakes place wlLhln Lhe LerrlLory sub[ecL Lo
hls [urlsdlcLlon.
4. 1haL he becomes lnLeresLed ln Lhe LransacLlon durlng hls
lncumbency.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Appo|nt|ve pub||c off|cer
Art|c|e 14, Code of Commerce
o !usLlces, [udges or flscals
o Lmployees engaged ln Lhe collecLlon and
admlnlsLraLlon of publlc funds.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Interested, d|rect|y or |nd|rect|y
1he LransacLlon musL be one of exchange or speculaLlon
o Lxamples: buylng and selllng of sLocks, commodlLles,
land, eLc., hoplng Lo Lake advanLage of an expecLed
rlse or fall ln prlce.
urchaslng of sLocks or shares ln a company ls slmply an
lnvesLmenL and ls noL a vlolaLlon of Lhls arLlcle.
8u1
8uylng regularly securlLles for resale ls speculaLlon

Art|c|e 216 - ossess|on of proh|b|ted |nterest by a pub||c off|cer.
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor |n |ts med|um per|od to pr|s|on
correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od, or a f|ne rang|ng from 200 to
1,000 pesos, or both, sha|| be |mposed upon a pub||c off|cer who
d|rect|y or |nd|rect|y, sha|| become |nterested |n any contract or
bus|ness |n wh|ch |t |s h|s off|c|a| duty to |ntervene.

1h|s prov|s|ons |s app||cab|e to experts, arb|trators and pr|vate
accountants who, |n ||ke manner, sha|| take part |n any contract or
transact|on connected w|th the estate or property |n appra|sa|,
d|str|but|on or ad[ud|cat|on of wh|ch they sha|| have acted, and to the
guard|ans and executors w|th respect to the property be|ong|ng to
the|r wards or estate.

CIN1S
I. Who are ||ab|e for possess|on of proh|b|ted |nterest?
1. ubllc offlcer who, dlrecLly or lndlrecLly, became lnLeresLed l
any conLracL or buslness ln whlch lL was hls offlclal duLy Lo
lnLervene.
2. LxperLs, arblLraLors, and prlvaLe accounLanLs who, ln llke
manner, Look parL ln any conLracL or LransacLlon connecLed
wlLh Lhe esLaLe or properLy ln Lhe appralsal, dlsLrlbuLlon or
ad[udlcaLlon of whlch Lhey had acLed.
3. Cuardlans and execuLors wlLh respecL Lo Lhe properLy
belonglng Lo Lhelr wards or Lhe esLaLe.

II. Actua| fraud |s not necessary
1he acL ls punlshed because of Lhe posslblllLy LhaL fraud may
be commlLLed or LhaL Lhe offlcer may place hls own lnLeresL
above LhaL of Lhe governmenL or parLy whlch he represenLs.

III. Intervent|on must be by v|rtue of pub||c off|ce he|d.
uS v. udarbe ! a munlclpal mayor who Look dlrecL parL ln Lhe
lease of Lhe munlclpal flshponds Lo hlmself may be held llable
here, lL belng hls offlclal duLy Lo lnLervene ln behalf of Lhe
munlclpallLy ln Lhe conLracL of lease of Lhe flshponds.
eople v. Meneses ! v morLgaged hls properLy Lo Lhe enslon
8oard, whlch he laLer Lransferred Lo C. C Lransferred lL Lo Lhe
accused who ls Lhe secreLary and execuLlve offlcer of sald
8oard. Accused ls noL llable because he obLalned Lhe
properLles ln hls prlvaLe capaclLy.
1he offlclal who lnLervenes ln conLracL or LransacLlon whlch
have no connecLlon wlLh hls offlce cannoL commlL Lhls crlme.

IV. Cther Laws
Sect|on 14, Art|c|e VI, 1987 Const|tut|on
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
Sect|on 13, Art|c|e VII, 1987 Const|tut|on
Sect|on 2, Art|c|e Ik-A, 1987 Const|tut|on

Chapter 4: Ma|versat|on of ub||c Iunds or roperty

Art|c|e 217 - Ma|versat|on of pub||c funds or property, resumpt|on
of ma|versat|on.
Any pub||c off|cer who, by reason of the dut|es of h|s off|ce, |s
accountab|e for pub||c funds or property, sha|| appropr|ate the same
or sha|| take or m|sappropr|ate or sha|| consent, through
abandonment or neg||gence, sha|| perm|t any other person to take
such pub||c funds, or property, who||y or part|a||y, or sha|| otherw|se
be gu||ty of the m|sappropr|at|on or ma|versat|on of such funds or
property, sha|| suffer:
1. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and
max|mum per|ods, |f the amount |nvo|ved |n the
m|sappropr|at|on or ma|versat|on does not exceed two
hundred pesos.
2. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um
per|ods, |f the amount |nvo|ved |s more than two hundred
pesos but does not exceed s|x thousand pesos.
3. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor |n |ts max|mum per|od to
rec|us|on tempora| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od, |f the amount
|nvo|ved |s more than s|x thousand pesos but |s |ess than
twe|ve thousand pesos.
4. 1he pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora|, |n |ts med|um and
max|mum per|ods, |f the amount |nvo|ved |s more than
twe|ve thousand pesos but |s |ess than twenty-two thousand
pesos. If the amount exceeds the |atter, the pena|ty sha|| be
rec|us|on tempora| |n |ts max|mum per|od to rec|us|on
perpetua.

In a|| cases, persons gu||ty of ma|versat|on sha|| a|so suffer the
pena|ty of perpetua| spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on and a f|ne equa| to the
amount of the funds ma|versed or equa| to the tota| va|ue of the
property embezz|ed.

1he fa||ure of a pub||c off|cer to have du|y forthcom|ng any pub||c
funds or property w|th wh|ch he |s chargeab|e, upon demand by any
du|y author|zed off|cer, sha|| be pr|ma fac|e ev|dence that he has put
such m|ss|ng funds or property to persona| use. ?!" $%&'(&( )* ;!
78>8@0

CIN1S
I. Def|n|t|on
MalversaLlon ls oLherwlse called embezzlemenL.

II. Acts un|shab|e
1. 8y approprlaLlng publlc funds of properLy
2. 8y Laklng or mlsapproprlaLlng Lhe same
3. 8y consenLlng, or Lhrough abandonmenL or negllgence,
permlLLlng any oLher person Lo Lake such publlc funds or
properLy.
4. 8y belng oLherwlse gullLy of Lhe mlsapproprlaLlon or
malversaLlon of such funds or properLy.

III. L|ements common to ma|versat|on under Art|c|e 217 (CAA)
1. 1haL Lhe offender be a publlc offlcer
2. 1haL he had Lhe cusLody or conLrol of funds or properLy by
reason of Lhe duLles of hls offlce (l.e. ln hls offlclal capaclLy).
3. 1haL Lhose funds or properLy were publlc funds or properLy for
whlch he was accounLable.
4. 1haL he approprlaLed, Look, mlsapproprlaLed or consenLed or,
Lhrough abandonmenL or negllgence, permlLLed anoLher
person Lo Lake Lhem.

IV. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Cffender |s a pub||c off|cer
See Art|c|e 203 for deflnlLlon of publlc offlcer"
LlablllLy of prlvaLe lndlvlduals ln consplracy wlLh publlc offlcers
gullLy of malversaLlon
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
o A prlvaLe person consplrlng wlLh an accounLable publlc
offlcer ln commlLLlng malversaLlon ls also gullLy of such
o When a prlvaLe person lnduces a publlc offlcer or by
necessary acLs alds a publlc offlcer ln consenLlng or
permlLLlng such publlc funds Lo fall lnLo Lhe hands of a
swlndler, he musL be held equally llable.
Art|c|e 222 makes prlvaLe lndlvlduals llable for malversaLlon

V. SLCCND kLUISI1L: nas custody or contro| by v|rtue of h|s off|ce
1he vlLal facL ls LhaL he ls an employee of, or ln some way
connecLed wlLh, Lhe governmenL and LhaL, ln Lhe course of hls
employmenL, he recelves money or properLy belonglng Lo Lhe
governmenL for whlch he ls bound Lo accounL.
uS v. 1ogonon ! Munlclpal presldenL who spenL for hlmself
60 whlch had recelved from Lhe superlnLendenL of Lhe
schools, as resL for a house owned by Lhe munlclpallLy.
uS v. Sagun ! !usLlce of fees who was unable Lo accounL for
Lhe shorLage ln Lhe flles and cosLs collecLed by hlm.
uS v. LafuenLe ! Munlclpal SecreLary who acLed as secreLary
of a commlLLee charged wlLh conducLlng Lhe publlc aucLlon for
Lhe sale of flshlng prlvlleges, and who falled Lo accounL for Lhe
blds deposlLed Lo hlm.

VI. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: ne |s accountab|e for the funds
When a publlc offlcer had no auLhorlLy Lo recelve Lhe money
for Lhe governmenL and upon recelpL of Lhe same he
mlsapproprlaLed lL, Lhe crlme ls esLafa, noL malversaLlon.
A publlc offlcer havlng only a quallfled charge of governmenL
properLy wlLhouL ."6<1+%6; 61 >.+6 wlLh physlcal possesslon of
lL unless upon order from hls lmmedlaLe superlor, cannoL be
held llable for malversaLlon.
o uS v. WebsLer ! uefendanL was forage masLer who,
wlLhouL orders of Lhe quarLermasLer (who was dlrecLly
responslble Lo Lhe governmenL), cannoL lssue
anyLhlng. WlLhouL orders from Lhe quarLermasLer, he
senL ouL bales of hay and sacks of oaLhs whlch were
recelved by prlvaLe persons noL auLhorlzed for lL. Pe ls
gullLy of LhefL.
o uS v. Wlckersham ! Lhe absLracLlon of funds from a
safe by a clerk - who havlng no conLrol over lLs
conLenLs and who was noL auLhorlzed Lo open lL or
wlLhdraw Lhe conLenLs of any parL Lhereof excepL
upon express dlrecLlon of Lhe person charged wlLh Lhe
cusLody of Lhe conLenLs - wlLhouL auLhorlLy from Lhe
person charged wlLh Lhe cusLody of Lhe safe's conLenLs
ls llable for LhefL and noL esLafa (embezzlemenL).
1he WebsLer and Wlckersham rullngs are noL appllcable when
Lhe accused had auLhorlLy Lo recelve money perLalnlng Lhe
governmenL.
o uS v. velasquez ! 1he vlLal facL ls noL so much Lhe
manner ln whlch appellanL could lawfully perform hls
duLles ln relaLlon Lo sald funds (l.e. wheLher or noL he
had Lhe auLhorlLy Lo parL wlLh Lhe funds) as Lhe facL
LhaL he recelved money belonglng Lo Lhe CovernmenL
for whlch <* :., #1"/3 61 .&&1"/6.
lL ls Lhe naLure of Lhe duLles and noL Lhe performance of Lhose
duLles LhaL deLermlnes Lhe characLer of Lhe offense.
o ln WebsLer and Wlckersham, Lhe only responslblllLy of
Lhe accused was Loward hls lmmedlaLe superlor. lL was
lmmedlaLe superlor who was .&&1"/6.#$* 61 6<*
41?*+/5*/6 for Lhe funds.

VII. Iunds
A. ub||c Iunds
CovernmenL funds lnclude revenue funds or LrusL funds
o eople v. ue la Serna ! 8ed Cross funds recelved by
an asslsLanL cashler of Lhe provlnclal Lreasurer are noL
sLrlcLly publlc funds buL Lhey are LrusL funds placed ln
Lhe cusLody of accounLable publlc offlcer for Lhe
purpose for whlch Lhey are conLrlbuLed by Lhe publlc.
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
osLal money orders (eople v. vlllanueva)
Money recelved by Lhe sherlff as redempLlon prlce (eople v.
8enlLo)
Money recelved by Lhe sherlff Lo lndemnlfy hlmself agalnsL any
clalm for damages LhaL mlghL arlse ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe levy
made by hlm upon properLy belonglng Lo a [udgmenL debLor
(eople v. 8amos).
nA8lC funds recelved by a munlclpal Lreasurer as ex oflclo ln
charge of Lhe funds of Lhe nA8lC ln Lhe munlclpallLy (eople v.
Aqulno).
roceeds of sweepsLakes LlckeLs (eople v. Angco)

8. r|vate property may be |nvo|ved |n ma|versat|on
1he Code makes llable any publlc offlcer so long as such funds
or properLy, even lf belonglng Lo prlvaLe lndlvlduals, are placed
ln Lhelr cusLody.

VIII. D|fferent Acts of Ma|versat|on un|shed under Art|c|e 217
A. Appropr|at|ng pub||c funds or property
lncludes every aLLempL Lo dlspose of Lhe same wlLhouL rlghL
uS v. Callmag ! 1he accused had no auLhorlLy Lo pay hlmself
hls salary of 10/monLh as depuLy Lo Lhe provlnclal Lreasurer.

8. 1ak|ng or m|sappropr|at|ng pub||c funds or property
1he publlc funds or properLy Laken need noL be
mlsapproprlaLed.
1he crlme of malversaLlon was consummaLed Lhe momenL A, a
Leller ln Lhe offlce of Lhe clLy Lreasurer, Look publlc funds
collecLed by hlm from cerLaln Laxpayers. 1haL he was
apprehended by an n8l agenL on hls way ouL Lhereby
dlsallowlng hlm from mlsapproprlaLlng Lhe funds ls lmmaLerlal.

C. Consent|ng or perm|tt|ng, through abandonment or neg||gence,
any other person to take pub||c funds or property
When a publlc offlcer, accounLable for publlc funds or
properLy, vlolaLes regulaLlons of hls offlce, LhaL vlolaLlon ls
evldence of negllgence.
8uL ln malversaLlon, Lhe negllgence of Lhe accounLable publlc
offlcer musL be poslLlvely and clearly shown Lo be lnexcusable,
approxlmaLlng mallce or fraud.
1esL Lo deLermlne negllgence: 1he sLandard of care
commensuraLe wlLh Lhe occaslon
o negllgence ls Lhe omlsslon Lo do someLhlng whlch a
reasonable man gulded by Lhose conslderaLlons whlch
ordlnarlly regulaLe Lhe conducL of human affalrs,
would do, or Lhe dolng of someLhlng whlch a prudenL
and reasonable man would do.
o uld Lhe defendanL ln dolng Lhe alleged negllgenL acL
use LhaL reasonable care and cauLlon whlch an
ordlnary prudenL person would have used ln Lhe same
slLuaLlon? lf noL, he ls gullLy of negllgence.
o 1he law adopLs Lhe sLandard supposed Lo be supplled
by Lhe lmaglnary conducL of Lhe dlscreeL paLerfamlllas
of Lhe 8oman Law.
ln malversaLlon noL commlLLed Lhrough negllgence, lack of
crlmlnal lnLenL or good falLh ls a defense.
o ln such case where Lhe accounLable offlcer commlLLed
malversaLlon Lhrough an honesL mlsLake as Lo Lhe law
or Lo Lhe facLs concernlng hls duLles, he ls only clvllly
llable.
A person whose negllgence made posslble Lhe commlsslon of
malversaLlon by anoLher may be held llable as prlnclpal by
lndlspensable cooperaLlon ln Lhe complex rlme of malversaLlon
Lhrough faslflcaLlon of a publlc documenL by reckless
negllgence (!avler, eL al. v. eople)

Ik. resumpt|on of Ma|versat|on
A. Ar|ses from fa||ure to have du|y forthcom|ng pub||c funds or
property upon demand
uS v. kallngo ! fallure or lnablllLy of Lhe accused who was ln
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
cusLody of publlc funds Lo refund Lhe shorLage upon demand
by Lhe duly auLhorlzed offlces consLlLuLes prlma facl evldence
of malversaLlon, noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe facL LhaL such demand
was made only verbally.
eople v. Mlngoa ! An accounLable publlc offlcer may be
convlcLed of malversaLlon even lf Lhere ls noL dlrecL evldence
and Lhe only evldence ls LhaL Lhere ls shorLage of hls accounLs
whlch he has noL been able Lo explaln saLlsfacLorlly.

8. resumpt|on may be rebutted
lf Lhe accused has adduced evldence showlng LhaL he dld noL
puL Lhe mlsslng funds or properLy Lo personal uses, Lhen LhaL
presumpLlon ls aL an end and Lhe prlma facle case ls desLroyed.
o 1he presumpLlon could be overcome by saLlsfacLory
evldence of loss or robbery commlLLed by anoLher.
1he burden of defense resLs upon Lhe accused who should
show LhaL he dld noL mlsapply or mlsapproprlaLe Lhe funds, or
LhaL he allowed Lhrough hls negllgence or abandonmenL,
someone Lo do Lhe same.

k. keturn of the funds ma|versed |s on|y m|t|gat|ng, not exempt|ng
8esLlLuLlon ls noL exempLlng because damage ls noL an
elemenL of malversaLlon
1here musL prompL refund of Lhe shorLage
o eople v. AmanLe ! Where Lhe parLlal resLlLuLlon or
resLoraLlon of Lhe shorLage was made 7 years afLer Lhe
swlndllng Look place and afLer on of Lhe accused was
already convlcLed, Lhere ls noL prompL refund of Lhe
shorLage, and Lhe accused can noL be credlLed wlLh a
mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance slmllar and analogous Lo
volunLary surrender.
When Lhe shorLage ls pald by Lhe publlc offlcer form hls pockeL
Lhe momenL when such was dlscovered and Lhe offlcer was
noLlfled, no prlma facle evldence of malversaLlon can arlse.
8u1 Lhe facL LhaL Lhe amounL ln case whlch a munlclpal
Lreasurer should have ln hls cafe was fully covered by an
amounL borrowed from one of hls clerks does noL relleve sald
Lreasurer of crlmlnal responslblllLy because he had falled Lo
explaln saLlsfacLorlly why Lhe amounL was mlsslng.
8u1 when Lhe accounLable offlcer ls obllged Lo go ouL of hls
offlce and borrow Lhe sum alleged Lo be Lhe shorLage and laLer
Lhe mlsslng amounL ls found ln some unaccusLomed place ln
hls offlce, he ls noL llable for malversaLlon.

kI. Demand and Damage are Unnecessary
uemand merely ralses a prlma facle presumpLlon LhaL mlsslng
funds have been puL Lo personal use.
uamage Lo Lhe governmenL ls noL necessary
o AL mosL, lack of proof showlng damage Lo governmenL
would amounL Lo clvll llablllLy only.

Art|c|e 218 - Ia||ure of accountab|e off|cer to render accounts.
Any pub||c off|cer, whether |n the serv|ce or separated therefrom by
res|gnat|on or any other cause, who |s requ|red by |aw or regu|at|on
to render account to the Insu|ar Aud|tor, or to a prov|nc|a| aud|tor
and who fa||s to do so for a per|od of two months after such accounts
shou|d be rendered, sha|| be pun|shed by pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts
m|n|mum per|od, or by a f|ne rang|ng from 200 to 6,000 pesos, or
both.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (AkI2)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer, wheLher ln Lhe servlce or
separaLed Lherefrom.
2. 1haL he musL be an accounLable offlcer for publlc funds or
properLy.
3. 1haL he ls requlred by law or regulaLlon Lo render accounLs Lo
Lhe Commlsslon on AudlL, or Lo a provlnclal audlLor.
4. 1haL he falls Lo do so for a perlod of Lwo monLhs afLer such
accounLs should be rendered.
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE

II. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: kequ|red by |aw to render accounts
uemand for accounLlng ls noL necessary. lL ls sufflclenL LhaL
Lhere ls a law or regulaLlon requlrlng hlm Lo render accounL.
1he law does noL so much conLemplaLe Lhe posslblllLy of
malversaLlon as Lhe need of enforclng by penal provlslon Lhe
performance of Lhe duLy lncumbenL upon every publlc
employee who handles governmenL funds.

III. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: Ia||s to do so for a per|od of 2 months
lL ls noL essenLlal LhaL Lhere ls mlsapproprlaLlon.
lf Lhere ls mlsapproprlaLlon, offender would also be llable for
malversaLlon.

Art|c|e 219 - Ia||ure of a respons|b|e pub||c off|cer to render accounts
before |eav|ng the country.
Any pub||c off|cer who un|awfu||y |eaves or attempts to |eave the
h|||pp|ne Is|ands w|thout secur|ng a cert|f|cate from the Insu|ar
Aud|tor show|ng that h|s accounts have been f|na||y sett|ed, sha|| be
pun|shed by arresto mayor, or a f|ne rang|ng from 200 to 1,000 pesos
or both.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (AU)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer
2. 1haL he musL be an accounLable offlcer for publlc funds or
properLy
3. 1haL he musL have unlawfully lefL (or be Lhe on Lhe polnL of
leavlng) Lhe hlllpplnes wlLhouL securlng from Lhe Commlsslon
on AudlL a cerLlflcaLe showlng LhaL hls accounLs have been
flnally seLLled.

Note: 1he acL of leavlng musL be unauLhorlzed or noL permlLLed by law.

Art|c|e 220 - I||ega| use of pub||c funds or property.
Any pub||c off|cer who sha|| app|y any pub||c fund or property under
h|s adm|n|strat|on to any pub||c use other than for wh|ch such fund or
property were appropr|ated by |aw or ord|nance sha|| suffer the
pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od or a f|ne rang|ng
from one-ha|f to the tota| of the sum m|sapp||ed, |f by reason of such
m|sapp||cat|on, any damages or embarrassment sha|| have resu|ted
to the pub||c serv|ce. In e|ther case, the offender sha|| a|so suffer the
pena|ty of temporary spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on.

If no damage or embarrassment to the pub||c serv|ce has resu|ted,
the pena|ty sha|| be a f|ne from S to S0 per cent of the sum
m|sapp||ed.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (IL)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer
2. 1haL Lhere ls publlc fund or properLy under hls admlnlsLraLlon
3. 1haL such publlc fund or properLy has been approprlaLed by
law or ordlnance
4. 1haL he applles Lhe same Lo a publlc use oLher Lhan LhaL for
whlch such fund or properLy has been approprlaLed by law or
ordlnance.

II. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Appropr|ated by |aw or ord|nance
1here ls noL Lechnlcal malversaLlon lf Lhere ls no law or
ordlnance approprlaLlng publlc funds or properLy for a
parLlcular purpose.
lf Lhe funds are noL approprlaLed for a parLlcular purpose, and
lL was applled Lo anoLher publlc use, Lhe offender can be llable
for malversaLlon under Art|c|e 217 because he dlsposed of Lhe
same wlLhouL rlghL.
uS v. L[erclLo ! 1he school Leachers and oLher munlclpal
offlcers were unable Lo recelve Lhelr salarles because Lhe
Lreasurer applled Lhe funds, approprlaLed form Lhe paymenL of
sald salarles, Lo anoLher publlc use. 1here ls deLrlmenL and
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
hlndrance Lo Lhe publlc servlce.

III. Art|c|e 220 v. Art|c|e 217
I||ega| use of pub||c funds or
property (Art|c|e 220)
Ma|versat|on (Art|c|e 217)
Cffenders are accounLable publlc offlcers
Cffender does noL derlve any
personal galn or proflL
Cffender ln cerLaln cases proflLs
from Lhe proceeds of Lhe crlme.
1he fund ls applled Lo anoLher
publlc use
1he fund ls applled Lo Lhe
personal use or beneflL of Lhe
offender or of anoLher.
Note: 1echnlcal malversaLlon ls noL lncluded nor does lL necessarlly
lnclude Lhe crlme of malversaLlon of publlc funds.

Art|c|e 221 - Ia||ure to make de||very of pub||c funds or property.
Any pub||c off|cer under ob||gat|on to make payment from
Government funds |n h|s possess|on, who sha|| fa|| to make such
payment, sha|| be pun|shed by arresto mayor and a f|ne from S to 2S
per cent of the sum wh|ch he fa||ed to pay.

1h|s prov|s|on sha|| app|y to any pub||c off|cer who, be|ng ordered by
competent author|ty to de||ver any property |n h|s custody or under
h|s adm|n|strat|on, sha|| refuse to make such de||very.

1he f|ne sha|| be graduated |n such case by the va|ue of the th|ng,
prov|ded that |t sha|| not |ess than S0 pesos.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e
1. 8y falllng Lo make paymenL by a publlc offlcer who ls under
obllgaLlon Lo make such paymenL from CovernmenL funds ln
hls possesslon.
2. 8y refuslng Lo make dellvery by a publlc offlcer who has been
ordered by compeLenL auLhorlLy Lo dellver any properLy ln hls
cusLody or under hls admlnlsLraLlon.

II. L|ements (I)
1. 1haL Lhe publlc offlcer has CovernmenL funds ln hls possesslon
2. 1haL he ls under obllgaLlon Lo make paymenL from such funds
3. 1haL he falls Lo make Lhe paymenL mallclously

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Ia||s to make payment ma||c|ous|y
eople v. !ublla ! A sLenographer of Lhe provlnclal board who
reLalns ln hls possesslon Lhe sLenographlc noLes Laken by hlm
for Lhe purpose of Lranscrlblng Lhe same does noL commlL a
vlolaLlon of Lhls arLlcle. Moreover Lhe prosecuLlon dld noL
prove damage Lo publlc lnLeresL.

Art|c|e 222 - Cff|cers |nc|uded |n the preced|ng prov|s|ons.
1he prov|s|ons of th|s chapter sha|| app|y to pr|vate |nd|v|dua|s who |n
any capac|ty whatever, have charge of any |nsu|ar, prov|nc|a| or
mun|c|pa| funds, revenues, or property and to any adm|n|strator or
depos|tory of funds or property attached, se|zed or depos|ted by
pub||c author|ty, even |f such property be|ongs to a pr|vate |nd|v|dua|.

CIN1S
I. r|vate |nd|v|dua|s who may be ||ab|e under Art|c|es 217 to 221
1. rlvaLe lndlvlduals, who ln any capaclLy whaLsoever, have
charge of any naLlonal, provlnclal or munlclpal funds, revenue,
or properLy.
2. AdmlnlsLraLor or deposlLory of funds or properLy aLLached,
selzed or deposlLed by publlc auLhorlLy, even lf such properLy
belongs Lo a prlvaLe lndlvldual

II. urpose of Art|c|e 222
1o exLend Lhe provlslons of Lhe Code on malversaLlon Lo
prlvaLe lndlvlduals

III. r|vate |nd|v|dua| ||ab|e for ma|versat|on
uS v. 8asLrollo ! 1he acL could noL be regarded as consLlLuLlng
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
esLafa, because Lhe properLy alleged Lo have been mlsapplled
was noL Lhe sub[ecL of a mere prlvaLe ballmenL buL of a [udlclal
deposlL. 1hls glves Lhe deposlLory a characLer equlvalenL Lo
LhaL of a publlc offlclal, and Lhe breach of hls obllgaLlon ls
slmllar Lo Lhe vlolaLlon of Lhe obllgaLlons lmposed by publlc
offlce.

IV. Sher|ffs and rece|vers fa|| under the term "adm|n|strator"
!udlclal admlnlsLraLor however ls noL covered by Lhls arLlcle,
because he ls noL ln charge of any properLy aLLached,
lmpounded or placed ln deposlL by publlc auLhorlLy.

V. r|vate property |s |nc|uded prov|ded |t |s:
1. ALLached
2. Selzed
3. ueposlLed by publlc auLhorlLy

Chapter S: Inf|de||ty of ub||c Cff|cers

Sect|on 1 Inf|de||ty |n the custody of pr|soners

Art|c|e 223 - Conn|v|ng w|th or consent|ng to evas|on.
Any pub||c off|cer who sha|| consent to the escape of a pr|soner |n h|s
custody or charge, sha|| be pun|shed:
1. 8y pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and max|mum per|ods
and temporary spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on |n |ts max|mum per|od
to perpetua| spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on, |f the fug|t|ve sha|| have
been sentenced by f|na| [udgment to any pena|ty.
2. 8y pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od and temporary
spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on, |n case the fug|t|ve sha|| not have
been f|na||y conv|cted but on|y he|d as a detent|on pr|soner
for any cr|me or v|o|at|on of |aw or mun|c|pa| ord|nance.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (CLC)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer
2. 1haL he had ln hls cusLody or charge, a prlsoner, elLher
deLenLlon prlsoner or prlsoner by flnal [udgmenL
3. 1haL such prlsoner escaped from hls cusLody
4. 1haL he was ln connlvance wlLh Lhe prlsoner ln Lhe laLLer's
escape.

II. Act const|tut|ng the cr|me: Connlvance wlLh Lhe prlsoner

III. C|asses of pr|soners |nvo|ved
1. lf Lhe fuglLlve has been senLenced by flnal [udgmenL Lo any
penalLy.
2. lf Lhe fuglLlve ls held only as deLenLlon prlsoner for any crlme
or vlolaLlon of law or munlclpal ordlnance.

IV. Inf|de||ty |n the custody of a pr|soner
@*6*/6%1/ >+%,1/*+ ! a person ln legal cusLody, arresLed for,
and charged wlLh, some crlme or publlc offense.
8elease of deLenLlon prlsoner who could noL be dellvered Lo
Lhe [udlclal auLhorlLy wlLhln Lhe Llme flxed by law, ls noL
lnfldellLy ln Lhe cusLody of prlsoner.
Lenlency or laxlLy ls noL lnfldellLy
o eople v. LvangellsLa ! uurlng hls deLenLlon, Lhe
prlsoner was allowed Lo eaL ln a resLauranL near Lhe
munlclpal bulldlng. uurlng Lhe Lown flesLa, he was
allowed Lo eaL beLLer meals aL hls house. ln all cases,
he was duly guarded. no lnfldellLy ln Lhe cusLody.
8elaxaLlon of lmprlsonmenL ls consldered lnfldellLy
o uS v. 8andlno ! where Lhe cusLodlan permlLs Lhe
prlsoner Lo obLaln a relaxaLlon of hls lmprlsonmenL
and Lo escape Lhe punlshmenL of belng deprlved of hls
llberLy, alLhough Lhe convlcL may noL have fled.
o eople v. 8evllla ! 1he prlsoner servlng a 6-day
senLence was allowed Lo sleep and eaL ln hls house.
o eople v. LvangellsLa ! 1he mayor ls gullLy here lf he
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
uLlllzed Lhe prlsoner's servlces for domesLlc chores ln
hls house.

Art|c|e 224 - Lvas|on through neg||gence.
If the evas|on of the pr|soner sha|| have taken p|ace through the
neg||gence of the off|cer charged w|th the conveyance or custody of
the escap|ng pr|soner, sa|d off|cer sha|| suffer the pena|t|es of arresto
mayor |n |ts max|mum per|od to pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum
per|od and temporary spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (C-LN)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer
2. 1haL he ls charged wlLh Lhe conveyance or cusLody of a
prlsoner, elLher deLenLlon prlsoner or prlsoner by flnal
[udgmenL
3. 1haL such prlsoner escapes Lhrough hls negllgence.

II. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Charged w|th custody of a pr|soner
eople v. Sllvosa ! S was supposed Lo succeed C, buL was
asleep aL Lhe Llme. A prlsoner escaped hls posL whlle C was Lhe
one on posL even Lhough lL was S's Llme already. S ls noL llable
because Lhe cusLody of Lhe prlsoner had noL yeL been
Lransferred Lo hlm.

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: r|soner escapes through off|cer's neg||gence
eople v. Solls ! a pollceman was on guard. Pe would allow A
Lo go ouL Lo a nearby fauceL Lo wash rags. Cn A's Lhlrd vlslL, he
escaped over Lhe wall. 1he pollceman ls noL llable.
noL every llLLle mlsLake or dlsLracLlon of a guard leadlng Lo
prlsoner's escape ls negllgence under Art|c|e 224.
WhaL ls punlshed ln evaslon Lhrough negllgence ls such a
deflnlLe laxlLy as all buL amounLs Lo dellberaLe non-
performance of duLy on Lhe parLy of Lhe guard.
o lL ls only poslLlve carelessness LhaL ls shorL of
dellberaLe non-performance of hls duLles as guard LhaL
ls Lhe gravamen of Lhe crlme of lnfldellLy.
eople v. LagaLa ! 1he guard permlLLed Lhe prlsoner, who
laLer escaped, Lo go Lo Lhe nursery Lo gaLher gabl. 1he nursery
was grassy and Lall Lalahlb was growlng Lhereln. Lalble.
o 1he guard musL have seen lmmedlaLely LhaL lL was a
cholce place for any prlsoner Lo escape.

IV. 1here |s on|y one pena|ty regard|ess of whether the pr|soner |s a
conv|ct or a detent|on pr|soner

V. 1he fact that the pub||c off|cer recaptured the pr|soner who had
escaped from h|s custody does not afford comp|ete excu|pat|on.

VI. L|ab|||ty of escapee
1. lf he ls a convlcL servlce flnal [udgmenL ! Art|c|e 1S7
2. lf he ls a deLenLlon prlsoner ! none

Art|c|e 22S - Lscape of pr|soner under the custody of a person not a
pub||c off|cer.
Any pr|vate person to whom the conveyance or custody or a pr|soner
or person under arrest sha|| have been conf|ded, who sha|| comm|t
any of the offenses ment|oned |n the two preced|ng art|c|es, sha||
suffer the pena|ty next |ower |n degree than that prescr|bed for the
pub||c off|cer.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (CL-CN)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a prlvaLe person
2. 1haL Lhe conveyance or cusLody of a prlsoner or person under
arresL ls conflded Lo hlm
3. 1haL Lhe prlsoner or person under arresL escapes.
4. 1haL Lhe offender consenLs Lo Lhe escape of Lhe prlsoner or
person under arresL, or LhaL Lhe escape Lakes place Lhrough hls
negllgence.
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE

II. Lscape of person under arrest wh||e |n the custody of a pr|vate
|nd|v|dua|
Art|c|e 22S ls noL appllcable lf Lhe prlvaLe person was Lhe one
who made Lhe arresL and LhereafLer consenLed Lo Lhe escape

III. 1he pena|ty for a pr|vate person ||ab|e under Art|c|e 22S |s on|y
|mpr|sonment one degree |ower than that prescr|bed for the pub||c
off|cer |n Art|c|e 223 and 224

Sect|on 2 Inf|de||ty |n the custody of document

Art|c|e 226 - kemova|, concea|ment or destruct|on of documents.
Any pub||c off|cer who sha|| remove, destroy or concea| documents or
papers off|c|a||y entrusted to h|m, sha|| suffer:
1. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor and a f|ne not exceed|ng 1,000
pesos, whenever ser|ous damage sha|| have been caused
thereby to a th|rd party or to the pub||c |nterest.
2. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and
med|um per|od and a f|ne not exceed|ng 1,000 pesos,
whenever the damage to a th|rd party or to the pub||c
|nterest sha|| not have been ser|ous.

In e|ther case, the add|t|ona| pena|ty of temporary spec|a|
d|squa||f|cat|on |n |ts max|mum per|od to perpetua| d|squa||f|cat|on
sha|| be |mposed.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e
1. 8y removlng
2. 8y desLroylng
3. 8y conceallng, documenLs or papers offlclally enLrusLed Lo Lhe
offendlng publlc offlcer.
Note: 1hese Lhree are dlsLlncL modes of commlLLlng Lhe offense

A. kemov|ng
lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe acL of removal be coupled wlLh
proof of lnLenLlon Lo conceal.
8emoval musL be for an llllclL purpose.
o Where Lhe acL of removal ls acLuaLed by lawful or
commendable moLlves, Lhere ls no crlme.
o 8emoval ls for llllclL purpose when lnLenL ls:
" 1o Lamper wlLh lL
" 1o proflL by lL
" 1o commlL an acL consLlLuLlng a breach of
LrusL ln Lhe offlclal care Lhereof
1he crlme ls consummaLed upon lLs removal or secreLlng away
from lLs usual place, lL belng lmmaLerlal wheLher he has
acLually accompllshed Lhe purpose for whlch he removed sald
documenL.

8. Destroy|ng or C. Concea||ng
lnfldellLy ln Lhe cusLody of documenL by desLroylng or
conceallng lL, does noL requlre proof of llllclL purpose.

II. L|ements must concur (-ADC-LD)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer
2. 1haL he absLracLs, desLroys, or conceals documenLs or papers
3. 1haL Lhe sald documenLs or papers should have been
enLrusLed Lo such publlc offlcer by reason of hls offlce.
4. 1haL damage, wheLher serlous or noL, Lo a Lhlrd parLy or Lo Lhe
publlc lnLeresL should have been caused.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Abstracts, destroys or concea|s documents
uellverlng documenL Lo Lhe wrong parLy ls lnfldellLy ln Lhe
cusLody Lhereof.

IV. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Lntrusted by reason of h|s off|ce
1he sLenographer who removes or desLroys Lhe record of a
case kepL by Lhe clerk of courL ls noL gullLy here because lL ls
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
noL clerk of courL noL hlm who ls offlclally enLrusLed wlLh lL.

V. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: Damage
1here musL be damage greaL or small. 1hus Lhls exlsLs:
o Whenever serlous damage ls caused Lhereby Lo a Lhlrd
parLy or Lo Lhe publlc lnLeresL.
o Whenever Lhe damage caused Lo a Lhlrd parLy or Lo
Lhe publlc lnLeresL ls noL serlous.
uamage ln Lhls arLlcle may conslsL ln mere alarm Lo Lhe publlc
or ln Lhe allenaLlon of lLs confldence ln any branch of Lhe
governmenL servlce.

VI. Nature of the Documents
@1&"5*/6 ! a wrlLLen lnsLrumenL by whlch someLhlng ls
proven or made of record.
1he documenL musL be compleLe and one by whlch a rlghL
could be esLabllshed or an obllgaLlon could be exLlngulshed.
o 8ooks, perlodlcals, pamphleLs, eLc. are noL documenLs.
!.>*+, ! lncludes checks, promlssory noLes, paper money,
and money bllls recelved as exhlblLs ln courLs
o uS v. Corospe ! a posLmasLer Lo whom a leLLer
conLalnlng paper money was dellvered, Lo be
forwarded, opened such and Look Lhe money was held
gullLy of falLhlessness ln cusLody of papers.
o uS v. Marlna ! osL offlce offlclal who reLalned Lhe
mall wlLhouL forwardlng Lhe leLLers Lo Lhelr desLlnaLlon
ls gullLy of lnfldellLy ln Lhe cusLody of papers.

VII. Inf|de||ty |n the custody of document v. Ma|versat|on and
Ia|s|f|cat|on
Ma|versat|on and Ia|s|f|cat|on Inf|de||ty |n the custody of
document
1he posLmasLer recelved money
orders, slgned Lhe slgnaLures of
Lhe payees Lhereon, collecLed
1he posLmasLer recelves leLLers or
envelopes conLalnlng money orders
for Lransmlsslon, and Lhe money
and approprlaLed Lhe respecLlve
amounLs.
orders are noL senL Lo Lhe
addressees, Lhe posLmasLer cashlng
Lhe same for hls own beneflL.
keason why tak|ng contents of ma|| by postmaster |s |nf|de||ty |n the
custody of documents or papers: ln addlLlon Lo Lhe acLual ln[ury done
Lo Lhe owner, Lhe uncerLalnLy as Lo Lhe safeLy of such leLLers arlslng
from LhefLs of Lhelr conLenLs amounLs Lo a real and poslLlve ln[ury Lo
Lhe posLal servlce and hence, Lo publlc lnLeresL.

VIII. L|ab|||ty of person other than an off|cer or emp|oyee of the
8ureau of osts
Sect|on 27S6 of the kev|sed Adm|n|strat|ve Code
o unlawful openlng or deLenLlon of mall maLLer by any
person oLher Lhan an offlcer or employee of Lhe
8ureau of osLs.
Art|c|e 226 applles
o lf Lhe offender ls an offlcer or employee of Lhe 8ureau
of osLs.

Art|c|e 227 - Cff|cer break|ng sea|
Any pub||c off|cer charged w|th the custody of papers or property
sea|ed by proper author|ty, who sha|| break the sea|s or perm|t them
to be broken, sha|| suffer the pena|t|es of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts
m|n|mum and med|um per|ods, temporary spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on
and a f|ne not exceed|ng 2,000 pesos.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (CS8)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer
2. 1haL he ls charged wlLh Lhe cusLody of paper or properLy
3. 1haL Lhese papers or properLy are sealed by proper auLhorlLy
4. 1haL he breaks Lhe seals or permlLs Lhem Lo be broken

II. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: 8reaks or perm|ts sea| to be broken
lL ls Lhe breaklng of seals, noL Lhe openlng of closed envelope,
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
whlch ls punlshed under Lhls arLlcle.
uamage or lnLenL Lo cause damage ls unnecessary.
o When documenLs are sealed, lL ls evldence LhaL Lhe
purpose ls Lo lnsure Lhelr preservaLlon.
o lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lhe seal ls broken even lf Lhe
conLenLs are noL Lampered wlLh.

Art|c|e 228 - Cpen|ng of c|osed documents.
Any pub||c off|cer not |nc|uded |n the prov|s|ons of the next preced|ng
art|c|e who, w|thout proper author|ty, sha|| open or sha|| perm|t to be
opened any c|osed papers, documents or ob[ects entrusted to h|s
custody, sha|| suffer the pena|t|es or arresto mayor, temporary
spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on and a f|ne of not exceed|ng 2,000 pesos.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (LCN)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer
2. 1haL any closed papers, documenLs, or ob[ecLs are enLrusLed Lo
hls cusLody
3. 1haL Lhe opens or permlLs Lo be opened sald closed papers,
documenLs or ob[ecLs
4. 1haL he does noL have properLy auLhorlLy.

II. Def|n|t|on
A",613; ! guardlng or keeplng safe, care

III. C|osed documents must be entrusted to the custody of the
accused by reason of h|s off|ce
eople v. Llneses ! 1he accused dld noL acLually become Lhe
cusLodlan of Lhree envelopes Lurned over Lo hlm by Lhe C
sergeanL and Lo be redellvered afLer applylng seallng wax. 1hey
were on Lhe desk of Lhe accused [usL for Lhe perlod of Llme
necessary Lo puL Lhe seallng wax.

IV. 1he act shou|d not fa|| under Art|c|e 227
lf ln Lhe acL of openlng, Lhe offender broke Lhe seal, lL would
be breaklng of seal.
uamage or lnLenL Lo cause damage ls noL necessary.

Sect|on 3 keve|at|on of secrets

Art|c|e 229 - keve|at|on of secrets by an off|cer.
Any pub||c off|cer who sha|| revea| any secret known to h|m by reason
of h|s off|c|a| capac|ty, or sha|| wrongfu||y de||ver papers or cop|es of
papers of wh|ch he may have charge and wh|ch shou|d not be
pub||shed, sha|| suffer the pena|t|es of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts
med|um and max|mum per|ods, perpetua| spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on and
a f|ne not exceed|ng 2,000 pesos |f the reve|at|on of such secrets or
the de||very of such papers sha|| have caused ser|ous damage to the
pub||c |nterest, otherw|se, the pena|t|es of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts
m|n|mum per|od, temporary spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on and a f|ne not
exceed|ng S0 pesos sha|| be |mposed.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e
1. 8y reveallng any secreLs known Lo Lhe offendlng publlc offlcer
by reason of hls offlclal capaclLy
L|ements (SkD)
a. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer
b. 1haL he knows of a secreL by reason of hls offlclal
capaclLy
c. 1haL he reveals such secreL wlLhouL auLhorlLy or
[usLlflable reasons
d. 1haL damage, greaL or small, be caused Lo Lhe publlc
lnLeresLs.
2. 8y dellverlng wrongfully papers or coples of papers of whlch he
may have charge and whlch should noL be publlshed.
L|ements (CNDWD)
a. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer
b. 1haL he has charge of papers
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
c. 1haL Lhose papers should noL be publlshed
d. 1haL he dellvers Lhose paper or coples Lhereof Lo a
Lhlrd person
e. 1haL Lhe dellvery ls wrongful
f. 1haL damage be caused Lo publlc lnLeresL.

II. Secrets must affect pub||c |nterest
Lsplonage ls noL conLemplaLed ln Lhls arLlcle. 8evelaLlons of
sLaLe secreLs Lo a belllgerenL naLlon ls punlshable under Art|c|e
117 or C.A. No. 616.
SecreLs of prlvaLe persons noL lncluded.

III. 1he offender must have charge of papers or cop|es of paper
lf Lhe offlcer ls merely enLrusLed wlLh Lhe paper buL noL wlLh
Lhe cusLody of papers, he ls noL llable.

IV. keve|at|ons of Secrets v. |nf|de||ty |n the custody of document or
papers by remov|ng the same
keve|at|on of Secrets Inf|de||ty |n the custody of
documents
lf Lhe paper conLalns secreLs, and
Lhe publlc offlcer removes and
dellvers Lhem
lf Lhe paper does noL conLaln
secreLs, and removal ls for an llllclL
purpose

V. Damage to pub||c |nterest |s essent|a|
MaLerlal damage Lo a Lhlrd person ls noL necessary.

Art|c|e 230 - ub||c off|cer revea||ng secrets of pr|vate |nd|v|dua|.
Any pub||c off|cer to whom the secrets of any pr|vate |nd|v|dua| sha||
become known by reason of h|s off|ce who sha|| revea| such secrets,
sha|| suffer the pena|t|es of arresto mayor and a f|ne not exceed|ng
1,000 pesos.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (-S-k)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer
2. 1haL he knows of Lhe secreLs of a prlvaLe lndlvldual by reason
of hls offlce
3. 1haL he reveals such secreLs wlLhouL auLhorlLy or [usLlflable
reason

II. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: kevea|s w|thout author|ty
ubllc revelaLlon ls noL requlred.
An aLLorney-aL-law who reveals Lhe secreLs of hls cllenL ls llable
under Art|c|e 209
uamage Lo prlvaLe lndlvlduals noL necessary
1he reason for Lhls provlslon ls Lo uphold falLh and LrusL ln
publlc servlce.

Chapter 6: Cther Cffenses or Irregu|ar|t|es by ub||c
Cff|cers

Sect|on 1 - D|sobed|ence, refusa| of ass|stance, and ma|treatment of
pr|soners

Art|c|e 231 - Cpen d|sobed|ence.
Any [ud|c|a| or execut|ve off|cer who sha|| open|y refuse to execute
the [udgment, dec|s|on or order of any super|or author|ty made
w|th|n the scope of the [ur|sd|ct|on of the |atter and |ssued w|th a||
the |ega| forma||t|es, sha|| suffer the pena|t|es of arresto mayor |n |ts
med|um per|od to pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od,
temporary spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on |n |ts max|mum per|od and a f|ne
not exceed|ng 1,000 pesos.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (3IC)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a [udlclal or execuLlve offlcer
2. 1haL Lhere ls a [udgmenL, declslon or order of a superlor
auLhorlLy
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
3. 1haL such [udgmenL, declslon or order was made wlLhln Lhe
scope of Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe superlor auLhorlLy and lssued
wlLh all Lhe legal formallLles
4. 1haL Lhe offender wlLhouL any legal [usLlflcaLlon openly refuses
Lo execuLe Lhe sald [udgmenL, declslon or order, whlch he ls
duLy bound Lo obey

II. Act const|tut|ng the cr|me: Cpen dlsobedlence

Art|c|e 232 - D|sobed|ence to order of super|or off|cers, when sa|d
order was suspended by |nfer|or off|cer
Any pub||c off|cer who, hav|ng for any reason suspended the
execut|on of the orders of h|s super|ors, sha|| d|sobey such super|ors
after the |atter have d|sapproved the suspens|on, sha|| suffer the
pena|t|es of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um per|ods
and perpetua| spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (CSDD)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer
2. 1haL an order ls lssued by hls superlor for execuLlon
3. 1haL he has for any reason suspended Lhe execuLlon of such
order
4. 1haL hls superlor dlsapproves Lhe suspenslon of Lhe execuLlon
of Lhe order
3. 1haL Lhe offender dlsobeys hls superlor desplLe Lhe dlsapproval
of Lhe suspenslon

II. keason for the prov|s|on
1he law has Laken lnLo accounL LhaL Lhe superlor offlce may
someLlmes err, and Lhus enLlLles a subordlnaLe Lo suspend ln
such cases Lhe order lssued, Lo submlL hls reason Lo hls
superlor ln order LhaL Lhe laLLer may glve Lhem proper welghL,
lf Lhey are enLlLled Lo any. So far Lhere ls no crlme.
8uL lf Lhe superlor dlsapproves and Lhe subordlnaLe dlsobeys,
lL consLlLuLes conLempL, for by hls reslsLance and refusal Lo
execuLe Lhe order, he underLakes Lo dlcLaLe hls superlor.
1hls arLlcle does noL apply lf Lhe order ls lllegal (Art|c|e 11,
aragraph 6)

Art|c|e 233 - kefusa| of ass|stance
1he pena|t|es of arresto mayor |n |ts med|um per|od to pr|s|on
correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od, perpetua| spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on
and a f|ne not exceed|ng 1,000 pesos, sha|| be |mposed upon a pub||c
off|cer who, upon demand from competent author|ty, sha|| fa|| to
|end h|s cooperat|on towards the adm|n|strat|on of [ust|ce or other
pub||c serv|ce, |f such fa||ure sha|| resu|t |n ser|ous damage to the
pub||c |nterest, or to a th|rd party, otherw|se, arresto mayor |n |ts
med|um and max|mum per|ods and a f|ne not exceed|ng S00 pesos
sha|| be |mposed.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (LM)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer
2. 1haL a compeLenL auLhorlLy demands from Lhe offender LhaL
he lend hls cooperaLlon Lowards Lhe admlnlsLraLlon of [usLlce
or oLher publlc servlce.
3. 1haL Lhe offender falls Lo do so mallclously

II. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Demand of competent author|ty
lf Lhe chlef of pollce recelved from a prlvaLe parLy a subpoena
lssued by a flscal, wlLh a requesL Lo serve lL upon a person Lo
be a wlLness, and Lhe chlef of pollce mallclously refused Lo do
so, Lhe laLLer ls noL llable.
A chlef of pollce who refuses a summons by Lhe flscal ls llable.

III. Damage to pub||c |nterest |s essent|a|

Art|c|e 234 - kefusa| to d|scharge e|ect|ve off|ce
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor or a f|ne not exceed|ng 1,000 pesos, or
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
both, sha|| be |mposed upon any person who, hav|ng been e|ected by
popu|ar e|ect|on to a pub||c off|ce, sha|| refuse w|thout |ega| mot|ve
to be sworn |n or to d|scharge the dut|es of sa|d off|ce.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (LkN)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls elecLed by popular elecLlon Lo a publlc
offlce
2. 1haL he refuses Lo be sworn ln or Lo dlscharge Lhe duLles of
sald offlce.
3. 1haL Lhere ls no legal moLlve for such refusal Lo be sworn ln or
Lo dlscharge Lhe duLles of sald offlce.

II. SLCCND kLUIS1L: L|ected by popu|ar e|ect|on
Art|c|e 234 ls noL appllcable Lo appolnLlve offlclals

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: No |ega| mot|ve
lf Lhe elecLed ls underage or oLherwlse dlsquallfled, hls refusal
Lo be sworn ln ls [usLlfled.

IV. keason why th|s |s pun|shed
Cnce an lndlvldual ls elecLed, Lhe dlscharge of duLles of sald
offlce becomes a maLLer of duLy, noL only rlghL.

Art|c|e 23S - Ma|treatment of pr|soners
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um per|od to pr|s|on
mayor |n |ts m|n|mum per|od, |n add|t|on to h|s ||ab|||ty for the
phys|ca| |n[ur|es or damage caused, sha|| be |mposed upon any pub||c
off|cer or emp|oyee who sha|| overdo h|mse|f |n the correct|on or
hand||ng of a pr|soner or detent|on pr|soner under h|s charge, by the
|mpos|t|on of pun|shment not author|zed by the regu|at|ons, or by
|nf||ct|ng such pun|shment |n a crue| and hum|||at|ng manner.

If the purpose of the ma|treatment |s to extort a confess|on, or to
obta|n some |nformat|on from the pr|soner, the offender sha|| be
pun|shed by pr|s|on mayor |n |ts m|n|mum per|od, temporary spec|a|
d|squa||f|cat|on and a f|ne not exceed|ng s|x thousand (6,000) pesos,
|n add|t|on to h|s ||ab|||ty for the phys|ca| |n[ur|es or damage caused.
?!" $%&'(&( )* A0B0 <=0 >34 <=C&%)&D 24 791>@

CIN1S
I. L|ements (CMCL)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer or employee
2. 1haL he has under hls charge a prlsoner or deLenLlon prlsoner
3. 1haL he malLreaLs such prlsoner ln elLher of Lhe followlng
manners:
a. 8y overdolng hlmself ln Lhe correcLlon of handllng of a
prlsoner or deLenLlon prlsoner under hls charge elLher:
l. 8y Lhe lmposlLlon of punlshmenLs noL
auLhorlzed by Lhe regulaLlons, or
ll. 8y lnfllcLlng such punlshmenLs (Lhose
auLhorlzed) ln a cruel and humlllaLlng manner
b. 8y malLreaLlng such prlsoner Lo exLorL a confesslon or
Lo obLaln some lnformaLlon from Lhe prlsoner.

II. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Charge of a conv|ct or detent|on pr|soner
1he publlc offlcer musL have .&6".$ &<.+4* of Lhe prlsoner Lo
hold hlm llable for malLreaLmenL or prlsoner.
o eople v. !avler ! Lhe mayor ls noL llable for
malLreaLmenL of prlsoner who ls under Lhe acLual
charge of Lhe pollce.
Cffended parLy musL elLher be:
o ConvlcLed by flnal [udgmenL
o ueLenLlon prlsoner
" 1he person musL be placed ln [all even for a
shorL whlle.

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Manner of ma|treatment
1he malLreaLmenL (1) musL relaLe Lo Lhe correcLlon or handllng
of Lhe prlsoner, or (2) musL be for Lhe purpose of exLorLlng a
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
confesslon or of obLalnlng some lnformaLlon from hlm.

IV. 1here |s no comp|ex cr|me of ma|treatment
Cffender ls separaLely llable for physlcal ln[urles

Sect|on 2 Ant|c|pat|on, pro|ongat|on and abandonment of the
dut|es and powers of pub||c off|ce.

Art|c|e 236 - Ant|c|pat|on of dut|es of a pub||c off|ce
Any person who sha|| assume the performance of the dut|es and
powers of any pub||c off|cer or emp|oyment w|thout f|rst be|ng sworn
|n or hav|ng g|ven the bond requ|red by |aw, sha|| be suspended from
such off|ce or emp|oyment unt|| he sha|| have comp||ed w|th the
respect|ve forma||t|es and sha|| be f|ned from 200 to S00 pesos.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (LIAN)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls enLlLled Lo hold a publlc offlce or
employmenL, elLher by elecLlon or appolnLmenL
2. 1haL Lhe law requlres LhaL he should flrsL be sworn ln and/or
should flrsL glve a bond
3. 1haL he assumes Lhe performance of Lhe duLles and powers of
such offlce
4. 1haL he has noL Laken hls oaLh of offlce and/or glven Lhe bond
requlred by law.

Art|c|e 237 - ro|ong|ng performance of dut|es and powers
Any pub||c off|cer sha|| cont|nue to exerc|se the dut|es and powers of
h|s off|ce, emp|oyment or comm|ss|on, beyond the per|od prov|ded
by |aw, regu|at|on or spec|a| prov|s|ons app||cab|e to the case, sha||
suffer the pena|t|es of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od,
spec|a| temporary d|squa||f|cat|on |n |ts m|n|mum per|od and a f|ne
not exceed|ng S00 pesos.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (LC)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls holdlng a publlc offlce
2. 1haL Lhe perlod provlded by law, regulaLlons or speclal
provlslons for holdlng such offlce, has already explred
3. 1haL he conLlnues Lo exerclse Lhe duLles and powers of such
offlce

II. Cther Notes
Cfflcer conLemplaLed are publlc offlcers who have been
suspended, separaLed, declared overaged, or dlsmlssed.
C: Are Lhe people who conLlnued Lo serve afLer Lrap reslgned
and afLer Arroyo sLepped up llable here?
o nC. Lven Lhough Lhe appolnLlve offlclals are
coLermlnous and confldenLlal wlLh Lhe presldenL, Lhey
carry Lhe offlce ln hold-over capaclLy unLll Lhe
appolnLmenL of a new one.

Art|c|e 238 - Abandonment of off|ce or pos|t|on
Any pub||c off|cer who, before the acceptance of h|s res|gnat|on, sha||
abandon h|s off|ce to the detr|ment of the pub||c serv|ce sha|| suffer
the pena|ty of arresto mayor.

If such off|ce sha|| have been abandoned |n order to evade the
d|scharge of the dut|es of prevent|ng, prosecut|ng or pun|sh|ng any of
the cr|me fa|||ng w|th|n 1|t|e Cne, and Chapter Cne of 1|t|e 1hree of
8ook 1wo of th|s Code, the offender sha|| be pun|shed by pr|s|on
correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um per|ods, and by arresto
mayor |f the purpose of such abandonment |s to evade the duty of
prevent|ng, prosecut|ng or pun|sh|ng any other cr|me.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (kNA)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer
2. 1haL he formally reslgns from hls poslLlon
3. 1haL hls reslgnaLlon has noL yeL been accepLed
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
4. 1haL he abandons hls offlce Lo Lhe deLrlmenL of Lhe publlc
servlce.

II. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Iorma||y res|gns from pos|t|on
1here musL be a wrlLLen or formal reslgnaLlon
eople v. SanLos ! A verbal reslgnaLlon ls noL accepLable as
such has Lo pass Lhrough varlous offlclals of Lhe offlces
concerned before lL can be flnallzed.

III. ua||fy|ng C|rcumstances
lf Lhe abandonmenL ls for Lhe purpose of evadlng Lhe dlscharge
of duLles of prevenLlng, prosecuLlng or punlshlng any of Lhe
crlmes falllng under 1lLle 1 and ChapLer 1, 1lLle 3. (17 crlmes)

IV. Art|c|e 238 v. Art|c|e 208
Abandonment of
Cff|ce
(Art|c|e 238)
Neg||gence and to|erance |n the
prosecut|on of offenses
(Art|c|e 208)
C
f
f
e
n
d
e
r

CommlLLed by any
publlc offlcer
CommlLLed only by publlc offlcers who
have Lhe duLy Lo lnsLlLuLe prosecuLlon
for Lhe punlshmenL of vlolaLlons of Lhe
law

u
r
p
o
s
e
Abandons ln order Lo
evade dlscharge of
hls duLy
no abandonmenL buL raLher fallure Lo
prosecuLe an offense by derellcLlon of
duLy or by mallclous Lolerance of Lhe
commlsslon of offenses.


Sect|on 3 Usurpat|on of powers and un|awfu| appo|ntments

Art|c|e 239 - Usurpat|on of |eg|s|at|ve powers
1he pena|t|es of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od,
temporary spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on and a f|ne not exceed|ng 1,000
pesos, sha|| be |mposed upon any pub||c off|cer who sha|| encroach
upon the powers of the |eg|s|at|ve branch of the Government, e|ther
by mak|ng genera| ru|es or regu|at|ons beyond the scope of h|s
author|ty, or by attempt|ng to repea| a |aw or suspend|ng the
execut|on thereof.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (LI-8kS)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls an execuLlve or [udlclal offlcer
2. 1haL he -
a. Makes general rules or regulaLlons beyond Lhe scope
of hls auLhorlLy
b. ALLempLs Lo repeal a law
c. Suspends Lhe execuLlon Lhereof

Art|c|e 240 - Usurpat|on of execut|ve funct|ons
Any [udge who sha|| assume any power perta|n|ng to the execut|ve
author|t|es, or sha|| obstruct the |atter |n the |awfu| exerc|se of the|r
powers, sha|| suffer the pena|ty of arresto mayor |n |ts med|um
per|od to pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (I-AC)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a [udge
2. 1haL he -
a. Assumes a power perLalnlng Lo Lhe execuLlve
auLhorlLles
b. CbsLrucLs Lhe execuLlve auLhorlLles ln Lhe lawful
exerclse of Lhelr powers

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L:
LeglslaLlve offlcers are noL llable for usurpaLlon of powers.
A councllor who usurps Lhe power of a mayor ls llable under
Art|c|e 177.

Art|c|e 241 - Usurpat|on of [ud|c|a| funct|ons
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor |n |ts med|um per|od to pr|s|on
correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od and sha|| be |mposed upon any
off|cer of the execut|ve branch of the Government who sha|| assume
[ud|c|a| powers or sha|| obstruct the execut|on of any order or
dec|s|on rendered by any [udge w|th|n |ts [ur|sd|ct|on.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (L-AC)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls an offlcer of Lhe execuLlve branch of Lhe
CovernmenL
2. 1haL he -
a. Assumes [udlclal powers
b. CbsLrucLs Lhe execuLlon of any order or declslon
rendered by any [udge wlLhln hls [urlsdlcLlon

II. Cffender
Mayor ls gullLy under Lhls arLlcle lf he lnvesLlgaLes a case whlle
[usLlce of peace ls ln Lhe munlclpallLy (eople v. valdehues)

III. Art|c|es 239 to 241 pun|sh |nterference by off|cers of one of the 3
departments of government w|th funct|ons of off|cers of another
department
1he purpose ls Lo malnLaln Lhe separaLlon and lndependence
of Lhe 3 deparLmenLs and Lo keep Lhe 3 branches wlLhln Lhe
leglLlmaLe conflnes of Lhelr respecLlve [urlsdlcLlons and Lhe
offlcers Lhereof wlLhln Lhe scope of Lhelr lawful auLhorlLy.

Art|c|e 242 - D|sobey|ng request for d|squa||f|cat|on
Any pub||c off|cer who, before the quest|on of [ur|sd|ct|on |s dec|ded,
sha|| cont|nue any proceed|ng after hav|ng been |awfu||y requ|red to
refra|n from so do|ng, sha|| be pun|shed by arresto mayor and a f|ne
not exceed|ng S00 pesos.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (ILC)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer
2. 1haL a proceedlng ls pendlng before such publlc offlcer
3. 1haL Lhere ls a quesLlon broughL before Lhe proper auLhorlLy
regardlng hls [urlsdlcLlon, whlch ls noL yeL declded.
4. 1haL he has been lawfully requlred Lo refraln from conLlnulng
Lhe proceedlng
3. 1haL he conLlnues Lhe proceedlng.
Note: 1he dlsobeylng offlcer ls llable even lf Lhe [urlsdlcLlonal
quesLlon was resolved ln hls favor.

Art|c|e 243 - Crders or requests by execut|ve off|cers to any [ud|c|a|
author|ty
Any execut|ve off|cer who sha|| address any order or suggest|on to
any [ud|c|a| author|ty w|th respect to any case or bus|ness com|ng
w|th|n the exc|us|ve [ur|sd|ct|on of the courts of [ust|ce sha|| suffer the
pena|ty of arresto mayor and a f|ne not exceed|ng S00 pesos.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (LSC)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls an execuLlve offlcer
2. 1haL he addresses any order or suggesLlon Lo any [udlclal
auLhorlLy
3. 1haL Lhe order or suggesLlon relaLes Lo any case or buslness
comlng wlLhln Lhe excluslve [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe courLs of [usLlce

II. urpose of the rov|s|on
1o preserve Lhe lndependence of Lhe [udlclary. CourLs cannoL,
under Lhelr duLy Lo Lhelr creaLor, Lhe soverelgn power, permlL
Lhemselves Lo be subordlnaLed Lo any person or offlclal Lo
whlch Lhelr creaLor dld noL lLself subordlnaLe Lhem.

III. Leg|s|at|ve or [ud|c|a| off|cers are not ||ab|e under Art|c|e 243
Also, a [udge/[usLlce may wrlLe Lo Lhe execuLlve Lo suggesL for
Lhe granLlng of execuLlve clemency (Art|c|e S)

!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
Art|c|e 244 - Un|awfu| appo|ntments
Any pub||c off|cer who sha|| know|ng|y nom|nate or appo|nt to any
pub||c off|ce any person |ack|ng the |ega| qua||f|cat|ons therefor, sha||
suffer the pena|ty of arresto mayor and a f|ne not exceed|ng 1,000
pesos.

CIN1S
I. L|ements (NLk)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer
2. 1haL he nomlnaLes or appolnLs a person Lo a publlc offlcer
3. 1haL such person lacks Lhe legal quallflcaLlons Lherefor
4. 1haL Lhe offender knows LhaL hls nomlnee or appolnLee lacks
Lhe quallflcaLlons aL Lhe Llme he made Lhe nomlnaLlon or
appolnLmenL.

II. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Nom|nates or appo|nts
nomlnaLe ls dlfferenL from recommend.
8ecommendlng knowlng LhaL Lhe recommendee has no
quallflcaLlon ls noL a crlme.

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: erson |acks |ega| qua||f|cat|ons
1here musL be a law provldlng for Lhe quallflcaLlons of a
person Lo be nomlnaLed or appolnLed Lo a publlc offlce.
AppolnLmenLs of non-ellglbles conLlnue only for such perlod
noL exceedlng 3 monLhs as may be necessary Lo make
appolnLmenL Lhrough cerLlflcaLlon of ellglble and ln no case
shall exLend beyond 30 days from recelpL by Lhe chlef of Lhe
bureau or offlce of Lhe Commlssloner's cerLlflcaLlon of
ellglbles. (Sect|on 682, kev|sed Adm|n|strat|ve Code)

Sect|on 4 Abuses aga|nst chast|ty

Art|c|e 24S - Abuses aga|nst chast|ty, ena|t|es.
1he pena|t|es of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and max|mum
per|ods and temporary spec|a| d|squa||f|cat|on sha|| be |mposed:
1. Upon any pub||c off|cer who sha|| so||c|t or make |mmora| or
|ndecent advances to a woman |nterested |n matters pend|ng
before such off|cer for dec|s|on, or w|th respect to wh|ch he |s
requ|red to subm|t a report to or consu|t w|th a super|or
off|cer,
2. Any warden or other pub||c off|cer d|rect|y charged w|th the
care and custody of pr|soners or persons under arrest who
sha|| so||c|t or make |mmora| or |ndecent advances to a
woman under h|s custody.

If the person so||c|ted be the w|fe, daughter, s|ster of re|at|ve w|th|n
the same degree by aff|n|ty of any person |n the custody of such
warden or off|cer, the pena|t|es sha|| be pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts
m|n|mum and med|um per|ods and temporary spec|a|
d|squa||f|cat|on.

CIN1S
I. Ways of comm|tt|ng abuses aga|nst chast|ty
1. 8y sollclLlng or maklng lmmoral or lndecenL advances Lo a
woman lnLeresLed ln maLLers pendlng before Lhe offendlng
offlcer for declslon or wlLh respecL Lo whlch he ls requlred Lo
submlL a reporL Lo or consulL wlLh a superlor offlcer.
2. 8y sollclLlng or maklng lmmoral or lndecenL advances Lo a
woman under Lhe offender's cusLody
3. 8y sollclLlng or maklng lmmoral or lndecenL advances Lo Lhe
wlfe, daughLer, slsLer or relaLlve wlLhln Lhe same degree by
afflnlLy of any person ln Lhe cusLody of Lhe offendlng warden
or offlcer.

II. L|ements (I-ICA)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer
2. 1haL he sollclLs or makes lmmoral or lndecenL advances Lo a
woman
3. 1haL such woman musL be -
a. lnLeresLed ln maLLers pendlng before Lhe offendlng
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
offlcer for declslon or wlLh respecL Lo whlch he ls
requlred Lo submlL a reporL Lo or consulL wlLh a
superlor offlcer
b. under Lhe cusLody of Lhe offender who ls a warden or
oLher publlc offlcer dlrecLly charged wlLh Lhe care and
cusLody of prlsoners or persons under arresL
c. 1he wlfe, daughLer, slsLer or relaLlve wlLhln Lhe same
degree by afflnlLy of any person ln Lhe cusLody of Lhe
offender

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: So||c|ts or makes |mmora| advances
B1$%&%6, ! Lo propose earnesLly and perslsLenLly someLhlng
unchasLe and lmmoral Lo a woman.
1he crlme of abuses agalnsL chasLlLy ls consummaLed by mere
proposal.
o lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe woman should have ylelded
Lo Lhe sollclLaLlon of Lhe offender
roof of sollclLaLlon ls noL necessary when Lhere ls sexual
lnLercourse.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1I1LL VIII: CkIMLS AGAINS1 LkSCNS

Chapter 1: Destruct|on of L|fe

Sect|on 1 - arr|c|de, Murder, nom|c|de

Art|c|e 246 - arr|c|de.
Any person who sha|| k||| h|s father, mother, or ch||d, whether
|eg|t|mate or |||eg|t|mate, or any of h|s ascendants, or
descendants, or h|s spouse, sha|| be gu||ty of parr|c|de and sha||
be pun|shed by the pena|ty of !"#$%&'() +"!+",%- to death ./&
-01")1"1 23 4/ 5(6 789:;

CIN1S
I. L|ements of arrc|de: (kAD: fmc---ads)
1. 1haL a person ls kllled,
2. 1haL Lhe deceased ls kllled by Lhe accused,
3. 1haL Lhe deceased ls:
a. faLher, moLher, or
b. chlld, wheLher l egl L l maL e or l l l egl L l maL e
c. leglLlmaLe oLher ascendanL or oLher descendanL, or
d. leglLlmaLe spouse of Lhe accused

II. ke|at|onsh|p: key e|ement |n arr|c|de
1he besL proof of relaLlonshlp ls Lhe marrlage cerLlflcaLe
where Lhe accused's vlcLlm ls hls/her spouse.
When relaLlonshlp ls nC1 alleged ln Lhe lnformaLlon, Lhe
accused, who was admlLLedly Lhe wlfe of Lhe vlcLlm, was
convlcLed of Murder - noL arrlclde. (eople v. 8ohol).

uest|on and Answer
C: Whlch Lakes precedence, lnfanLlclde or parrlclde? Infant|c|de
arenLs, chlldren - noL lncluded ln oLher ascendanLs" or
descendanLs"
laLher, moLher, chlld - maybe leglLlmaLe or llleglLlmaLe.
Powever, Lhe followlng musL be leglLlmaLe:
o Spouse
o CLher ascendanLs or descendanLs
1he chlld should noL be less Lhan 3 days old. CLherwlse, Lhe
offense ls lnfanLlclde.
8elaLlonshlp musL be alleged and proved.
o A sLranger who cooperaLes ln commlLLlng parrlclde ls
llable for murder or homlclde.
o Lven lf Lhe offender dld noL know LhaL Lhe person he
had kllled ls hls son, he ls sLlll llable for parrlclde
because Lhe law does noL requlre knowledge of Lhe
relaLlonshlp.
CLher noLes:
o kllllng of adopLlve parenL or adopLed chlld ls noL
parrlclde.
! lL ls noL wlLhln Lhe clear conLemplaLlon of Lhe
law abouL adopLlve chlld or parenL as belng
penallzed wlLh parrlclde.
! 1he law musL be consLrued ln favor of Lhe
accused and sLrlcLly agalnsL Lhe sLaLe.
o kllllng of a broLher/slsLer ls noL parrlclde.

Art|c|e 247 - Death or phys|ca| |n[ur|es |nf||cted under
except|ona| c|rcumstances.
Any |ega||y marr|ed person who hav|ng surpr|sed h|s spouse |n
the act of comm|tt|ng sexua| |ntercourse w|th another person,
sha|| k||| any of them or both of them |n the act or |mmed|ate|y
thereafter, or sha|| |nf||ct upon them any ser|ous phys|ca| |n[ury,
sha|| suffer the pena|ty of 1"&,'"!!(.

If he sha|| |nf||ct upon them phys|ca| |n[ur|es of any other k|nd,
he sha|| be exempt from pun|shment.

1hese ru|es sha|| be app||cab|e, under the same c|rcumstances,
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
to parents w|th respect to the|r daughters under e|ghteen
years of age, and the|r seducer, wh||e the daughters are ||v|ng
w|th the|r parents.

Any person who sha|| promote or fac|||tate the prost|tut|on of h|s
w|fe or daughter, or sha|| otherw|se have consented to the
|nf|de||ty of the other spouse sha|| not be ent|t|ed to the
benef|ts of th|s art|c|e.

CIN1S
I. kequ|s|tes for the app||cat|on of Art|c|e 247: (Sk)
1. A legally marrled person or parenL surpr|ses hls spouse or
daughLer (Lhe laLLer musL be under 18 and llvlng wlLh Lhem)
ln Lhe acL of commlLLlng sexual lnLercourse wlLh anoLher
person,
2. Pe/she k|||s any or boLh of Lhem or lnfllcLs upon any or boLh
of Lhem any serlous physlcal ln[ury ln Lhe acL or lmmedlaLely
LhereafLer, and
3. Pe has noL promoLed or faclllLaLed Lhe prost|tut|on of hls
wlfe or daughLer, or LhaL he has noL consenLed Lo lnfldellLy of
Lhe oLher spouse.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: A |ega||y marr|ed person or parent surpr|ses h|s
spouse or daughter (the |atter must be under 18 and ||v|ng w|th
them) |n the act of comm|tt|ng sexua| |ntercourse w|th another
person.
1he accused musL be a legally marrled person
o Pence, a man who surprlsed hls common-law wlfe ln
Lhe acL of sexual lnLercourse wlLh anoLher man and
kllled her or boLh of Lhem ln Lhe acL ls noL enLlLled Lo
Lhe beneflLs of Art|c|e 247.
LeglLlmacy of parenLs " noL necessary for Lhe appllcaLlon of
Lhls arLlcle
o ArLlcle applles only when Lhe daughLer ls slngle
(under 18 and llvlng wlLh Lhem").
Surprlse " Lo come upon suddenly or unexpecLedly
o lndlspensable requlslLe: surprlslng ln Lhe acL of sexual
lnLercourse whlch causes passlon Lo Lhe offended
spouse/parenL.
o Genera| ku|e: Art|c|e 247 ls noL appllcable when Lhe
accused dld noL see hls spouse ln Lhe acL of sexual
lnLercourse wlLh anoLher person.
o Lxcept|on: lf Lhe clrcumsLances show reasonably LhaL
Lhe carnal acL ls belng commlLLed or has [usL been
commlLLed.
Sexual lnLercourse does noL lnclude preparaLory acLs.
o lL ls enough LhaL he surprlses Lhem under such
clrcumsLances as Lo show reasonably LhaL Lhe carnal
acL ls belng commlLLed or has [usL been commlLLed.
Art|c|e 247 applles only when a spouse surprlses Lhe oLher ln
flagranL adulLery. (lf a husband caughL a man havlng sexual
lnLercourse wlLh Lhe former's wlfe agalnsL her wlll, an aLLack
upon LhaL man by Lhe husband may be a defense of relaLlve
under Art|c|e 11, par.2 and noL under Art|c|e 247)

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: ne]she k|||s any or both of them or |nf||cts
upon any or both of them any ser|ous phys|ca| |n[ury |n the act or
|mmed|ate|y thereafter, and
1he kllllng or lnfllcLlng of serlous physlcal ln[urles musL be:
o 1lML: ln Lhe acL of sexual lnLercourse" or
lmmedlaLely LhereafLer"
o klnu: Serlous " no crlmlnal llablllLy when less
serlous or sllghL physlcal ln[urles are lnfllcLed.
!""#$%&'#() '+#,#&-'#, " LhaL Lhe dlscovery, escape, pursulL
and Lhe kllllng musL all form parLs of one conLlnuous acL.
o 1he kllllng musL be Lhe dlrecL by-producL of Lhe rage
of Lhe accused.
o 1he kllllng musL be by reason of havlng surprlsed her
ln Lhe acL of sexual lnLercourse.
ln case Lhlrd persons caughL ln Lhe crossflre suffer physlcal
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
ln[urles, Lhe accused ls noL llable for physlcal ln[urles. 1he
prlnclple LhaL one ls llable for Lhe consequences of hls
felonlous acL ls noL appllcable because hls acL under Art|c|e
247 does noL amounL Lo a felony.

IV. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: ne has not promoted or fac|||tated the
prost|tut|on of h|s w|fe or daughter, or that he has not consented to
|nf|de||ty of the other spouse.
A husband who, afLer he had learned from hls wlfe LhaL she
was ln love wlLh anoLher man, slgned a documenL whereln he
ordered hls wlfe Lo look for and llve wlLh anoLher man,
cannoL clalm beneflLs under Art|c|e 247 (eople v. uumon, 72
hll. 41).

V. Iust|f|cat|on for Art|c|e 247
1he law when Lhe clrcumsLances provlded by Lhls arLlcle are
presenL conslders Lhe spouse or parenL as acLlng ln a [usLlfled
bursL of passlon (eople v. Conzalez, 69 hll. 66).
1he arLlcle, ln effecL, confers upon Lhe offended spouse or
parenL, Lhe power Lo lnfllcL Lhe supreme penalLy of deaLh.

VI. 1h|s art|c|e does not def|ne or pena||ze a fe|ony.
enalLy ln Art|c|e 247: uesLlerro
uesLlerro ls noL really lnLended as a penalLy buL Lo remove
Lhe klller spouse from Lhe vlclnlLy and Lo proLecL hlm/her
from acLs of reprlsal by Lhe relaLlves of Lhe deceased spouse.

VII. In what cases |s a person who comm|tted parr|c|de not to be
pun|shed w|th !"#$%&'() +"!+",%- to death?
1. When parrlclde ls commlLLed Lhrough negllgence (Art|c|e
36S)
2. When parrlclde ls commlLLed by mlsLake (Art|c|e 249)
3. When parrlclde ls commlLLed under excepLlonal
clrcumsLances (Art|c|e 247)

VIII. Cther notes:
C: ls Lhere parrlclde ln Art|c|e 247? ?es.
o Art|c|e 247 ls recognlLlon of whaL ls Lermed as
Lemporary lnsanlLy". asslon and obfuscaLlon are
usually mlLlgaLlng buL for Art|c|e 247, Lhey are
necesslLaLlng.
o &C musL also be lmmedlaLe " accused dld noL
expecL Lo see lL
uesLlerro ls noL lnLended as a penalLy buL lL ls a penalLy
noneLheless. lL ls noL loglcal LhaL lL ls noL lnLended as a
penalLy." - ALLy. de CasLro
arenL/spouse are noL [usLlfled ln serlously ln[urlng or kllllng
daughLer/spouse. (8eason why desLlerro ls provlded.)

C: ls Lhere a crlme ln Art|c|e 247? ?es, as lndlcaLed by Lhe
phrase exempL" ln Lhe 2nd paragraph.

C: Who ls supposed Lo be surprlsed? Accused/ulscoverer

C: ls sexual lnLercourse beLween Lhe vlcLlms necessary? 1he
polnL of !usLlce Laurel ln hls dlssenLlng oplnlon where he
belleves LhaL sexual lnLercourse should lnclude preparaLory
acLs [8eyes, 8C (2008), p. 490] ls LhaL Art|c|e 247 ls lnLended
Lo favor Lhe accused. When Lhere ls doubL, rule ln favor of
Lhe accused." 1hls polnL ls supporLed furLher by Lhe docLrlne
of mlsLake of facL (accused belleved someLhlng Lo be Lrue).
o Sexual lnLercourse ls noL necessary." - ALLy. ue
CasLro

C: ls a wlfe who prosLlLuLes her husband also noL covered by
Lhe proLecLlon of Art|c|e 247?
o no. 1he 2
nd
paragraph clearly sLaLes .%-# /, $&01+'#,.

Art|c|e 248 - Murder
Any person who, not fa|||ng w|th|n the prov|s|ons of Art|c|e 246 sha||
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
k||| another, sha|| be gu||ty of murder and sha|| be pun|shed by
rec|us|on perpetua to death, |f comm|tted w|th any of the fo||ow|ng
attendant c|rcumstances:
1. W|th treachery, tak|ng advantage of super|or strength, w|th
the a|d of armed men, or emp|oy|ng means to weaken the
defense or of means or persons to |nsure or afford |mpun|ty.
2. In cons|derat|on of a pr|ce, reward, or prom|se.
3. 8y means of |nundat|on, f|re, po|son, exp|os|on, sh|pwreck,
strand|ng of a vesse|, dera||ment or assau|t upon a street car
or |ocomot|ve, fa|| of an a|rsh|p, by means of motor veh|c|es,
or w|th the use of any other means |nvo|v|ng great waste
and ru|n.
4. Cn occas|on of any of the ca|am|t|es enumerated |n the
preced|ng paragraph, or of an earthquake, erupt|on of a
vo|cano, destruct|ve cyc|one, ep|dem|c or other pub||c
ca|am|ty.
S. W|th ev|dent premed|tat|on.
6. W|th crue|ty, by de||berate|y and |nhuman|y augment|ng the
suffer|ng of the v|ct|m, or outrag|ng or scoff|ng at h|s person
or corpse.

CIN1S
I. L|ements of Murder: (kA-I)
1. 1haL a person was kllled,
2. 1haL Lhe accused kllled hlm,
3. 1haL Lhe kllllng was aLLended by any of Lhe followlng
quallfylng clrcumsLances:
a. wlLh Lreachery, Laklng advanLage of superlor
sLrengLh, wlLh Lhe ald of armed men, or employlng
means Lo weaken Lhe defense or of means or persons
Lo lnsure or afford lmpunlLy,
b. ln conslderaLlon of prlce, reward or promlse,
c. by means of lnundaLlon, flre, polson, exploslon,
shlpwreck, sLrandlng of vessel, derallmenL or assaulL
upon a rallroad, fall of an alrshlp, by means of moLor
vehlcles or wlLh Lhe use of any oLher means lnvolvlng
greaL wasLe or ruln,
d. on occaslon of any of Lhe calamlLles enumeraLed ln
Lhe precedlng paragraph, or of an earLhquake,
erupLlon of a volcano, desLrucLlve cyclone, epldemlc
or any oLher publlc calamlLy,
e. wlLh evldenL premedlLaLlon, or
f. wlLh cruelLy, by dellberaLely and lnhumanly
augmenLlng Lhe sufferlng of Lhe vlcLlm or ouLraglng
or scofflng aL hls person or corpse, and
4. 1he kllllng ls noL parrlclde or lnfanLlclde.

II. "Sha|| k||| another" (IIkS1 and SLCCND kLUISI1L)
ln murder, Lhe vlcLlm musL be kllled Lo consummaLe Lhe
crlme.
resence of |ntent to k||| d|st|ngu|shes Irustrated or
Attempted Murder Ck Irustrated or Attempted nom|c|de,
IkCM Consummated hys|ca| In[ur|es
o no lnLenLlon Lo klll " ConsummaLed hyslcal ln[urles
o WlLh lnLenLlon Lo klll " lrusLraLed/ALLempLed
Pomlclde or murder, as Lhe case may be.
lnLenL Lo klll may be evldenced by: (Lsqueda v. eople)
o MoLlve
o naLure or number of weapons used ln Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme.
o naLure and number of wounds lnfllcLed on Lhe vlcLlm
o Manner Lhe crlme was commlLLed.
o 1he words uLLered by Lhe offender aL Lhe Llme Lhe
ln[urles are lnfllcLed by hlm on Lhe vlcLlm.

III. Certa|n ua||fy|ng c|rcumstances attended the k||||ng (1nIkD
kLUISI1L) " SLL 1A8LL

IV. Cther Notes
1he LesLlmony of a slngle wlLness, lf poslLlve and credlble, ls
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
sufflclenL Lo supporL a convlcLlon even ln Lhe charge of
murder (eople v. Manchu).
1reachery as a quallfylng clrcumsLance ln Lhe crlme of
Murder.
o ln eople v. uelplno, C.8. no. 171433, !une 18, 2009,
where an lnformaLlon alleged LhaL accused-appellanL
kllled Lhe vlcLlm wlLh Lhe use of a shorL flrearm, and
wlLh Lreachery and evldenL premedlLaLlon, Lreachery
was consldered as quallfylng.
lallure Lo presenL and ldenLlfy Lhe murder weapon would noL
exculpaLe Lhe accused-appellanL from crlmlnal llablllLy, as Lhe
same ls noL lndlspensable Lo prove Lhe gullL of Lhe accused.

IV. "Not fa|||ng w|th|n the prov|s|on of Art|c|e 246" (ICUk1n
kLUISI1L)
Art|c|e 246 " arrlclde (kllllng of parenLs, chlld, spouse,
ascendanLs & descendanLs)
Art|c|e 2SS " lnfanLlclde (kllllng of a person below Lhree
days old)

V. ku|es for the app||cat|on of the qua||fy|ng]aggravat|ng
c|rcumstances:
1. 1haL murder wlll exlsL wlLh only one of Lhe clrcumsLances
descrlbed ln Art|c|e 248.
2. When more Lhan one of sald clrcumsLances are presenL, Lhe
oLhers musL be consldered as generlc aggravaLlng.
3. 1haL when Lhe oLher clrcumsLances are absorbed or lncluded
ln one quallfylng clrcumsLance, Lhey cannoL be consldered as
generlc aggravaLlng.
4. Any of Lhe quallfylng clrcumsLances musL be alleged ln Lhe
lnformaLlon. CLherwlse, Lhey wlll only be consldered as
generlc aggravaLlng clrcumsLances.

VI. Cther Notes:
C: WhaL ls Lhe dlfference beLween paragraph 3 and
paragraph 4 of Art|c|e 248?
o lor par. 3, deslgn Lo klll musL be presenL. lor par. 4,
such clrcumsLances are merely Laken advanLage of.
o 8y means of" ln par. 3 lmplles LhaL such aggravaLlng
clrcumsLances musL serve as Lhe means Lo Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme. lor par. 4, Cn occaslon"
means durlng such calamlLles, earLhquake, x x x.

C: ln cruelLy, musL Lhe vlcLlm be allve?
o ?es, belng allve ls essenLlal Lo consLlLuLe cruelLy.

C: ls lgnomlny covered by cruelLy?
o no. CuLraglng" and scofflng" may fall wlLhln Lhe
purvlew of lgnomlny.

C: ls uslng dlsgulse" a quallfylng clrcumsLance?
o ?es. lL falls under means Lo lnsure or afford
lmpunlLy" under par. 1.
o lor par. 1, Lreachery has Lhe power Lo absorb many
aggravaLlng clrcumsLances, provlded:
! Such clrcumsLance relaLes Lo Lhe means,
meLhods, manner used ln Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe crlme.
! lL desLroyed Lhe rlsk Lo Lhe offender.

C: lf noL alleged, does lL become an ordlnary aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance?
o 8ules of Crlmlnal rocedure 2000, all (aggravaLlng,
quallfylng, mlLlgaLlng eLc.) should be alleged ln Lhe
lnformaLlon. lf noL alleged, lL wlll noL be consldered.

Lxamp|e of Atty. De Castro |n c|ass:
C: A uses a moLorlzed pedlcab wlLh lron splkes. Pe used Lhls
Lo lmpale 8 from behlnd as he was walklng. WhaL are Lhe
aggravaLlng clrcumsLances presenL?
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
o A: 1reachery and use of MoLor vehlcle, 1o quallfy Lo
murder, Lreachery wlll be used. Powever, Lhere ls no
more generlc aggravaLlng clrcumsLance whlch can be
used. 1he use of moLor vehlcle wlll be absorbed ln
Lreachery because lL relaLes Lo Lhe means, meLhods,
manner used ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme. (Agaln,
Lreachery has Lhe power Lo absorb many aggravaLlng
clrcumsLances, provlded Lhe Lwo above menLloned
requlslLes are presenL).

Art|c|e 249 - nom|c|de
Any person who, not fa|||ng w|th|n the prov|s|ons of Art|c|e 246,
sha|| k||| another w|thout the attendance of any of the
c|rcumstances enumerated |n the next preced|ng art|c|e, sha|| be
deemed gu||ty of hom|c|de and be pun|shed by rec|us|on tempora|.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (k-IIN)
1. 1haL a person was kllled,
2. 1haL Lhe accused kllled hlm wlLhouL any [usLlfylng
clrcumsLances,
3. 1haL Lhe accused had Lhe lnLenLlon Lo klll, whlch ls presumed,
4. 1haL Lhe kllllng was noL aLLended by any of Lhe quallfylng
clrcumsLances of murder, or by LhaL of parrlclde or
lnfanLlclde.

II. "Sha|| k||| another" w|thout any [ust|fy|ng c|rcumstances (IIkS1
and SLCCND kLUISI1L)
vlcLlm musL be kllled Lo consummaLe Lhe crlme.
lf Lhe accused kllled ln self-defense, defense of relaLlve, eLc.,
he ls noL llable for homlclde or any oLher crlme.
enalLy when vlcLlm of homlclde ls under 12 years old "
recluslon perpeLua.

III. Intent to k||| (1nIkD kLUISI1L)
lnLenL Lo klll presumed when deaLh resulLed.
o lnLenL Lo klll lmmedlaLely before or slmulLaneously
wlLh Lhe lnfllcLlon of ln[urles ls an essenLlal elemenL
of homlclde, wheLher ln lLs consummaLed, frusLraLed
or aLLempLed sLage.
! Absence of lnLenL Lo klll would make offender
llable for physlcal ln[urles (Art|c|e 263-266).
o lnLenL Lo klll ls a speclflc lnLenL, whlch Lhe
prosecuLlon musL prove by dlrecL or clrcumsLanLlal
evldence " beyond reasonable doubL.
o Pow deLermlned, %2'#, &(%&: (Mahawan v. eople)
l. means used by Lhe malefacLors,
ll. Lhe naLure, locaLlon and number of wounds
susLalned by Lhe vlcLlm,
lll. Lhe conducL of Lhe malefacLors before, aL Lhe
Llme of, or lmmedlaLely afLer Lhe kllllng of Lhe
vlcLlm,
lv. Lhe clrcumsLances under whlch Lhe crlme was
commlLLed,
v. Lhe moLlve of Lhe accused.
resumpLlon, Lhough esLabllshed, may be overLurned by
conLrary evldence.
344%$#2'&( 5/"%4%$# " Lhe deaLh of a person broughL abouL
by a lawful acL performed wlLh proper care and sklll, and
wlLhouL homlcldal lnLenL.

IV. "W|thout the attendance of any of the c|rcumstances
enumerated |n the next preced|ng art|c|e" or of the qua||fy|ng
c|rcumstances of parr|c|de or |nfant|c|de (ICUk1n kLUISI1L)
AbsenL any clear proof of any clrcumsLance LhaL would
quallfy as murder Lhe kllllng of Lhe deceased, Lhe gullLy
person should be senLenced only for homlclde.

V. L|ements of the cr|me of Irustrated nom|c|de
1. 1he accused lnLended Lo klll hls vlcLlm, as manlfesLed by hls
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
use of a deadly weapon ln hls assaulL,
2. 1he vlcLlm susLalned faLal or morLal wound/s buL dld noL dle
because of Llmely medlcal asslsLance, and
3. none of Lhe quallfylng clrcumsLance for murder under Art|c|e
248 8C ls presenL. (Mahawan v. eople)

VI. Cther Notes
kemember: ln speclal complex crlmes llke robbery wlLh
homlclde, kllllng a person (homlclde) ls always used ln Lhe
generlc sense. 1haL's why Lhere ls no robbery wlLh murder".
8uL ln crlmes agalnsL persons, homlclde Lakes ln a speclal
meanlng.
1he present ru|e regard|ng qua||fy|ng c|rcumstances: ?ou
have Lo allege and Lhen prove lL for lL Lo be consldered ln Lhe
lmposlLlon of penalLy. lf Lhe clrcumsLances were noL alleged
buL neverLheless proven, Lhey wlll noL be consldered ln Lhe
lmposlLlon of penalLy. Powever, lL can be used for flxlng clvll
lndemnlLy only.
Pomlclde ls Lhe unlawful kllllng of any person, whlch ls
nelLher lnfanLlclde, parrlclde, nor murder.
lnLenL Lo klll ls concluslvely presumed when deaLh resulLed.
Pence, evldence of lnLenL Lo klll ls requlred only ln aLLempLed
or frusLraLed homlclde (buL lL ls sLlll an essenLlal elemenL of
consummaLed homlclde - ALLy. de CasLro)
1here ls no crlme of frusLraLed homlclde Lhrough negllgence
or lmprudence. lnLenL Lo klll (whlch ls requlred ln frusLraLed
homlclde) ls lncompaLlble wlLh negllgence or lmprudence.
When Lwo dlfferenL persons lnfllcLed wounds LhaL caused Lhe
deaLh, even lf Lhey were noL ln consplracy, each one of Lhem
ls gullLy of a separaLe crlme of homlclde.
6/,708 $#(%4'% " acLual commlsslon of Lhe crlme charged, lL
means LhaL a crlme was acLually perpeLuaLed. lL does noL
refer Lo Lhe body of Lhe murdered person.
o ln all crlmes agalnsL persons ln whlch Lhe deaLh of Lhe
vlcLlm ls an elemenL, Lhere musL be saLlsfacLory
evldence of:
! 1he facL of deaLh and
! 1he ldenLlLy of Lhe vlcLlm

Art|c|e 2S0 - ena|ty for frustrated parr|c|de, murder or hom|c|de.
1he courts, |n v|ew of the facts of the case, may |mpose upon the
person gu||ty of the frustrated cr|me of parr|c|de, murder or
hom|c|de, def|ned and pena||zed |n the preced|ng art|c|es, a pena|ty
|ower by one degree than that wh|ch shou|d be |mposed under the
prov|s|on of Art|c|e S0.

1he courts, cons|der|ng the facts of the case, may ||kew|se reduce by
one degree the pena|ty wh|ch under Art|c|e S1 shou|d be |mposed
for an attempt to comm|t any of such cr|mes.

CIN1S
I. Genera| ku|e: Art|c|e S0 - S7
Art|c|es S0 - S7
art|c|pat|on Consummated Irustrated Attempted
r|nc|pa| enalLy
lmposed by law
1 less 2 less
Accomp||ce 1 less 2 less 3 less
Accessory 2 less 3 less 4 less

II. Add|t|ona| ku|e: rovldes a dlscreLlonary auLhorlLy Lo Lhe courLs Lo
lower Lhe penalLy provlded by Art|c|es S0 and S1 by on or Lwo
degrees.

III. res|dent|a| Decree No. 1110-A
Any person who shall aLLempL on or consplre agalnsL Lhe llfe
of Lhe Chlef LxecuLlve of Lhe 8epubllc of Lhe hlllpplnes, LhaL
of any member of hls famlly, or agalnsL Lhe llfe of any
member of hls cablneL or LhaL of any member of Lhe laLLer's
famlly shall suffer Lhe penalLy of deaLh.

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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
Art|c|e 2S1 - Death caused |n a tumu|tuous affray.
When, wh||e severa| persons, not compos|ng groups organ|zed for
the common purpose of assau|t|ng and attack|ng each other
rec|proca||y, quarre| and assau|t each other |n a confused and
tumu|tuous manner, and |n the course of the affray someone |s
k|||ed, and |t cannot be ascerta|ned who actua||y k|||ed the
deceased, but the person or persons who |nf||cted ser|ous phys|ca|
|n[ur|es can be |dent|f|ed, such person or persons sha|| be pun|shed
by pr|s|on mayor.

If |t cannot be determ|ned who |nf||cted the ser|ous phys|ca| |n[ur|es
on the deceased, the pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um
and max|mum per|ods sha|| be |mposed upon a|| those who sha||
have used v|o|ence upon the person of the v|ct|m.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (SC-kC)
1. 1haL Lhere be several persons,
2. 1haL Lhey dld noL compose groups organlzed for Lhe common
purpose of assaulLlng and aLLacklng each oLher reclprocally,
3. 1haL Lhese several persons quarreled and assaulLed one
anoLher ln a confused and LumulLuous manner,
4. 1haL someone was kllled ln Lhe course of Lhe affray,
3. 1haL lL cannoL be ascerLalned who acLually kllled Lhe
deceased,
6. 1haL Lhe person or persons who lnfllcLed serlous physlcal
ln[urles or who used vlolence can be ldenLlfled.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Severa| ersons
90"0('0/08 " more Lhan Lhree persons who are armed or
provlded wlLh means of vlolence.
lor lL Lo be LumulLuous Lo exlsL:
o AL leasL 4 persons musL Lake parL ln lL.
o MusL be ln a chaoLlc, confused manner, and
o 1he persons are provlded wlLh arms.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Not groups organ|zed for common purpose
of assau|t|ng or attack|ng each other rec|proca||y
When Lhere are Lwo ldenLlfled groups of men who assaulLed
each oLher, Lhere ls no LumulLuous affray.
o unlLy of purpose and lnLenLlon among Lhe persons
who used vlolence ls an lmporLanL conslderaLlon.

IV. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: Someone was k|||ed
1he person kllled need noL be a parLlclpanL ln Lhe affray.

V. III1n & SIk1n kLUISI1L: Ident|ty of k|||er
1hose who used vlolence are llable only lf lL cannoL be
deLermlned who lnfllcLed Lhe serlous physlcal ln[urles on Lhe
deceased.
Culde Lo Lhe provlslon:
1. lf noL known who lnfllcLed deaLh, look for Lhose persons who
lnfllcLed serlous physlcal ln[urles.
2. lf lL ls noL known who lnfllcLed serlous physlcal ln[urles, look
for Lhose who used vlolence.

kemember: Lach elemenL musL be sLrlcLly complled wlLh. CLherwlse,
lL ls homlclde or murder.

VI. Cther notes
C: As per elemenL no. 2, whaL lf Lhe composed groups are
organlzed for a common purpose?
o no, lL ls noL under Art|c|e 2S1.

C: When ls lL LumulLuous? uoes havlng 4 people and
engaglng ln a rloL, ln lLself, consLlLuLe LumulLuous affray?
o no, Lhere musL be arms or means of vlolence.

C: lraL wars?
o noL consldered as LumulLuous affray. Where groups
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
are ldenLlfled and subsequenLly aLLacked one
anoLher, lL cannoL be consldered LumulLuous affray.

Art|c|e 2S2 - hys|ca| |n[ur|es |nf||cted |n a tumu|tuous affray.
When |n a tumu|tuous affray as referred to |n the preced|ng art|c|e,
on|y ser|ous phys|ca| |n[ur|es are |nf||cted upon the part|c|pants
thereof and the person respons|b|e therefor cannot be |dent|f|ed, a||
those who appear to have used v|o|ence upon the person of the
offended party sha|| suffer the pena|ty next |ower |n degree than
that prov|ded for the phys|ca| |n[ur|es so |nf||cted.

When the phys|ca| |n[ur|es |nf||cted are of a |ess ser|ous nature and
the person respons|b|e therefor cannot be |dent|f|ed, a|| those who
appear to have used any v|o|ence upon the person of the offended
party sha|| be pun|shed by arresto mayor from f|ve to f|fteen days.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (1-CU)
1. 1haL Lhere ls a LumulLuous affray as referred Lo ln Lhe
precedlng arLlcle,
2. 1haL a parLlclpanL or some parLlclpanLs Lhereof suffers
serlous physlcal ln[urles or physlcal ln[urles of a less serlous
naLure only,
3. 1haL Lhe person responslble Lherefor cannoL be ldenLlfled,
4. 1haL all Lhose who appear Lo have used vlolence upon Lhe
person of Lhe offended parLy are known.
App||cab|||ty ku|e: Art|c|e 2S2 ls appllcable when CnL? serlous
physlcal ln[urles or such of a less serlous naLure are lnfllcLed.

II. SLCCND kLUISI1L: art|c|pant
unllke Lhe vlcLlm ln Art|c|e 2S1, Lhe ln[ured parLy ln Lhls
arLlcle conLemplaLes a parLlclpanL ln Lhe acLual affray.

III. ersons ||ab|e:
Cnly Lhose who used vlolence on Lhe person of Lhe offended
parLy. lf Lhe one who caused Lhe physlcal ln[urles ls known,
he wlll be llable for Lhe physlcal ln[urles acLually commlLLed.

IV. Cther notes:
C: ls sllghL physlcal ln[urles lncluded?
o no, Lhe penalLy provlded ln Art|c|e 2S2 ls arresLo
mayor. SllghL physlcal ln[urles are llghL felonles
punlshable wlLh arresLo menor.

C: WhaL lf sllghL physlcal ln[urles were caused and lL ls noL
known who lnfllcLed lL, ls Lhere no opporLunlLy for redress?
o 1here ls. ueLermlne flrsL who used vlolence. Pow ls
he punlshed? Pe ls punlshed wlLh a penalLy one
degree lower Lhan LhaL for sllghL physlcal ln[urles.

Art|c|e 2S3 - G|v|ng ass|stance to su|c|de.
Any person who sha|| ass|st another to comm|t su|c|de sha|| suffer
the pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor, |f such person |ends h|s ass|stance to
another to the extent of do|ng the k||||ng h|mse|f, he sha|| suffer the
pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora|. nowever, |f the su|c|de |s not
consummated, the pena|ty of arresto mayor |n |ts med|um and
max|mum per|ods, sha|| be |mposed.

CIN1S
I. AC1S UNISnA8LL: (Ak)
1. AsslsLlng anoLher Lo commlL sulclde, wheLher Lhe sulclde ls
consummaLed or noL.
2. Lendlng hls asslsLance Lo anoLher Lo commlL sulclde Lo Lhe
exLenL of dolng Lhe kllllng hlmself.

II. L|ab|||ty |n su|c|des
A person who aLLempLs Lo commlL sulclde ls noL crlmlnally
llable.
Art|c|e 2S3 does noL dlsLlngulsh and does noL make any
reference Lo Lhe relaLlon of Lhe offender wlLh Lhe person
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commlLLlng Lhe sulclde.
A pregnanL woman who Lrled Lo commlL sulclde by means of
polson buL lnsLead of dylng, Lhe feLus ln her womb was
expelled, ls noL llable for unlnLenLlonal aborLlon because such
ls punlshable only when lL ls caused by vlolence, noL by
polson.
AsslsLance Lo sulclde ls dlfferenL from mercy kllllng.
:0'+&2&8%& /, "#,4) ;%((%21 ls Lhe pracLlce of palnlessly
puLLlng Lo deaLh a person sufferlng from an lncurable dlsease.
ln Lhls case, Lhe person does noL wanL Lo dle. A docLor who
resorLs Lo euLhanasla may be held llable for murder.
enalLy ls mlLlgaLed lf sulclde ls noL successful.

III. Cther Notes
C: ls sulclde a crlme? no.

C: A [umps ouL of a bulldlng and lands on someone. WhaL ls
hls llablllLy?
o no crlmlnal llablllLy. Powever, he may be held clvllly
llable under Lhe law on LorLs.

C: ls Lhere a dlsLlncLlon as Lo Lhe exLenL of asslsLance glven?
?es. 1he second acL punlshable provldes for asslsLance Lo Lhe
exLenL of dolng Lhe kllllng hlmself.
o 1he penalLy for homlclde and glvlng asslsLance Lo
sulclde are slmllar.

C: regnanL woman aLLempLs commlLs sulclde by cuLLlng her
wrlsL because of her pregnancy. lL was frusLraLed buL Lhe
feLus was dlscharged. ls she llable for any crlme?
o no because no felony was belng commlLLed.

C: ls euLhanasla glvlng asslsLance Lo sulclde? ls Art|c|e 2S3
appllcable Lo euLhanasla?
o lf Lhe paLlenL ls consclous and he glves hls consenL Lo
LuLhanasla, Art|c|e 2S3 ls appllcable. lf noL, person
who resorLs Lo euLhanasla may be llable for murder
or homlclde. (Compare wlLh LsLrada, p. 319, where
euLhanasla ls covered by Lhls arLlcle).

Art|c|e 2S4 - D|scharge of f|rearms
Any person who sha|| shoot at another w|th any f|rearm sha|| suffer
the pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um
per|ods, un|ess the facts of the case are such that the act can be
he|d to const|tute frustrated or attempted parr|c|de, murder,
hom|c|de or any other cr|me for wh|ch a h|gher pena|ty |s prescr|bed
by any of the art|c|es of th|s Code.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (DN)
1. 1haL Lhe offender dlscharges a flrearm agalnsL or aL anoLher
person, and
2. 1haL Lhe offender has no lnLenLlon Lo klll LhaL person.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: "Sha|| shoot at another"
1he acL consLlLuLlng Lhe offense ls shooLlng aL anoLher wlLh
any flrearm wlLhouL lnLenL Lo klll hlm.
A person can be held llable for dlscharge even lf Lhe gun was
noL polnLed aL Lhe offended parLy when lL flred as long as lL
was lnlLlally almed by Lhe accused aL Lhe offended parLy.
lf Lhe flrearm was noL dlscharged A1 1PL L8SCn, Lhere ls no
crlme under Art|c|e 2S4.
o Lx: shooLlng aL Lhe house wlLhouL knowlng whaL parL
of Lhe house conLalned people.
ulscharge of flrearms can be a complex crlme. (Lx: absenL
lnLenL Lo klll, physlcal ln[urles were also caused)

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: No |ntent to k|||
lf Lhere ls lnLenL Lo klll coupled wlLh Lhe dlscharge of Lhe
flrearm, lL can be aLLempLed or frusLraLed parrlclde, murder
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
or homlclde.
Pere, Lhe purpose of Lhe offender ls only Lo lnLlmldaLe or
frlghLen Lhe offended parLy.
o Lx: shooLlng wlLh 200 yards beLween Lhe offender
and offended parLy.

IV. Cther Notes
C: Can dlscharge of flrearm be coupled wlLh serlous/less
serlous ln[urles Lhereby have a Complex crlme?
o ?es. lf sllghL, separaLe lndlcLmenLs wlll be charged.

C: ls dlsLance maLerlal ln deLermlnlng beLween
murder/homlclde v. dlscharge of flrearm?
o ?es. lL can be maLerlal ln deLermlnlng lnLenL.

C: A dlscharges a flrearm aL 8 wlLhouL lnLenL Lo klll "
dlscharge.

C: A dlscharges and causes serlous ln[urles " complex crlme
of dlscharge and ln[urles.

C: A dlscharges and causes sllghL ln[urles " separaLe counLs
of dlscharge and sllghL physlcal ln[urles.
o Art|c|e 48 provldes a penalLy for grave or less grave
felonles. SllghL physlcal ln[urles ls counLed as a llghL
felony.

kemember: any oLher crlmes for whlch a hlgher penalLy ls
prescrlbed" - exempLlon from llablllLy under Lhls arLlcle ls noL llmlLed
Lo frusLraLed or aLLempLed parrlclde, murder, or homlclde

Sect|on 2 - Infant|c|de and Abort|on

Art|c|e 2SS - Infant|c|de
1he pena|ty prov|ded for parr|c|de |n Art|c|e 246 and for murder |n
Art|c|e 248 sha|| be |mposed upon any person who sha|| k||| any
ch||d |ess than three days of age.

If the cr|me pena||zed |n th|s art|c|e be comm|tted by the mother of
the ch||d for the purpose of concea||ng her d|shonor, she sha|| suffer
the pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor |n |ts med|um and max|mum per|ods,
and |f sa|d cr|me be comm|tted for the same purpose by the
materna| grandparents or e|ther of them, the pena|ty sha|| be
rec|us|on tempora|. (/& -0")1"1 23 4/ 5(6 789:)

CIN1S
I. Infant|c|de " Lhe kllllng of any chlld less Lhan 3 days of age
wheLher Lhe klller ls Lhe parenL or grandparenL, any oLher relaLlve or
a sLranger.

II. L|ements of Infant|c|de (C-3-A)
1. 1haL a chlld was kllled,
2. 1haL Lhe deceased chlld was less Lhan Lhree days (72 hours)
of age, and
3. 1haL Lhe accused kllled Lhe chlld.

III. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Ch||d was k|||ed
lnfanLlclde necesslLaLes LhaL Lhe chlld be born allve and by
vlable, l.e., capable of lndependenL exlsLence
o Lxcept|on: Conslderlng LhaL a feLus wlLh an
lnLrauLerlne llfe of 6 monLhs ls nC1 vlA8LL, Lhe
premaLure expulslon Lhereof due Lo vlolence
lnLenLlonally exerLed by Lhe offender would
consLlLuLe aborLlon noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe facL LhaL Lhe
feLus was allve aL blrLh.
o lnLrauLerlne llfe < or = 6 mos. - expulslon due Lo
vlolence ls noL lnfanLlclde buL unln1Ln1lCnAL
A8C81lCn, provlded LhaL all elemenLs of Lhe laLLer
(See Art|c|e 2S7) are presenL. (eople v. aycana)
lf Lhe vlcLlm ls a chlld of Lender years, Lhe need Lo prove
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
Lreachery ls noL necessary. lL ls presumed LhaL Lhe chlld
cannoL glve any defense.
o resence of Lreachery " kllllng a chlld becomes
murder and noL slmply homlclde.

IV. Ident|ty of the accused
C: ls Lhe penalLy mlLlgaLed lf Lhe person who kllled Lhe chlld
ls/are Lhe paLernal grandparenLs?
o no mlLlgaLlon.

C: ls Lhere a slLuaLlon where Lhe moLher can avall of Lhls
arLlcle even lf she ls already marrled?
o ?es, lf Lhe faLher ls noL Lhe husband.

When Lhe offender ls Lhe faLher, moLher or leglLlmaLe
ascendanL, he shall suffer Lhe penalLy prescrlbed for
parrlclde. lf Lhe offender ls any oLher person, Lhe penalLy ls
LhaL for murder. ln elLher case, Lhe proper quallflcaLlon for
Lhe offense ls lnfanLlclde.
When Lhe moLher or maLernal grandmoLher of Lhe vlcLlm
commlLs lnfanLlclde ln order Lo conceal Lhe moLher's
dlshonor, such facL ls only mlLlgaLlng.
1he dellnquenL moLher who clalms LhaL she commlLLed Lhe
offense Lo conceal Lhe dlshonor musL be of good repuLaLlon.
o lf she ls a prosLlLuLe, she ls noL enLlLled Lo a lesser
penalLy because she has no honor Lo proLecL.
o lf she kllled Lhe chlld a day or Lwo afLer lL's blrLh, she
cannoL avall of Lhls arLlcle and clalm LhaL her deslre Lo
erase Lraces of her dlshonor urged her Lo do such a
passlonaLe acL.
1here ls no lnfanLlclde when:
o 1he chlld was born dead, or
o AlLhough born allve lL could noL susLaln an
lndependenL llfe when lL was kllled. (See eople v.
aycana clLed ln ue CasLro, supra)

V. D|fference between arr|c|de and Infant|c|de (Lstrada):
arr|c|de Infant|c|de
Chlld's age: 3 days and above Less Lhan 3 days (72 hours)
Can be commlLLed lf vlcLlm and
offender are relaLed by blood
Cffender may or may noL be
relaLed by blood
ConcealmenL of dlshonor noL
mlLlgaLlng
ConcealmenL of dlshonor ls
mlLlgaLlng

VI. Cther Notes:
lnfanLlclde - parrlclde - murder - homlclde
o lnfanLlclde Lakes precedence Lo parrlclde.

C: A ls Lhe faLher of 8. A kllls 8 wlLh Lreachery (walLlng for
nlghLLlme). ls lL murder or parrlclde?
o arrlclde because parrlclde Lakes precedence over
murder.

Art|c|e 2S6 - Intent|ona| abort|on.
Any person who sha|| |ntent|ona||y cause an abort|on sha|| suffer:
1. 1he pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora|, |f he sha|| use any
v|o|ence upon the person of the pregnant woman.
2. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor |f, w|thout us|ng v|o|ence, he
sha|| act w|thout the consent of the woman.
3. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and
max|mum per|ods, |f the woman sha|| have consented.

CIN1S
I. Abort|on " Lhe wlllful kllllng of Lhe feLus ln Lhe uLerus or Lhe
vlolenL expulslon of Lhe feLus from Lhe maLernal womb whlch resulLs
ln Lhe deaLh of Lhe feLus.
under Lhe 8C, aborLlon ordlnarlly means Lhe expulslon
before Lhe 6Lh monLh or before Lhe Lerm of lLs vlablllLy
(capable of susLalnlng llfe). 8uL accordlng Lo vlada, vol. v, as
long as Lhe feLus dles as a resulL of vlolence used or drugs
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
admlnlsLered, aborLlon exlsLs even lf Lhe feLus ls full Lerm.
Abort|on v. Infant|c|de
lf Lhe feLus could susLaln an lndependenL llfe afLer lLs
separaLlon from Lhe maLernal womb and ls subsequenLly
kllled, Lhe crlme ls lnfanLlclde.

II. L|ements of Intent|ona| Abort|on: (IID)
1. 1haL Lhere ls a pregnanL woman,
2. 1haL vlolence ls exerLed, or drugs or beverages admlnlsLered,
or LhaL Lhe accused oLherwlse acLs upon such pregnanL
woman,
3. 1haL as a resulL of Lhe use of vlolence or drugs or beverages
upon her, or any oLher acL of Lhe accused, Lhe feLus dles,
elLher ln Lhe womb or afLer havlng been expelled Lherefrom.
4. 1haL Lhe aborLlon ls lnLended.

III. Ways of comm|tt|ng |ntent|ona| abort|on:
1. 8y uslng any vlolence upon Lhe person of Lhe pregnanL
woman.
2. 8y acLlng, buL wlLhouL uslng vlolence, wlLhouL Lhe consenL of
Lhe woman (Lx. 8y admlnlsLerlng drugs or beverages wlLhouL
her consenL).
3. 8y acLlng wlLh Lhe consenL of Lhe pregnanL woman.

IV. Abort|on (wh|ch resu|ts |n the death of the fetus) |s the:
1. Wlllful kllllng of Lhe feLus ln Lhe uLerus, or
2. 1he vlolenL expulslon of Lhe feLus from Lhe maLernal wound.

Ietus Intended or not
Survlves - noL consummaLed
Survlves lnLended lrusLraLed
lnLenLlonal AborLlon
(ln vlew of lnLenL)
Survlves desplLe
vlolence exerLed
noL lnLended Crlme ls physlcal
ln[urles only (ln vlew
of lack of lnLenL)

V. L|ab|||ty of persons
erson who lnLenLlonally caused aborLlon ls Lhe one llable ln
Lhls arLlcle.
Woman
o WlLh consenL " llable under Art|c|e 2S8
o no consenL " noL llable aL all

VI. Cther notes:
C: ls Lhe consenL of Lhe woman maLerlal?
o lf vlolence exlsLs, consenL ls noL maLerlal (ar. 1).
Powever, for par. 2 and par. 3 consenL of Lhe woman
makes a dlfference.

C: Pow do you consummaLe aborLlon?
o ueaLh of Lhe feLus

1rue or lalse? lf Lhe feLus ls 6 monLhs or less and Lhe feLus
dles ouLslde Lhe womb, lL ls aborLlon. 18uL.

1rue or lalse? lf Lhe feLus dles ouLslde Lhe womb, Lhe Lerm of
Lhe feLus ls maLerlal (wheLher lL can susLaln llfe or noL). 18uL.

kemember: As long as lL dles lnslde Lhe womb, aborLlon.
kemember: 1here ls also a crlme of dlspenslng aborLlve pllls (Art|c|e
2S9) and lL falls wlLhln lnLenLlonal aborLlon buL punlshed dlfferenLly

Art|c|e 2S7 - Un|ntent|ona| abort|on.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um
per|od sha|| be |mposed upon any person who sha|| cause an
abort|on by v|o|ence, but un|ntent|ona||y.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: ( - V|o|ence w|thout |ntend|ng abort|on - ID)
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1. 1haL Lhere ls a pregnanL woman,
2. 1haL vlolence ls used upon such pregnanL woman wlLhouL
lnLendlng an aborLlon,
3. 8uL Lhe vlolence ls lnLenLlonally exerLed, and
4. 1haL as a resulL of Lhe vlolence Lhe feLus dles, elLher ln Lhe
womb or afLer havlng been expelled Lherefrom.

II. Un|ntent|ona| Abort|on: now Comm|tted
Art|c|e 2S7, unlnLenLlonal AborLlon, ls commlLLed only
Lhrough vlolence (LhaL ls, acLual physlcal force).
o vlolence musL be lnLenLlonally exerLed.
unlnLenLlonal aborLlon can also be commlLLed Lhrough
negllgence/lmprudence.
o eople vs. !ose p. 324 " whereln a Lruck drlven by
8omeo !ose bumped a calesa causlng Lhe pregnanL
woman Lo bump her abdomen agalnsL Lhe fronL wall
of Lhe calesa subsequenLly causlng blood Lo flow ouL
of Lhe woman's vaglna.
knowledge of pregnancy maLerlal: 1he accused can only be
held llable lf he knew LhaL Lhe woman was pregnanL.
(Compare wlLh LsLrada, p. 327: lL ls noL maLerlal LhaL Lhe
offender knows LhaL Lhe woman ls pregnanL or noL.)
o Cases ln p.323 (uS v. !effrey conLrasL Lo eople v.
Carnaso, CA)
unlnLenLlonal aborLlon may be complexed wlLh oLher crlmes
such as parrlclde or homlclde.
Art|c|e 2S6 and 2S7 do noL apply lf:
o Lhere was no lnLenLlon Lo cause aborLlon, and
o Lhere was no vlolence exerLed

III. Un|ntent|ona| Abort|on v. Infant|c|de (See Art|c|e 2SS)

IV. Cther notes:
C: Can unlnLenLlonal aborLlon be commlLLed wlLhouL
vlolence? no.

C: ls a woman's consenL maLerlal? WhaL lf Lhe moLher ls a
masochlsL who consenLed Lo Lhe vlolence?
o As long as aborLlon was noL lnLended and vlolence
exlsLed, lL wlll fall under Art|c|e 2S7. knowledge of
Lhe pregnancy ls lmporLanL.

C: 1he woman ls 8 monLhs pregnanL and man punches her ln
Lhe sLomach. ls lL lnLenLlonal or unlnLenLlonal? lnLenLlonal.

C: Woman ls 2 monLhs pregnanL, man polnLs a gun aL her.
She goL so nervous she aborLed her chlld, ls Lhere lnLenLlonal
or unlnLenLlonal aborLlon? nelLher.
o lnLenL cannoL be dlscerned and musL Lhus be lnduced
from acLlons.
o olnLlng of Lhe gun ls noL vlolence buL only a LhreaL.

C: WhaL ls Lhe dlfference beLween vlolence ln lnLenLlonal
aborLlon v. unlnLenLlonal aborLlon?
o ln unlnLenLlonal aborLlon, only Lhe vlolence Lhe
lnLended. under lnLenLlonal aborLlon, you seek Lo
cause an aborLlon by means of vlolence.

Art|c|e 2S8 - Abort|on pract|ced by the woman herse|f or by her
parents.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and max|mum
per|ods sha|| be |mposed upon a woman who sha|| pract|ce abort|on
upon herse|f or sha|| consent that any other person shou|d do so.

Any woman who sha|| comm|t th|s offense to concea| her d|shonor,
sha|| suffer the pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and
med|um per|ods.

If th|s cr|me be comm|tted by the parents of the pregnant woman or
e|ther of them, and they act w|th the consent of sa|d woman for the
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purpose of concea||ng her d|shonor, the offenders sha|| suffer the
pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and max|mum per|ods.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (IC: wop)
1. 1haL Lhere ls a pregnanL woman who has suffered an
aborLlon,
2. 1haL Lhe aborLlon ls lnLended,
3. 1haL Lhe aborLlon ls caused by -
a. Lhe pregnanL woman herself
b. any oLher person, wlLh her consenL,
c. any of her parenLs, wlLh her consenL for Lhe purpose
of conceallng her dlshonor.

II. L|ab|||ty of persons
1he woman |s ||ab|e under Art|c|e 2S8 e|ther:
1. When she shall pracLlce an aborLlon upon herself
2. When she shall consenL LhaL any oLher persons should do so
ersons ||ab|e under Art|c|e 2S8:
1. 1he pregnanL woman lf she herself commlLLed Lhe aborLlon
(WCn lL was for Lhe purpose of conceallng her dlshonor. 8uL
lf ln case lL was Lo conceal her dlshonor, her llablllLy ls
mlLlgaLed.)
2. 1he parenLs of Lhe woman lf Lhey commlLLed Lhe aborLlon Lo
conceal her dlshonor and wlLh Lhe laLLer's consenL

Note: 1he oLher person" who caused Lhe aborLlon even lf wlLh Lhe
pregnanL woman's consenL ls llable under Art|c|e 2S6 and noL under
Lhls arLlcle. (ue CasLro: 1he person oLher Lhan Lhe woman ls llable
under Art|c|e 2S6.)
Note: lf Lhe purpose of Lhe parenLs was noL Lo conceal her dlshonor,
Lhey are llable under Art|c|e 2S6 and noL under Lhls arLlcle.
lf Lhe aborLlon was done by Lhe parenLs and even lf wlLh Lhelr
pregnanL daughLer's consenL, Lhere ls no mlLlgaLlon unllke ln
lnfanLlclde.

Cther note:
1hls arLlcle ls parallel Lo lnfanLlclde commlLLed by Lhe moLher
or her parenLs.

Art|c|e 2S9 - Abort|on pract|ced by a phys|c|an or m|dw|fe and
d|spens|ng of abort|ves.
1he pena|t|es prov|ded |n Art|c|e 2S6 sha|| be |mposed |n |ts
max|mum per|od, respect|ve|y, upon any phys|c|an or m|dw|fe who,
tak|ng advantage of the|r sc|ent|f|c know|edge or sk|||, sha|| cause an
abort|on or ass|st |n caus|ng the same.

Any pharmac|st who, w|thout the proper prescr|pt|on from a
phys|c|an, sha|| d|spense any abort|ve sha|| suffer arresto mayor and
a f|ne not exceed|ng 1,000 pesos.

CIN1S
I. L|ements for the phys|c|an or m|dw|fe: (IA)
1. 1haL Lhere ls a pregnanL woman who has suffered an
aborLlon,
2. 1haL Lhe aborLlon ls lnLended,
3. 1haL Lhe offender, who musL be a physlclan or mldwlfe,
causes or asslsLs ln causlng Lhe aborLlon, and
4. 1haL sald physlclan or mldwlfe Lakes advanLage of hls or her
sclenLlflc knowledge or sklll.

II. L|ements for the pharmac|sts: (NoD)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a pharmaclsL
2. 1haL Lhere ls no proper prescrlpLlon from a physlclan
3. 1haL Lhe offender dlspenses any aborLlve.

III. Cther Notes w|th regard to pharmac|sts:
Why ls lL a crlme agalnsL persons?
lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe pharmaclsL knew LhaL Lhe aborLlve
would be used Lo cause aborLlon or LhaL Lhe aborLlve be
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acLually used. WhaL ls punlshed ls Lhe acL of dlspenslng an
aborLlve wlLhouL Lhe proper prescrlpLlon.
lf Lhe pharmaclsL knew LhaL Lhe aborLlve would be used Lo
cause aborLlon and aborLlon resulLs, he ls llable as an
accompllce.
k.A. 4729 regulaLes Lhe sale, dlspensaLlon, and/or
dlsLrlbuLlon of conLracepLlve drugs and devlces.
lL ls noL unlawful lf Lhe sale, dlspensaLlon, or dlsLrlbuLlon of
conLracepLlve drug or conLracepLlve devlce ls by a duly
llcensed drug sLore or pharmaceuLlcal company and wlLh
prescrlpLlon of quallfled medlcal pracLlLloner

Sect|on 3 - Due|

Art|c|e 260 - kespons|b|||ty of part|c|pants |n a due|.
1he pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora| sha|| be |mposed upon any
person who sha|| k||| h|s adversary |n a due|.

If he sha|| |nf||ct upon the |atter phys|ca| |n[ur|es on|y, he sha|| suffer
the pena|ty prov|ded therefor, accord|ng to the|r nature.

In any other case, the combatants sha|| suffer the pena|ty of arresto
mayor, a|though no phys|ca| |n[ur|es have been |nf||cted.

1he seconds sha|| |n a|| events be pun|shed as accomp||ces.

CIN1S
I. Due| " a formal or regular combaL prevlously concerLed beLween
Lwo parLles ln Lhe presence of Lwo or more seconds
1
of lawful age on

1
Each paity woulu name a tiusteu iepiesentative (a "seconu") who woulu,
between them, ueteimine a suitable "fielu of honoui". It was also the uuty of each
paity's seconu to check that the weapons weie equal anu that the uuel was faii.
Although geneially uemanueu by custom, similaiity of weapons is not essential;
neithei aie witnesses, seconus, etc. In the 16th anu eaily 17th centuiies, it was
noimal piactice foi the seconus as well as the piincipals to fight each othei. Latei
each slde who make Lhe selecLlon of arms and flx all Lhe oLher
condlLlons of Lhe flghL.

II. Acts un|shed: (kSC)
1. kllllng one's adversary ln a duel.
2. lnfllcLlng upon Lhe adversary serlous physlcal ln[urles.
3. Maklng combaL alLhough no physlcal ln[urles have been
lnfllcLed.

III. ersons ||ab|e:
1. erson who kllled or lnfllcLed physlcal ln[urles (wheLher
serlous, less serlous, or sllghL) upon hls adversary, or boLh
combaLanLs ln any oLher case, as prlnclpals
2. 1he seconds, as accompllces
lf deaLh resulLs Lhe penalLy ls Lhe same as LhaL for homlclde
When Lhere ls an agreemenL Lo flghL Lo Lhe deaLh, Lhere ls
lnLenL Lo klll on Lhe parL of Lhe combaLanLs. normally, when
Lhere ls lnLenL Lo klll, Lhe lnfllcLlng of physlcal ln[urles ls elLher
aLLempLed or frusLraLed homlclde. Powever, Lhe Code
dlsregards Lhe lnLenL Lo klll ln conslderlng Lhe penalLy for duel
when only physlcal ln[urles are lnfllcLed upon Lhe adversary.

IV. Cther Notes:
Lven lf no ln[urles were lnfllcLed, Lhere would sLlll be llablllLy
(aragraph 3).

C: WhaL lf Lhere are no seconds?
o lL ls noL a duel anymore. (8efer Lo legal deflnlLlon of
duel provlded ln Lhe fooLnoLe)
o 1he slLuaLlon musL fall sLrlcLly wlLhln Lhe deflnlLlon of
duel.

the seconus' iole became moie specific, to make suie the iules weie followeu anu
to tiy to achieve ieconciliation, but as late as 1777 the Iiish coue still alloweu the
seconus an option to exchange shots.
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Art|c|e 261 - Cha||eng|ng to a due|.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od sha|| be
|mposed upon any person who sha|| cha||enge another, or |nc|te
another to g|ve or accept a cha||enge to a due|, or sha|| scoff at or
decry another pub||c|y for hav|ng refused to accept a cha||enge to
f|ght a due|.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e: (CIS)
1. Challenglng anoLher Lo a duel.
2. lnclLlng anoLher Lo glve or accepL a challenge Lo a duel.
3. Scofflng aL or decrylng anoLher publlcly for havlng refused Lo
accepL a challenge Lo flghL a duel.

II. ersons respons|b|e under Art|c|e 261:
1. Challenger
2. lnsLlgaLors

III. "Sha|| cha||enge another x x x to a due|"
1he person maklng Lhe challenge musL have ln mlnd a formal
combaL. A challenge Lo flghL, wlLhouL conLemplaLlng a duel, ls
noL challenglng Lo a duel.
uoes lL maLLer LhaL Lhe duel acLually happens?
o no. 1he very acL of challenglng ls punlshable.
AccepLlng(?)
kemember: WhaLever Lhe challenge ls, lL musL perLaln Lo a
duel.

IV. Cther Notes
ln decrylng or scofflng a person for denylng a person: (1)
publlc ls a maLerlal facLor buL (2) presence of person scoffed
ls noL maLerlal. 1hus a person may be gullLy of decrylng or
scofflng aL someone for refuslng a duel even lf Lhe laLLer ls
absenL.
C: A challenges 8 Lo a flsLflghL. u and C screamed A ls coward
afLer A refused Lo flghL.
o ls 8 llable for challenglng Lo a duel under Art|c|e 261?
no. uuel has a Lechnlcal meanlng and challenge musL
speclflcally refer Lo lL.

Chapter 2: hys|ca| In[ur|es

Art|c|e 262 - Mut||at|on
1he pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora| to rec|us|on perpetua sha|| be
|mposed upon any person who sha|| |ntent|ona||y mut||ate another
by depr|v|ng h|m, e|ther tota||y or part|a||y, of some essent|a| organ
of reproduct|on.

Any other |ntent|ona| mut||at|on sha|| be pun|shed by pr|s|on mayor
|n |ts med|um and max|mum per|ods

CIN1S
I. Mut||at|on " means Lhe lopplng or Lhe cllpplng off of some parL of
Lhe body

II. L|ements of Mut||at|on: (C)
1. 1here musL be casLraLlon, LhaL ls, muLllaLlon of organs
necessary for generaLlon, such as Lhe penls or ovarlum,
2. 1he muLllaLlon ls caused purposely and dellberaLely, LhaL ls,
Lo deprlve Lhe offended parLy of some essenLlal organ for
reproducLlon.

III. 1wo k|nds of mut||at|on:
1. 8y lnLenLlonally muLllaLlng anoLher by deprlvlng hlm, elLher
LoLally or parLlally, of some essenLlal organ for reproducLlon.
2. lnLenLlonally maklng oLher muLllaLlon, LhaL ls, by lopplng or
cllpplng off any parL of Lhe body of Lhe offended parLy, oLher
Lhan Lhe essenLlal organ for reproducLlon, Lo deprlve hlm of
LhaL parL of hls body.
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Notes:
ln Lhe flrsL klnd of muLllaLlon, Lhe casLraLlon musL be made
purposely. CLherwlse, lL wlll be consldered as muLllaLlon of
Lhe second klnd.
Mayhem refers Lo any oLher lnLenLlonal muLllaLlon.
under k.A. 7610, Lhe penalLy for Lhe second Lype of
muLllaLlon shall be one degree hlgher when Lhe vlcLlm ls
below 12 years old.
1he offender musL have Lhe lnLenLlon Lo purposely and
dellberaLely deprlve Lhe offended parLy of hls body. lf noL,
Lhe case wlll be consldered physlcal ln[urles

IV. Cther Notes
ls llgaLlon muLllaLlon? no, noLhlng ls cllpped off.
MuLllaLlon ls Lhe cllpplng or lopplng off of an organ. lf Lhe
organ ls for sexual reproducLlon, Lhe penalLy ls hlgher as long
as Lhere ls lnLenLlonal lopplng or cuLLlng.
lf Lhere ls no cuLLlng off, lL ls noL muLllaLlon buL physlcal
ln[urles.
ulfference beLween Lhe 2 klnds of muLllaLlon lles ln Lhe
penalLy lmposable:
Severance of reproduct|ve organ Severance of any other body part
8ecluslon Lemporal Lo recluslon
perpeLua (even hlgher Lhan Lhe
penalLy for homlclde, whlch ls
recluslon Lemporal)
rlslon mayor (medlum and
maxlmum perlods)

C: ls cuLLlng off halr and nalls muLllaLlon? MuLllaLlon needs Lo
be dellberaLe lopplng off of an essenLlal organ or body parL.
ulfference beLween muLllaLlon v. Serlous physlcal ln[urles
o MuLllaLlon: deprlvaLlon of body parL
o Serlous physlcal ln[urles: cuLLlng off

Art|c|e 263 - Ser|ous phys|ca| |n[ur|es.
Any person who sha|| wound, beat, or assau|t another, sha|| be
gu||ty of the cr|me of ser|ous phys|ca| |n[ur|es and sha|| suffer:
1. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor, |f |n consequence of the
phys|ca| |n[ur|es |nf||cted, the |n[ured person sha|| become
|nsane, |mbec||e, |mpotent, or b||nd,
2. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and
max|mum per|ods, |f |n consequence of the phys|ca| |n[ur|es
|nf||cted, the person |n[ured sha|| have |ost the use of
speech or the power to hear or to sme||, or sha|| have |ost
an eye, a hand, a foot, an arm, or a |eg or sha|| have |ost the
use of any such member, or sha|| have become
|ncapac|tated for the work |n wh|ch he was therefor
hab|tua||y engaged,
3. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and
med|um per|ods, |f |n consequence of the phys|ca| |n[ur|es
|nf||cted, the person |n[ured sha|| have become deformed,
or sha|| have |ost any other part of h|s body, or sha|| have
|ost the use thereof, or sha|| have been ||| or |ncapac|tated
for the performance of the work |n wh|ch he as hab|tua||y
engaged for a per|od of more than n|nety days,
4. 1he pena|ty of arresto mayor |n |ts max|mum per|od to
pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od, |f the phys|ca|
|n[ur|es |nf||cted sha|| have caused the |||ness or |ncapac|ty
for |abor of the |n[ured person for more than th|rty days.

If the offense sha|| have been comm|tted aga|nst any of the persons
enumerated |n Art|c|e 246, or w|th attendance of any of the
c|rcumstances ment|oned |n Art|c|e 248, the case covered by
subd|v|s|on number 1 of th|s Art|c|e sha|| be pun|shed by rec|us|on
tempora| |n |ts med|um and max|mum per|ods, the case covered by
subd|v|s|on number 2 by pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts max|mum per|od
to pr|s|on mayor |n |ts m|n|mum per|od, the case covered by
subd|v|s|on number 3 by pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and
max|mum per|ods, and the case covered by subd|v|s|on number 4 by
pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um per|ods.

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1he prov|s|ons of the preced|ng paragraph sha|| not be app||cab|e to
a parent who sha|| |nf||ct phys|ca| |n[ur|es upon h|s ch||d by
excess|ve chast|sement.

CIN1S
I. now Comm|tted: (W-8AI)
1. Woundlng,
2. 8eaLlng,
3. AssaulLlng,
4. 8y admlnlsLerlng ln[urlous subsLance.

II. C|ass of Ser|ous hys|ca| In[ur|es
1. 1he consequence of Lhe ln[urles lnfllcLed
2. 1he naLure and characLer of Lhe wound lnfllcLed
3. 1he proper penalLy

III. Important o|nts:
Serlous physlcal ln[urles may be commlLLed by reckless
lmprudence or by slmple negllgence or lmprudence.
1here musL be no lnLenL Lo klll.

IV. What are cons|dered Ser|ous hys|ca| In[ur|es?
1. When Lhe ln[ured person becomes lnsane, lmbeclle, lmpoLenL
or bllnd ln consequence of Lhe physlcal ln[urles lnfllcLed.
2. When Lhe ln[ured person -
a. Loses Lhe use of speech or Lhe power Lo hear or Lo
smell, or loses an eye, a hand, a fooL, an arm, or a leg,
b. Loses Lhe use of any such member, or
c. 8ecomes lncapaclLaLed for Lhe work ln whlch he was
Lherefore hablLually engaged, ln consequence of Lhe
physlcal ln[urles lnfllcLed,
3. When Lhe person ln[ured:
a. 8ecomes deformed, or
b. Loses any oLher member of hls body, or
c. Loses Lhe use Lhereof, or
d. 8ecomes lll or lncapaclLaLed for Lhe performance of
Lhe work ln whlch he was hablLually engaged for
more Lhan 90 days ln consequence of Lhe physlcal
ln[urles lnfllcLed,
4. When Lhe ln[ured person becomes lll or lncapaclLaLed for
labor for more Lhan 30 days (buL musL noL be more Lhan 90
days), as a resulL of Lhe physlcal ln[urles lnfllcLed.

A. AkAGkAn 1: kenders you |nsane, |mbec||e, |mpotent, b||nd
lmpoLence lncludes lnablllLy Lo copulaLe. lL also has been
used synonymously wlLh sLerlllLy.
aragraph 1 requlres compleLe bllndness of boLh eyes. Mere
weakness ln vlslon ls noL conLemplaLed.

8. AkAGkAn 2: Loss of pr|nc|pa| organ Ck tota||y |ncapac|tated
Loss of power Lo hear musL lnvolve boLh ears. CLherwlse, lL
wlll be consldered as serlous physlcal ln[urles under par 3.
Loss of Lhe power Lo hear ln Lhe rlghL ear ls consldered as
merely loss of use of some oLher parL of Lhe body.
Loss of use of hand or lncapaclLy of usual work ln paragraph 2
musL be permanenL.
aragraph 2 refers Lo prlnclpal members of Lhe body whlle
paragraph 3 covers any oLher member LhaL ls noL a prlnclpal
parL of Lhe body.

C. AkAGkAn 3: deform|ty Ck |ncapac|tated from hab|tua| work
for more than 90 days
aragraph 3:
o ueformlLy means:
a. physlcal ugllness,
b. permanenL and deflnlLe abnormallLy LhaL ls noL
curable by naLural means or by naLure
c. consplcuous and vlslble.
noLe: lf Lhe scar ls usually covered by a dress, lL
would noL be consplcuous and vlslble. Loss of LeeLh
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
as deformlLy wlll noL apply Lo chlld or old man.
CLher noLes:
1he loss of 3 lnclsors ls a vlslble deformlLy. Loss of one lnclsor
ls noL. Powever, loss of one LooLh whlch lmpalred
appearance ls a deformlLy.
ueformlLy by loss of LeeLh refers Lo ln[ury whlch cannoL be
repalred by Lhe acLlon of naLure.
Loss of ouLer ears, loss of Lhe power Lo hear, and loss of Lhe
lobule of Lhe ear consLlLuLe deformlLy.
Loss of Lhe lndex and mlddle flngers ls elLher a deformlLy or
loss of a member, noL a prlnclpal one, of hls body or use of
Lhe same.
Loss of fronL LooLh (consldered a member of Lhe body) due Lo
a flsL blow ls serlous physlcal ln[urles under Lhls paragraph.
C: whaL lf Lhe deformlLy made you look more normal (e.g.
from hunchback Lo sLralghL back)? Would Lhls mean Lhe
absence of requlslLe number 2?

D. AkAGkAn 4: |||ness Ck |ncapac|ty to work (any k|nd) for more
than 30 days
1. lf Lhe ln[ury would requlre medlcal aLLendance for more Lhan
30 days, Lhe lllness of Lhe offended parLy may be consldered
as lasLlng more Lhan 30 days. 1he facL LhaL Lhere was medlcal
aLLendance for LhaL perlod of Llme shows LhaL Lhe ln[urles
were noL cured for LhaL lengLh of Llme.
2. under paragraph 4, all LhaL ls requlred ls lllness or lncapaclLy,
noL medlcal aLLendance.
3. ln deLermlnlng lncapaclLy, Lhe ln[ured parLy musL have a
vocaLlon or work aL Lhe Llme of Lhe ln[ury. Work lncludes
sLudles or preparaLlon for a professlon.

V. Determ|n|ng the category of the ser|ous |n[ury
When Lhe caLegory of Lhe offense of serlous physlcal ln[urles
depends on Lhe perlod of Lhe lllness or lncapaclLy for labor,
Lhere musL be evldence of Lhe lengLh of LhaL perlod.
CLherwlse, Lhe offense wlll only be consldered as sllghL
physlcal ln[urles.
1here ls no lncapaclLy lf Lhe ln[ured parLy could sLlll engage ln
hls work alLhough less effecLlvely Lhan before.
Serlous physlcal ln[urles ls quallfled when Lhe crlme ls
commlLLed agalnsL Lhe same persons enumeraLed ln Lhe
Art|c|e 246 or when lL ls aLLended by any of Lhe
clrcumsLances ln Lhe crlme of murder. Powever, serlous
physlcal ln[urles resulLlng from excesslve chasLlsemenL by
parenLs ls noL quallfled serlous physlcal ln[urles.
LxLenL of MaLerlallLy of medlcal aLLendance " depends upon
Lhen gravlLy of Lhe resulL of Lhe acL.
ls Lreachery appllcable? ?es because Lhls ls a crlme agalnsL
persons.

VI. Cther notes:
1alklng a frlend lnLo lmbeclllLy ls noL conLemplaLed (wound,
beaL, assaulL) ln Lhls arLlcle.
C: scare someone wlLhouL laylng a hand on Lhem causlng
Lhem Lo fall down Lhe sLalrs?
C: ln[ecLlng an ln[urlous subsLance lnLo a person? ArLlcle 264
ls appllcable
1he flrsL Lype of serlous physlcal ln[urles does noL requlre any
number of days for lncapaclLy or ln[ury.
C: lor Lhe second Lype, how do you deLermlne lf muLllaLlon
or serlous physlcal ln[urles?
o lnLenL Lo deprlve LhaL person of LhaL body parL ls
muLllaLlon

C: lor Lhe Lhlrd Lype, how many days ls he requlred Lo be
hosplLallzed?
o More Lhan 90

C: lor Lhe fourLh Lype, how many days ls he requlred Lo be
hosplLallzed?
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o More Lhan 30
o LxacLly 30 ls less serlous physlcal ln[urles.

1he four paragraphs graduaLe ln Lerms of penalLy. 8uL all are
physlcal ln[urles. ar. 4 ls Lhe floor. AnyLhlng hlgher ls serlous
physlcal ln[urles.

Art|c|e 264 - Adm|n|ster|ng |n[ur|ous substances or beverages.
1he pena|t|es estab||shed by the next preced|ng art|c|e sha|| be
app||cab|e |n the respect|ve case to any person who, w|thout |ntent
to k|||, sha|| |nf||ct upon another any ser|ous phys|ca| |n[ury, by
know|ng|y adm|n|ster|ng to h|m any |n[ur|ous substance or
beverages or by tak|ng advantage of h|s weakness of m|nd or
credu||ty.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (SkN)
1. 1he offender lnfllcLed upon anoLher any serlous physlcal
ln[ury,
2. lL was done by knowlngly admlnlsLerlng Lo hlm any ln[urlous
subsLance or beverage by Laklng advanLage of hls weakness
of mlnd or credullLy,
3. Pe had no lnLenL Lo klll.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Ser|ous phys|ca| |n[ury
Art|c|e 264 does noL apply when Lhe physlcal ln[urles LhaL
resulL are less or sllghL

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: know|ng|y adm|n|ster|ng
AdmlnlsLerlng ln[urlous subsLance means lnLroduclng lnLo Lhe
body Lhe subsLance.

IV. Cther Notes:
Art|c|e 264 ls also serlous physlcal ln[urles. 1he dlfference
Lhough lles ln Lhe mode.
Mere admlnlsLraLlon ls noL punlshable because Lhe law
requlres LhaL he knows LhaL Lhe subsLance ls ln[urlous.
C: MusL Lhe physlcal ln[urles be serlous? ?es.
C: AdmlnlsLerlng" - mere acL of glvlng? no. 1here musL be
lnLroducLlon of Lhe subsLance lnLo Lhe body.
C: WhaL lf you dld noL admlnlsLer ln[urlous subsLance buL
Look advanLage of Lhe weakness of mlnd or credullLy? Should
Lhere be admlnlsLraLlon? lL seems llke Art|c|e 264 provldes
for a dlfferenL mode oLher Lhan admlnlsLraLlon.

Art|c|e 26S - Less ser|ous phys|ca| |n[ur|es.
Any person who sha|| |nf||ct upon another phys|ca| |n[ur|es not
descr|bed |n the preced|ng art|c|es, but wh|ch sha|| |ncapac|tate the
offended party for |abor for ten days or more, or sha|| requ|re
med|ca| ass|stance for the same per|od, sha|| be gu||ty of |ess ser|ous
phys|ca| |n[ur|es and sha|| suffer the pena|ty of arresto mayor

Whenever |ess ser|ous phys|ca| |n[ur|es sha|| have been |nf||cted
w|th the man|fest |ntent to |nsu|t or offend the |n[ured person, or
under c|rcumstances add|ng |gnom|ny to the offense, |n add|t|on to
the pena|ty of arresto mayor, a f|ne not exceed|ng S00 pesos sha||
be |mposed.

Any |ess ser|ous phys|ca| |n[ur|es |nf||cted upon the offender's
parents, ascendants, guard|ans, curators, teachers, or persons of
rank, or persons |n author|ty, sha|| be pun|shed by pr|s|on
correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um per|ods, prov|ded that, |n
the case of persons |n author|ty, the deed does not const|tute the
cr|me of assau|t upon such person.

CIN1S
I. What can be cons|dered as Less Ser|ous hys|ca| In[ur|es?
1. 1he offender ls lncapaclLaLed for labor for 10 days or more
buL noL more Lhan 30 days, or needs medlcal aLLendance for
Lhe same perlod of Llme,
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2. 1he physlcal ln[urles musL noL be Lhose descrlbed ln Lhe
precedlng arLlcles.

II. ua||f|ed |ess ser|ous phys|ca| |n[ur|es
1. A flne noL exceedlng 300, ln addlLlon Lo arresLo mayor shall
be lmposed for less serlous physlcal ln[urles when
a. 1here ls a manlfesL lnLenL Lo lnsulL or offend Lhe
ln[ured person
b. 1here are clrcumsLances addlng lgnomlny Lo Lhe
offense.
2. A hlgher penalLy ls lmposed when Lhe vlcLlm ls elLher
a. 1he offender's parenLs, ascendanLs, guardlans,
curaLors or Leachers
b. ersons of rank or persons ln auLhorlLy, provlded Lhe
crlme ls noL dlrecL assaulL.

III. Med|ca| attendance + Incapac|ty
Medlcal aLLendance or lncapaclLy ls requlred ln less serlous
physlcal ln[urles. lL ls only sllghL physlcal ln[ury when Lhere ls
no medlcal aLLendance or lncapaclLy for labor.
o shall requlre" " refers Lo acLual medlcal aLLendance
and Lhus requlres proof.
uuraLlon: 10 days or more buL noL more Lhan 30
Lx: Less Serlous
o Wound requlred medlcal aLLendance for 3 days buL
person was prevenLed from golng Lo work for 29
days.
kemember: 1here are cases when lL ls noL requlred Lo be
lncapaclLaLed for Lhe enLlre duraLlon provlded, such as parLlal
bllndness and deformlLy.

IV. Cther notes:
ln serlous (lncapaclLy of labor). ln less serlous (medlcal
aLLendance, noL necessarlly lncapaclLy)
C: ls lncapaclLy for labor requlred for Lhe whole duraLlon or
could lL lnclude Lhe need for medlcal asslsLance?
o lL could be a comblnaLlon of boLh.

Art|c|e 266 - S||ght phys|ca| |n[ur|es and ma|treatment.
1he cr|me of s||ght phys|ca| |n[ur|es sha|| be pun|shed:
1. 8y arresto menor when the offender has |nf||cted phys|ca|
|n[ur|es wh|ch sha|| |ncapac|tate the offended party for |abor
from one to n|ne days, or sha|| requ|re med|ca| attendance
dur|ng the same per|od.
2. 8y arresto menor or a f|ne not exceed|ng 20 pesos and
censure when the offender has caused phys|ca| |n[ur|es
wh|ch do not prevent the offended party from engag|ng |n
h|s hab|tua| work nor requ|re med|ca| ass|stance.
3. 8y arresto menor |n |ts m|n|mum per|od or a f|ne not
exceed|ng S0 pesos when the offender sha|| |||-treat another
by deed w|thout caus|ng any |n[ury.

CIN1S
I. 3 k|nds of S||ght hys|ca| In[ur|es:
1. hyslcal ln[urles whlch lncapaclLaLed Lhe offended parLy for
labor from 1 Lo 9 days, or requlred medlcal aLLendance durlng
Lhe same perlod,
o Can be a few hours more Lhan 9, buL noL 10 days
2. hyslcal ln[urles whlch dld noL prevenL Lhe offended parLy
from engaglng ln hls hablLual work or whlch dld noL requlred
medlcal aLLendance
3. lll-LreaLmenL of anoLher by deed wlLhouL causlng any ln[ury
(MalLreaLmenL Lx. Slapplng)

II. When there |s no ev|dence of actua| |n[ury, |t |s on|y s||ght
phys|ca| |n[ur|es.
Supervenlng evenL converLlng Lhe crlme lnLo serlous physlcal
ln[urles afLer flllng of lnformaLlon can sLlll be Lhe sub[ecL of a
new charge.
Art|c|e 266 ls a general law LhaL punlshes lll-LreaLmenL.
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
o Any physlcal vlolence wlLhouL causlng ln[ury and
dlshonor " slapplng Lhe face of Lhe offended.

III. Cther notes:
C: ls Lhe slapplng of someone ln fronL of a loL of people under
Art|c|e 266?
o lf lll-LreaLmenL has a speclflc purpose, lL becomes
slander by deed.
lll-LreaLmenL by deed consLlLuLes sllghL physlcal ln[urles lf lL
requlres hosplLallzaLlon/medlcal asslsLance of 1 Lo 9 days.
SllghL physlcal ln[ury ls a llghL felony lncapable of belng
complexed under Art|c|e 48.

Chapter 3: kape

Art|c|e 266-A: kape: When And now Comm|tted.
kape |s comm|tted:
1) 8y a man who sha|| have carna| know|edge of a woman
under any of the fo||ow|ng c|rcumstances:
a) 1hrough force, threat, or |nt|m|dat|on,
b) When the offended party |s depr|ved of reason or
otherw|se unconsc|ous,
c) 8y means of fraudu|ent mach|nat|on or grave abuse
of author|ty, and
d) When the offended party |s under twe|ve (12) years
of age or |s demented, even though none of the
c|rcumstances ment|oned above be present.
2) 8y any person who, under any of the c|rcumstances
ment|oned |n paragraph 1 hereof, sha|| comm|t an act of
sexua| assau|t by |nsert|ng h|s pen|s |nto another person's
mouth or ana| or|f|ce, or any |nstrument or ob[ect, |nto the
gen|ta| or ana| or|f|ce of another person.

CIN1S
I. kape as cr|me aga|nst persons
8eclasslflcaLlon of 8ape as a Crlme agalnsL ersons - lL may
now be prosecuLed de oflclo: ComplalnL by offended parLy ls
nC longer necessary.
o name and ldenLlLy of Lhe rape vlcLlm and her
lmmedlaLe famlly or household members are nC1
dlsclosed ln 8ape cases.
k.A. No. 83S3 " rape can be commlLLed by elLher male or
female

II. Genera| r|nc|p|es |n kape Cases
3 well-enLrenched prlnclples ln deLermlnlng Lhe lnnocence or
gullL of Lhe accused ln 8ape cases (as a resulL of Lhese
prlnclples, C8Lul8lLl1? ls Lhe slngle mosL lmporLanL lssue):
o An accusaLlon of rape can be made wlLh faclllLy and
whlle Lhe accusaLlon ls dlfflculL Lo prove, lL ls even
more dlfflculL for Lhe accused, LhoughL lnnocenL, Lo
dlsprove,
o Conslderlng LhaL ln Lhe naLure of Lhlngs, only 2
persons are usually lnvolved ln Lhe crlme of rape, Lhe
LesLlmony of Lhe complalnanL should be scruLlnlzed
wlLh greaL cauLlon, and
o 1he evldence of Lhe prosecuLlon musL sLand or fall on
lLs own merlLs and cannoL be allowed Lo draw
sLrengLh from Lhe weakness of Lhe evldence for Lhe
defense.
enlle peneLraLlon cannoL be presumed from paln alone,
some oLher plece of evldence showlng LhaL Lhere was lndeed
carnal knowledge ls necessary, l.e.:
o oslLlve LesLlmony of sllghL peneLraLlon of Lhe vaglna
o 1esLlmony LhaL Lhe penls was erecL aL Lhe Llme LhaL lL
was Louchlng Lhe vaglna
o 1haL Lhe vaglna bled due Lo Lhe aLLempL Lo lnserL Lhe
penls
o 1haL Lhere were abraslons or conLuslons on Lhe labla
of Lhe vaglna
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8esL evldence of vlcLlm's age: C8lClnAL/CL81lllLu 18uL
CC? - 8l81P CL81lllCA1L
o lL ls a well-seLLled rule LhaL LesLlmonles of young
vlcLlms of rape deserve full credence and should noL
be so easlly dlsmlssed as a mere fabrlcaLlon (eople
v. Marlano).
o ?ouLh and lmmaLurlLy are badges of LruLh.
CredlblllLy of sole LesLlmony of a rape vlcLlm
o no law or rule requlres Lhe corroboraLlon of Lhe
LesLlmony of a slngle wlLness ln a rape case (eople v.
erez).
o 1he sole LesLlmony of a rape vlcLlm, lf credlble,
sufflces Lo convlcL (eople v. Anguac).
o lnaccuracles and lnconslsLencles ln Lhe 8ape vlcLlm's
LesLlmony are Lo be expecLed (eople v. veluz).
o 1he complalnanL's LesLlmony, lf credlble, naLural,
convlnclng and conslsLenL wlLh human naLure and Lhe
normal course of Lhlngs, may sufflce Lo supporL a
convlcLlon for rape (eople v. Lagarde).
8eporL and LesLlmony of a medlco-legal offlcer LhaL Lhere are
hymenal laceraLlons on Lhe vlcLlm's vaglna ls Lhe besL
evldence LhaL an ob[ecL, such as an erecL penls, has been
lnserLed lnLo lL.
o Such reporL and LesLlmony, when welghed along wlLh
Lhe vlcLlm's poslLlve LesLlmony LhaL her assallanL,
armed wlLh a gun, lnserLed hls penls lnLo her vaglna,
sufflclenLly esLabllsh Lhe essenLlal elemenL of rape,
whlch ls carnal knowledge agalnsL her wlll.
! An lnLacL hymen does noL negaLe Lhe
commlsslon of rape slnce full peneLraLlon ls
noL necessary for lLs consummaLlon. lL
sufflces LhaL Lhere ls proof of Lhe enLrance of
Lhe male organ lnLo Lhe labla of Lhe
pudendum of Lhe female organ (eople v.
CrLoa).
o Powever, medlcal examlnaLlon and Lhe docLor's
cerLlflcaLe Lhereon are nC1 lnulSLnSl8LL buL
merely CC88C8C8A1lvL.
1lme and daLe of commlsslon - nC1 LLLMLn1S
o lallure Lo speclfy Lhe exacL daLe or Llme when Lhe
rape occurred does nC1 lpso facLo make Lhe
lnformaLlon defecLlve on lLs face.
o ulscrepancy on Lhe acLual daLe of rape does nC1
consLlLuLe serlous error warranLlng Lhe reversal of
Lhe accused's convlcLlon.
o uaLe or Llme of commlsslon ls nC1 an elemenL of
8ape because Lhe gravamen of rape ls CA8nAL
knCWLLuCL of a woman Lhrough force or
lnLlmldaLlon (eople v. Aure).
o uaLe or Llme of commlsslon becomes slgnlflcanL
when Lhe accused poses an allbl whlch could prove
hls lnnocence ln Lhe crlme alleged (eople v. Lrgulza).
ln vlew of Lhe maLerlal dlfferences beLween Lhem, rape
Lhrough SLxuAL ln1L8CCu8SL ln noL necessarlly lncluded ln
rape Lhrough SLxuAL ASSAuL1 and vlce-versa
o Where Lhe lnformaLlon charges 8ape Lhrough Sexual
lnLercourse, Lhe accused CAnnC1 be found gullLy of
8ape Lhrough SLxuAL ASSAuL1 (eople v. Abulon),
buL he can be found gullLy of AcLs of Lasclvlousness
(eople v. Ceballos).
o 1o allow such slLuaLlon would vlolaLe Lhe accused's
rlghL Lo be lnformed of Lhe charges agalnsL hlm.

II. 1wo ways of comm|tt|ng kape
SLkUAL
IN1LkCCUkSL
SLkUAL ASSAUL1
Cffender Man Man or woman
Cffended arty Woman Man or woman
Mode]Manner
of comm|ss|on
enlle
peneLraLlon
lnserLlon of penls ln anoLher
person's mouLh or anal
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orlflce.
lnserLlon of any lnsLrumenL
or ob[ecL lnLo anoLher
person's genlLal or anal
orlflce.

A. aragraph 1: kape by Sexua| Intercourse:
CommlLLed by a man who shall have carnal knowledge of a
woman under any of Lhe followlng clrcumsLances: (l-u-l-12)
a. 1hrough force, LhreaL or lnLlmldaLlon,
b. When Lhe offended parLy ls deprlved of reason or
oLherwlse unconsclous,
c. 8y means of fraudulenL machlnaLlon or grave abuse
of auLhorlLy, and
d. When Lhe offended parLy ls under 12 years of age, ls
demenLed, even Lhough none of Lhe clrcumsLances
menLloned above be presenL.
L|ements of kape by Sexua| Intercourse: (CA-fufu)
a. Accused had carnal knowledge of Lhe vlcLlm, and
b. Sald acL was accompllshed:
l. 1hrough Lhe use of force or lnLlmldaLlon, or
ll. When Lhe vlcLlm ls deprlved of reason or
oLherwlse unconsclous, or
lll. When Lhe means employed lnvolved
fraudulenL machlnaLlon or grave abuse of
auLhorlLy
lv. When Lhe vlcLlm ls under 12 years old or ls
demenLed.
IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Carna| know|edge of the v|ct|m
o Mere lnLroducLlon of Lhe penls lnLo Lhe aperLure of
Lhe female organ, Lhereby Louchlng Lhe labla of Lhe
pudendum, already consummaLes Lhe crlme of rape.
! 1here musL be sufflclenL and convlnclng
proof LhaL Lhe penls lndeed Louched Lhe
lablas or sllde lnLo Lhe female organ, and noL
merely sLroked Lhe exLernal surface Lhereof.
! !urlsprudence dlcLaLes LhaL Lhe labla ma[ora
musL be enLered for rape Lo consummaLe.
2

! A broken hymen ls noL an essenLlal elemenL
of rape.
o Absence of sperm does noL negaLe rape was lL ls noL
an elemenL Lhereof (eople v. elaglo).
o Sexual congress wlLh a woman by force and wlLhouL
consenL ls Lhe gravamen of rape.
o lf Lhere ls noL sexual lnLercourse and only acLs of
lewdness are performed, Lhe crlme may be rape
Lhough sexual assaulL or acLs of lasclvlousness.
SLCCND kLUISI1L: Means used to accomp||sh rape
o Iorce or |nt|m|dat|on
Iorce used need noL be overpowerlng or absoluLely
lrreslsLlble, so long as lL was sufflclenL Lo brlng abouL
Lhe deslred resulL.
! lacLors: age, slze, sLrengLh and relaLlonshlp
of Lhe parLles (l.e. vlcLlm and accused).
! A verbal refusal alone wlll noL do. 1here musL
be physlcal sLruggle, Laxlng Lhe vlcLlm's
powers Lo Lhe uLmosL.
! 8eslsLance when fuLlle, does noL amounL Lo
consenL so long as Lhe Lhe LhreaL or
lnLlmldaLlon produces a reasonable fear ln
Lhe mlnd of Lhe vlcLlm LhaL lf she reslsLs or
does noL yleld Lo Lhe deslres of Lhe accused,
Lhe LhreaL would be carrled ouL.
Int|m|dat|on musL be vlewed ln llghL of Lhe vlcLlm's

2
The puuenuum oi vulva is the collective teim foi the female genital oigans that
aie visible in the peiineal aiea. The mons pubis is the iounueu eminence that
becomes haiiy aftei pubeity anu is instantly visible within the suiface. The next
layei is the labia majoia oi the outei lips of the female oigan composeu of the
outei convex suiface (coveieu with haii follicles anu pigmenteu) anu the innei
suiface (a thin haiiless skin with many sebaceous glanus).
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
percepLlon and [udgmenL aL Lhe Llme of rape and noL
by any hard and fasL rule.
! Moral ascendancy consLlLuLes lnLlmldaLlon.
! resence of moral ascendancy or lnfluence
over Lhe vlcLlm dlspenses wlLh Lhe
requlremenL of deLermlned reslsLance.
o V|ct|m |s depr|ved of reason or unconsc|ous " does
Lhls cover Lhe lnsane or demenLed?
! MenLal reLardaLlon can be proved by
evldence oLher Lhan medlal/cllnlcal evldence
l.e. wlLness LesLlmonles and Lrlal courL's
observaLlon of Lhe vlcLlm on Lhe sLand.
o Iraudu|ent mach|nat|on
! lncludes decelL, parL and parcel of how rape
ls commlLLed.
! Sex wlLh a woman for promlse of money buL
laLer dld noL pay.
! lalse promlse of marrlage

8. aragraph 2: kape by Sexua| Assau|t:
8y any person who, under any of Lhe clrcumsLances
menLloned ln paragraph 1 hereof, shall commlL an acL of
sexual assaulL,
a. 8y lnserLlng hls penls lnLo anoLher person's mouLh or
anal orlflce,
b. 8y lnserLlng any lnsLrumenL or ob[ecL lnLo Lhe genlLal
or anal orlflce of anoLher person.
L|ements of kape by Sexua| Assau|t:
a. 1haL Lhe offender commlLs an acL of sexual assaulL,
b. 1haL Lhe acL of sexual assaulL ls commlLLed by any of
Lhe followlng means:
l. 8y lnserLlng hls penls lnLo anoLher person's
mouLh or anal orlflce, or
ll. 8y lnserLlng any lnsLrumenL or ob[ecL lnLo Lhe
genlLal or anal orlflce of anoLher person
c. 1haL Lhe acL of sexual assaulL ls accompllshed under
any of Lhe followlng clrcumsLances:
l. 8y uslng force or lnLlmldaLlon'
ll. When a woman ls deprlved or reason or
oLherwlse unconsclous,
lll. When commlLLed by means of fraudulenL
machlnaLlon or grave abuse of auLhorlLy,
lv. When Lhe offended parLy ls under 12 years of
age or ls demenLed, even Lhough none of Lhe
clrcumsLances menLloned above be presenL.
When flngers are used as Lhe assaulLlng ob[ecL, Lhere should
be evldence of aL leasL Lhe sllghLesL peneLraLlon of Lhe sexual
organ and noL merely a brush or graze of lLs surface. 1hus:
a. lnserLlon" ls necessary.
b. 1he acL of Louchlng Lhe female sexual organ, ln lLself,
ls nC1 equlvalenL Lo rape, noL even an aLLempLed
one (eople v. Mendoza).
CLher noLes:
o C: A [ams a banana down 8's LhroaL. Was lL rape
under b.ll.?
! 1ake noLe of Lhe klnd of lnsLrumenL/ob[ecL
belng lnserLed ln a speclflc orlflce.
! lnserLlon of flnger (consldered as proper
lnsLrumenL for rape) ln anoLher's ear ls nC1
rape.

C. Statutory kape
S1A1U1Ck kAL " where Lhe woman ls under 12 years of
age, convlcLlon wlll lle provlded sexual lnLercourse ls proven
because proof of force ls nC1 an elemenL and Lhe absence of
a free consenL ls 8LSuMLu.
L|ements of Statutory kape (CU)
1. 1haL Lhe accused had carnal knowledge of a woman.
2. 1haL Lhe woman was below 12 years of age.
Genera| r|nc|p|es:
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
o 1he law presumes LhaL a 12-year-old does noL and
cannoL have a wlll of her own on accounL of her
Lender years " consenL ls lmmaLerlal.
o lf Lhe woman ls 12 ?LA8S Cl ACL C8 CLuL8 aL Lhe
Llme she was vlolaLed, Lhe sexual lnLercourse and Lhe
facL LhaL lL was done Lhrough force, vlolence,
lnLlmldaLlon or LhreaL musL boLh be proven.
o lf vlcLlm ls below 12 years of age, Lhe offender should
be prosecuLed for S1A1u1C8? 8AL under Art|c|e
266-A [1] [d] kC and noL SLxuAL A8uSL (Sec. S[b],
kA 7610)
o lf Lhe vlcLlm ls 12 years of age or over, offender
should be charged wlLh elLher, excepL under Art|c|e
266-A [1] [d] kC.
o Sexual congress wlLh a glrl unuL8 12 ?LA8S CLu ls
ALWA?S rape.
1he prosecut|on must prove:
l. Age of Lhe complalnanL
ll. ldenLlLy of Lhe accused
lll. Carnal knowledge beLween Lhe accused and
Lhe complalnanL.
Gu|de||nes |n apprec|at|ng the age of the v|ct|m |n rape:
o 1he orlglnal or cerLlfled Lrue copy of blrLh cerLlflcaLe
ls Lhe besL evldence Lo prove Lhe age of Lhe vlcLlm.
o ln lLs absence, slmllar auLhenLlc documenLs (e.g.
bapLlsmal cerLlflcaLe, school records) showlng Lhe
vlcLlm's daLe of blrLh may be submlLLed Lo Lhe courL.
o Should Lhe foregolng be unavallable on accounL of
loss or desLrucLlon, Lhe credlble LesLlmony of Lhe
moLher or any relaLlve by consangulnlLy or afflnlLy
quallfled Lo LesLlfy on maLLers respecLlng pedlgree
shall be sufflclenL under cerLaln condlLlons.
o lf all Lhe foregolng cannoL be obLalned, Lhe LesLlmony
of Lhe vlcLlm wlll sufflce provlded lL ls expressly and
clearly admlLLed by Lhe accused.

D. UALIIILD kAL
8equlres LhaL aL leasL 1 of Lhe aggravaLlng/quallfylng
clrcumsLances ln Art|c|e 266-8 kC MuS1 be speclflcally
alleged ln Lhe lnformaLlon and duly proven (noL merely by
LesLlmony buL also by documenLary evldence) durlng Lhe Lrlal
(eople v. 8asmayor).
Where Lhe lnformaLlon alleges LhaL Lhe rape vlcLlm was
unuL8 12 years old buL llkewlse expllclLly declares Lhe sald
vlcLlm as belng 3 years of age, Lhe crlme should be CuALlllLu
8AL under Art|c|e 266-8, par. 6(S), and not statutory rape.
(eople v. 8enLorla)
lncesLuous rape of a mlnor - doubLs as Lo Lhe weapon used ls
lmmaLerlal because Lhe accused faLher's moral ascendancy
over Lhe mlnor vlcLlm replaces force and lnLlmldaLlon".
(eople v. CarLe clLlng eople v. 8odavla)

L. reference |n charg|ng rape
1. under 7 " quallfled rape
2. 7-12 " sLaLuLory rape
3. 12-18 " Sexual abuse (Sect|on S(b), k.A. No. 7610)
Note: uouble !eopardy aLLaches upon charglng elLher ln 8C or 8.A.
no. 7610

III. SWLL1nLAk1 1nLCk
1o prove Lhls, lndependenL proof oLher Lhan LesLlmonlal
evldence ls requlred.
A love affalr does noL [usLlfy rape - a man does noL have Lhe
unbrldled llcense Lo sub[ecL hls beloved Lo hls carnal deslres.
(eople v nogpo, eople v. 8aldo, eople v. Corpuz, eLc)

IV. Sexua| Abuse aga|nst a Ch||d (Sect|on S(b), k.A. 7610)
1hls speclal law applles Lo a parLlcular class ln socleLy and Lhe
prosecuLlon musL prove LhaL Lhe vlcLlm belongs Lo lL.
L|ements of Sexua| Abuse aga|nst a Ch||d
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
o 1he accused commlLs Lhe acL of sexual lnLercourse or
lasclvlous conducL.
o 1he sald acL ls performed wlLh a chlld explolLed ln
prosLlLuLlon or sub[ecLed Lo oLher sexual abuse.
o 1he chlld wheLher male or female ls below 18.
<&84%=%/08 6/2$04' " a crlme commlLLed Lhrough Lhe
lnLenLlonal Louchlng, elLher dlrecLly or Lhough Lhe cloLhlng of
Lhe genlLalla, anus, groln, breasL, lnner Lhlgh or buLLocks wlLh
Lhe lnLenL Lo abuse, humlllaLe, harass, degrade, or arouse or
graLlfy Lhe sexual deslre of any person, among oLhers.
>'+#, ?#@0&( 3A08# " covers noL only a chlld who ls abused
for proflL, buL also one who engages ln lasclvlous conducL
Lhrough Lhe coerclon or lnLlmldaLlon by an adulL.

V. Cther Notes
8ape ls a speclal klnd of physlcal ln[ury. 1hus Lhose quallfylng
clrcumsLances appllcable Lo crlmes agalnsL persons can now
be applled Lo rape.
LxacL daLe of sexual assaulL noL an essenLlal elemenL of rape.
CharacLer of Lhe offended woman ls lmmaLerlal.
MulLlple rape by Lwo or more offenders - each one ls
responslble noL only for rape personally commlLLed, buL also
for rape commlLLed by oLhers.
MulLlple rape wlLhln Lhe same day - each ls a separaLe counL
of rape
8ape wlLh homlclde ls now a speclal complex crlme.
o 8ape lnfecLlng vlcLlm wlLh gonorrhea LhaL caused
deaLh ls an lllusLraLlon of rape wlLh homlclde.

C: ls Lreachery appllcable Lo rape?
o ?es. AggravaLlng clrcumsLances appllcable Lo crlmes
agalnsL persons are appllcable Lo rape because of lLs
reclasslflcaLlon as a crlme agalnsL person.

C: ls sLaLuLory rape quallfled rape? no.

C: Can sLaLuLory rape and lncesLuous rape co-exlsL? no.
SLaLuLory rape ls ordlnary rape, whlch falls under 266-A.
lncesLuous rape ls under 266-8 and provldes for quallfylng
clrcumsLances.

Art|c|e 266-8 - ena|ty.
kape under paragraph 1 of the next preced|ng art|c|e sha|| be
pun|shed by rec|us|on perpetua.

Whenever the rape |s comm|tted w|th the use of a dead|y weapon
or by two or more persons, the pena|ty sha|| be rec|us|on perpetua
to death.

When by reason or on the occas|on of the rape, the v|ct|m has
become |nsane, the pena|ty sha|| become rec|us|on perpetua to
death.

When the rape |s attempted and a hom|c|de |s comm|tted by reason
or on the occas|on thereof, the pena|ty sha|| be rec|us|on perpetua
to death.

When by reason or on the occas|on of the rape, hom|c|de |s
comm|tted, the pena|ty sha|| be death.

1he death pena|ty sha|| a|so be |mposed |f the cr|me of rape |s
comm|tted w|th any of the fo||ow|ng aggravat|ng]qua||fy|ng
c|rcumstances:
1) When the v|ct|m |s under e|ghteen (18) years of age and
the offender |s a parent, ascendant, step-parent,
guard|an, re|at|ve by consangu|n|ty or aff|n|ty w|th|n the
th|rd c|v|| degree, or the common-|aw spouse of the
parent of the v|ct|m,
2) When the v|ct|m |s under the custody of the po||ce or
m|||tary author|t|es or any |aw enforcement or pena|
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
|nst|tut|on,
3) When the rape |s comm|tted |n fu|| v|ew of the spouse,
parent, any of the ch||dren or other re|at|ves w|th|n the
th|rd c|v|| degree of consangu|n|ty,
4) When the v|ct|m |s a re||g|ous engaged |n |eg|t|mate
re||g|ous vocat|on or ca|||ng and |s persona||y known to
be such by the offender before or at the t|me of the
comm|ss|on of the cr|me,
S) When the v|ct|m |s a ch||d be|ow seven (7) years o|d,
6) When the offender knows that he |s aff||cted w|th the
numan Immuno-Def|c|ency V|rus (nIV)]Acqu|red
Immune Def|c|ency Syndrome (AIDS) or any other
sexua||y transm|ss|b|e d|sease and the v|rus or d|sease |s
transm|tted to the v|ct|m,
7) When comm|tted by any member of the Armed Iorces
of the h|||pp|nes or para-m|||tary un|ts thereof or the
h|||pp|ne Nat|ona| o||ce or any |aw enforcement
agency or pena| |nst|tut|on, when the offender took
advantage of h|s pos|t|on to fac|||tate the comm|ss|on of
the cr|me,
8) When by reason or on the occas|on of the rape, the
v|ct|m has suffered permanent phys|ca| mut||at|on or
d|sab|||ty,
9) When the offender knew of the pregnancy of the
offended party at the t|me of the comm|ss|on of the
cr|me, and
10) When the offender knew of the menta| d|sab|||ty,
emot|ona| d|sorder and]or phys|ca| hand|cap of the
offended party at the t|me of the comm|ss|on of the
cr|me.

kape under paragraph 2 of the next preced|ng art|c|e sha|| be
pun|shed by pr|s|on mayor.

Whenever the rape |s comm|tted w|th the use of a dead|y weapon
or by two or more persons, the pena|ty sha|| be pr|s|on mayor to
rec|us|on tempora|.

When by reason or on the occas|on of the rape, the v|ct|m has
become |nsane, the pena|ty sha|| be rec|us|on tempora|.

When the rape |s attempted and a hom|c|de |s comm|tted by reason
or on the occas|on thereof, the pena|ty sha|| be rec|us|on tempora|
to rec|us|on perpetua.

When by reason or on the occas|on ofthe rape, hom|c|de |s
comm|tted, the pena|ty sha|| be rec|us|on perpetua.

kec|us|on tempora| sha|| be |mposed |f the rape |s comm|tted w|th
any of the ten aggravat|ng] qua||fy|ng c|rcumstances ment|oned |n
th|s art|c|e.

CIN1S
I. When rape |s pena||zed w|th death
8ape commlLLed under paragraph 1 ls punlshable by:
8ecluslon perpeLua
8ecluslon perpeLua Lo uLA1P when: (speclal complex)
a. vlcLlm became lnsane by reason or on Lhe occaslon of
rape, or
b. 1he rape ls aLLempLed and a homlclde ls commlLLed
by reason or on Lhe occaslon Lhereof.
c. 1he rape ls consummaLed and homlclde ls commlLLed
d. When commlLLed wlLh Lhe use of a deadly weapon or
by Lwo or more persons
uLA1P when: (aggravaLlng/quallfylng clrcumsLances)
a. Pomlclde ls commlLLed,
b. vlcLlm ls under 18 years old and offender ls:
l. arenL,
ll. AscendanL,
lll. SLep-parenL,
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
lv. Cuardlan,
v. 8elaLlve by consangulnlLy or afflnlLy
wlLhln Lhe 3rd clvll degree,
vl. Common law spouse of vlcLlm's parenL,
c. under Lhe cusLody of Lhe pollce or mlllLary
auLhorlLles or any law enforcemenL or penal
lnsLlLuLlon,
d. CommlLLed ln full vlew of Lhe spouse, parenL or any
of Lhe chlldren or oLher relaLlves wlLhln Lhe 3rd
degree of consangulnlLy,
e. vlcLlm ls a rellglous engaged ln leglLlmaLe rellglous
vocaLlon or calllng and ls personally known Lo be such
by Lhe offender before or aL Lhe Llme of Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe crlme,
f. A chlld below 7 years old,
g. Cffender knows he ls affllcLed wlLh Plv or AluS or any
oLher sexually Lransmlsslble dlsease and Lhe vlrus ls
LransmlLLed Lo Lhe vlcLlm,
h. Cffender ls a member of Lhe Al, or para-mlllLary
unlLs Lhereof, or Lhe n, or any law enforcemenL
agency or penal lnsLlLuLlon, when Lhe offender Look
advanLage of hls poslLlon Lo faclllLaLe Lhe commlsslon
of Lhe crlme,
l. 1he vlcLlm suffered permanenL physlcal muLllaLlon or
dlsablllLy,
[. 1he offender knew of Lhe pregnancy of Lhe offended
parLy aL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme, and
k. When Lhe offender knew of Lhe menLal dlsablllLy,
emoLlonal dlsorder and/or physlcal handlcap of Lhe
offended parLy aL Lhe Llme of Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
crlme.

II. Indemn|ty |n kape
A. kape
30,000 as lndemnlLy ex dellcLo ls mandaLory
73,000 as lndemnlLy for quallfled rape
8. kape w|th hom|c|de
100,000

III. Damages |n kape
Moral uamages " 30,000
Lxemplary uamages " may be awarded ln crlmlnal cases as
parL of Lhe clvll llablllLy lf Lhe crlme was commlLLed wlLh one
or more aggravaLlng clrcumsLances.

Ak1ICLL 266-C: Lffect of ardon.
1he subsequent va||d marr|age between the offended party sha||
ext|ngu|sh the cr|m|na| act|on or the pena|ty |mposed.

In case |t |s the |ega| husband who |s the offender, the subsequent
forg|veness by the w|fe as the offended party sha|| ext|ngu|sh the
cr|m|na| act|on or the pena|ty: rov|ded, 1hat the cr|me sha|| not be
ext|ngu|shed or the pena|ty sha|| not be abated |f the marr|age |s
vo|d ab |n|t|o.
CIN1S
I. Genera| o|nts
Marrlage exLlngulshes noL only Lhe penal acLlon, buL llkewlse
Lhe penalLy LhaL may be lmposed. (Marrlage exLlngulshed
only as Lo Lhe prlnclpal noL as Lo accompllces and accessorles)
ln case when mulLlple rape ls commlLLed, Lhe effecLs and
beneflLs of marrlage wlLh one defendanL does noL exLend Lo
Lhe oLhers.
ln case lL ls Lhe legal husband who ls Lhe offender, Lhe
subsequenL forglveness by Lhe wlfe as Lhe offended parLy
shall exLlngulsh crlmlnal llablllLy.
8U1
1he crlme wlll be noL be exLlngulshed lf Lhe marrlage ls vold
ab lnlLlo.

Ak1ICLL 266-D: resumpt|on.
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
Any phys|ca| overt act man|fest|ng res|stance aga|nst the act of rape
|n any degree from the offended party, or where the offended party
|s so s|tuated as to render her]h|m |ncapab|e of g|v|ng va||d consent,
may be accepted as ev|dence |n the prosecut|on of the acts
pun|shed under Art|c|e 266-A.

CIN1S
I. Lv|dence wh|ch may be accepted |n the prosecut|on of rape:
1. Any physlcal over acL manlfesLlng reslsLance agalnsL Lhe acL of
rape ln any degree from Lhe offended parLy, or
2. Where Lhe offended parLy ls so slLuaLed as Lo render hlm/her
lncapable of glvlng consenL

Cther notes:
eople v. Lazo docLrlne LhaL reslsLance musL be manlfesL and
Lenaclous has been superseded. under kA 83S3, half-hearLed
reslsLance or a mere acL of Lrylng Lo reslsL Lhe sexual assaulL
may be accepLed as evldence ln Lhe prosecuLlon of rape.
ConsenL of mlnors (e.g., glrl under 12 years of age) ls nC1 a
valld defense. Cravamen of sLaLuLory rape ls merely carnal
knowledge of a glrl below 12 years of age.
ln sLaLuLory rape, proof of lnLlmldaLlon or force used on Lhe
vlcLlm, or lack of lL, ls lmmaLerlal. (eople v. Mangallno)
lorce and lnLlmldaLlon xxx may be presenL or absenL wlLhouL
affecLlng Lhe crlmlnallLy of Lhe carnal knowledge. (ld.)
o ConsenL obLalned by fear ls vold.
o CompleLe deprlvaLlon of reason ls noL necessary.
o A menLally reLarded woman cannoL glve valld and
legal consenL Lo sexual acL. (eople v ualng)
o Lack of knowledge of Lhe vlcLlm's menLal condlLlon ls
nC1 a valld defense (eople v Canlllo). Powever,
mlsLake of facL may be lnvoked as defense (eople v.
Ah Chong). 1ake noLe, however, LhaL Ah Chong ls noL
a rape case.
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
!"#$%&' )*+, %-./012 3405167128 91.94:;/029-; 0//-2<-< /=- >155128 ?#@$"A "'3B$C$#'D

3405167128 %1.94:;/029- $2/-2/ /E >155 FE/-;
a 1reachery 1he very presence of
Lhls clrcumsLance
quallfles Lhe acL Lo
murder
! LlemenLs of 1reachery (MCW)
1. Crlmes agalnsL G-.;E2;
2. H-02;I:E<- of aLLack especlally soughL by offender
3. ulrecLly and especlally ensure 9E::1;;1E2 of Lhe crlme
4. J1/=E4/ rlsk Lo hlmself arlslng from Lhe defense Lhe offended parLy
mlghL make
! LxlsLs ln Lhe kllllng a chlld of Lender years
1aklng advanLage of superlor sLrengLh ! Superlor sLrengLh musL be Laken advanLage of
WlLh Lhe ald of armed men ! Armed men musL Lake parL dlrecL or lndlrecL
! Accused musL avall hlmself of Lhelr ald or rely on Lhem
Lmploylng means Lo weaken Lhe defense ! CrafL such as Lhrowlng a cloak over Lhe head or casLlng sand on Lhe eyes of Lhe
vlcLlm
Lmploylng means or persons Lo lnsure or afford lmpunlLy ! Means or persons are employed by Lhe accused who kllled Lhe deceased Lo
prevenL hls belng recognlzed or Lo secure hlmself agalnsL deLecLlon and
punlshmenL, he may be held llable for murder.
b ln conslderaLlon of a prlce, reward or promlse ! 8ecelved reward ! prlnclpal by dlrecL parLlclpaLlon
! Cave reward ! prlnclpal by lnducLlon
d Cn Lhe occaslon of lnundaLlon, shlpwreck, eLc., of an
earLhquake, erupLlon of a volcano, epldemlc or any oLher
publlc calamlLy
! Such occaslons when Laken advanLage of by Lhe offender quallfles Lhe crlme Lo
murder.
e WlLh evldenL premedlLaLlon ! 8equlslLes of evldenL premedlLaLlon: (1CS)
1. #1:- when Lhe plan Lo klll was concelved
2. An EK-./ 09/ of Lhe offender manlfesLly lndlcaLlng LhaL he clung Lo hls
deLermlnaLlon Lo klll vlcLlm
3. C466191-2/ 50G;- E6 /1:- Lo allow medlLaLlon
f WlLh cruelLy ! AcLs noL necessary for Lhe kllllng of Lhe vlcLlm
! AcLs whlch prolong Lhe vlcLlm's sufferlng unnecessarlly
CuLraglng or scofflng Lhe person or corpse of Lhe vlcLlm ! CuLraglng ! Lo commlL an exLremely vlclous or deeply lnsulLlng acL.
! Scofflng ! Lo [eer and lmplles a showlng of lrreverence.
c 8y means of flre, polson, exploslon, eLc. lnLenL Lo klll ls
necessary Lo quallfy
wlLh Lhls
! lf Lhe lnLenL of Lhe flre was only desLrucLlon of properLy, and lL resulLed Lo
deaLhs ! homlclde only
! lf Lhe lnLenL of Lhe flre was Lo klll persons ! murder
! 1reachery and premedlLaLlon are lnherenL ln murder by polson.

!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1I1LL Ik: CkIMLS AGAINS1 LkSCNAL LI8Lk1
AND SLCUkI1

Chapter 1: Cr|mes Aga|nst L|berty

Sect|on 1 - I||ega| Detent|on

Art|c|e 267 - k|dnapp|ng and ser|ous |||ega| detent|on.
Any pr|vate |nd|v|dua| who sha|| k|dnap or deta|n another, or |n any other
manner depr|ve h|m of h|s ||berty, sha|| suffer the pena|ty of rec|us|on
perpetua to death:
1. If the k|dnapp|ng or detent|on sha|| have |asted more than three
days.
2. If |t sha|| have been comm|tted s|mu|at|ng pub||c author|ty.
3. If any ser|ous phys|ca| |n[ur|es sha|| have been |nf||cted upon the
person k|dnapped or deta|ned, or |f threats to k||| h|m sha|| have
been made.
4. If the person k|dnapped or deta|ned sha|| be a m|nor, fema|e or a
pub||c off|cer.

1he pena|ty sha|| be death where the k|dnapp|ng or detent|on was
comm|tted for the purpose of extort|ng ransom from the v|ct|m or any
other person, even |f none of the c|rcumstances above-ment|oned were
present |n the comm|ss|on of the offense.

When the v|ct|m |s k|||ed or d|es as a consequence of the detent|on, or |s
raped or |s sub[ected to torture or dehuman|z|ng acts, the max|mum
pena|ty sha|| be |mposed. (!" $%&'(&( )* +,!, -., /012)

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (DIC: 3sp-mfp)
1. 1he offender ls a prlvaLe lndlvldual,
2. Pe kldnaps or deLalns anoLher, or ln any oLher manner deprlves Lhe
laLLer of hls llberLy,
3. 1he acL of deLenLlon or kldnapplng musL be lllegal,
4. ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe offense, any of Lhe followlng clrcumsLances
ls presenL:
a. 1he kldnapplng lasLs for more Lhan 3 days,
b. lL ls commlLLed slmulaLlng publlc auLhorlLy,
c. Any serlous physlcal ln[urles are lnfllcLed upon Lhe person
kldnapped or deLalned or LhreaLs Lo klll hlm are made, or
d. 1he person kldnapped or deLalned ls a mlnor (excepL when
Lhe accused ls any of Lhe parenLs), female or a publlc
offlcer.

II. ua||fy|ng |nstances
ueaLh ls lmposed ln Lhe followlng lnsLances: [deaLh penalLy suspended]
1. lf kldnapplng ls commlLLed for Lhe purpose of exLorLlng ransom
elLher from Lhe vlcLlm or from any oLher person even lf none of Lhe
aforemenLloned clrcumsLances are presenL ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
offense, and
2. When Lhe vlcLlm ls kllled or dles as a consequence of Lhe deLenLlon
or ls raped or ls sub[ecLed Lo LorLure or dehumanlzlng acLs.

III. IIkS1 LLLMLN1: Cffender |s a pr|vate |nd|v|dua|
1hls arLlcle requlres LhaL Lhe offender ls a prlvaLe lndlvldual, because
lf Lhe offender ls a publlc offlcer, Lhe crlme ls arblLrary deLenLlon.
Powever, lf Lhe publlc offlcer acLs ln hls capaclLy as a prlvaLe
lndlvldual, he ls llable under Lhls arLlcle.
When a publlc offlcer consplres wlLh a prlvaLe person ln Lhe
commlsslon of any of Lhe crlmes under 1|t|e Ik, Lhe crlme ls also one
commlLLed under Lhls LlLle and noL under 1|t|e II (Arb|trary
Detent|on).

IV. SLCCND LLLMLN1: Depr|ves another of h|s ||berty
ueLenLlon or locklng up of Lhe vlcLlm ls essenLlal. 1hus, lf Lhe alleged
vlcLlm had Lhe freedom Lo leave Lhe premlses where she was
supposedly deLalned, Lhere ls no crlme of lllegal deLenLlon.
o eople v. Chlng Suy Slong, eL al. ! AlLhough Lhe offended
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
parLy was ordered noL Lo leave, Lhere ls no evldence LhaL
Lhe doors of Lhe agency or of lLs rooms were locked or
closed ln such a way as Lo prevenL Lhe offended parLy from
golng ouL had she wanLed Lo go ouL. 1here ls no evldence
LhaL Lhe accused consplred Lo lnsLlll fear lnLo her mlnd ln
order Lo compel her Lo remaln ln Lhe agency.
lL ls essenLlal LhaL Lhere be acLual conflnemenL or resLrlcLlon of Lhe
person of Lhe offended parLy.
lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe vlcLlm be placed ln an lnclosure.
o Leavlng a chlld ln Lhe house of anoLher, where had Lhe
freedom of locomoLlon buL noL Lhe freedom Lo leave aL
wlll, deprlves hlm of llberLy (eople v. AcosLa).
8esLralnL need noL be permanenL.
o lf Lhe chlld Lwo years old was held and Lled Lo a wooden
plllar unLll hls broLher, servanL of Lhe Lwo accused, should
appear and reLurn Lo Lhelr servlce, because sald broLher
had run away, Lhere ls lllegal deLenLlon (uS v. eralLa).

V. 1nIkD LLLMLN1: 1he detent|on or k|dnapp|ng |s |||ega|
ueLenLlon ls lllegal when noL ordered by compeLenL auLhorlLy or noL
permlLLed by law.
o uS v. Mendoza ! LhaL Lhe boy was deLalled wlLhouL [usL
cause on Lhe susplclon LhaL he was an lncendlarlsL makes
hls capLors llable for lllegal deLenLlon.
1here are cases where lL ls lawful Lo deLall anoLher.
o eople v. 1amorro ! Cwners of a sugarcane planLaLlon
locked up a boy who had sLolen sugarcanes from Lhem.

VI. ICUk1n LLLMLN1: Any of the fo||ow|ng c|rcumstances are present
ueLenLlon for more Lhan 3 days ls noL necessary when any of Lhe
oLher clrcumsLances ln aragraph 1, Art|c|e 267 ls presenL.
When Lhe kldnapplng ls commlLLed for Lhe purpose of exLorLlng
ransom, lL ls noL necessary LhaL one or any of Lhe clrcumsLances are
enumeraLed Lhereln are presenL.

V. No Comp|ex Cr|me of I||ega| Detent|on w|th kape under Art|c|e 48
aragraph 3 does noL provlde for a speclal complex crlme.
1here ls no complex crlme of rape wlLh lllegal deLenLlon or
kldnapplng wlLh aLLempLed rape, because Lhere ls noL slngle acL
whlch resulLs ln Lwo or more grave or less grave felonles

VI. I||ega| Detent|on v. Arb|trary Detent|on
I||ega| Detent|on Arb|trary Detent|on
CommlLLed by anyone ln hls capaclLy
as a prlvaLe lndlvldual wlLhouL
[usLlflable ground
CommlLLed by a publlc offlcer or
employees who deLalns a person
wlLhouL legal ground
Crlme agalnsL personal llberLy of
persons
Crlme agalnsL Lhe fundamenLal law
of Lhe SLaLe
____________________
k|dnapp|ng
I. k|dnapp|ng for ransom
A. Intent|on to depr|ve the person of ||berty ICk 1nL UkCSL of extort|ng
ransom |s essent|a|
Lven lf Lhere was no demand for ransom, lf lL ls clear LhaL Lhe
purpose of Lhe offender ls Lo demand for ransom, Lhe crlme ls
kldnapplng wlLh a demand for ransom. (eople v. Carcla)
lf a vlcLlm ls kldnapped for Lhe purpose of ransom, and durlng a car
chase Lhe vlcLlm was kllled by Lhe abducLors, lL ls kldnapplng for
8ansom and Murder, noL a complex crlme of kldnapplng wlLh
murder.
Number of charges: 1here are as many crlmes of kldnapplng as
Lhere are persons whose llberLles are deprlved.
M|t|gat|ng C|rcumstance: lf Lhe vlcLlm ls a mlnor and Lhe accused ls
any of Lhe parenLs, Lhe penalLy ls mlLlgaLed.
L|ab|||ty: Consplracy Lo exLorL ransom makes all Lhe consplraLors
llable under Lhe aragraph 2, Art|c|e 267 lncludlng Lhose who dld
noL Lake any parL of Lhe money.
!"#$%& ! ls money, prlce, or conslderaLlon pald or demanded for
redempLlon of a capLured person or persons, a paymenL LhaL
releases from capLlvlLy.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE

8. Carry|ng away can be made forc|b|y or fraudu|ent|y 8U1 what |s
contro|||ng |s the detent|on of the v|ct|m
1he vlcLlm need noL be Laken by Lhe accused forclbly or agalnsL hls
wlll. WhaL ls conLrolllng ls Lhe acL of Lhe accused ln deLalnlng Lhe
vlcLlm agalnsL hls or her wlll afLer Laklng Lhe vlcLlm ln cusLody.

II. Spec|a| Comp|ex Cr|me of k|dnapp|ng w|th hom|c|de]murder:
1. Where Lhe person kldnapped ls kllled ln Lhe course of Lhe deLenLlon,
regardless of wheLher Lhe kllllng was purposely soughL or was
merely an afLerLhoughL, Lhe kldnapplng and murder or homlclde can
no longer be complexed under Art|c|e 48, nor be LreaLed as separaLe
crlmes buL shall be punlshed as a speclal complex crlme of
kldnapplng wlLh Pomlclde. (eople v 8lmorln)
o When Lhe vlcLlm ls Laken from one place Lo anoLher solely
for Lhe purpose of kllllng hlm, Lhe crlme ls murder.
o lnLenL (wheLher Lo deprlve of llberLy or Lo klll) ls conLrolllng.
o Speclflc lnLenL ls used Lo descrlbe a sLaLe of mlnd whlch
exlsLs where clrcumsLances lndlcaLe LhaL an offender
acLlvely deslred a cerLaln crlmlnal consequence or
ob[ecLlvely deslred a speclflc resulL Lo follow hls acLlons.
1hls musL be alleged, and proved wlLh dlrecL or
clrcumsLanLlal evldence.
o ln conLrasL, moLlve ls referred Lo as Lhe reason whlch
prompLs Lhe accused Lo engage ln a parLlcular acLlvlLy.
2. 1he Lerm homlclde ls used ln lLs generlc sense. 1hus, lL ls kldnapplng
wlLh Pomlclde noL kldnapplng wlLh Murder.

When moLlve ls lmporLanL:
Iorc|b|e Abduct|on - woman Laken agalnsL her wlll
- wlLh lewd deslgns
- LransporLed from one place Lo anoLher
Grave Coerc|on - woman ls dragged Lo a dlsLance of 3 meLers
- agalnsL her wlll
- no lnLenLlon Lo deprlve person of llberLy
I||ega| Detent|on - woman ls Laken
- agalnsL her wlll
- wlLhouL lewd deslgns
- LransporLed from one place Lo anoLher
Spec|a| Comp|ex Cr|me: AlLhough 2 crlmes are commlLLed, ln Lhe eyes of Lhe
law Lhere ls only one crlmlnal llablllLy. Also known as componenL crlme or
slngle lndlvlslble offense.

Art|c|e 268 - S||ght |||ega| detent|on.
1he pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora| sha|| be |mposed upon any pr|vate
|nd|v|dua| who sha|| comm|t the cr|mes descr|bed |n the next preced|ng
art|c|e w|thout the attendance of any of c|rcumstances enumerated
there|n.

1he same pena|ty sha|| be |ncurred by anyone who sha|| furn|sh the p|ace
for the perpetrat|on of the cr|me.

If the offender sha|| vo|untar||y re|ease the person so k|dnapped or
deta|ned w|th|n three days from the commencement of the detent|on,
w|thout hav|ng atta|ned the purpose |ntended, and before the |nst|tut|on of
cr|m|na| proceed|ngs aga|nst h|m, the pena|ty sha|| be pr|s|on mayor |n |ts
m|n|mum and med|um per|ods and a f|ne not exceed|ng seven hundred
pesos. (!" $%&'(&( )* +,!, -., 34)

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (kIW)
1. 1he offender ls a prlvaLe lndlvldual,
2. Pe kldnaps or deLalns anoLher, or ln any oLher manner deprlves hlm
of hls llberLy,
3. 1he acL of kldnapplng or deLenLlon ls lllegal,
4. 1he crlme ls commlLLed wlLhouL Lhe aLLendance of any of Lhe
clrcumsLances menLloned ln Art|c|e 267.

II. L|ab|||ty of Accomp||ce
Co-prlnclpal ! Lhe same penalLy ls lncurred by Lhe accompllce who
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
furnlshed Lhe place for Lhe perpeLraLlon of Lhe crlme. Pls
parLlclpaLlon ls ralsed Lo LhaL of a co-prlnclpal.

III. r|v||eged M|t|gat|ng C|rcumstance |f the offender: A|| must concur
1. volunLarlly releases Lhe person so kldnapped or deLalned wlLhln 3
days from Lhe commencemenL of Lhe deLenLlon,
2. WlLhouL havlng aLLalned Lhe purpose lnLended, and
3. 8efore Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of crlmlnal proceedlngs agalnsL hlm.

noLe: lL musL be shown by Lhe offender LhaL he was ln a poslLlon Lo prolong
Lhe deLenLlon for more Lhan Lhree days and yeL he released Lhe person
deLalned wlLhln LhaL Llme.
1. no mlLlgaLlon when Lhe proceedlngs have already been lnsLlLuLed.
1he accused acLed Lhrough fear raLher Lhan Lhrough repenLance.
2. When Lhe vlcLlm ls a female, Lhe deLenLlon ls punlshed under Art|c|e
267. volunLary release ls noL mlLlgaLlng under LhaL arLlcle.

Art|c|e 269 - Un|awfu| arrest.
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor and a f|ne not exceed|ng S00 pesos sha|| be
|mposed upon any person who, |n any case other than those author|zed by
|aw, or w|thout reasonab|e ground therefor, sha|| arrest or deta|n another
for the purpose of de||ver|ng h|m to the proper author|t|es.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (AND)
1. 1he offender arresLs or deLalns anoLher person,
2. 1he purpose of Lhe offender ls Lo dellver hlm Lo Lhe proper
auLhorlLles,
3. 1he arresL or deLenLlon ls noL auLhorlzed by law or Lhere ls no
reasonable ground Lherefor.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Cffender arrests or deta||s another
'#( *+,$%#
1. rlvaLe person
2. ubllc person - MusL have no auLhorlLy Lo arresL or dld noL acL ln hls
offlclal capaclLy
Lxcept|on: When Lhe arresL ls auLhorlzed by a warranL lssued by courL

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: urpose |s to de||ver h|m to the proper author|t|es
1. unlawful ArresL v. lllegal ueLenLlon
urpose ls a conLrolllng facLor, lf Lhe deLenLlon was for Lhe reason of
dellverlng hlm Lo proper auLhorlLy musL fall under Lhls arLlcle.
Lx. A Lled 8 wlLh a plece of rope and conducLed hlm Lo Lhe munlclpal
courL and was deLalned Lhere for several hours unLll Lhe !usLlce of
peace ordered hls release.
noLe: MoLlve ls conLrolllng, lf hls purpose ls Lo dellver hlm Lo Lhe
proper auLhorlLles, lL ls sLlll unlawful arresL. 8uL absence of Lhls
moLlve may be shown by Lhe lengLh of Llme Lhe vlcLlm ls deLalned.
Un|awfu| Arrest I||ega| Detent|on
8ule by excluslon polnL: urpose Lo
dellver Lo auLhorlLles
Any oLher purpose

2. unlawful ArresL v. Art|c|e 12S
Art|c|e 269: Un|awfu| Arrest Art|c|e 12S: De|ay |n de||very of
deta|ned person to proper [ud|c|a|
author|t|es
8ule by excluslon polnL: urpose Lo
dellver Lo auLhorlLles
Any oLher purpose
ueLenLlon ls noL auLhorlzed by law ueLenLlon ls for some legal ground

Sect|on 2 - k|dnapp|ng of M|nors

Art|c|e 270 - k|dnapp|ng and fa||ure to return a m|nor.
1he pena|ty of rec|us|on perpetua sha|| be |mposed upon any person who,
be|ng entrusted w|th the custody of a m|nor person, sha|| de||berate|y fa||
to restore the |atter to h|s parents or guard|ans. 5!" $%&'(&( )* +,! -.,
346

CIN1S
I. Act pun|shed
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
uellberaLe fallure of Lhe cusLodlan of such mlnor Lo resLore Lhe
laLLer Lo hls parenLs or guardlan"
Lx. A ls enLrusLed wlLh Lhe cusLody of C, !r. Pe lefL Lhe house of hls
employer, Lhe laLher of C. AfLer Lwo days A was caughL by Lhe
pollce. Powever, kldnapplng and fallure Lo reLurn a mlnor ls lncluded
ln kldnapplng and serlous lllegal deLenLlon.

II. L|ements: (LI)
1. 1he offender ls enLrusLed wlLh Lhe cusLody of a mlnor person
(wheLher over or under 7 years buL less Lhan 18 years of age),
2. Pe dellberaLely falls Lo resLore sald mlnor Lo hls parenLs or
guardlans.

III. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: M|nor |s entrusted
ue CasLro: -.#%, ! under 18 years old because of k.A. 6809
LssenLlal elemenL ls LhaL Lhe offender ls enLrusLed wlLh Lhe cusLody
of Lhe mlnor.
o lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe purpose of Lhe offender ls Lo
separaLe permanenLly Lhe mlnor from parenLs or guardlan.

IV. SLCCND kLUISI1L: De||berate fa||ure to restore
A. Who can comm|t the cr|me?
1he person enLrusLed wlLh Lhe cusLody of Lhe chlld
laLher and moLher of mlnor. Powever penalLy ls mlLlgaLed Lo
arresLo mayor or a flne noL exceedlng 300 or boLh (LsLrada, p. 374)

V. Art|c|e 267 and Art|c|e 270 compared
Art|c|e 267 Art|c|e 270
kldnapplng ls punlshed
1he offender ls noL enLrusLed wlLh
Lhe cusLody of Lhe vlcLlm.
1he offender ls enLrusLed wlLh Lhe
cusLody of Lhe mlnor
8ule by excluslon polnL: LnLrusLed wlLh Lhe cusLody of a mlnor

Art|c|e 271 - Induc|ng a m|nor to abandon h|s home.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| and a f|ne not exceed|ng seven hundred
pesos sha|| be |mposed upon anyone who sha|| |nduce a m|nor to abandon
the home of h|s parent or guard|ans or the persons entrusted w|th h|s
custody.

If the person comm|tt|ng any of the cr|mes covered by the two preced|ng
art|c|es sha|| be the father or the mother of the m|nor, the pena|ty sha|| be
arresto mayor or a f|ne not exceed|ng three hundred pesos, or both. 5!"
$%&'(&( )* +,!, -., 346

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (MI)
1. A mlnor (wheLher under or over 7 years of age) ls llvlng ln Lhe home
of hls parenLs or guardlans or Lhe person enLrusLed wlLh hls cusLody,
2. Cffender lnduces sald mlnor Lo abandon such home.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: M|nor ||v|ng w|th parents or guard|ans
ue CasLro: -.#%, ! under 18 years old because of k.A. 6809

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Inducement
lnducemenL musL be acLual, commlLLed wlLh crlmlnal lnLenL and
deLermlned by a wlll Lo cause damage. (LsLrada: Mere lnducemenL
consummaLes Lhe crlme.)
o eople v. aalam ! Z a mald of A and 8, ls enLrusLed wlLh
Lhe cusLody of C. Z descrlbes Lo C LhaL Lhe clLy has blgger
malls, movle houses and LhaL lL has a loL of exoLlc candles.
Peld: lL does noL equaLe Lo lnducemenL. 1he phrase Lo
lnduce means, Lo lnfluence, Lo prevall on, L move by
persuaslon, Lo lnclLe by moLlves."
1he mlnor should noL leave hls home of hls own free wlll. MlLlgaLed
lf commlLLed by Lhe faLher or moLher of Lhe vlcLlm.
1he mlnor need noL acLually abandon hls home or home of
guardlan. Mere commlsslon of any acL whlch Lends Lo lnfluence,
persuade or prevall on a mlnor Lo abandon hls home ls whaL
consLlLuLes a crlme.
o lnducemenL (Lhe crlme) may be commlLLed by Lhe parenL
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
who does noL have cusLody of Lhe mlnor.
noLe: ls mere lnducemenL punlshable?
o ?es. 8eyes sald LhaL lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe mlnor
acLually abandons Lhe home. So long as Lhe lnducemenL ls
done mallclously and wlLh crlmlnal lnLenL, lLs effecL on Lhe
mlnor (l.e. wheLher by reason Lhereof he acLually abandons
Lhe home) ls lmmaLerlal.

IV. Cther Notes:
urpose of the Art|c|e: 1he law ls lnLended Lo dlscourage and
prevenL dlsrupLlon of flllal relaLlonshlps and undue lnLerference wlLh
Lhe parenLs' rlghL and duLy Lo Lhe cusLody of Lhelr mlnor chlldren
and Lo rear Lhem.

Sect|on 3 - S|avery and Serv|tude

Art|c|e 272 - S|avery.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor and a f|ne of not exceed|ng 10,000 pesos sha||
be |mposed upon anyone who sha|| purchase, se||, k|dnap or deta|n a
human be|ng for the purpose of ens|av|ng h|m.

If the cr|me be comm|tted for the purpose of ass|gn|ng the offended party
to some |mmora| traff|c, the pena|ty sha|| be |mposed |n |ts max|mum
per|od.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (LI)
1. 1he offender purchases, sells, kldnaps, or deLalns a human belng, or
2. 1he purpose of Lhe offender ls Lo enslave such human belng,
3. 1o asslgn Lhe vlcLlm Lo lmmoral Lrafflc.

II. ua||fy|ng c|rcumstance
lf Lhe purpose ls some lmmoral Lrafflc (Lx. prosLlLuLlon).

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: "Ior the purpose of ens|av|ng h|m"
1here musL be speclflc lnLenL Lo enslave. (ue CasLro)
Lx. A was obllged Lo be a servanL of 8 wlLhouL remuneraLlon
whaLever and Lo remaln Lhere so long as she has noL pald her debL.
1here ls slavery. (8eyes v. Alo[ado)

IV. S|avery v. k|dnapp|ng v. I||ega| Detent|on
S|avery k|dnapp|ng I||ega| Detent|on
urpose ls Lo enslave urpose ls for exLorLlon
of money
urpose ls Lo deprlve
person lf lndlvldual llberLy

Art|c|e 273 - Lxp|o|tat|on of ch||d |abor.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um per|ods and
a f|ne not exceed|ng S00 pesos sha|| be |mposed upon anyone who, under
the pretext of re|mburs|ng h|mse|f of a debt |ncurred by an ascendant,
guard|an or person entrusted w|th the custody of a m|nor, sha||, aga|nst the
|atter's w|||, reta|n h|m |n h|s serv|ce.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (MAk)
1. Cffender reLalns a mlnor ln hls servlces,
2. lL ls agalnsL Lhe wlll of Lhe mlnor,
3. lL ls under Lhe preLexL of relmburslng hlmself of a debL lncurred by
an ascendanL, guardlan or person enLrusLed wlLh Lhe cusLody of
such mlnor.

II. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Aga|nst the w||| of the m|nor
1he mlnor musL noL consenL, oLherwlse Lhere ls no vlolaLlon.

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: urpose |s re|mburs|ng a debt of an ascendant
lndebLedness ls noL a ground for deLenLlon. LxlsLence of
lndebLedness consLlLuLes no legal [usLlflcaLlon for Lhe deLenLlon.

Art|c|e 274 - Serv|ces rendered under compu|s|on |n payment of debt.
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor |n |ts max|mum per|od to pr|s|on correcc|ona|
|n |ts m|n|mum per|od sha|| be |mposed upon any person who, |n order to
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
requ|re or enforce the payment of a debt, sha|| compe| the debtor to work
for h|m, aga|nst h|s w|||, as househo|d servant or farm |aborer.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (CA)
1. Cffender compels a debLor Lo work for hlm, elLher as a household
servanL or farm laborer,
2. lL ls agalnsL Lhe debLor's wlll,
3. 1he purpose ls Lo requlre or enforce Lhe paymenL of a debL.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: "As househo|d servant or farm |aborer"
A was compelled Lo work as a [anlLor Lo enforce Lhe paymenL of hls
debL Lo 8. lL wlll noL be punlshable under Lhls arLlcle, offended parLy
musL be compelled Lo work as household servanL or farm laborer.

III. Art|c|e 273 v. Art|c|e 274
Art|c|e 274 Art|c|e 273
1hls arLlcle does noL dlsLlngulsh lf Lhe
vlcLlm ls a mlnor or noL.
Lnslaved ls a mlnor
uebLor hlmself ls compelled Lo work 1he mlnor ls compelled Lo render
servlces Lo pay for Lhe debL of hls
ascendanL or guardlan
LlmlLed Lo household and farmwork noL llmlLed Lo housework or
farmwork

Chapter 2: Cr|mes Aga|nst Secur|ty

Sect|on 1 - Abandonment of ne|p|ess ersons and Lxp|o|tat|on of M|nors

Art|c|e 27S - Abandonment of person |n danger and abandonment of one's
own v|ct|m.
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor sha|| be |mposed upon:
1. Anyone who sha|| fa|| to render ass|stance to any person whom he
sha|| f|nd |n an un|nhab|ted p|ace wounded or |n danger of dy|ng,
when he can render such ass|stance w|thout detr|ment to h|mse|f,
un|ess such om|ss|on sha|| const|tute a more ser|ous offense.
2. Anyone who sha|| fa|| to he|p or render ass|stance to another
whom he has acc|denta||y wounded or |n[ured.
3. Anyone who, hav|ng found an abandoned ch||d under seven years
of age, sha|| fa|| to de||ver sa|d ch||d to the author|t|es or to h|s
fam||y, or sha|| fa|| to take h|m to a safe p|ace.

CIN1S
I. Acts pun|shab|e
1. 8y falllng Lo render asslsLance Lo any person whom Lhe offender
flnds ln an unlnhablLed place wounded or ln danger of dylng when
he can render such asslsLance wlLhouL deLrlmenL Lo hlmself, unless
such omlsslon shall consLlLuLe a more serlous offense.
2. 8y falllng Lo help or render asslsLance Lo anoLher whom Lhe offender
has accldenLally wounded or ln[ured.
3. 8y falllng Lo dellver a chlld, under seven years of age whom Lhe
offender has found abandoned, Lo Lhe auLhorlLles or Lo hls famlly, or
by falllng Lo Lake hlm Lo safe place.

II. AkAGkAn 1: I|nds |n an un|nhab|ted p|ace
A. L|ements of aragraph 1: (NW2I)
1. 1he place ls noL lnhablLed,
2. Accused found Lhere a person wounded or ln danger of dylng,
3. Accused can render asslsLance wlLhouL deLrlmenL Lo hlmself,
4. Accused falls Lo render asslsLance.

8. "Sha|| f|nd xxx wounded or |n danger of dy|ng"
lf a person lnLenLlonally wounded anoLher ln an unlnhablLed place,
paragraph 1 ls noL appllcable.
unless such omlsslon shall consLlLuLe a more serlous offense
Lx. When Lhe offender had Lhe cusLody of Lhe mlnor under 7 years,
he shall be punlshed under Art|c|e 276 whlch ls a heavler penalLy.

III. AkAGkAn 2: 1o one whom the offender acc|denta||y |n[ured
lalllng Lo help or render asslsLance Lo anoLher whom Lhe offender
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
has accldenLally wounded or ln[ured.
Cffender musL have accldenLally wounded anoLher, lf he
lnLenLlonally dld lL he wlll be prosecuLed for Lhe offense produced.

IV. AkAGkAn 3: De||ver an abandoned ch||d under 7 years
8y falllng Lo dellver a chlld, under 7 years of age, whom Lhe offender
has found abandoned, Lo Lhe auLhorlLles or Lo hls famlly, or by falllng
Lo Lake hlm Lo a safe place.
1he chlld under 7 musL be found by Lhe accused ln an unsafe place.
lL ls lmmaLerlal LhaL Lhe offender dld noL know LhaL Lhe chlld ls under
7 years. Applles also Lo losL chlld.

Art|c|e 276 - Abandon|ng a m|nor.
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor and a f|ne not exceed|ng S00 pesos sha|| be
|mposed upon any one who sha|| abandon a ch||d under seven years of age,
the custody of wh|ch |s |ncumbent upon h|m.

When the death of the m|nor sha|| resu|t from such abandonment, the
cu|pr|t sha|| be pun|shed by pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and
max|mum per|ods, but |f the ||fe of the m|nor sha|| have been |n danger
on|y, the pena|ty sha|| be pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um
per|ods.

1he prov|s|ons conta|ned |n the two preced|ng paragraphs sha|| not prevent
the |mpos|t|on of the pena|ty prov|ded for the act comm|tted, when the
same sha|| const|tute a more ser|ous offense.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (C-7-AN)
1. 1he offender has cusLody of a chlld,
2. 1he chlld ls under 7 years of age,
3. Pe abandons such chlld,
4. Pe has no lnLenL Lo klll Lhe chlld when Lhe laLLer was abandoned.

II. ua||fy|ng c|rcumstances
1. When deaLh of a mlnor resulLs from Lhe abandonmenL.
2. When Lhe llfe of Lhe mlnor shall have been ln danger only.
noLe: 1he arLlcle does noL prevenL Lhe lmposlLlon of Lhe penalLy
provlded for Lhe acL commlLLed when lL shall consLlLuLe a more serlous
offense.

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Abandonment
AbandonmenL musL be permanenL, consclous and dellberaLe.
o Lx. A moLher leaves her chlld ln Lhe foresL whlch ls far from
avallable asslsLance.
Law punlshes: so long as Lhere ls an lnLerrupLlon of Lhe care and
proLecLlon he needs by reason of hls Lender age.
lf Lhe offender ls Lhe parenL of Lhe abandoned, he shall be deprlved
of parenLal auLhorlLy.

IV. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: No |ntent to k|||
When Lhere ls lnLenL Lo klll Lhls provlslon does noL apply. 1he
abandonmenL ls Lo avold Lhe obllgaLlon of Laklng care of Lhe mlnor.
lf Lhere ls lnLenL Lo klll and Lhe chlld dles, Lhe crlme would be
murder, parrlclde or lnfanLlclde, as Lhe case may be.
o 8aLlonale: Art|c|e 276, paragraph 3
lnLenL Lo klll cannoL be presumed lf deaLh ls resulLed slnce such
presumpLlon ls only appllcable Lo crlmes agalnsL persons, and noL Lo
crlmes agalnsL securlLy.

Art|c|e 277 - Abandonment of m|nor by person entrusted w|th h|s custody,
|nd|fference of parents.
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor and a f|ne not exceed|ng S00 pesos sha|| be
|mposed upon anyone who, hav|ng charge of the rear|ng or educat|on of a
m|nor, sha|| de||ver sa|d m|nor to a pub||c |nst|tut|on or other persons,
w|thout the consent of the one who entrusted such ch||d to h|s care or |n
the absence of the |atter, w|thout the consent of the proper author|t|es.

1he same pena|ty sha|| be |mposed upon the parents who sha|| neg|ect
the|r ch||dren by not g|v|ng them the educat|on wh|ch the|r stat|on |n ||fe
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
requ|res and f|nanc|a| cond|t|ons perm|t.

CIN1S
I. Acts pun|shab|e:
1. uellverlng a mlnor Lo a publlc lnsLlLuLlon or oLher persons wlLhouL
Lhe consenL of Lhe one who enLrusLed such mlnor Lo Lhe care of Lhe
offender or, ln Lhe absence of LhaL one, wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe
proper auLhorlLles,
1. neglecLlng hls (offender's) chlldren by noL glvlng Lhem Lhe
educaLlon, whlch Lhelr sLaLlon ln llfe requlres and flnanclal condlLlon
permlLs.

II. ua||fy|ng c|rcumstances:
1. When Lhe deaLh of Lhe mlnor resulLed from such abandonmenL, or
2. Llfe of Lhe mlnor was ln danger because of Lhe abandonmenL.

III. aragraph 1: De||ver|ng of ch||d |n an |nst|tut|on w|thout consent
A. L|ements: (kDN)
1. Cffender has charge of Lhe rearlng or educaLlon of a mlnor,
2. Pe dellvers sald mlnor Lo a publlc lnsLlLuLlon or oLher persons,
3. 1he one who enLrusLed such chlld Lo Lhe offender has noL
consenLed Lo such acL, or lf Lhe one who enLrusLed such chlld Lo Lhe
offender ls absenL, Lhe proper auLhorlLles have noL consenLed Lo lL.

8. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: "kear|ng or educat|on"
!+", ! means, Lo brlng Lo maLurlLy by educaLlng, nourlshlng, eLc.:
as Lo rear chlldren.

Abandonment of M|nor under Art|c|e 276 compared w|th Art|c|e 277
Art|c|e 276 Art|c|e 277
1ype of CusLody CusLody ln general CusLody ln speclflc
(rearlng or educaLlonal)
Age of Mlnor under 7 years old under 21
AcL punlshed Abandoned ln such a
way as Lo deprlve hlm
uellvered Lo a publlc
lnsLlLuLlon or oLher
of Lhe care and
proLecLlon LhaL hls
Lender years need
person

IV. aragraph 2: Neg|ect|ng the educat|on
A. L|ements: (NS)
1. Cffender ls a parenL,
2. Pe neglecLs hls chlldren by noL glvlng Lhem educaLlon,
3. Pls sLaLlon ln llfe requlres such educaLlon and hls flnanclal condlLlon
permlLs lL.

8. Intent shou|d be to evade ob||gat|on
lallure Lo glve educaLlon musL be due Lo dellberaLe deslre Lo evade
such obllgaLlon
Lxample:
o (1) A laLher or moLher who dellberaLely falls Lo glve Lhelr
chlldren educaLlon, desplLe havlng ample means Lo do so.
o (2) A drled flsh vendor has a chlld who wanLs Lo sLudy law
school, ln case he dlsapproves of Lhe chlld's acL of sLudylng
law, wlll he be llable under Lhls arLlcle? no, whaL Lhe law
proLecLs ls Lhe baslc educaLlon of chlldren [uxLaposed Lo Lhe
means of Lhe famlly.
CbllgaLlon Lo provlde educaLlon Lo chlldren LermlnaLes, lf moLher
and chlldren refuse wlLhouL good reason Lo llve wlLh Lhe accused.

Art|c|e 278 - Lxp|o|tat|on of m|nors.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um per|ods and
a f|ne not exceed|ng S00 pesos sha|| be |mposed upon:
1. Any person who sha|| cause any boy or g|r| under s|xteen years of
age to perform any dangerous feat of ba|anc|ng, phys|ca| strength,
or contort|on.

2. Any person who, be|ng an acrobat, gymnast, rope-wa|ker, d|ver,
w||d-an|ma| tamer or c|rcus manager or engaged |n a s|m||ar
ca|||ng, sha|| emp|oy |n exh|b|t|ons of these k|nds ch||dren under
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
s|xteen years of age who are not h|s ch||dren or descendants.

3. Any person engaged |n any of the ca|||ngs enumerated |n the next
paragraph preced|ng who sha|| emp|oy any descendant of h|s
under twe|ve years of age |n such dangerous exh|b|t|ons.

4. Any ascendant, guard|an, teacher or person entrusted |n any
capac|ty w|th the care of a ch||d under s|xteen years of age, who
sha|| de||ver such ch||d gratu|tous|y to any person fo||ow|ng any of
the ca|||ngs enumerated |n paragraph 2 hereof, or to any hab|tua|
vagrant or beggar.

If the de||very sha|| have been made |n cons|derat|on of any pr|ce,
compensat|on, or prom|se, the pena|ty sha|| |n every case be
|mposed |n |ts max|mum per|od.

In e|ther case, the guard|an or curator conv|cted sha|| a|so be
removed from off|ce as guard|an or curator, and |n the case of the
parents of the ch||d, they may be depr|ved, temporar||y or
perpetua||y, |n the d|scret|on of the court, of the|r parenta|
author|ty.

S. Any person who sha|| |nduce any ch||d under s|xteen years of age
to abandon the home of |ts ascendants, guard|ans, curators, or
teachers to fo||ow any person engaged |n any of the ca|||ngs
ment|oned |n paragraph 2 hereof, or to accompany any hab|tua|
vagrant or beggar.

CIN1S
I. Acts pun|shab|e: (DLLDI)
1. 8y causlng any boy or glrl under 16 years of age Lo perform any
dangerous feaL of balanclng, physlcal sLrengLh or conLorLlon, Lhe
offender belng any person.
2. 8y employlng chlldren under 16 years of age who are noL Lhe
chlldren or descendanLs of Lhe offender ln exhlblLlons of acrobaL,
gymnasL, rope walker, dlver, or wlld anlmal Lamer, Lhe offender
belng an acrobaL, eLc., or clrcus manager or person engaged ln a
slmllar calllng.
3. 8y employlng any descendanL under 12 years of age ln dangerous
exhlblLlons enumeraLed ln Lhe nexL precedlng paragraph, Lhe
offender belng engaged ln any of Lhe sald calllngs
4. 8y dellverlng a chlld under 16 years of age graLulLously Lo any person
followlng any of Lhe calllngs enumeraLed ln paragraph 2, or Lo any
hablLual vagranL or beggar, Lhe offender belng an ascendanL,
guardlan, Leacher, or people enLrusLed ln any capaclLy wlLh Lhe care
of such chlld.
3. 8y lnduclng any chlld under 16 years of age Lo abandon Lhe home of
lLs ascendanLs, guardlan, curaLors or Leachers Lo follow any person
engaged ln any of Lhe calllngs menLloned ln paragraph 2 or Lo
accompany any hablLual vagranL or beggar, Lhe offender belng any
person.
noLe: LxplolLaLlon of mlnor musL refer Lo acL endangerlng Lhe llfe or
safeLy of such mlnor.

II. aragraph S, Art|c|e 278 (Lxp|o|tat|on of M|nors) v. Art|c|e 271 (Induc|ng a
M|nor to Abandon n|s nome)
aragraph S, Art|c|e 278 Art|c|e 271
1he purpose of lnduclng Lhe mlnor Lo abandon
Lhe home ls Lo follow any person engaged ln any
of Lhe calllngs enumeraLed
1here ls no such purpose
Mlnor ls under 16 years Mlnor ls under 18 years

III. ua||fy|ng C|rcumstance (aragraph 4)
1he penalLy ls hlgher lf Lhe chlld ls dellvered Lo any person engaged
ln such calllng ln conslderaLlon of a prlce, compensaLlon or promlse.
1he guardlan shall be removed or parenLal auLhorlLy removed.

Art|c|e 279: Add|t|ona| pena|t|es for other offenses.
1he |mpos|t|on of the pena|t|es prescr|bed |n the preced|ng art|c|es, sha||
not prevent the |mpos|t|on upon the same person of the pena|ty prov|ded
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
for any other fe|on|es def|ned and pun|shed by th|s Code.

CIN1S
lmposlLlon of penalLles prescrlbed ln Lhe precedlng arLlcles shall noL
prevenL Lhe lmposlLlon of oLher penalLles provlded for any oLher
felonles deflned and punlshed ln Lhe 8C.

Sect|on 2 - 1respass to Dwe|||ng

Art|c|e 280 - ua||f|ed trespass to dwe|||ng.
Any pr|vate person who sha|| enter the dwe|||ng of another aga|nst the
|atter's w||| sha|| be pun|shed by arresto mayor and a f|ne not exceed|ng
1,000 pesos.

If the offense be comm|tted by means of v|o|ence or |nt|m|dat|on, the
pena|ty sha|| be pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and max|mum per|ods
and a f|ne not exceed|ng 1,000 pesos.

1he prov|s|ons of th|s art|c|e sha|| not be app||cab|e to any person who sha||
enter another's dwe|||ng for the purpose of prevent|ng some ser|ous harm
to h|mse|f, the occupants of the dwe|||ng or a th|rd person, nor sha|| |t be
app||cab|e to any person who sha|| enter a dwe|||ng for the purpose of
render|ng some serv|ce to human|ty or [ust|ce, nor to anyone who sha||
enter cafes, taverns, |nn and other pub||c houses, wh||e the same are open.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (LA)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a prlvaLe person.
2. 1haL he enLers Lhe dwelllng of anoLher.
3. 1haL such enLrance ls agalnsL Lhe laLLer's wlll.

II. ua||fy|ng c|rcumstance:
lf Lhe offense ls commlLLed by means of vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon, Lhe
penalLy ls hlgher

III. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Cffender |s a pr|vate person
ubllc person noL acLlng ln such capaclLy - oLherwlse he wlll be
vlolaLlng Art|c|e 128 (V|o|at|on of dom|c||e)
1respass may be commlLLed by Lhe owner of a dwelllng lf he does so
agalnsL Lhe wlll of Lhe acLual occupanL.

IV. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Dwe|||ng
/0+11.#2 ! any bulldlng or sLrucLure excluslvely devoLed for resL
and comforL as dlsLlngulshed from Lhose used for buslness. WheLher
a bulldlng ls a dwelllng depends upon Lhe use Lo whlch lL ls puL.
Lx: SLore of cheap goods whlch ls also Lhe dwelllng of Lhe owner
8oom when occupled by anoLher person (8oardlng rooms)

V. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Lntrance |s aga|nst the owner's w|||
A. roh|b|t|on must be |n ex|stence pr|or to or at the t|me of the entrance
1. lmplled ! l.e. laLe hours and Lhe room ls occupled by a woman or
enLrance Lhrough Lhe wlndow.
2. Lxpressed ! l.e. doors are locked.

8. Cther o|nts
urpose: WhaL ls lnLended Lo be proLecLed and preserved by Lhe
law ln punlshlng Lrespass ls Lhe prlvacy of one's dwelllng.
o LxcepL for aragraph 3, Art|c|e 280, crlmlnal lnLenL lnheres
ln Lhe unwelcome vlslL of a Lrespasser. Powever, lf Lhere ls
noL overL acL of Lhe crlme lnLended Lo be commlLLed, Lhe
crlme commlLLed ls Lrespass Lo dwelllng.
Lack of permlsslon does noL amounL Lo prohlblLlon.
WlLh Lhe uLmosL good falLh, a person Lo whom enLrance has noL
been denled beforehand, may suppose LhaL Lhe owner o Lhe house
has noL ob[ecLlon Lo recelvlng hlm ln lL.
All members of a household musL be presumed Lo have auLhorlLy Lo
exLend an lnvlLaLlon Lo enLer (even one exLended by a 12-year-old).

VI. AkAGkAn 2: ua||fy|ng C|rcumstance: Lmp|oyment of v|o|ence
Cuello Calon oplnes LhaL vlolence may be commlLLed noL only
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
agalnsL persons buL also agalnsL Lhlngs. So, breaklng Lhe door or
glass of a wlndow or door consLlLuLes acLs of vlolence.
1he Supreme CourL followed Lhls vlew ln eople v. 1ayag. vlolence
or lnLlmldaLlon musL, however, be anLerlor or coeLaneous wlLh Lhe
enLrance and musL noL be posLerlor. 8uL lf Lhe vlolence ls employed
lmmedlaLely afLer Lhe enLrance wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe owner of
Lhe house, Lrespass ls commlLLed. lf Lhere ls also vlolence or
lnLlmldaLlon, proof of prohlblLlon Lo enLer ls no longer necessary.
1he law whlch forblds enLry (wlLh vlolence) lnLo Lhe dwelllng of
anoLher relaLes noL only Lo Lhe meLhod by whlch one may pass Lhe
Lhreshold of Lhe dwelllng of anoLher buL also Lo Lhe conducL
lmmedlaLely afLer enLrance of one who so enLers.

VII. AkAGkAn 3: Abso|utory causes
1. LnLrance ls for Lhe purpose of prevenLlng harm Lo hlmself, Lhe
occupanLs or a Lhlrd person
2. urpose ls Lo render some servlce Lo humanlLy or [usLlce
3. !"#$% '( # $#)*+ ,#-%./ %,$0 12'"% 34%/
4. PoL pursulL of a person who has commlLLed a crlme.

VIII. 1respass to dwe|||ng, when separate from other offense comm|tted |n
the dwe|||ng
ln eople v. Medlna, lL seems LhaL when Lhe accused enLered Lhe
dwelllng Lhrough Lhe wlndow he had no lnLenL Lo klll any person
lnslde, buL LhaL Lhe lnLenL Lo klll came Lo hls mlnd when he was
belng arresLed by Lhe occupanLs Lhereof, Lhe crlme of Lrespass Lo
dwelllng ls a separaLe and dlsLlncL offense from frusLraLed homlclde.

Art|c|e 281 - Cther forms of trespass.
1he pena|ty of arresto menor or a f|ne not exceed|ng 200 pesos, or both,
sha|| be |mposed upon any person who sha|| enter the c|osed prem|ses or
the fenced estate of another, wh||e e|ther or them are un|nhab|ted, |f the
proh|b|t|on to enter be man|fest and the trespasser has not secured the
perm|ss|on of the owner or the caretaker thereof.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (LU)
1. 1haL Lhe offender enLers Lhe closed premlses or Lhe fenced esLaLe of
anoLher.
2. 1haL Lhe enLrance ls made whlle elLher of Lhem ls unlnhablLed.
3. 1haL Lhe prohlblLlon Lo enLer be manlfesL.
4. 1haL Lhe Lrespasser has noL secured Lhe permlsslon of Lhe owner or
Lhe careLaker Lhereof.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: C|osed rem|ses
*,+&.$+ ! slgnlfles dlsLlncL and deflnlLe locallLy. l.e. room, shop,
bulldlng or deflnlLe area, buL ln elLher case, locallLy ls flxed.
Lx. LnLerlng a warehouse, or a fenced properLy.

Art|c|e 280 compared w|th Art|c|e 281
Art|c|e 280 Art|c|e 281
Cffender rlvaLe erson Any erson
Area uwelllng house Closed premlses or fenced esLaLe
Nature lnhablLed unlnhablLed
erm|ss|on LnLerlng Lhe dwelllng
agalnsL Lhe wlll of Lhe
owner
WlLhouL securlng Lhe permlsslon of
Lhe owner or careLaker Lhereof
roh|b|t|on Lxpress or lmplled ManlfesL

Art|c|e 282 - Grave threats.
Any person who sha|| threaten another w|th the |nf||ct|on upon the person,
honor or property of the |atter or of h|s fam||y of any wrong amount|ng to a
cr|me, sha|| suffer:
1. 1he pena|ty next |ower |n degree than that prescr|bed by |aw for
the cr|me be threatened to comm|t, |f the offender sha|| have
made the threat demand|ng money or |mpos|ng any other
cond|t|on, even though not un|awfu|, and sa|d offender sha|| have
atta|ned h|s purpose. If the offender sha|| not have atta|ned h|s
purpose, the pena|ty |ower by two degrees sha|| be |mposed.

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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
If the threat be made |n wr|t|ng or through a m|dd|eman, the
pena|ty sha|| be |mposed |n |ts max|mum per|od.

2. 1he pena|ty of arresto mayor and a f|ne not exceed|ng S00 pesos, |f
the threat sha|| not have been made sub[ect to a cond|t|on.

CIN1S
I. Acts pun|shab|e:
1. 8y LhreaLenlng anoLher wlLh Lhe lnfllcLlon upon hls person, honor or
properLy LhaL of hls famlly of any wrong amounLlng Lo a crlme and
demandlng money or lmposlng any oLher condlLlon, even Lhough
noL unlawful and Lhe offender (noLe: LhreaL ls wlLh condlLlon)
2. 8y maklng such LhreaL wlLhouL Lhe offender aLLalnlng hls purpose
3. 8y LhreaLenlng anoLher wlLh Lhe lnfllcLlon upon hls person, honor or
properLy or LhaL of hls famlly of any wrong amounLlng Lo a crlme,
Lhe LhreaL noL belng sub[ecL Lo a condlLlon (noLe: LhreaL ls wlLhouL
condlLlon)

II. ua||fy|ng]M|t|gat|ng c|rcumstance:
1. lf Lhe person aLLalned hls purpose Lhe penalLy ls one degree lower.
2. lf he dld noL aLLaln hls purpose Lhe penalLy ls Lwo degrees lower.
3. lf LhreaL be made ln wrlLlng or Lhrough a mlddleman Lhe penalLy ls
lmposed ln lLs maxlmum

III. "1hreat"
A. Genera| o|nts
lnLlmldaLlon ! Lhere ls a promlse of some fuLure harm or ln[ury,
elLher Lo Lhe person, honor or properLy of Lhe offended parLy or of
hls famlly. lnLlmldaLlon ls Lhe essence of Lhe crlme
o lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhe offended parLy was presenL aL
Lhe Llme Lhe LhreaL was made so long as lL came Lo hls
knowledge.
1hreaL ! ls a declaraLlon of an lnLenLlon or deLermlnaLlon Lo ln[ure
anoLher by Lhe commlsslon upon hls person, honor or properLy or
upon LhaL of hls famlly of some wrong whlch may or may noL
amounL Lo a crlme
Cenerally Lhe wrong LhreaLened Lo be lnfllcLed musL amounL Lo
crlmes agalnsL persons, honor or properLy, excepL any wrong
amounLlng Lo a crlme agalnsL Lhe famlly of Lhe person LhreaLened.
1hreaLs made ln connecLlon wlLh Lhe commlsslon of oLher crlmes
(especlally more serlous ones such as homlclde) are absorbed ln Lhe
laLLer. 8uL lf Lhe purpose was Lo creaLe ln Lhe mlnd of Lhe offended
parLy Lhe bellef LhaL such would be carrled ouL, Lhe crlme
commlLLed ls grave LhreaLs and Lhe mlnor crlme whlch accompanled
lL should be dlsregarded.

8. When |t |s consummated
Crlme of grave LhreaL ls consummaLed as soon as Lhe LhreaLs come
Lo Lhe knowledge of Lhe person LhreaLened. (eople v. vlllanueva)
lndlrecL challenge Lo a gun flghL amounLed Lo lnLlmldaLlon, especlally
when backed by Lwo warnlng shoLs. (eople v. Sayon)
lf Lhere ls anoLher crlme acLually commlLLed and Lhe LhreaL ls only a
means Lo commlL LhaL crlme, lL wlll be absorbed.
When LhaL acL ls conslsL of maLerlally Laklng possesslon of a personal
properLy on Lhe spoL accompanled by LhreaL or lnLlmldaLlon, Lhe
crlme becomes robbery.

8ule by excluslon polnL: 1hreaL of a fuLure harm
____________________
AkAGkAn 1: GkAVL 1nkLA1S SU8ILC1 1C A CCNDI1ICN

I. L|ements: (DAC1)
1. 1haL Lhe offender LhreaLens anoLher person wlLh Lhe lnfllcLlon upon
Lhe laLLer's person, honor or properLy, or upon LhaL of Lhe laLLer's
famlly, of any wrong.
2. 1haL such wrong amounLs Lo a crlme.
3. 1haL Lhere ls a demand for money or LhaL any oLher condlLlon ls
lmposed, even Lhough noL unlawful.
4. 1haL Lhe offender aLLalns hls purpose.

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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
II. IIkS1 LLLMLN1: 1hreats on another's person, fam||y, honor or property
A. 1hreats upon the person of the offended party
A wlll klll 8 unless 8 would send A 1,000 ! homlclde
8. 1hreats upon the property of the offended party
A wlll burn 8's house unless 8 sends 1,000 ! arson
C. 1hreats upon the honor of the offended party
A wlll frame 8 by puLLlng oplum ln 8's house unless he sends 1,000
! crlme of lncrlmlnaLlng an lnnocenL person (Art|c|e 363).
Lxcept|on: Art|c|e 3S6 (noL Art|c|e 282) punlshes LhreaLs Lo publlsh a
llbel and offerlng Lo prevenL such publlcaLlon for money.

III. 1nIkD LLLMLN1: A demand for money or cond|t|on |s |mposed
lL wlll be noLed LhaL LhreaLs condlLloned upon lawful acLlons, llke Lhe
demand Lo marry one's daughLer, are noL unlawful. neverLheless,
slnce a LhreaL Lo lnfllcL a wrong amounLlng Lo a crlme was made, lL
makes one crlmlnally llable for Lhe crlme of grave LhreaLs.

IV. ena|ty (See qua||fy|ng]m|t|gat|ng c|rcumstances)

V. Cther o|nts
aragraph 1 conslsLs of Lwo forms of grave LhreaLs:
1. Crave LhreaLs sub[ecL Lo a condlLlon (wheLher or noL Lhe offender
succeeds ln aLLalnlng hls purpose)
2. Crave LhreaLs sub[ecL Lo a condlLlon made Lhrough wrlLlng or a
mlddle man (l.e. Lhls possesses Lhe quallfylng clrcumsLance)
____________________
AkAGkAn 2: GkAVL 1nkLA1S NC1 SU8ILC1 1C A CCNDI1ICN

I. L|ements: (1CN)
1. 1haL Lhe offender LhreaLens anoLher person wlLh Lhe lnfllcLlon upon
Lhe laLLer's person, honor or properLy, or upon LhaL of Lhe laLLer's
famlly, of any wrong.
2. 1haL such wrong amounLs Lo a crlme.
3. 1haL Lhe LhreaL ls noL sub[ecL Lo a condlLlon

II. 1h|rd form of grave threats must be ser|ous and de||berate
1hese are LhreaLs made wlLh Lhe dellberaLe purpose of creaLlng ln
Lhe mlnd of Lhe person LhreaLened Lhe bellef LhaL Lhe LhreaLs wlll be
carrled lnLo effecL.
ln Lhls form of grave LhreaLs, Lhere ls no demand for money or any
oLher condlLlon lmposed. 1hus, lf a condlLlon ls noL proved, a person
may be held llable under aragraph 2, Art|c|e 282.

III. ena|ty
1he penalLy ls flxed: arresLo mayor and a flne noL exceedlng 300

Art|c|e 283 - L|ght threats.
Any threat to comm|t a wrong not const|tut|ng a cr|me, made |n the
manner expressed |n subd|v|s|on 1 of the next preced|ng art|c|e, sha|| be
pun|shed by arresto mayor.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (1NDA)
1. 1haL Lhe offender makes a LhreaL Lo commlL a wrong.
2. 1haL Lhe wrong does noL consLlLuLe a crlme.
3. 1haL Lhere ls a demand for money or LhaL oLher condlLlon ls
lmposed, even Lhough noL unlawful
4. 1haL Lhe offender has aLLalned hls purpose or, LhaL he has noL
aLLalned hls purpose

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: 1hreat
LlghL LhreaLs - alLhough commlLLed ln Lhe same manner as grave
LhreaLs - does noL lnclude a LhreaL Lo commlL a wrong consLlLuLlng a
crlme. lor lnsLance, blackmalllng (punlshed ln Art|c|e 283).

III. D|st|nct|on between threat and coerc|on:
1. 1he essence of coerclon ls vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon. 1here ls no
condlLlon lnvolved, hence, Lhere ls no fuLurlLy ln Lhe harm or wrong
done.
2. ln LhreaL, Lhe wrong or harm done ls fuLure and condlLlonal. ln
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
coerclon, lL ls dlrecL and personal.

IV. D|st|nct|on between threat and robbery:
1. As Lo lnLlmldaLlon - ln robbery, Lhe lnLlmldaLlon ls acLual and
lmmedlaLe, ln LhreaL, Lhe lnLlmldaLlon ls fuLure and condlLlonal.
2. As Lo naLure of lnLlmldaLlon - ln robbery, Lhe lnLlmldaLlon ls
personal, ln LhreaLs, lL may be Lhrough an lnLermedlary.
3. As Lo sub[ecL maLLer - 8obbery refers Lo personal properLy, LhreaL
may refer Lo Lhe person, honor or properLy.
4. As Lo lnLenL Lo galn - ln robbery, Lhere ls lnLenL Lo galn, ln LhreaLs,
lnLenL Lo galn ls noL an essenLlal elemenL.
3. ln robbery, Lhe robber makes Lhe danger lnvolved ln hls LhreaLs
dlrecLly lmmlnenL Lo Lhe vlcLlm and Lhe obLalnmenL of hls galn
lmmedlaLe, Lhereby also Laklng rlghLs Lo hls person by Lhe
opposlLlon or reslsLance whlch Lhe vlcLlm mlghL offer, ln LhreaL, Lhe
danger Lo Lhe vlcLlm ls noL lnsLanLly lmmlnenL nor Lhe galn of Lhe
culprlL lmmedlaLe.

Art|c|e 284 - 8ond for good behav|or.
In a|| cases fa|||ng w|th|n the two next preced|ng art|c|es, the person mak|ng
the threats may a|so be requ|red to g|ve ba|| not to mo|est the person
threatened, or |f he sha|| fa|| to g|ve such ba||, he sha|| be sentenced to
dest|erro.

CIN1S
I. Genera| o|nts
8ond for good behavlor may be lmposed (only ln Lhese offenses,
Art|c|e 282 and Art|c|e 283)

II. Cases where a person may be requ|red to g|ve ba|| not to mo|est another:
1. When he LhreaLens anoLher under Lhe clrcumsLances menLloned ln
ArLlcle 282
2. When he LhreaLens anoLher under Lhe clrcumsLances menLloned ln
ArLlcle 283.

III. Compared w|th Art|c|e 3S:
Art|c|e 3S Art|c|e 284
8ond Lo keep Lhe peace" 8ond for good behavlor"
noL made appllcable Lo any
parLlcular case
Appllcable Lo cases of grave LhreaLs
and llghL LhreaLs
lallure Lo glve bond - deLenLlon for 6
monLhs (for grave or less grave
felony) or noL exceedlng 30 days (for
llghL felony)
lallure Lo glve ball - desLlerro
ulsLlncL enalLy

Art|c|e 28S - Cther ||ght threats.
1he pena|ty of arresto menor |n |ts m|n|mum per|od or a f|ne not exceed|ng
200 pesos sha|| be |mposed upon:
1. Any person who, w|thout be|ng |nc|uded |n the prov|s|ons of the
next preced|ng art|c|e, sha|| threaten another w|th a weapon or
draw such weapon |n a quarre|, un|ess |t be |n |awfu| se|f-defense.
2. Any person who, |n the heat of anger, sha|| ora||y threaten another
w|th some harm (not) const|tut|ng a cr|me, and who by
subsequent acts show that he d|d not pers|st |n the |dea |nvo|ved
|n h|s threat, prov|ded that the c|rcumstances of the offense sha||
not br|ng |t w|th|n the prov|s|ons of Art|c|e 282 of th|s Code.
3. Any person who sha|| ora||y threaten to do another any harm not
const|tut|ng a fe|ony.

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e:
1. erson shall LhreaLen anoLher wlLh a weapon, or draw weapon ln a
quarrel unless ln self-defense.
2. ln Lhe heaL of anger, person orally LhreaLens anoLher wlLh some
harm consLlLuLlng a crlme, wlLhouL perslsLlng ln Lhe ldea lnvolved ln
Lhe LhreaL. SubsequenL acLs dld noL perslsL.
3. erson orally LhreaLens anoLher wlLh harm noL consLlLuLlng a felony.

II. AkAGkAn 1: "W|thout be|ng |nc|uded |n the prov|s|ons of the next
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preced|ng art|c|e"
A. 1h|s means that there |s no money demand or cond|t|on.

8. 1wo acts pun|shed |n paragraph 1
1. 1hreaLenlng anoLher wlLh a weapon, even lf Lhere ls no quarrel.
2. urawlng a weapon ln a quarrel, buL noL ln lawful self-defense.

III. AkAGkAn 2: 1hreat|ng another |n the heat of anger
eople v. unLalan ! A person who, ln Lhe heaL of anger, LhreaLened
Lo klll anoLher wlLhouL perslsLlng ln Lhe ldea lnvolved ln hls LhreaL ls
llable under Lhls paragraph.

IV. D|fference w|th 282 and 283
Grave 1hreats
(Art|c|e 282)
L|ght 1hreats
(Art|c|e 283)
Cther L|ght 1hreats
(Art|c|e 28S)
1hreaL Lo be commlLLed
consLlLuLes a crlme

-
ar.2: 1hreaL Lo be
commlLLed consLlLuLes
a crlme

-
1hreaL Lo be commlLLed
nC1 consLlLuLe a crlme
ar. 3: 1hreaL Lo be
commlLLed nC1
consLlLuLe a crlme
uemand for money or
oLher condlLlon
uemand for money or
oLher condlLlon
nC demand for money
or oLher condlLlon
Made ln any form Can be made ln wrlLlng Can only be made orally

V. Cther o|nts
Crally LhreaLenlng anoLher, ln Lhe heaL of anger, wlLh some harm
consLlLuLlng a crlme ls punlshed ln paragraph 2.
1hreaLs, whlch ordlnarlly are grave LhreaLs, lf made ln Lhe heaL of
anger, may be oLher llghL LhreaLs.
CLher llghL LhreaLs may be commlLLed even lf Lhe person Lo whom lL
ls dlrecLed ls absenL.

Art|c|e 286 - Grave coerc|ons.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correct|ona| and a f|ne not exceed|ng 6,000 pesos
sha|| be |mposed upon any person who, w|thout author|ty of |aw, sha||, by
means of v|o|ence, threats or |nt|m|dat|on, prevent another from do|ng
someth|ng not proh|b|ted by |aw, or compe| h|m to do someth|ng aga|nst
h|s w|||, whether |t be r|ght or wrong.

If the coerc|on be comm|tted |n v|o|at|on of the exerc|se of the r|ght of
suffrage, or for the purpose of compe|||ng another to perform any re||g|ous
act or to prevent h|m from exerc|s|ng such r|ght or from so do|ng such act,
the pena|ty next h|gher |n degree sha|| be |mposed. 5!" $%&'(&( )* +,!,
-., /427 89:;9 <..= &>>&;< .' ?7 @&)AB$A* 32216

CIN1S
I. Acts pun|shed:
1. revenLlng anoLher, by means of vlolence, LhreaLs or lnLlmldaLlon,
from dolng someLhlng noL prohlblLed by law,
Lx. revenLlng someone from harvesLlng hls crops
2. Compelllng anoLher, by means of vlolence, LhreaLs or lnLlmldaLlon,
Lo do someLhlng agalnsL hls wlll, wheLher lL be rlghL or wrong.
Lx. ushlng Lhe brldge keeper Lo pass Lhe brldge (eople v. !uan)

II. L|ements: (VA)
1. 1haL a person prevenLed anoLher from dolng someLhlng noL
prohlblLed by law, or LhaL he compelled hlm Lo do someLhlng
agalnsL hls wlll, be lL rlghL or wrong,
2. 1haL Lhe prevenLlon or compulslon be effecLed by vlolence, LhreaLs
or lnLlmldaLlon,
3. 1haL Lhe person LhaL resLralned Lhe wlll and llberLy by anoLher had
noL Lhe auLhorlLy of law or Lhe rlghL Lo do so, or, ln oLher words, LhaL
Lhe resLralnL shall noL be made under auLhorlLy of law or ln Lhe
exerclse of any lawful rlghL.
noLe: Coerclon ls consummaLed even lf Lhe offended parLy dld noL
accede Lo Lhe purpose of Lhe coerclon.

III. ua||fy|ng C|rcumstances
1. Coerclon ln vlolaLlon of Lhe exerclse of Lhe rlghL of suffrage
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2. Coerclon Lo compel anoLher Lo perform any rellglous acL
3. Coerclon Lo prevenL anoLher from performlng any rellglous acL

IV. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: revented or compe||ed another
A. Act of prevent|ng
When musL Lhe acL of prevenLlng?
o When Lhe offended parLy ls abouL Lo do Lhe acL Lo be
prevenLed. 1he coerclng person musL have exerLed Lhe
vlolence on hls vlcLlm aL Lhe very momenL LhaL Lhe laLLer ls
dolng or ls abouL Lo do someLhlng he wanLs Lo do.
o CLherwlse lf Lhe acL was already done, Lhe crlme ls un[usL
vexaLlon (eople v. Madrld).
When Lhe acL of prevenLlng ls anoLher crlme
o Art|c|e 132 ! ubllc offlcer who prevenLs ceremonles or
manlfesLaLlon of any rellglon.
o Art|c|e 143 ! Any person who prevenLs Lhe meeLlng of a
leglslaLlve body.
o Art|c|e 14S ! Any person who shall prevenL a member of
congress from aLLendlng Lhe meeLlngs Lhereof.
urpose of Lhe law ln penallzlng coerclon ! Lo enforce Lhe prlnclple
LhaL no person may Lake Lhe law lnLo hls hands, and LhaL our
governmenL ls one of law, noL of men.

8. Compe|||ng
1he essence of coerclon ls an aLLack on Lhe lndlvldual llberLy.
Compelllng anoLher Lo do someLhlng lncludes Lhe offender's acL of
dolng lL hlmself whlle sub[ecLlng anoLher Lo hls wlll.
AcLual ossesslon
o When Lhe complalnanL ls ln Lhe acLual possesslon of a
Lhlng, even lf he has no rlghL Lo LhaL possesslon, compelllng
hlm by means of vlolence Lo glve up Lhe possesslon even by
Lhe owner hlmself ls grave coerclon.
o uS v. Mena ! A's carabao damaged Lhe paddles of 8, A
used vlolence Lo reacqulre Lhe sald carabao, A ls gullLy. lf
Lhe carabao reLurns Lo A and 8 Lrled Lo geL Lhe carabao
from hlm, renderlng A Lo use vlolence, ls noL grave
coerclon. 8lghL Lo use force may be reasonably necessary
Lo prevenL 8 from dlspossesslng hlm of hls properLy.
When Lhe acL of compelllng ls anoLher crlme
o Art|c|e 127 ! A publlc offlcer who, noL belng auLhorlzed by
law, compels a person Lo change hls resldence.
o Art|c|e 267 ! kldnapplng a debLor Lo compel hlm Lo pay
hls debuL ls noL only coerclon, buL kldnapplng for ransom,
because ln effecL, Lhere ls a demand for paymenL.
"Whether |t be r|ght or wrong"
o eople v. 8auLlsLa ! Lven assumlng lL was rlghL for A Lo
have Lhe plc because he had merely enLrusLed lL Lo 8, sLlll A
cannoL (under Lhe law) compel 8 by force Lo reLurn lL.

V. SLCCND kLUSII1L: V|o|ence threat or |nt|m|dat|on
lnLlmldaLlon ls sufflclenL, wlLhouL necesslLy of acLually laylng hands
on Lhe person coerced (u.S. v. 1upular)
o Lx. 1axl drlver who LhreaLened Lo bump hls car Lo klll
hlmself, lf Lhe passenger wlll noL go ouL wlLh hlm
Surroundlng complalnanL ln a noLorlously LhreaLenlng aLLlLude ls
sufflclenL. (eople v. lrlanda)
1hreaL musL be lmmedlaLe, acLual or lmmlnenL (eople v. 8omero)
o Lx. A was Lold LhaL he would be kllled lf he does noL dellver
Lhe money Lo Lhe house of 8. 1hreaL ls noL lmmedlaLe,
acLual or lmmlnenL.
1he crlme ls noL grave (buL llghL) coerclon when Lhe vlolence ls
employed Lo selze anyLhlng belonglng Lo Lhe debLor of Lhe offender.

VI. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: W|thout author|ty of |aw
1he person who resLralns Lhe wlll and llberLy of anoLher has noL Lhe
rlghL Lo do so as a prlvaLe person or does noL acL ln Lhe exerclse of a
duLy.
Lx. When A, a local farmer, prevenLed 8 from buylng soap ln a sLore
wlLh Lhe use of vlolence.

!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
VII. Coerc|on v. Cther Cr|mes
Coerc|on v. I||ega| Detent|on
ln coerclon, clear lnLenL Lo deprlve of llberLy (an elemenL of lllegal
deLenLlon) ls absenL.

Coerc|on v. Ma|treatment of r|soner (Art|c|e 23S)
ln Art|c|e 23S, Lhe person from whom Lhe lnformaLlon ls exLorLed by
means of vlolence ls a prlsoner.
ln Crave Coerclon, Lhe person coerced ls noL a prlsoner.

Coerc|on v. Un|awfu| Arrest


Art|c|e 287 - L|ght coerc|ons.
Any person who, by means of v|o|ence, sha|| se|ze anyth|ng be|ong|ng to h|s
debtor for the purpose of app|y|ng the same to the payment of the debt,
sha|| suffer the pena|ty of arresto mayor |n |ts m|n|mum per|od and a f|ne
equ|va|ent to the va|ue of the th|ng, but |n no case |ess than 7S pesos.

Any other coerc|ons or un[ust vexat|ons sha|| be pun|shed by arresto menor
or a f|ne rang|ng from S pesos to 200 pesos, or both.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (CS-VD)
1. 1haL Lhe offender musL be a credlLor.
2. 1haL he selzes anyLhlng belonglng Lo hls debLor.
3. 1haL Lhe selzure of Lhe Lhlng be accompllshed by means of vlolence
or a dlsplay of maLerlal force produclng lnLlmldaLlon,
4. 1haL Lhe purpose of Lhe offender ls Lo apply Lhe same Lo Lhe
paymenL of Lhe debL.

II. IIkS1 LLLMLN1: Cffender must be a cred|tor of the offended party

III. SLCCND LLLMLN1: Se|zure of debtor's property
1here musL be Laklng for Lhe paymenL of Lhe debL. lf Lhe selzed Lhlng
was a mere securlLy for Lhe paymenL Lhls arLlcle wlll noL apply.

IV. AkAGkAn 2: Un[ust vexat|on
A. Genera| o|nts
un[usL vexaLlon ! any acL commlLLed wlLhouL vlolence, buL whlch
un[usLlflably annoys or vexes an lnnocenL person amounLs Lo llghL
coerclon.
1aklng possesslon of Lhe Lhlng belonglng Lo Lhe debLor, Lhrough
decelL and mlsrepresenLaLlon, for Lhe purpose of applylng Lhe same
Lo Lhe paymenL of Lhe debL, ls un[usL vexaLlon under Lhe 2nd
paragraph of Art|c|e 287.
When Lhe acL of Lhe accused has no connecLlon wlLh hls prevlous
acLs of vlolence, lL ls only un[usL vexaLlon.
AcLual physlcal vlolence need noL be employed.
Lx. klsslng a glrl, wlLhouL performlng acLs of lasclvlousness, ls un[usL
vexaLlon.

8. Grave Coerc|on v. Un[ust Vexat|on
1he 1
sL
and 2
nd
elemenLs of Crave Coerclon are presenL.
1he 3
rd
elemenL of Crave Coerclon ls lacklng ln un[usL vexaLlon.

Art|c|e 288 - Cther s|m||ar coerc|ons, (Compu|sory purchase of
merchand|se and payment of wages by means of tokens.)
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor or a f|ne rang|ng from 200 to S00 pesos, or
both, sha|| be |mposed upon any person, agent or off|cer, of any assoc|at|on
or corporat|on who sha|| force or compe|, d|rect|y or |nd|rect|y, or sha||
know|ng|y perm|t any |aborer or emp|oyee emp|oyed by h|m or by such
f|rm or corporat|on to be forced or compe||ed, to purchase merchand|se or
commod|t|es of any k|nd.

1he same pena|t|es sha|| be |mposed upon any person who sha|| pay the
wages due a |aborer or emp|oyee emp|oyed by h|m, by means of tokens or
ob[ects other than the |ega| tender currency of the |aborer or emp|oyee.

CIN1S
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
I. Acts un|shab|e:
1. Compulsory purchase of maLerlals
L|ements: (L)
a. Cffender ls any person, agenL or offlcer of any assoclaLlon
or corporaLlon,
b. Pe or such flrm or corporaLlon has employed laborers or
employees,
c. Pe forces or compels, dlrecLly or lndlrecLly, or knowlngly
permlLs Lo be forced or compelled, any of hls or lLs laborers
or employees Lo purchase merchandlse or commodlLles of
any klnd from hlm or from sald flrm or corporaLlon.
2. aymenLs of wages by means of Lokens
L|ements: (CL)
a. Cffender pays Lhe wages due a laborer or employee
employed by hlm by means of Lokens or ob[ecLs,
b. 1hose Lokens or ob[ecLs are oLher Lhan Lhe legal Lender
currency of Lhe hlllpplnes,
c. Such employee or laborer does noL expressly requesL LhaL
he be pald by means of Lokens or ob[ecLs.

II. k|ght of |aborers or emp|oyees to rece|ve [ust wages |n |ega| tender
As a general rule, wages should be pald ln Lhe legal Lender. Any
oLher form alleged Lo represenL legal Lender ls absoluLely prohlblLed
even when expressly requesLed by Lhe employee (Sect|on 1, ku|e
VIII, 8ook III, Cmn|bus ku|es Imp|ement|ng the Labor Code).
lorclng an employee Lo glve up any parL of hls wages by force,
sLealLh, lnLlmldaLlon, LhreaL or by any oLher means ls unlawful
(Art|c|e 116, Labor Code).

Art|c|e 289 - Iormat|on, ma|ntenance and proh|b|t|on of comb|nat|on of
cap|ta| or |abor through v|o|ence or threats.
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor and a f|ne not exceed|ng 300 pesos sha|| be
|mposed upon any person who, for the purpose of organ|z|ng, ma|nta|n|ng
or prevent|ng coa||t|ons or cap|ta| or |abor, str|ke of |aborers or |ock-out of
emp|oyees, sha|| emp|oy v|o|ence or threats |n such a degree as to compe|
or force the |aborers or emp|oyers |n the free and |ega| exerc|se of the|r
|ndustry or work, |f the act sha|| not const|tute a more ser|ous offense |n
accordance w|th the prov|s|ons of th|s Code.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (V)
1. Cffender employs vlolence or LhreaLs, ln such a degree as Lo compel
or force Lhe laborers or employers ln Lhe free and legal exerclse of
Lhelr lndusLry or work,
2. 1he purpose ls Lo organlze, malnLaln or prevenL coallLlons of caplLal
or labor, sLrlke of laborers or lockouL of employers.

II. Notes:
1. 1he acL should noL be a more serlous offense.
2. eaceful plckeLlng noL prohlblLed.
3. Lmploylng vlolence or maklng LhreaL by plckeLers may make Lhem
llable for coerclon.
4. revenLlng employee from [olnlng any reglsLered labor organlzaLlon
ls punlshed under Lhe Labor Code, noL under Lhe 8C.

Chapter 3: D|scovery and keve|at|on of Secrets

Art|c|e 290 - D|scover|ng secrets through se|zure of correspondence.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um per|ods and
a f|ne not exceed|ng S00 pesos sha|| be |mposed upon any pr|vate
|nd|v|dua| who |n order to d|scover the secrets of another, sha|| se|ze h|s
papers or |etters and revea| the contents thereof.

If the offender sha|| not revea| such secrets, the pena|ty sha|| be arresto
mayor and a f|ne not exceed|ng S00 pesos.

1he prov|s|on sha|| not be app||cab|e to parents, guard|ans, or persons
entrusted w|th the custody of m|nors w|th respect to the papers or |etters
of the ch||dren or m|nors p|aced under the|r care or study, nor to spouses
w|th respect to the papers or |etters of e|ther of them.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (S-DI)
1. Cffender ls a prlvaLe lndlvldual or even a publlc offlcer noL ln Lhe
exerclse of hls offlclal funcLlon,
2. Pe selzes Lhe papers or leLLers of anoLher,
3. 1he purpose ls Lo dlscover Lhe secreLs of such anoLher person,
4. Cffender ls lnformed of Lhe conLenLs of Lhe papers or leLLers selzed.

II. ua||fy|ng C|rcumstances
When Lhe offender reveals Lhe conLenLs of such paper or leLLers of
Lhe anoLher Lo a Lhlrd person.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Se|zes the paper or |etters
3+.4+ ! Lo place ln Lhe conLrol of someone a Lhlng or Lo glve hlm Lhe
possesslon Lhereof. lL ls noL necessary LhaL ln Lhe acL, Lhere should
be force or vlolence.
Lx. 1aklng possesslon of papers or leLLers of anoLher even for a shorL
Llme only.

IIV. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: urpose |s to d|scover the secrets of another
urpose of Lhe offender musL be Lo dlscover Lhe secreLs of anoLher.
8efore openlng Lhe accused musL be dlcLaLed by Lhe deslre Lo
dlscover secreLs.

V. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: Cffender must be |nformed of contents
re[udlce ls noL an elemenL of Lhe offense.
Lxcept|on: Art|c|e 290 ls noL appllcable Lo leLLers of mlnors or
spouses.
lf mall maLLer ls opened by publlc offlcers, Sec. 27S6 of the
Adm|n|strat|ve Code punlshes Lhe unlawful openlng of mall maLLer.

VI. ub||c Cff|cer revea||ng secrets v. r|vate Ind|v|dua| revea||ng secrets
Art|c|e 230 Art|c|e 290
1he publlc offlcer comes Lo know Lhe rlvaLe lndlvldual selzes papers or
secreLs of any prlvaLe lndlvldual by
reason of hls offlce
leLLers
noL necessary LhaL Lhe secreLs are conLalned ln Lhe papers or leLLers
ubllc offlcer reveals Lhe conLenLs noL necessary LhaL Lhe secreL ls
revealed

VI. Cther Notes
noLes from ALLy. ue CasLro
8evelaLlon ls noL an elemenL of Lhls crlme. lL ls only quallfylng.
Also conLemplaLes a ward who selzes a guardlan's leLLers.

C: Pow do you deLermlne wheLher lnformaLlon ls secreL or noL?

Art|c|e 291 - kevea||ng secrets w|th abuse of off|ce.
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor and a f|ne not exceed|ng S00 pesos sha|| be
|mposed upon any manager, emp|oyee, or servant who, |n such capac|ty,
sha|| |earn the secrets of h|s pr|nc|pa| or master and sha|| revea| such
secrets.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (MLk)
1. Cffenders ls a manager, employee or servanL,
2. Pe learns Lhe secreLs of hls prlnclpal or masLer ln such capaclLy,
3. Pe reveals such secreLs.

II. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Learns the secrets
SecreLs musL be learned by reason of Lhelr employmenL.
o Lx: A bank Leller who knows Lhe bank safe comblnaLlon
o SecreLs noL necessarlly conLalned ln papers/leLLers. - ALLy.
ue CasLro

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: kevea|s such secret
1he secreLs musL be revealed by Lhe offender
uamage ls noL necessary.

!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%31 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
Art|c|e 292 - keve|at|on of |ndustr|a| secrets.
1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um per|ods and
a f|ne not exceed|ng S00 pesos sha|| be |mposed upon the person |n charge,
emp|oyee or workman of any manufactur|ng or |ndustr|a| estab||shment
who, to the pre[ud|ce of the owner thereof, sha|| revea| the secrets of the
|ndustry of the |atter.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (LS-k)
1. 1he offender ls a person ln charge, employee or workman of a
manufacLurlng or lndusLrlal esLabllshmenL,
2. 1he manufacLurlng or lndusLrlal esLabllshmenL has a secreL of Lhe
lndusLry whlch Lhe offender has learned,
3. Cffender reveals such secreLs,
4. re[udlce ls caused Lo Lhe owner.

II. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Secrets of the |ndustry
SecreLs musL relaLe Lo manufacLurlng processes lnvenLed by or for a
manufacLurer and used only ln hls facLory or ln a llmlLed number of
Lhem.
o Lx. Cood burger" secreL reclpe and preparaLlon.
(Welcome Lo good burger, home of Lhe good burgers
movle)

III. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: 1he act const|tut|ng the cr|me |s revea||ng the secret
of the |ndustry of emp|oyer.
1he revelaLlon of Lhe secreL mlghL be made afLer Lhe employee or
workman had ceased Lo be connecLed wlLh Lhe esLabllshmenL.

IV. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: re[ud|ce |s an essent|a| e|ement of the offense.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1I1LLk: CkIMLS AGAINS1 kCLk1

Chapter 1: kobbery |n Genera|

Art|c|e 293 - Who are gu||ty of robbery.
Any person who, w|th |ntent to ga|n, sha|| take any persona|
property be|ong|ng to another, by means of v|o|ence or
|nt|m|dat|on of any person, or us|ng force upon anyth|ng sha|| be
gu||ty of robbery.

CIN1S
I. L|ements of kobbery |n genera|: (UVI)
1. 1haL Lhere be (1) personal properLy (2) belonglng Lo
anoLher,
2. 1haL Lhere ls (3) unlawful Laklng of LhaL properLy,
3. 1haL Lhe Laklng musL be (4) wlLh lnLenL Lo galn, and
4. 1haL Lhere ls (3) vlolence agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon of any
person, or force upon anyLhlng.

II. 2 c|ass|f|cat|ons of robbery:
1. 8obbery wlLh vlolence and lnLlmldaLlon of persons (Art|c|e
294, 297, 298)
2. 8obbery by use of force upon Lhlngs. (Art|c|e 299, 302)

III. Def|n|t|on of 1erms
1. !"#$%&'( !#%*"#+, ! musL be a movable properLy, lf lL ls real
properLy occupled and ls usurped by means of vlolence or
lnLlmldaLlon Lhe crlme ls usurpaLlon. *rohlblLed arLlcles
may be Lhe sub[ecL maLLer of robbery (l.e. oplum)
2. -"(%&./&. +% '&%+0"# ! properLy Laken does noL belong Lo
Lhe offender. 1he person from whom Lhe personal properLy
was Laken need noL be Lhe owner. ossesslon ls sufflclenL
(l.e. 8obbery may be commlLLed from a person who hlmself
has sLolen lL.)
o 1'2/&. %3 +0" 45&"# - Cenerally noL necessary, buL
lL ls necessary lf Lhe crlme charged ls robbery wlLh
homlclde because of Lhe caplLal punlshmenL
aLLached Lo Lhe crlme.
3. 6'7/&. ! means deprlvlng Lhe offended parLy of ownershlp
of Lhe Lhlng Laken wlLh characLer of permanency.
o 6'7/&.8 29$+ :" 9&('539( - Lhls ls an essenLlal parL
of robbery. lf Lhe Laklng was lawful buL
mlsapproprlaLed afLer Lhe Laklng, Lhe crlme ls LsLafa
or malversaLlon. Lx. ollce lawfully selzed oplum
from Chlnese lndlvlduals, afLer havlng possesslon
Lhey mlsapproprlaLed lL, Lhe crlme would be LsLafa.
o When ls unlawful Laklng compleLe?
a. ;$ +% #%::"#, 5/+0 </%("&=" '&> /&+/2/>'+/%& - from
Lhe momenL Lhe offender galns possesslon of Lhe
Lhlng even lf offender has had no opporLunlLy Lo
dlspose of Lhe same, Lhe unlawful Laklng ls
compleLe.
b. ;$ +% #%::"#, 5/+0 3%#=" 9*%& +0/&.$ - Lhlng musL be
Laken ouL of Lhe bulldlng.
4. ?&+"&+ +% .'/& ! ls presumed from Lhe unlawful Laklng.
8elng an lnLernal acL, lL cannoL be esLabllshed by dlrecL
evldence. lL musL Lherefore be deduced from Lhe
clrcumsLances. *Absence of lnLenL Lo galn wlll make Lhe
Laklng of personal properLy grave coerclon.
o lnLenL Lo galn and personal properLy belonglng Lo
anoLher musL concur. lf Lhe accused wlLh lnLenL Lo
galn, Look from anoLher, personal properLy whlch
Lurned ouL Lo be hls own properLy, Lhere ls no
robbery. Also, lf Lhe accused Look personal properLy
from anoLher, bellevlng LhaL lL was hls own
properLy, Lhere belng no lnLenL Lo galn, Lhere ls no
robbery.
3. ?&+/2/>'+/%& ! need noL be LhreaL of bodlly harm. lor
lnsLance, closlng down Lhe sLore and paylng a flne
consLlLuLes enough lnLlmldaLlon. (eople v. alabao)
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
o vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon musL be presenL before Lhe
Laklng of Lhe personal properLy. Powever, lL ls noL
necessary LhaL vlolence be presenL from Lhe very
beglnnlng.
o Lxcept|on: When vlolence resulLs ln: (1) homlclde,
(2) rape, (3) lnLenLlonal muLllaLlon, or (4) any
serlous physlcal ln[urles punlshed ln paragraphs 1
and 2 of Art|c|e 263. 1he robbery wlLh any of Lhose
crlmes ls a speclal complex crlme under Art|c|e 294,
even lf Lhe Laklng was already compleLe when Lhe
vlolence was used by Lhe offender (by reason" or
accompanled by").

Lmp|oyment of v|o|ence and
|nt|m|dat|on aga|nst persons
Iorce upon th|ngs
vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon agalnsL
persons
lorce ls used elLher Lo enLer Lhe
bulldlng or Lo break doors,
wardrobes, chesLs, or any klnd
of locked sealed furnlLure or
recepLacle lnslde Lhe bulldlng or
Lo force Lhem open ouLslde afLer
Laklng Lhe same from Lhe
bulldlng

value of personal properLy ls
lmmaLerlal, Lhe penalLy depends
on:
(a) resulL of Lhe vlolence used
(b) exlsLence of lnLlmldaLlon only
lf commlLLed ln an lnhablLed
house, publlc bulldlng, or edlflce
devoLed for rellglous worshlp,
Lhe penalLy ls based on
(a) value of Lhe properLy Laken
(b) WCn Lhe offenders carry
arms (lf commlLLed ln an
lnhablLed bulldlng only prevlous
condlLlon ls appllcable)

kobbery v. 1heft:
S|m||ar|t|es D|st|nct|ons
lnvolve Laklng of LransporLaLlon 8obbery ls done wlLh vlolence or
lnLlmldaLlon or wlLh force upon
Lhlngs
1aklng of personal properLy 1hefL ls done wlLhouL Lhe
knowledge or consenL of Lhe
owner. Also, lL ls wlLhouL
vlolence, lnLlmldaLlon or force
upon Lhlngs
WlLh lnLenL Lo galn

Sect|on 1 - kobbery w|th V|o|ence Aga|nst or Int|m|dat|on of
ersons

Art|c|e 294 - kobbery w|th v|o|ence aga|nst or |nt|m|dat|on of
persons, ena|t|es
Any person gu||ty of robbery w|th the use of v|o|ence aga|nst or
|nt|m|dat|on of any person sha|| suffer:
1. 1he pena|ty of rec|us|on perpetua to death, when by
reason or on occas|on of the robbery, the cr|me of
hom|c|de sha|| have been comm|tted, or when the robbery
sha|| have been accompan|ed by rape or |ntent|ona|
mut||at|on or arson,
2. 1he pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora| |n |ts med|um per|od to
rec|us|on perpetua when by reason or on occas|on of such
robbery, any of the phys|ca| |n[ur|es pena||zed |n
subd|v|s|on 1 of Art|c|e 263 sha|| have been |nf||cted,
3. 1he pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora|, when by reason or on
occas|on of the robbery, any of the phys|ca| |n[ur|es
pena||zed |n subd|v|s|on 2 of the art|c|e ment|oned |n the
next preced|ng paragraph, sha|| have been |nf||cted.
4. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor |n |ts max|mum per|od to
rec|us|on tempora| |n |ts med|um per|od, |f the v|o|ence or
|nt|m|dat|on emp|oyed |n the comm|ss|on of the robbery
sha|| have been carr|ed to a degree c|ear|y unnecessary for
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
the comm|ss|on of the cr|me, or when the course of |ts
execut|on, the offender sha|| have |nf||cted upon any
person not respons|b|e for |ts comm|ss|on any of the
phys|ca| |n[ur|es covered by sub-d|v|s|ons 3 and 4 of sa|d
Art|c|e 263.
S. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts max|mum per|od
to pr|s|on mayor |n |ts med|um per|od |n other cases. (!"
$%&'(&( )* +, !, -./0).

CIN1S
I. Acts un|shab|e:
1. When by reason or on occaslon of Lhe robbery, Lhe crlme of
homlclde shall have been commlLLed,
2. When robbery ls accompanled by rape or lnLenLlonal
muLllaLlon or arson,
3. When by reason or on occaslon of such robbery, any of Lhe
physlcal ln[urles resulLlng ln lnsanlLy, lmbeclllLy, lmpoLency,
or bllndness ls lnfllcLed,
4. When by reason or on occaslon of Lhe robbery, any of Lhe
physlcal ln[urles resulLlng ln Lhe loss of Lhe use of speech or
Lhe power Lo hear or Lo smell, or Lhe loss of an eye, a hand,
a fooL, an arm, or a leg, or Lhe loss of Lhe use of any such
member or lncapaclLy for Lhe work ln whlch Lhe ln[ured
person ls LhereLofore hablLually engaged ls lnfllcLed,
3. lf Lhe vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon employed ln Lhe commlsslon
of Lhe robbery ls carrled Lo a degree clearly unnecessary for
Lhe commlsslon of Lhe crlme,
6. When ln Lhe course of lLs execuLlon, Lhe offender shall have
lnfllcLed upon any person noL responslble for Lhe
commlsslon of Lhe robbery any of Lhe physlcal ln[urles ln
consequence of whlch Lhe person ln[ured becomes
deformed or loses any oLher member of hls body or loses
Lhe use Lhereof or becomes lll or lncapaclLaLed for Lhe
performance of Lhe work ln whlch he ls hablLually engaged
for more Lhan 90 days or Lhe person ln[ured becomes lll or
lncapaclLaLed for labor for more Lhan 30 days,
7. lf Lhe vlolence employed by Lhe offender does noL cause any
of Lhe serlous physlcal ln[urles deflned ln Art|c|e 263, or lf
Lhe offender employs lnLlmldaLlon only.

II. Art|c|e 294 cons|sts of SLCIAL CCMLLk CkIMLS
Art|c|e 48 does noL apply Lo Art|c|e 294. 1he crlmes deflned
ln Lhls arLlcle are speclal complex crlmes. Art|c|e 294 already
provldes a speclflc penalLy for each.
4& +0" %=='$/%& or :, #"'$%& of Lhe robbery mean LhaL Lhe
homlclde or serlous physlcal ln[urles deflned musL be
commlLLed ln Lhe course or because of Lhe robbery.
A convlcLlon for robbery wlLh homlclde requlres cerLlLude
LhaL Lhe robbery was Lhe maln purpose and ob[ecLlve of Lhe
crlmlnals and LhaL Lhe kllllng was merely lncldenLal.
____________________
AkAGkAn 1: kC88Lk WI1n nCMICIDL

I. Def|n|t|on of "nCMICIDL"
@%2/=/>" ! Lo be undersLood ln lLs generlc sense as Lo
lnclude parrlclde and murder.
All Lhe homlcldes or murders are merged ln Lhe composlLe,
lnLegraLed whole LhaL ls robbery wlLh homlclde
o So long as all Lhe kllllng were perpeLraLed by reason
or on Lhe occaslon of Lhe robbery.
lf robbery wlLh homlclde ls commlLLed by a band ! Lhe
offense would sLlll be robbery wlLh homlclde.
o 1he clrcumsLance of band ls noL an elemenL of Lhe
crlme and ls merely a generlc aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance LhaL may be offseL by mlLlgaLlng
clrcumsLances.
no such crlme as robbery wlLh murder.
o 1reachery musL be consldered as a generlc
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance and noL quallfylng.

!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
II. nom|c|de comm|tted "8 kLASCN or CN 1nL CCCASICN"
ls lL necessary LhaL a robbery has acLually Laken place flrsL,
and Lhe homlclde ls commlLLed on Lhe occaslon or by reason
Lhereof?
o no, lL ls noL requlred, however, Lhe lnLenL Lo Lake
personal properLy belonglng Lo anoLher wlLh lnLenL
Lo galn musL precede Lhe kllllng.
o Pomlclde may precede Lhe robbery. kllllng Lhe flrsL
vlcLlm and afLerwards Laklng Lhe money ls robbery
wlLh homlclde. 8uL Lhe offender musL have Lhe
lnLenL Lo Lake personal properLy before Lhe kllllng.
-, #"'$%& ! covers homlclde commlLLed before or afLer Lhe
Laklng of personal properLy as long as Lhe moLlve of Lhe
offender ln kllllng a person ls Lo deprlve Lhe vlcLlm of hls
personal properLy, robbery ls Lhe maln purpose.
o Pomlclde Lo ellmlnaLe an obsLacle Lo Lhe
commlsslon of robbery and homlclde commlLLed Lo
remove opposlLlon or Lo suppress evldence are all
robbery wlLh homlclde. Also, kllllng a person Lo
escape afLer Lhe commlsslon of robbery ls robbery
wlLh homlclde - even lf Lhe person kllled was an
lnnocenL bysLander or a robber hlmself.
ls lL robbery wlLh homlclde even lf Lhe deaLh of a person
supervened by mere accldenL?
o lL ls enough LhaL a homlclde resulLed by reason or
on Lhe occaslon of Lhe robbery even lf Lhe one kllled
ls a robber hlmself.
lf Lhe orlglnal deslgn ls noL Lo commlL robbery, buL lL ls
commlLLed afLer Lhe homlclde as an afLerLhoughL and a
mlnor lncldenL ln Lhe homlclde, Lhe crlmlnal acLs should be
vlewed as Lwo dlsLlncL offenses.
;**#"=/':(" ('*$" %3 +/2" ! when a cerLaln amounL of Llme
has passed beLween Lhe homlclde and Lhe robbery, lL may
become Lo separaLe crlmes already.

III. L|ab|||ty of persons |n kobbery w|th nom|c|de
8obbery Wl1P homlclde musL be proved.
o lf homlclde ls noL proved, Lhe crlme ls only robbery.
o lf robbery ls noL proved, Lhe crlme ls only homlclde.
12345 ?& =%&$*/#'=,A 3%# +0" '=+ %3 %&" +% :" +0" '=+ %3 '((A
+0"#" 29$+ :" '.#""2"&+ ;1B >"=/$/%& +% >% :%+0 =#/2"$C
678'98:$;" !
o All Lhose who Look parL as prlnclpals ln Lhe robbery
would also be held llable as prlnclpals of robbery
wlLh homlclde alLhough Lhey dld noL acLually Lake
parL ln Lhe kllllng, unless lL clearly appears LhaL Lhey
endeavored Lo prevenL Lhe same (noLhlng shorL of a
clear showlng LhaL Lhey prevenLed Lhe kllllng
Lhemselves).
o lf lL ls proved LhaL he Lrled (or could have Lrled lf lL
so happens LhaL he was noL presenL aL Lhe scene) Lo
prevenL Lhe homlclde, he wlll only be charged wlLh
robbery ([urlsprudence) ! lL doesn'L maLLer LhaL
Lhe oLhers who consplred Lo commlL robbery only
were unaware LhaL homlclde was commlLLed. WhaL
maLLers ls LhaL Lhey endeavored Lo prevenL lL.
!99<%:;89& ! ls hls llablllLy Lo be compuLed from Lhe level
of llablllLy of prlnclpals of robbery wlLh homlclde?
o 1hus, hls level of llablllLy wlll be compuLed from Lhe
prlnclpal's penalLy of robbery.
o 8ule: See noLe ln prlnclpals
!99&""<78&" !

IV. kobbery w|th hom|c|de v. n|ghway robbery
.D. No. S32 ! convlcLlon for hlghway robbery requlres
proof LhaL several accused were organlzed for Lhe purpose
of commlLLlng lL lndlscrlmlnaLely.

V. Cther Notes:
A ls robblng a bank. 1he cashler flghLs back. ls lL robbery
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
wlLh homlclde? ?LS.
WhaL lf lL was proven LhaL Lhe pollceman was Lhe one who
kllled Lhe cashler, would A (robber) sLlll be llable for robbery
wlLh homlclde? ?LS.
A LhreaLens C wlLh a gun (who he dld noL know was loaded).
A shoL" C. 8obbery wlLh homlclde? ?LS.
____________________
AkAGkAn 2: kC88Lk WI1n kAL

I. Intent to "take persona| property" must kLCLDL the rape
1he offender musL have Lhe lnLenL Lo Lake personal properLy
belonglng Lo anoLher wlLh lnLenL Lo galn, and such lnLenL
musL precede Lhe rape.
o lL ls noL necessary Lhe rape be prlor Lo or
slmulLaneous wlLh Lhe robbery. So Lhe law says, ln
Lhe deflnlLlon of Lhe crlme, LhaL when Lhe robbery ls
accompanled by rape or muLllaLlon, eLc.
o Lven lf Lhe rape was commlLLed before Lhe Laklng of
properLy, Lhe accused were gullLy of robbery wlLh
rape. 8ape was noL Lhelr prlmary ob[ecLlve.
o lf rape was Lhe prlmary ob[ecLlve of Lhe accused,
and hls Laklng of Lhe vlcLlm's [ewels was noL wlLh
lnLenL Lo galn buL [usL Lo have some Lokens of her
supposed consenL, Lhe accused commlLLed Lwo
dlsLlncL crlmes of rape and un[usL vexaLlon.
8uL lf Lhe rape ls commlLLed agalnsL a woman ln a house
oLher Lhan LhaL where Lhe robbery ls commlLLed, Lhe rape
should be consldered a separaLe offense.
no such crlme as robbery wlLh rape. 8oLh crlmes cannoL be
Lhe resulL of a slngle acL conLemplaLed ln Art|c|e 48.
AddlLlonal rapes wlll noL lncrease Lhe penalLy. Also, Lhere ls
no law provldlng LhaL Lhe addlLlonal rape(s) or homlclde(s)
should be consldered as aggravaLlng clrcumsLances. Art|c|e
14 ls an excluslve llsL of aggravaLlng clrcumsLances.
When rape and homlclde co-exlsL ln Lhe commlsslon of
robbery, Lhe rape ls Lo be consldered as an aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance. 1he crlme ls sLlll deslgnaLed as robbery wlLh
homlclde.

II. kobbery AND Attempted kape
1here ls no such crlme as robbery wlLh aLLempLed rape"
1here ls no complex crlme (under Art|c|e 48) of robbery and
aLLempLed rape.
o 1hey are consldered as Lwo separaLe crlmes.

III. kape and nom|c|de co-ex|st w|th kobbery (eop|e v. Gana|)
Crlme: 8obbery wlLh homlclde.
8ape wlll be consldered an aggravaLlng clrcumsLance
____________________
aragraph 3: kC88Lk WI1n SLkICUS nSICAL INIUkILS

eople v. Pernandez ! Loss of hearlng should be due Lo
loss of boLh ears resulLlng from vlolence employed durlng
robbery. 1he offended parLy can hear from hls lefL ear. 1he
case falls wlLhln Art|c|e 262, paragraph 4.
____________________
aragraph 4: kC88Lk WI1n UNLCLSSAk VICLLNCL AND
IN1IMIDA1ICN (Art|c|e 294, paragraph 4)

I. App||cat|on of Art|c|e 294, paragraph 4
1he vlolence need noL resulL ln serlous physlcal ln[urles. All
LhaL Art|c|e 294, paragraph 4 requlres ls LhaL Lhe vlolence
be unnecessary for Lhe commlsslon of Lhe robbery.
o Lxample: 1ylng Lhe vlcLlm afLer woundlng hlm and
leavlng hlm Lled Lo Lhe Lrunk of a Lree.
When Lhe vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon ls necessary, Art|c|e 294,
paragraph 4 ls noL appllcable.
o Lxample: lL appears LhaL Lhe beaLlng was for Lhe
purpose of compelllng hlm Lo show Lhe place where
he kepL hls money.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
WhaL lf ln Lhe course of Lhe execuLlon of Lhe crlme of
robbery, one of Lhe offenders lnfllcLed upon anoLher robber,
physlcal ln[urles whlch resulLed ln Lhe laLLer's deformlLy, ls
Lhe crlme robbery wlLh serlous physlcal ln[urles?
o 1he wordlng of Lhe law as regards Lhls quesLlon ls
upon any person noL responslble for lLs
commlsslon." lL would seem LhaL Lhe penalLy ln
paragraph 4 of Art|c|e 294 should noL be applled.
1he offender would be llable for Lwo crlmes,
namely: (1) robbery, and (2) serlous physlcal ln[urles
under 263, paragraph 3.
1he serlous physlcal ln[urles deflned ln subd|v|s|ons 3 and 4
of Art|c|e 263 musL be lnfllcLed ln Lhe course of lLs
execuLlon." lf Lhey were lnfllcLed afLer Lhe Laklng of Lhe
personal properLy had been compleLe, Lhe serlous physlcal
ln[urles menLloned should be consldered as separaLe
offense.

II. kequ|s|tes of kobbery under the second case of par. 4 of 294
1. 1haL any of Lhe physlcal ln[urles deflned ln paragraphs 3 and
4 of Art|c|e 263 was lnfllcLed ln Lhe course of Lhe robbery.
2. 1haL any of Lhem was lnfllcLed upon any person noL
responslble for Lhe commlsslon of Lhe robbery.
____________________
AkAGkAn S: SIMLL kC88Lk

I. kobbery w|th the use of V|o|ence Aga|nst or Int|m|dat|on of any
person under paragraph S of Art|c|e 294
1he robbery under Lhls paragraph ls known as s|mp|e
robbery because Lhe use of vlolence agalnsL any person
does noL resulL ln homlclde, rape, lnLenLlonal muLllaLlon, or
any of Lhe serlous physlcal ln[urles deflned ln Art|c|e 263,
whlch may glve rlse Lo a speclal complex crlme.
When Lhe ln[ury lnfllcLed upon Lhe offended parLy on Lhe
occaslon of robbery can be quallfled only as less serlous
physlcal ln[urles or sllghL physlcal ln[urles, Lhe crlme ls LhaL
deflned and penallzed ln paragraph S of Art|c|e 294.
vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon may enLer aL any Llme before Lhe
owner ls flnally deprlved of hls properLy.

II. kobbery w|th V|o|ence or Int|m|dat|on "|n other cases" referred
to |n paragraph S |s comm|tted by:
1. SnaLchlng money from Lhe hands of Lhe vlcLlm and pushlng
her Lo prevenL her from recoverlng Lhe selzed properLy.
(u.S. v. SamonLe)
2. Crabblng pawn LlckeL from Lhe hands of anoLher and
lnLlmldaLlng hlm. (u.S. v. 8lanco)
ln 8obbery wlLh lnLlmldaLlon, Lhere musL be acLs done by
Lhe accused, whlch, elLher by Lhelr own naLure or by reason
of Lhe clrcumsLances under whlch Lhey are execuLed, lnsplre
fear ln Lhe person agalnsL whom Lhey are dlrecLed.
o 1he lnLlmldaLlon conslsLs ln causlng or creaLlng a
fear ln Lhe mlnd of a person or ln brlnglng ln a sense
of menLal dlsLress ln vlew of a rlse or evll LhaL may
be lmpendlng really or ln lmaglnaLlon.
kobbery v. Grave 1hreats v. Grave Coerc|on
kobbery w]
v|o|ence
Grave threats Grave coerc|on
lnLenL Lo galn
ls lmmedlaLe
lnLenL Lo galn ls
fuLure/condlLlonal
no lnLenL Lo galne
lmmedlaLe
harm
lnLlmldaLlon,
promlses some
fuLure harm or
ln[ury
lnLlmldaLlon (effecL) ls
lmmedlaLe and offended parLy
ls compelled Lo do someLhlng
agalnsL hls wlll (w/n rlghL or
wrong)
ersonal
ln[ury
erson, honor or
properLy of Lhe
offended parLy or
hls famlly

kobbery v. 8r|bery
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
kobbery 8r|bery
1he vlcLlm dld noL commlL a
crlme and he ls lnLlmldaLed wlLh
arresL and/or prosecuLlon Lo
deprlve hlm of hls personal
properLy
1he vlcLlm has commlLLed a
crlme and glves money or glfL Lo
avold arresL or prosecuLlon
1he vlcLlm ls deprlved of hls
money or properLy by force or
lnLlmldaLlon.
Pe parLs wlLh hls money or
properLy ln a sense volunLarlly.

Art|c|e 29S - kobbery w|th phys|ca| |n[ur|es, comm|tted |n an
un|nhab|ted p|ace and by a band, or w|th the use of f|rearm on a
street, road or a||ey.
If the offenses ment|oned |n subd|v|s|ons three, four, and f|ve of
the next preced|ng art|c|e sha|| have been comm|tted |n an
un|nhab|ted p|ace or by a band, or by attack|ng a mov|ng tra|n,
street car, motor veh|c|e or a|rsh|p, or by enter|ng the passenger's
compartments |n a tra|n or, |n any manner, tak|ng the passengers
thereof by surpr|se |n the respect|ve conveyances, or on a street,
road, h|ghway, or a||ey, and the |nt|m|dat|on |s made w|th the use
of a f|rearm, the offender sha|| be pun|shed by the max|mum
per|od of the proper pena|t|es. (!" $%&'(&( )* +,!, 1<,=>? @&9,=>?
$'( +,!, 1<, A-A).

CIN1S
I. App||cat|on of Art|c|e 29S
A. If any of the offense def|ned |n subd|v|s|on 3, 4 and S of Art|c|e
294 |s comm|tted:
1. ln an unlnhablLed place.
2. 8y a band. (Art|c|e 296)
3. ALLacklng a movlng Lraln, sLreeL car, moLor vehlcle, or
alrshlp.
4. 8y enLerlng Lhe passengers' comparLmenL ln a Lraln or ln
any manner Laklng Lhe passengers Lhereof by surprlse ln Lhe
respecLlve conveyances.
3. Cn a sLreeL, road, hlghway or alley, and Lhe lnLlmldaLlon ls
made wlLh Lhe use of flrearms.
ena|ty: 1he offender shall be punlshed by Lhe maxlmum perlod
of Lhe proper penalLles ln Art|c|e 294.

8. ua||fy|ng v. Aggravat|ng
1. 1hese clrcumsLances are quallfylng only lf Lhe crlmes are
nC1 one of Lhe speclal complex crlmes.
a. 8elng quallfylng, lL cannoL be offseL by a generlc
mlLlgaLlng clrcumsLance. Lx: lf robbery by a band ls
commlLLed ln an unlnhablLed place, by a band" ls
quallfylng and unlnhablLed place" would be generlc
aggravaLlng clrcumsLance only.
2. 1hese clrcumsLances are aggravaLlng only ln speclal complex
crlmes (Art|c|e 294, ar. 1&2).
1hese flve quallfylng clrcumsLances musL be alleged ln Lhe
lnformaLlon and proved durlng Lrlal.

C. 1h|s art|c|e does not app|y:
1. When by reason or on occaslon of Lhe robbery, Lhe crlme of
homlclde ls commlLLed (subd|v|s|on 1, Art|c|e 294)
2. When Lhe robbery ls accompanled by rape or lnLenLlonal
muLllaLlon, or arson (subd|v|s|on 2, Art|c|e 294)
3. lf by reason or on occaslon of robbery, any of Lhe serlous
physlcal ln[urles ln lnsanlLy, lmbeclllLy, lmpoLency or
bllndness ls lnfllcLed (subd|v|s|on 2, Art|c|e 294)
1he reason ls LhaL Lhls arLlcle menLlons subd|v|s|on 3, 4, and
S of Art|c|e 294, omlLLlng subd|v|s|on 1 and 2.

II. Cther Notes:
A was rldlng hls car. Whlle on sLop, 8 polnLed a plsLol aL A
maklng Lhe laLLer go down. 8 speeds off wlLh Lhe car.
8obbery?
o ?es, buL lL ls punlshable under Lhe AnLl-Carnapplng
Law.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE

Art|c|e 296 - Def|n|t|on of a band and pena|ty |ncurred by the
members thereof.
When more than three armed ma|efactors take part |n the
comm|ss|on of a robbery, |t sha|| be deemed to have been
comm|tted by a band. When any of the arms used |n the
comm|ss|on of the offense be an un||censed f|rearm, the pena|ty
to be |mposed upon a|| the ma|efactors sha|| be the max|mum of
the correspond|ng pena|ty prov|ded by |aw, w|thout pre[ud|ce of
the cr|m|na| ||ab|||ty for |||ega| possess|on of such un||censed
f|rearms.

Any member of a band who |s present at the comm|ss|on of a
robbery by the band, sha|| be pun|shed as pr|nc|pa| of any of the
assau|ts comm|tted by the band, un|ess |t be shown that he tr|ed
to prevent the same.

CIN1S
I. Cut||ne of the prov|s|ons:
1. When aL leasL four armed malefacLors Lake parL ln Lhe
commlsslon of a robbery, lL ls deemed commlLLed by a
band.
2. When any of Lhe arms used ln Lhe commlsslon of Lhe
robbery ls noL llcensed, Lhe penalLy upon all malefacLors
shall be Lhe maxlmum of Lhe correspondlng penalLy
provlded by law, wlLhouL pre[udlce Lo Lhe crlmlnal llablllLy
for lllegal possesslon of such flrearms.
3. Any member of Lhe band who was presenL aL Lhe
commlsslon of a robbery by a band, shall be punlshed as
prlnclpal of any of Lhe assaulLs commlLLed by Lhe band,
unless lL be shown LhaL he aLLempLed Lo prevenL Lhe same.

II. kequ|s|tes for ||ab|||ty for acts of other members of the band:
A member of Lhe band ls llable for any of Lhe assaulLs commlLLed by
Lhe oLher members Lhereof, when Lhe followlng requlslLes concur:
1. Pe was a member of Lhe band
2. Pe was presenL aL Lhe commlsslon of a robbery by LhaL band
3. 1he oLher members commlLLed an assaulL
4. Pe dld noL aLLempL Lo prevenL Lhe assaulL.

1here musL be proof LhaL he made an endeavor Lo prevenL
Lhe assaulL commlLLed by anoLher member of Lhe band, ln
order LhaL he may noL be held llable for such assaulL.
When ls Lhe robbery deemed commlLLed by a band? AL leasL
four armed persons musL Lake parL ln Lhe commlsslon of
robbery.
When Lhe robbery was noL by a band and homlclde was noL
deLermlned by Lhe accused when Lhey ploLLed Lhe crlme,
Lhe one who dld noL parLlclpaLe ln Lhe kllllng ls llable for
robbery only.
8uL when Lhere ls consplracy Lo commlL homlclde and
robbery, all Lhe consplraLors, even lf less Lhan four armed
men, are llable for Lhe speclal complex crlme of robbery
wlLh homlclde.
Art|c|e 296 ls noL appllcable Lo pr|nc|pa| by |nduct|on, who
was noL presenL aL Lhe commlsslon of Lhe robbery, lf Lhe
agreemenL was only Lo commlL robbery. 8uL Lhe prlnclpal by
lnducLlon would be llable for Lhe homlclde or oLher crlmes
LhaL mlghL have resulLed, lf he also ordered Lhe kllllng of a
parLlcular person or any one who would reslsL Lhe robbery,
or Lhe commlsslon of oLher crlmes.
Consplracy was for robbery only buL homlclde was also
commlLLed on Lhe occaslon Lhereof - all members of Lhe
band are llable for robbery wlLh homlclde unless Lhey can
show LhaL Lhey endeavored Lo prevenL Lhe homlclde.
roof of consplracy ls noL necessary when four or more
armed persons commlLLed robbery.
Where ln Lhe course of Lhe robbery by a band. 1he offended
woman was Laken by one of Lhe accused Lo a place away
from Lhe house, where Lhe robbery was commlLLed, and
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
Lhere he raped her wlLhouL Lhe knowledge of hls
companlons, he alone ls gullLy of robbery wlLh rape.
1he use of unllcensed flrearm ls noL a speclal aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance ln robbery wlLh rape or lnLenLlonal muLllaLlon,
and ln robbery wlLh physlcal ln[urles deflned ln subd|v|s|on
1 of Art|c|e 263.
ln robbery deflned ln any of Lhe paragraphs 3, 4, and S of
Art|c|e 294, perpeLraLed by a band uslng unllcensed
flrearms, Lhe penalLy ls Lhe maxlmum of Lhe maxlmum
perlod of Lhe proper penalLy. lL ls noL an aggravaLlng
clrcumsLance.

Art|c|e 297 - Attempted and frustrated robbery comm|tted under
certa|n c|rcumstances
When by reason or on occas|on of an attempted or frustrated
robbery a hom|c|de |s comm|tted, the person gu||ty of such
offenses sha|| be pun|shed by rec|us|on tempora| |n |ts max|mum
per|od to rec|us|on perpetua, un|ess the hom|c|de comm|tted sha||
deserve a h|gher pena|ty under the prov|s|ons of th|s Code.

CIN1S
I. "nom|c|de |s comm|tted"
1he Lerm 0%2/=/>" ln Art|c|e 297 ls used ln a generlc sense.
Pence, lL lncludes mulLlple homlcldes, murder, parrlclde, or
even lnfanLlclde.
As long as homlclde ls commlLLed by reason or on occaslon
of an aLLempLed or frusLraLed robbery, Lhe penalLy of
recluslon Lemporal ln lLs maxlmum perlod Lo recluslon
perpeLua shall be lmposed.

II. "Un|ess the hom|c|de comm|tted sha|| deserve a h|gher pena|ty"
lf ln an aLLempLed or frusLraLed robbery, Lhe kllllng of Lhe
vlcLlm ls quallfled by Lreachery or relaLlonshlp, Lhe proper
penalLy for murder or parrlclde shall be lmposed because lL
ls more severe.
ALLempLed or lrusLraLed 8obbery wlLh homlclde are speclal
complex crlmes noL governed by Art|c|e 48, buL by Lhe
speclal provlslons of Art|c|es 294 and 297, respecLlvely.

III. App||cab|||ty of Art|c|e 48 |n robbery
When ls Art|c|e 48 appllcable ln robbery? lf aLLempLed or
frusLraLed robbery wlLh serlous physlcal ln[urles, Art|c|e 48
ls appllcable, slnce Lhe felony would fall nelLher under
Art|c|e 294 whlch covers consummaLed robbery wlLh
homlclde nor under Art|c|e 297 whlch covers aLLempLed or
frusLraLed robbery wlLh homlclde.
1here ls only one crlme of aLLempLed robbery wlLh homlclde
even lf sllghL physlcal ln[urles were lnfllcLed on oLher
persons on Lhe occaslon or by reason of Lhe robbery.

Ak1ICLL 298 - Lxecut|on of deeds by means of v|o|ence or
|nt|m|dat|on.
Any person who, w|th |ntent to defraud another, by means of
v|o|ence or |nt|m|dat|on, sha|| compe| h|m to s|gn, execute or
de||ver any pub||c |nstrument or documents, sha|| be he|d gu||ty of
robbery and pun|shed by the pena|t|es respect|ve|y prescr|bed |n
th|s Chapter.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (VIC)
1. 1haL Lhe offender has lnLenL Lo defraud anoLher.
2. 1haL Lhe offender compels hlm Lo slgn, execuLe or dellver
any publlc lnsLrumenL or documenL.
3. 1haL Lhe compulslon ls by means of vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon.

lf Lhe vlolence used resulLed ln Lhe deaLh of Lhe person Lo
be defrauded, Lhe crlme ls robbery wlLh homlclde and Lhe
penalLy as prescrlbed ln par. 1 of Art|c|e 294 shall be
lmposed.
lf Lhe execuLlon of deeds by means of vlolence ls only ln Lhe
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
aLLempLed or frusLraLed sLage and Lhe vlolence resulLed ln
Lhe deaLh of Lhe person Lo be defrauded, Lhe penalLy
prescrlbed ln Art|c|e 297 shall be lmposed.
MusL Lhe documenL be publlc? 1he ad[ecLlve publlc"
descrlbes Lhe word lnsLrumenL" only. Pence, Lhls arLlcle
applles even lf Lhe documenL slgned, execuLed or dellvered
ls a prlvaLe or commerclal documenL.
Art|c|e 298 ls noL appllcable lf Lhe documenL ls vold.
When Lhe offended parLy ls under obllgaLlon Lo slgn,
execuLe, or dellver Lhe documenL under Lhe law, Lhere ls no
robbery.

Sect|on 2 - kobbery by use of force upon th|ngs

I. kobbery by the use of force upon th|ngs |s comm|tted when:
1. 1he offender enLered a house or bulldlng by any of Lhe
means speclfled ln Art|c|e 299 or Art|c|e 302, or
2. Lven lf Lhere was no enLrance by any of Lhose means, he
broke a wardrobe, chesL, or any oLher klnd of locked or
closed or sealed furnlLure or recepLacle ln Lhe house or
bulldlng, or he Look lL away Lo be broken or forced open
ouLslde.

I. 1wo k|nds of robbery w|th force upon th|ngs:
1. 8obbery ln an lnhablLed house or publlc bulldlng or edlflce
devoLed Lo rellglous worshlp. (Art|c|e 299)
2. 8obbery ln an unlnhablLed place or ln a prlvaLe bulldlng
(Art|c|e 302). Cne essenLlal requlslLe of robbery wlLh force
upon Lhlngs under Art|c|e 299 and 302 ls LhaL Lhe
malefacLor should enLer Lhe bulldlng or dependency where
Lhe ob[ecL Lo be Laken ls found.

Art|c|e 299 - kobbery |n an |nhab|ted house or pub||c bu||d|ng or
ed|f|ce devoted to worsh|p.
Any armed person who sha|| comm|t robbery |n an |nhab|ted
house or pub||c bu||d|ng or ed|f|ce devoted to re||g|ous worsh|p,
sha|| be pun|shed by rec|us|on tempora|, |f the va|ue of the
property taken sha|| exceed 2S0 pesos, and |f:
(a) 1he ma|efactors sha|| enter the house or bu||d|ng |n wh|ch the
robbery was comm|tted, by any of the fo||ow|ng means:
1. 1hrough a open|ng not |ntended for entrance or egress.
2. 8y break|ng any wa||, roof, or f|oor or break|ng any door or
w|ndow.
3. 8y us|ng fa|se keys, p|ck|ocks or s|m||ar too|s.
4. 8y us|ng any f|ct|t|ous name or pretend|ng the exerc|se of pub||c
author|ty.

Cr |f
(b) 1he robbery be comm|tted under any of the fo||ow|ng
c|rcumstances:
1. 8y the break|ng of doors, wardrobes, chests, or any other k|nd
of |ocked or sea|ed furn|ture or receptac|e,
2. 8y tak|ng such furn|ture or ob[ects to be broken or forced open
outs|de the p|ace of the robbery.

When the offenders do not carry arms, and the va|ue of the
property taken exceeds 2S0 pesos, the pena|ty next |ower |n
degree sha|| be |mposed.

1he same ru|e sha|| be app||ed when the offenders are armed, but
the va|ue of the property taken does not exceed 2S0 pesos.

When sa|d offenders do not carry arms and the va|ue of the
property taken does not exceed 2S0 pesos, they sha|| suffer the
pena|ty prescr|bed |n the two next preced|ng paragraphs, |n |ts
m|n|mum per|od.

If the robbery be comm|tted |n one of the dependenc|es of an
|nhab|ted house, pub||c bu||d|ng, or bu||d|ng ded|cated to re||g|ous
worsh|p, the pena|t|es next |ower |n degree than those prescr|bed
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
|n th|s art|c|e sha|| be |mposed.

CIN1S
kobbery w|th force upon th|ngs under Subd|v|s|on A:

I. L|ements
1. 1haL Lhe offender enLered (a) an lnhablLed place, or (b)
publlc bulldlng, or (c) edlflce devoLed Lo rellglous worshlp.
2. 1haL Lhe enLrance was effecLed by any of Lhe followlng
means:
a. 1hrough an openlng noL lnLended for enLrance or
egress
b. 8y breaklng any wall, roof, or floor, or breaklng any
door or wlndow
c. 8y uslng false keys, plcklocks or slmllar Lools
d. 8y uslng any flcLlLlous name or preLendlng Lhe
exerclse of publlc auLhorlLy
3. 1haL once lnslde Lhe bulldlng, Lhe offender Look personal
properLy belonglng Lo anoLher wlLh lnLenL Lo galn.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Lntered.
1he offender musL enLer Lhe house or bulldlng". lf Lhe
offender merely lnserLed hls hand Lhrough an openlng ln Lhe
wall or used a pole Lo geL Lhe cloLhes lnslde Lhe room, Lhe
crlme ls LhefL, noL robbery.
1he facLs musL show LhaL Lhe accused enLered Lhe dwelllng
house or bulldlng by any of Lhe means enumeraLed ln
Subd|v|s|on A of Art|c|e 299. 1he reason for Lhls rullng ls
LhaL one of Lhe elemenLs of robbery under Art|c|e 299 sLaLes
LhaL Lhe enLrance ls effecLed by any of Lhe means descrlbed
ln Subd|v|s|on A.
Where Lhe manner of enLrance was noL proven, Lhe crlme ls
LhefL and noL robbery. 1hls rullng applles where boLh Lhe
ouLslde door and wlndow are open, so LhaL lL ls posslble
LhaL Lhe accused mlghL have passed Lhrough Lhe door. ln
enLerlng Lhe bulldlng, Lhe offender musL have an lnLenLlon
Lo Lake personal properLy. lf Lhere ls no evldence Lo show
LhaL Lhe lnLenLlon of Lhe accused was Lo commlL robbery,
Lhe crlme commlLLed ls aLLempLed Lrespass Lo dwelllng.
1he place enLered musL be a house or bulldlng. An
auLomoblle ls noL a house or a bulldlng.
?&0':/+"> 0%9$" ! ls any shelLer, shlp, or vessel consLlLuLlng
Lhe dwelllng of one or more persons even Lhough Lhe
lnhablLanLs Lhereof are Lemporarlly absenL when Lhe
robbery ls commlLLed.
!9:(/= :9/(>/&. ! ls every bulldlng owned by Lhe
CovernmenL or belonglng Lo a prlvaLe person buL used or
renLed by Lhe govL., alLhough Lemporarlly unoccupled by Lhe
same. WhaL makes a bulldlng publlc ls noL lLs lnauguraLlon
buL Lhe facL Lhe SLaLe or lLs agencles have LlLle LhereLo.
Any of Lhe four means descrlbed ln Subd|v|s|on A of Art|c|e
299 musL be resorLed Lo by Lhe offender Lo enLer a house or
bulldlng, noL Lo geL ouL.

II. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Lntered through one not for such purpose
A. 1hrough an open|ng not |ntended for entrance or egress
1he wlndow or a hole Lhrough Lhe wall already ln exlsLence
ls noL lnLended for enLrance or egress. lf Lhe culprlL enLers
Lhrough such openlng and once lnslde he Lakes personal
properLy belonglng Lo Lhe occupanLs Lhereln, Lhe crlme ls
robbery.
1he whole body of Lhe culprlL musL be lnslde Lhe bulldlng Lo
consLlLuLe enLerlng. When only hls hand ls lnLroduced, Lhere
ls no robbery.

8. 8y break|ng any wa||, roof, or f|oor, or break|ng any door or
w|ndow
1he force used musL be acLual.
1he wall musL be an ouLslde wall and noL a wall beLween
rooms because Lhe breaklng musL be for Lhe purpose of
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
enLerlng Lhe house or bulldlng.
1he ouLslde door musL be broken. Where Lhe door lLself was
lnLacL, and enLered by removlng Lhe hlnges or hooks, Lhe
crlme was slmple LhefL. Where Lhe enLrance ls effecLed
Lhrough a means lnLended for enLrance or egress, Lhere
musL be an acLual breaklng or smashlng.
B%%# ! refers Lo an ouLslde door. lL can be no oLher Lhan
Lhe maln or back door.
Lxcept|on: lf Lhe place ls a dormlLory or a condomlnlum, Lhe
mere breaklng of doors - even Lhough lndoor - are
consldered as robbery slnce Lhese separaLe one dwelllng
from anoLher.

C. 8y us|ng fa|se keys, p|ck|ocks, or s|m||ar too|s
lalse keys are genulne keys sLolen from Lhe owner or any
keys oLher Lhan Lhose lnLended by Lhe owner for use ln Lhe
lock forclbly opened by Lhe offender. lcklocks are Lhose
speclally adopLed Lo Lhe commlsslon of robbery.
1he genulne key musL be sLolen, noL Laken by force or wlLh
lnLlmldaLlon. Where Lhe offenders lnLlmldaLed Lhe lnmaLes,
Lhe crlme was robbery wlLh lnLlmldaLlon of persons.
1he false key or plcklock musL be used Lo enLer Lhe bulldlng
and noL open a Lrunk or open Lhe drawer of a cablneL.
lL ls only LhefL when Lhe false key ls used Lo open wardrobe
or locked recepLacle or drawer or lnslde door.

D. 1he use of f|ct|t|ous name or the act of pretend|ng to exerc|se
author|ty must be to enter the bu||d|ng
Lx: When robbers represenLed Lhemselves as deLecLlves by
dlsplaylng meLal badges and once lnslde, Look Lhe money of
Lhe offended parLy.
uslng flcLlLlous names musL be Lhe efflclenL cause of Lhe
openlng by Lhe offended parLy of Lhe door of hls house Lo
Lhe accused.

III. Cther Notes:
A enLers Lhe house Lhrough Lhe door (whlch was open), and
klcked open Lhe locked masLer's bedroom. A dld noL have Lo
forclbly open Lhe safe. 8obbery under subparagraph A?
o nC. lL's LhefL aggravaLed by breaklng of a door.
____________________
kobbery w|th force upon th|ngs under Subd|v|son 8

I. L|ements:
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls lnslde a dwelllng house, publlc bulldlng,
or edlflce devoLed Lo rellglous worshlp, regardless of Lhe
clrcumsLances under whlch he enLered.
2. 1haL Lhe offender Lakes personal properLy belonglng Lo
anoLher, wlLh lnLenL Lo galn, under any of Lhe followlng
clrcumsLances:
a. by Lhe breaklng of doors, wardrobes, chesLs, or any
oLher klnd of locked or sealed furnlLure or
recepLacle, or
b. by Laklng such furnlLure or ob[ecLs away Lo be
broken or forced open ouLslde Lhe place of Lhe
robbery.

Lach subdlvlslon ls lndependenL of Lhe oLher. Pence, lL ls
noL necessary LhaL Lhe offender enLered Lhe bulldlng by any
of Lhe means menLlon ln Subdlvlslon A. 1hus, a guesL ln Lhe
house of Lhe offended parLy may be gullLy of Lhls klnd of
robbery lf he breaks open a locked wardrobe or chesL lnslde
LhaL house or lf he Lakes lL ouLslde Lo be broken and once
broken, Lakes Lhe personal properLy.
8reaklng or desLroylng Lhe keyhole of Lhe door of an
aparador ls vlrLually desLroylng a locked furnlLure".
A person who carrles away a sealed box for Lhe purpose of
breaklng Lhe same and Laklng ouL lLs conLenLs ouLslde Lhe
place of robbery ls gullLy of consummaLed robbery even
Lhough he does noL success ln openlng Lhe box.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
A person who opens by force a cerLaln locked recepLable
whlch has been conflded lnLo hls cusLody and Lakes Lhe
money Lhereln, ls gullLy of LsLafa and noL robbery, because
Lhe accused does noL commlL Lhe acL ln Lhe house of Lhe
offended parLy or does noL Lake Lhe recepLacle ouL from Lhe
house of lLs owner.
1he penalLy for robbery wlLh force upon Lhlngs ln lnhablLed
house, publlc bulldlng, or edlflce devoLed Lo rellglous
worshlp depends on Lhe value of properLy Laken and on
wheLher or noL offender carrles arm.
o 1he arm carrled musL noL be used Lo lnLlmldaLe.
o 1he llablllLy for carrylng arms whlle robblng an
lnhablLed house ls exLended Lo each of Lhe
offenders who Lake parL ln Lhe robbery, even lf
some of Lhem do noL carry arms.
o 1he reason why a heavler penalLy ls lmposed for
robbery ln a dwelllng house ls LhaL Lhe lnhablLanLs
mlghL suffer bodlly harm durlng Lhe commlsslon of
Lhe robbery.

Art|c|e 300 - kobbery |n an un|nhab|ted p|ace and by a band.
1he robbery ment|oned |n the next preced|ng art|c|e, |f comm|tted
|n an un|nhab|ted p|ace and by a band, sha|| be pun|shed by the
max|mum per|od of the pena|ty prov|ded therefor.

CIN1S
8obbery ln an lnhablLed house, publlc bulldlng or edlflce
devoLed Lo rellglous worshlp ls quallfled when commlLLed by
a band and ln an unlnhablLed place.
1he lnhablLed house, publlc bulldlng, or edlflce devoLed Lo
rellglous worshlp musL be locaLed ln an unlnhablLed place.
8obbery wlLh force upon Lhlngs (Art|c|e 299), ln order Lo be
quallfled, musL be commlLLed ln an unlnhablLed place and
by a band (Art|c|e 300), whlle robbery wlLh vlolence agalnsL
or lnLlmldaLlon of persons musL be commlLLed ln an
unlnhablLed place or by a band. (Art|c|e 29S).

Art|c|e 301 - What |s an |nhab|ted house, pub||c bu||d|ng or
bu||d|ng ded|cated to re||g|ous worsh|p and the|r dependenc|es.
Inhab|ted house means any she|ter, sh|p or vesse| const|tut|ng the
dwe|||ng of one or more persons, even though the |nhab|tants
thereof sha|| temporar||y be absent therefrom when the robbery |s
comm|tted.

A|| |nter|or courts, corra|s, waterhouses, granar|es, barns, coach-
houses, stab|es or other departments or |nc|osed p|aces
cont|guous to the bu||d|ng or ed|f|ce, hav|ng an |nter|or entrance
connected therew|th, and wh|ch form part of the who|e, sha|| be
deemed dependenc|es of an |nhab|ted house, pub||c bu||d|ng or
bu||d|ng ded|cated to re||g|ous worsh|p.

Crchards and other |ands used for cu|t|vat|on or product|on are
not |nc|uded |n the terms of the next preced|ng paragraph, even |f
c|osed, cont|guous to the bu||d|ng and hav|ng d|rect connect|on
therew|th.

1he term "pub||c bu||d|ng" |nc|udes every bu||d|ng owned by the
Government or be|ong|ng to a pr|vate person not |nc|uded used or
rented by the Government, a|though temporar||y unoccup|ed by
the same.

CIN1S
noLwlLhsLandlng Lhe facL LhaL for a perlod of almosL a
monLh, Lhe house was acLually unlnhablLed, lL ls sLlll robbery
ln an lnhablLed house because Lhe bulldlng ln quesLlon was
ordlnarlly lnhablLed and lnLended as a dwelllng.
B"*"&>"&=/"$ ! are all lnLerlor courLs, corrals, warehouses,
granarles or lnclosed places conLlguous Lo Lhe bulldlng or
edlflce, havlng an lnLerlor enLrance connecLed LherewlLh,
and whlch form parL of Lhe whole. (Art|c|e 301 par. 2).
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1hree requlslLes:
a. MusL be conLlguous Lo Lhe bulldlng,
b. MusL have an lnLerlor enLrance connecLed LherewlLh
c. MusL form parL of Lhe whole
lf Lhe lnformaLlon alleges LhaL Lhe robbery was commlLLed
ln a garage, LhaL allegaLlon ls noL equlvalenL Lo a charge LhaL
Lhe robbery was commlLLed ln a dependency of an lnhablLed
house for a garage may or may noL be a dependency of Lhe
house. lL wlll only be a dependency lf Lhe Lhree requlslLes
menLloned are presenL.
Lx: A small sLore locaLed on Lhe ground floor of Lhe house,
belonglng Lo Lhe owner of Lhe sLore
Crchards and lands used for culLlvaLlon, noL dependencles

Art|c|e 302 - kobbery |s an un|nhab|ted p|ace or |n a pr|vate
bu||d|ng.
Any robbery comm|tted |n an un|nhab|ted p|ace or |n a bu||d|ng
other than those ment|oned |n the f|rst paragraph of Art|c|e 299, |f
the va|ue of the property taken exceeds 2S0 pesos, sha|| be
pun|shed by pr|s|on correcc|ona| |f any of the fo||ow|ng
c|rcumstances |s present:
1. If the entrance has been effected through any open|ng not
|ntended for entrance or egress,
2. If any wa||, roof, f|our or outs|de door or w|ndow has been
broken,
3. If the entrance has been effected through the use of fa|se
keys, p|ck|ocks or other s|m||ar too|s,
4. If any dorm, wardrobe, chest or by sea|ed or c|osed
furn|ture or receptac|e has been broken,
S. If any c|osed or sea|ed receptac|e, as ment|oned |n the
preced|ng paragraph, has been removed even |f the same
be broken open e|sewhere,

When the va|ue of the property takes does not exceed 2S0 pesos,
the pena|ty next |ower |n degree sha|| be |mposed.

In the cases spec|f|ed |n Art|c|es 294, 29S, 297, 299, 300, and 302 of
th|s Code, when the property taken |s ma|| matter or |arge catt|e,
the offender sha|| suffer the pena|t|es next h|gher |n degree than
those prov|ded |n sa|d art|c|es.

CIN1S
I. L|ements:
1. 1haL Lhe offender enLered an unlnhablLed place or a
bulldlng whlch was noL a dwelllng house, noL a publlc
bulldlng, or noL an edlflce devoLed Lo rellglous worshlp.
2. 1haL any of Lhe followlng clrcumsLances was presenL:
a. 1he enLrance was effecLed Lhrough an openlng noL
lnLended for enLrance or egress,
b. A wall, roof, floor, or ouLslde door or wlndow was
broken,
c. 1he enLrance was effecLed Lhrough Lhe use of false
keys, plcklocks or oLher slmllar Lools,
d. A door, wardrobe, chesL, or any sealed or closed
furnlLure or recepLacle was broken,
e. A closed or sealed recepLacle was removed, even lf
Lhe same be broken open elsewhere.
3. 1haL wlLh lnLenL Lo galn, Lhe offender Look Lherefrom
personal properLy belonglng Lo anoLher

D&/&0':/+"> *('=" ! menLloned ln Art|c|e 302 ls a bulldlng.
A warehouse ls consldered an unlnhablLed place.
8ulldlng oLher Lhan Lhose menLloned ln Lhe flrsL paragraph
of Art|c|e 299" means LhaL Lhe place where Lhe robbery ls
commlLLed ls noL an lnhablLed house or publlc bulldlng or
edlflce devoLed Lo rellglous worshlp.
-9/(>/&. ! lncludes any klnd of sLrucLure used for sLorage
or safekeeplng of personal properLy, such as (a) frelghL car
and (b) warehouse.
aragraphs Nos. 4 and S of Art|c|e 302 do noL requlre LhaL
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
Lhe offender musL have enLered Lhe unlnhablLed bulldlng
Lhrough an openlng noL lnLended for enLrance or egress, or
afLer breaklng a wall, roof, floor, door, or wlndow, or
Lhrough Lhe use of false keys, plcklocks, or oLher slmllar
Lools.
8ecepLacle musL be closed" or sealed".
ls Lhe mere removal of closed or sealed recepLacle sufflclenL
under par. S of Art|c|e 302? no. 1hls klnd of robbery
requlres aL leasL an lnLenLlon Lo open lL by force.
1he penalLy ls based only on value of properLy Laken. 1he
offender belng armed ls noL lmporLanL under Lhls arLlcle for
Lhe reason LhaL Lhere ls no person who can be ln[ured or
kllled.

Art|c|e 303 - kobbery of cerea|s, fru|ts, or f|rewood |n an
un|nhab|ted p|ace or pr|vate bu||d|ng.
In the cases enumerated |n Art|c|es 299 and 302, when the robbery
cons|sts |n the tak|ng of cerea|s, fru|ts, or f|rewood, the cu|pr|t
sha|| suffer the pena|ty next |ower |n degree than that prescr|bed
|n sa|d art|c|es.

CIN1S
I. keason for the ku|e
enalLy ls lowered because Lhe Lhlngs sLolen are baslc
necesslLles, so galn may noL necessarlly be Lhe reason for
Lhe robbery.

I. Def|n|t|on of 1erms
E"#"'($ ! unprocessed produce of Lhe soll.
When Lhe robbery descrlbed ln Art|c|e 299 and 302 conslsLs
ln Lhe Laklng of cereals, frulLs or flrewood, Lhe penalLy nexL
lower ln degree Lhan LhaL prescrlbed ln Lhe arLlcles shall be
lmposed.
nexL lower ln degree only when Lhe robbery ls commlLLed
by Lhe use of force upon Lhlngs, wlLhouL vlolence agalnsL or
lnLlmldaLlon of any person, ln an lnhablLed house, publlc
bulldlng, or edlflce devoLed Lo rellglous worshlp (Art|c|e
299) or ln an unlnhablLed place or prlvaLe bulldlng.
Lven lf Lhe offender Look from Lhe camarln abouL 13 sacks
of palay, slnce Lhe robbery commlLLed wlLh force upon
Lhlngs was accompanled wlLh vlolence agalnsL or
lnLlmldaLlon of persons, Art|c|e 303 ls noL appllcable. 1he
offender should be punlshed under Art|c|e 294.

Art|c|e 304 - ossess|on of p|ck|ocks or s|m||ar too|s.
Any person who sha|| w|thout |awfu| cause have |n h|s possess|on
p|ck|ocks or s|m||ar too|s espec|a||y adopted to the comm|ss|on of
the cr|me of robbery, sha|| be pun|shed by arresto mayor |n |ts
max|mum per|od to pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od.

1he same pena|ty sha|| be |mposed upon any person who sha||
make such too|s. If the offender be a |ocksm|th, he sha|| suffer the
pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and max|mum
per|ods.

CIN1S
I. L|ements of |||ega| possess|on of p|ck|ocks or s|m||ar too|s:
1. 1haL Lhe offender has ln hls possesslon plcklocks or slmllar
Lools.
2. 1haL such plcklocks or slmllar Lools are speclally adopLed Lo
Lhe commlsslon of robbery.
3. 1haL Lhe offender does noL have lawful cause for such
possesslon.

AcLual use of plcklocks or slmllar Lools, noL necessary ln
lllegal possesslon Lhereof.
lf Lhe person who makes such Lools ls a locksmlLh, Lhe
penalLy ls hlgher.

Art|c|e 30S - Ia|se keys.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1he term "fa|se keys" sha|| be deemed to |nc|ude:
1. 1he too|s ment|oned |n the next preced|ng art|c|es.
2. Genu|ne keys sto|en from the owner.
3. Any keys other than those |ntended by the owner for use
|n the |ock forc|b|y opened by the offender.

CIN1S
ossesslon of false keys ln paragraphs 2 and 3 are noL
punlshable.
Lx: A proposed Lo 8, a porLer of a warehouse, Lo geL some
cases lf whlsky from Lhe warehouse, offerlng Lo pay 16 a
case. A suggesLed Lo 8 LhaL he should Lake an lmpresslon of
Lhe key of Lhe warehouse ln soap pasLe and have anoLher
made by a locksmlLh. WlLh Lhe key made from Lhe
lmpresslon 8 was able Lo open Lhe warehouse from whlch
he Look Lhe cases of whlsky.

Chapter 2: 8r|gandage

Art|c|e 306 - Who are br|gands, ena|ty.
When more than three armed persons form a band of robbers for
the purpose of comm|tt|ng robbery |n the h|ghway, or k|dnapp|ng
persons for the purpose of extort|on or to obta|n ransom or for any
other purpose to be atta|ned by means of force and v|o|ence, they
sha|| be deemed h|ghway robbers or br|gands.

ersons found gu||ty of th|s offense sha|| be pun|shed by pr|s|on
mayor |n |ts med|um per|od to rec|us|on tempora| |n |ts m|n|mum
per|od |f the act or acts comm|tted by them are not pun|shab|e by
h|gher pena|t|es, |n wh|ch case, they sha|| suffer such h|gh pena|t|es.

If any of the arms carr|ed by any of sa|d persons be an un||censed
f|rearms, |t sha|| be presumed that sa|d persons are h|ghway
robbers or br|gands, and |n case of conv|ct|ons the pena|ty sha|| be
|mposed |n the max|mum per|od.

CIN1S
I. Def|n|t|ons
-#/.'&>'." ! commlLLed by more Lhan Lhree armed
persons who form a band of robbers for Lhe purpose of
commlLLlng robbery ln Lhe hlghway or kldnapplng persons
for Lhe purpose of exLorLlon or Lo obLaln ransom, or for any
oLher purpose Lo be aLLalned by means of force or vlolence.
o MusL be a band of robbers. A band of dlssldenLs
whose purpose ls Lo aLLaln by means of force and
vlolence, Lhe desLrucLlon of army lnsLallaLlons,
cannoL be convlcLed of brlgandage.
@/.05', ! lncludes sLreeLs wlLhln and ouLslde Lhe clLles.
1he maln ob[ecLlve ln enacLlng Lhls law ls Lo prevenL Lhe
formaLlon of such band.

II. kequ|s|tes
1here |s br|gandage when:
1. 1here be aL leasL four armed persons
2. 1hey formed a band of robbers
1he purpose |s any of the fo||ow|ng:
1. 1o commlL robbery ln Lhe hlghway, or
2. 1o kldnap persons for Lhe purpose of exLorLlon or Lo obLaln
ransom, or
3. 1o aLLaln by means of force and vlolence any oLher purpose.
1he on|y th|ngs to prove are:
1. 1haL Lhere ls an organlzaLlon of more Lhan Lhree armed
persons formlng a band of robbers.
2. 1haL Lhe purpose of Lhe band ls any of Lhose enumeraLed ln
Art|c|e 306
3. 1haL Lhey wenL upon Lhe hlghway or roamed upon Lhe
counLry for LhaL purpose.
4. 1haL Lhe accused ls a member of such band.

lL would noL be necessary Lo show LhaL Lhe band acLually
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
commlLLed hlghway robbery ln order Lo convlcL Lhem.
8rlgandage may be commlLLed wlLhouL Lhe use of flrearms.
1he Lerm armed" covers arms and weapons ln general, noL
necessarlly flrearms.
o lf Lhe accused were members of a lawless band and
LhaL Lhe flrearms possessed by Lhem were
unllcensed, lL ls Lo be presumed LhaL Lhey were
hlghway robbers or brlgands.
o All are presumed hlghway robbers or brlgands, lf
any of Lhem carrles unllcensed flrearm.
When Lhe armed band, prevlous Lo kldnapplng and Laklng
personal properLy of Lhe offended parLy, had kldnapped and
looLed oLher persons on Lwo oLher occaslons, Lhe band was
held Lo be LhaL of brlgands. 1he prevlous acLlvlLles of Lhe
armed band were consldered, because Lhey proved Lhe
purpose of Lhe band.
lf Lhe brlgands only commlLLed robbery wlLh homlclde or
kldnapplng wlLh a demand for ransom, whlch ls penallzed
wlLh hlgher penalLy, Lhey shall be prosecuLed for robbery
wlLh homlclde or kldnapplng.

III. 8r|gandage v. kobbery |n a 8and
8r|gandage kobbery |n 8and
1he purpose ls any of Lhe ff:
1) 1o commlL robbery ln Lhe
hlghway
2) 1o kldnap persons for Lhe
purpose of exLorLlon or Lo obLaln
ransom
3) lor any oLher purpose Lo be
aLLalned by means of force and
vlolence
1he purpose of Lhe offenders ls
only Lo commlL robbery, noL
necessarlly ln Lhe hlghway.

lf Lhe agreemenL was Lo commlL
only a parLlcular robbery, Lhe
offense ls noL brlgandage
Mere formaLlon of a band for
any of Lhe purposes menLloned
ln Lhe law ls sufflclenL, as lL
lL ls necessary Lo prove LhaL Lhe
band acLually commlLLed
robbery
would noL be necessary Lo show
LhaL Lhe band acLually
commlLLed robbery ln Lhe
hlghway.

Art|c|e 307 - A|d|ng and abett|ng a band of br|gands.
Any person know|ng|y and |n any manner a|d|ng, abett|ng or
protect|ng a band of br|gands as descr|bed |n the next preced|ng
art|c|e, or g|v|ng them |nformat|on of the movements of the po||ce
or other peace off|cers of the Government (or of the forces of the
Un|ted States Army), when the |atter are act|ng |n a|d of the
Government, or acqu|r|ng or rece|v|ng the property taken by such
br|gands sha|| be pun|shed by pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um
per|od to pr|s|on mayor |n |ts m|n|mum per|od.

It sha|| be presumed that the person perform|ng any of the acts
prov|ded |n th|s art|c|e has performed them know|ng|y, un|ess the
contrary |s proven.

CIN1S
I. L|ements |n a|d|ng or abett|ng a band or br|gands:
1. 1haL Lhere ls a band of brlgands.
2. 1haL Lhe offender knows Lhe band Lo be of brlgands.
3. 1haL Lhe offender does any of Lhe followlng acLs:
a. Pe ln any manner alds, abeLs or proLecLs such band
of brlgands, or
b. Pe glves Lhem lnformaLlon of Lhe movemenLs of Lhe
pollce or oLher peace offlcers of Lhe CovernmenL, or
c. Pe acqulres or recelves Lhe properLy Laken by such
brlgands.

II. resumpt|on
lL shall be presumed LhaL Lhe person performlng any of Lhe
acLs provlded ln Lhls arLlcle has performed Lhem knowlngly,
unless Lhe conLrary ls proven.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
Any person who alds or proLecLs hlghway robbers or abeLs
Lhe commlsslon of hlghway robbery or brlgandage shall be
consldered as an accompllce under LhaL crlme, buL wlll be
penallzed as prlnclpal under Lhls arLlcle.

Chapter 3: 1heft

Art|c|e 308 - Who are ||ab|e for theft.
1heft |s comm|tted by any person who, w|th |ntent to ga|n but
w|thout v|o|ence aga|nst or |nt|m|dat|on of persons nor force upon
th|ngs, sha|| take persona| property of another w|thout the |atter's
consent.

1heft |s ||kew|se comm|tted by:
1. Any person who, hav|ng found |ost property, sha|| fa|| to
de||ver the same to the |oca| author|t|es or to |ts owner,
2. Any person who, after hav|ng ma||c|ous|y damaged the
property of another, sha|| remove or make use of the fru|ts or
ob[ect of the damage caused by h|m, and
3. Any person who sha|| enter an |nc|osed estate or a f|e|d
where trespass |s forb|dden or wh|ch be|ongs to another and
w|thout the consent of |ts owner, sha|| hunt or f|sh upon the
same or sha|| gather cerea|s, or other forest or farm products.

CIN1S
I. Def|n|t|on
60"3+ ! ls commlLLed by any person who, wlLh lnLenL Lo
galn buL wlLhouL vlolence agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon of persons
nor force upon Lhlngs, shall Lake personal properLy of
anoLher wlLhouL Lhe laLLer's consenL.
1hefL ls noL a conLlnulng offense.

II. Who are ||ab|e for theft:
1. 1hose who, (a) wlLh lnLenL Lo galn, (b) buL wlLhouL vlolence
agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon of persons nor force upon Lhlngs, (c)
Lake, (d) personal properLy, (e) of anoLher, (f) wlLhouL Lhe
laLLer's consenL.
2. 1hose who, (a) havlng found losL properLy, (b) fall Lo dellver
Lhe same Lo Lhe local auLhorlLles or Lo lLs owner.
3. 1hose who, (a) afLer havlng mallclously damaged Lhe
properLy of anoLher, (b) remove or make use of Lhe frulLs or
ob[ecL of Lhe damage caused by Lhem.
4. 1hose who (a) enLer an lnclosed esLaLe or a fleld where (b)
Lrespass ls forbldden or whlch belongs Lo anoLher and,
wlLhouL Lhe consenL of lLs owner, (c) hunL or flsh upon Lhe
same or gaLher frulLs, cereals or oLher foresL or farm
producLs.

III. L|ements of theft:
1. 1haL Lhere be Laklng of personal properLy
2. 1haL sald properLy belongs Lo anoLher
3. 1haL Lhe Laklng be done wlLh lnLenL Lo galn
4. 1haL Lhe Laklng be done wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe owner
3. 1haL Lhe Laklng be accompllshed wlLhouL Lhe use of vlolence
agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon of persons or use of force upon
Lhlngs.

IV. 1heft v. kobbery
ln LhefL, Lhe offender does noL use vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon
or does noL enLer a house or bulldlng Lhrough any of Lhe
means ln Art|c|e 299 or Art|c|e 302 ln Laklng personal
properLy of anoLher wlLh lnLenL Lo galn.

V. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: 1ak|ng of persona| property
1he theft |s consummated when the offender |s ab|e to:
1. lace Lhe Lhlng Laken under hls conLrol and ln such a
slLuaLlon as he could dlspose of lL aL once (eople v. naval).
2. lrom Lhe momenL Lhe offender had full possesslon of Lhe
Lhlngs, even lf he dld noL have an opporLunlLy Lo dlspose of
Lhe same.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
lL ls noL an lndlspensable elemenL of LhefL LhaL Lhe Lhlef
carry, more or less far away, Lhe Lhlng Laken by hlm.

6'7/&. !ln LhefL musL have Lhe characLer of permanency.
8y galn ls meanL noL only Lhe acqulslLlon of a Lhlng useful Lo
Lhe purposes of llfe buL also Lhe beneflL whlch ln any oLher
sense may be derlved or expecLed from Lhe acL whlch ls
performed (eople v. lernandez). 1he elemenL of Laklng"
means Lhe acL of deprlvlng anoLher of Lhe possesslon and
domlnlon of a movable Lhlng coupled wlLh Lhe lnLenLlon, aL
Lhe Llme of Lhe Laklng", of wlLhholdlng lL wlLh Lhe characLer
of permanency (eople v. Calang)
o 1he offender musL have Lhe lnLenLlon of placlng Lhe
properLy Laken under hls conLrol and of maklng
hlmself Lhe owner Lhereof.
o lf Lhere ls no Laklng of personal properLy, Lhe crlme
of LhefL ls noL commlLLed.
eople v. ulno applles only Lo bulky goods ! re[ecLed by SC
o Cbvlously, whlle Lhe Lruck and Lhe van were sLlll
wlLhln Lhe compound, Lhe appellanL could noL have
dlsposed of Lhe goods aL once." 1hls ls dlfferenL
from Lhe case where a much less bulky and more
common Lhlng as money was Lhe ob[ecL of crlme.
CharacLer of permanency (uefense)! 1he elemenL of Laklng
referred Lo ln Lhe law means Lhe acL of deprlvlng anoLher of
Lhe possesslon and domlnlon of movable Lhlng coupled wlLh
Lhe lnLenLlon, aL Lhe Llme of Lhe Laklng" of wlLhholdlng lL
wlLh Lhe characLer of permanency.

VI. SLCCND kLUISI1L: ersona| property be|ong|ng to another
!"#$%&'( *#%*"#+, :"(%&./&. +% '&%+0"# ! lncludes
elecLrlclLy and gas because elecLrlclLy ls valuable
merchandlse boughL and sold llke oLher personal properLy
and ls capable of approprlaLlon by anoLher.
ln Lhe sale of measurable goods, Lransfer of ownershlp does
noL Lake place unLll afLer measurlng or welghlng.

VI. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Intent to ga|n
?&+"&+ +% .'/& ! ls presumed from Lhe unlawful Laklng of
personal properLy belonglng Lo anoLher. 8uL lf a person
Lakes personal properLy from anoLher bellevlng lL Lo be hls
own, presumpLlon of lnLenL Lo galn ls rebuLLed and,
Lherefore, he ls noL gullLy of LhefL.
lL ls noL necessary LhaL Lhere was real or acLual galn. lL ls
enough LhaL Lhe accused, on Laklng Lhem, was acLuaLed by
Lhe deslre or lnLenL Lo galn.
o !oy rlde or uslng car of anoLher Lo learn how Lo drlve
ls sufflclenL galn ! gullLy of LhefL.
1here ls no LhefL when Lhe Laklng of personal properLy ls
wlLh Lhe consenL of lLs owner.

VII. kobbery v. 1heft
kobbery 1heft
lL ls necessary LhaL Lhere should
be a Laklng agalnsL Lhe wlll of
Lhe owner
lL sufflces LhaL consenL on Lhe
parL of Lhe owner ls lacklng
MusL be accompllshed wlLh
vlolence agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon
of persons
MusL be accompllshed wlLhouL
vlolence agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon
of persons
lorce upon Lhlngs ls employed
Lo enLer a bulldlng
lorce upon Lhlngs ls noL
employed Lo enLer a bulldlng
____________________
AkAGkAn 1: I|nder of |ost property

I. Def|n|t|on
F%$+ *#%*"#+, ! embraces loss by sLeallng

II. resumpt|on regard|ng possess|on of mu|t|p|e sto|en |tems
When a person has ln possesslon, parL of Lhe recenLly sLolen
properLy, he ls presumed Lo be Lhe Lhlef of all, ln Lhe
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
absence of saLlsfacLory explanaLlon of hls possesslon. 8uL
Lhls rule applles only when all Lhe goods were losL aL Lhe
same Llme, ln Lhe same place, and on Lhe same occaslon.

III. now to prove th|s k|nd of theft:
1. 1he Llme of Lhe selzure of Lhe Lhlng,
2. 1haL lL was a losL properLy belonglng Lo anoLher,
3. 1haL Lhe accused havlng had Lhe opporLunlLy Lo reLurn or
dellver Lhe losL properLy Lo lLs owner or Lo local auLhorlLles,
refralned from dolng so.
lnLenL Lo galn ls lnferred from dellberaLe fallure Lo dellver
Lhe losL properLy Lo Lhe proper person.
o uelay ln dellvery of losL properLy Lo Lhe local
auLhorlLles ls lmmaLerlal, when Lhe flnder
surrendered lL volunLarlly Lo Lhe owner when Lhe
laLLer came Lo hls house Lo geL lL.
1hls ls noL llmlLed Lo acLual flnder.
o Lx: A found a purse conLalnlng money and [ewelry
lefL by a passenger. A dellvered lL Lo 8, a pollceman,
wlLh a requesL Lo glve lL Lo C, Lhe owner Lhereof. 8
dld noL glve lL Lo C and approprlaLed lL. 8 ls llable for
LhefL, because alLhough 8 ls noL a flnder ln facL, he ls
a flnder ln law.
1he law does noL requlre knowledge of Lhe owner of Lhe
losL properLy.
1he flnder of hldden Lreasure on Lhe properLy of anoLher
and by chance ls enLlLled Lo one-half Lhereof. lf he
mlsapproprlaLed Lhe oLher half perLalnlng Lo Lhe owner of
Lhe properLy on whlch Lhe hldden Lreasure was found he ls
llable Lo LhefL as Lo LhaL mlsapproprlaLed share.
____________________
AkAGkAn 2: kemov|ng or mak|ng use of fru|ts or ob[ect of
property ma||c|ous|y damaged

eople v. Morlllo ! A defendanL who shoL, kllled and
slaughLered Lhe caLLle of anoLher, whlch had desLroyed
defendanL's planLaLlon, and dlsLrlbuLed Lhe meaL among
hlmself and hls nelghbors.
____________________
AkAGkAn 3: nunt|ng, f|sh|ng, or gather|ng fru|ts, etc., |n
enc|osed estate

I. L|ements:
1. 1here ls an enclosed esLaLe or a fleld where Lrespass ls
forbldden or whlch belongs Lo anoLher,
2. 1he offender enLers Lhe same
3. 1he offender hunLs or flshes upon Lhe same or gaLhers
frulLs, cereals, or oLher foresL or farm producLs ln Lhe esLaLe
or fleld, and
4. 1he hunLlng or flshlng or gaLherlng of producLs ls wlLhouL
Lhe consenL of Lhe owner.

ll. Cther Notes:
C: A found a devlce Lo make lnLernaLlonal calls. Pe
connecLed lL Lo Lhe Lu1 llnes and sold Lhe servlce. 1hefL?
o WhaL was Laken? 1he lnLernaLlonal calls, a buslness
properLy capable of approprlaLlon and belng sLolen.
o lrom whom was lL Laken (offended parLy)? rovlder
of Lhe buslness servlce.

C: A and 8 found a 1000 on Lhe ground. A geLs lL flrsL, and
boLh spend all Lhe money. Would 8 also be llable for LhefL?
o 8 ls an accessory because wlLh full knowledge LhaL
Lhe money was a producL of crlme, proflLed hlmself
by [olnlng A ln spendlng lL.

Art|c|e 309 - ena|t|es
Any person gu||ty of theft sha|| be pun|shed by:
1. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um
per|ods, |f the va|ue of the th|ng sto|en |s more than 12,000
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pesos but does not exceed 22,000 pesos, but |f the va|ue of
the th|ng sto|en exceeds the |atter amount the pena|ty
sha|| be the max|mum per|od of the one prescr|bed |n th|s
paragraph, and one year for each add|t|ona| ten thousand
pesos, but the tota| of the pena|ty wh|ch may be |mposed
sha|| not exceed twenty years. In such cases, and |n
connect|on w|th the accessory pena|t|es wh|ch may be
|mposed and for the purpose of the other prov|s|ons of th|s
Code, the pena|ty sha|| be termed pr|s|on mayor or
rec|us|on tempora|, as the case may be.
2. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts med|um and
max|mum per|ods, |f the va|ue of the th|ng sto|en |s more
than 6,000 pesos but does not exceed 12,000 pesos.
3. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and
med|um per|ods, |f the va|ue of the property sto|en |s more
than 200 pesos but does not exceed 6,000 pesos.
4. Arresto mayor |n |ts med|um per|od to pr|s|on correcc|ona|
|n |ts m|n|mum per|od, |f the va|ue of the property sto|en |s
over S0 pesos but does not exceed 200 pesos.
S. Arresto mayor to |ts fu|| extent, |f such va|ue |s over S
pesos but does not exceed S0 pesos.
6. Arresto mayor |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um per|ods, |f such
va|ue does not exceed S pesos.
7. Arresto menor or a f|ne not exceed|ng 200 pesos, |f the
theft |s comm|tted under the c|rcumstances enumerated |n
paragraph 3 of the next preced|ng art|c|e and the va|ue of
the th|ng sto|en does not exceed S pesos. If such va|ue
exceeds sa|d amount, the prov|s|on of any of the f|ve
preced|ng subd|v|s|ons sha|| be made app||cab|e.
8. Arresto menor |n |ts m|n|mum per|od or a f|ne not
exceed|ng S0 pesos, when the va|ue of the th|ng sto|en |s
not over S pesos, and the offender sha|| have acted under
the |mpu|se of hunger, poverty, or the d|ff|cu|ty of earn|ng
a ||ve||hood for the support of h|mse|f or h|s fam||y.

CIN1S
8as|s of pena|ty |n theft:
1. 1he value of Lhe Lhlng sLolen, ln some cases.
2. 1he value and also Lhe naLure of Lhe properLy Laken, or
3. 1he clrcumsLances or causes LhaL lmpelled Lhe culprlL Lo
commlL Lhe crlme.

Art|c|e 310 - ua||f|ed 1heft.
1he cr|me of theft sha|| be pun|shed by the pena|t|es next h|gher
by two degrees than those respect|ve|y spec|f|ed |n the next
preced|ng art|c|e, |f comm|tted by a domest|c servant, or w|th
grave abuse of conf|dence, or |f the property sto|en |s motor
veh|c|e, ma|| matter or |arge catt|e or cons|sts of coconuts taken
from the prem|ses of the p|antat|on or f|sh taken from a f|shpond
or f|shery, or |f property |s taken on the occas|on of f|re,
earthquake, typhoon, vo|can|c errupt|on, or any other ca|am|ty,
veh|cu|ar acc|dent or c|v|| d|sturbance. (!" $%&'(&( )* +,!, =>B
$'( C,6, C;D, -=, E$* =? =0FB).

CIN1S
I. 1heft |s qua||f|ed -
1. lf commlLLed by a domesLlc servanL
2. lf commlLLed wlLh grave abuse of confldence
3. lf Lhe properLy sLolen ls a (a) moLor vehlcle, (b) mall maLLer,
or (c) large caLLle
4. lf Lhe properLy sLolen conslsLs of coconuLs Laken from Lhe
premlses of a planLaLlon
3. lf Lhe properLy sLolen ls flsh Laken from a flshpond or flshery
6. lf properLy ls Laken on Lhe occaslon of flre, earLhquake,
Lyphoon volcanlc erupLlon, or any oLher calamlLy, vehlcular
accldenL or clvll dlsLurbance.

II. Domest|c Servant
When Lhe offender ls a domesLlc servanL, lL ls noL necessary
Lo show LhaL he commlLLed Lhe crlme wlLh grave abuse of
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confldence.
eople v. LvangellsLa ! house boy who sLole 42.30
belonglng Lo hls masLer.

III. Grave abuse of conf|dence
ln Lhe second klnd of quallfled LhefL, Lhere musL be
allegaLlon ln Lhe lnformaLlon and proof of a relaLlon, by
reason of dependence, guardlanshlp or vlgllance, beLween
Lhe accused and Lhe offended parLy, LhaL has creaLed a hlgh
degree of confldence beLween Lhem, whlch Lhe accused
abused
1he grave abuse of confldence need noL be premedlLaLed.
1hefL by housemaLe ls noL always quallfled. 1he abuse of
confldence here ls noL necessarlly grave.
1he confldence gravely abused musL be LhaL exlsLlng
beLween Lhe offended parLy and Lhe offender.
o 1hefL by a laborer may be quallfled
*.D. No. 133 ! punlshes LhefL of arLlcle or spare
parLs commlLLed by laborers or employees.

IV. roperty sto|en |s.
A. Motor Veh|c|e
1he Lerm 2%+%# <"0/=(" lncludes all vehlcles propelled by
power, oLher Lhan muscular power.
When Lhe purpose of Laklng Lhe car ls Lo desLroy by burnlng
lL, Lhe crlme ls arson.
1hefL of moLor vehlcle ls punlshed under k.A. No.6S39
(Ant|-Carnapp|ng Act of 1992). 1hls law now covers Lhe
unlawful Laklng of moLor vehlcles.
8. Ma|| Matter
WhaL makes Lhe LhefL of mall maLLer quallfled ls Lhe facL
LhaL Lhe sub[ecL Lhereof ls mall maLLer, regardless of
wheLher Lhe offender ls a posLal employee or a prlvaLe
lndlvldual.
lf lL was a posLmasLer who commlLLed Lhls, he would be
gullLy of falLhlessness ln Lhe cusLody of documenLs (uS v.
Corospe).
C. Large Catt|e
E'++(" ! ls deflned as lncludlng horses, asses, mules, sheep,
goaLs and swlne.
o All anlmals of Lhe bovlne famlly (relaLed Lo or
resembllng oxen or cows).
Anlmal musL be Laken allve.
o eople v. Morlllo ! kllllng a cow and Laklng lLs
means ls slmple LhefL.
Ant|-Catt|e kust||ng Law of 1974 (.D. No. S33)

V. Coconuts taken from prem|ses of a p|antat|on
SLeallng coconuLs when Lhey are sLlll ln Lhe Lree or
deposlLed on Lhe ground of Lhe planLaLlon ls quallfled LhefL.
ln any oLher place, lL ls slmple LhefL.
urpose: Lo proLecL Lhe coconuL lndusLry.

VI. I|sh taken from f|shpond or f|shery
G/$0 ! lncludes oLher aquaLlc anlmals.
C: A goes Lo Lhe markeL, grabs a flsh and gobbles lL down.
Cuallfled LhefL? no. 1he arLlcle requlres LhaL Lhe flsh be
Laken from Lhe flshpond or flshery.

AN1I-ILNCING LAW (.D. No. 1612)

Art|c|e 311 - 1nLI1 CI 1nL kCLk1 CI 1nL NA1ICNAL LI8kAk
AND NA1ICNAL MUSLUM.
If the property sto|en be any property of the Nat|ona| L|brary or
the Nat|ona| Museum, the pena|ty sha|| be arresto mayor or a f|ne
rang|ng from 200 to S00 pesos, or both, un|ess a h|gher pena|ty
shou|d be prov|ded under other prov|s|ons of th|s Code, |n wh|ch
case, the offender sha|| be pun|shed by such h|gher pena|ty.

CIN1S
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under Lhls arLlcle, Lhe penalLy ls flx wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe
value of Lhe properLy of Lhe naLlonal Llbrary or naLlonal
Museum.
8uL lf Lhe crlme ls commlLLed wlLh grave abuse of
confldence, Lhe penalLy for quallfled LhefL shall be lmposed.

Chapter 4: Usurpat|on

Art|c|e 312 - Cccupat|ons of rea| property or usurpat|on of rea|
r|ghts |n property.
Any person who, by means of v|o|ence aga|nst or |nt|m|dat|on of
persons, sha|| take possess|on of any rea| property or sha|| usurp
any rea| r|ghts |n property be|ong|ng to another, |n add|t|on to the
pena|ty |ncurred for the acts of v|o|ence executed by h|m, sha|| be
pun|shed by a f|ne from S0 to 100 per centum of the ga|n wh|ch he
sha|| have obta|ned, but not |ess than 7S pesos.

If the va|ue of the ga|n cannot be ascerta|ned, a f|ne of from 200 to
S00 pesos sha|| be |mposed.

CIN1S
I. Acts pun|shab|e:
1. 8y Laklng possesslon of any real properLy belonglng Lo
anoLher by means of vlolence agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon of
persons.
2. 8y usurplng any real rlghLs ln properLy belonglng Lo anoLher
by means of vlolence agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon of persons.

II. L|ements: (AVI)
1. 1haL Lhe offender Lakes possesslon of any real properLy or
usurps any real rlghLs ln properLy.
2. 1haL Lhe real properLy or real rlghLs belong Lo anoLher
3. 1haL vlolence agalnsL or lnLlmldaLlon of persons ls used by
Lhe offender ln occupylng real properLy or usurplng real
rlghLs ln properLy.
4. 1haL Lhere ls lnLenL Lo galn.

III. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Usurpat|on of rea| r|ghts
eople v. Calle[a ! 1he accused, who had losL Lhe case ln a
cadasLral proceedlng, Look possesslon of Lhe land
ad[udlcaLed ln favor of Lhe offended parLy and harvesLed
Lhe palay, by means of LhreaL and lnLlmldaLlon. CullLy.

IV. SLCCND kLUISI1L: 1he rea| property or rea| r|ghts MUS1
be|ong to another.
lf Lhe offended parLy was a mere possessor and noL Lhe
owner of Lhe properLy, only grave coerclon may be charged
lf vlolence was used (u.S. v. lusLer).

V. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: V|o|ence or |nt|m|dat|on was used
1here ls only clvll llablllLy lf Lhere ls no vlolence or
lnLlmldaLlon ln Laklng possesslon of real properLy.
vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon musL be Lhe means used ln
occupylng real properLy or usurplng real rlghL belonglng Lo
anoLher. Art|c|e 312 does noL apply when Lhe vlolence or
lnLlmldaLlon Look place subsequenL Lo Lhe enLry lnLo Lhe
properLy.
SLubborn refusal of Lhe accused Lo vacaLe Lhe land ln open
deflance of Lhe wrlL of execuLlon lssued does noL consLlLuLe
usurpaLlon ln Art|c|e 312 because Lhe accused dld noL
secure possesslon of Lhe land by means of vlolence or
lnLlmldaLlon (eople v. Leyson).

VI. Usurpat|on v. 1heft]kobbery
Usurpat|on 1heft]kobbery
1here ls occupaLlon or
usurpaLlon
1here ls Laklng or asporLaLlon
8eal properLy or real rlghL ls
lnvolved
ersonal properLy ls Laken
ln boLh, Lhere ls lnLenL Lo galn
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE

VII. Cther Notes
Crlmlnal acLlon for usurpaLlon ls noL a bar Lo clvll acLlon for
forclble enLry, because Lhe causes of acLlons are dlfferenL,
alLhough lL sLems from Lhe same evenL/facLs.
Art|c|e 312 does noL provlde lmprlsonmenL as a penalLy,
only flnes. 8uL lf physlcal ln[urles were lnfllcLed as a resulL of
Lhe use of vlolence or lnLlmldaLlon, Lhen such wlll be
punlshed accordlng Lo Lhe provlslons on physlcal ln[urles.
k.A. No. 947 punlshes enLerlng or occupylng publlc
agrlculLural land lncludlng publlc lands granLed Lo prlvaLe
lndlvlduals by a flne noL exceedlng 1,000 or lmprlsonmenL
for noL more Lhan one year or boLh.
Lxamp|es:
A wanLed Lo occupy 8's properLy. A klcked and sLabbed 8 ln
order Lo e[ecL 8 from Lhe properLy ! A ls gullLy.
o 1here ls a separaLe crlme agalnsL persons
commlLLed by A. lL may elLher be aLLempLed,
frusLraLed and consummaLed homlclde.

Art|c|e 313 - A|ter|ng boundar|es and |andmarks.
Any person who sha|| a|ter the boundary marks or monuments of
towns, prov|nces, or estates, or any other marks |ntended to
des|gnate the boundar|es of the same, sha|| be pun|shed by
arresto menor or a f|ne not exceed|ng 100 pesos, or both.

CIN1S
I. L|ements of a|ter|ng boundar|es or |andmarks: (8A)
1. 1haL Lhere be boundary marks or monumenLs of Lowns,
provlnces, or esLaLes, or any oLher marks lnLended Lo
deslgnaLe Lhe boundarles of Lhe same.
2. 1haL Lhe offender alLers sald boundary marks.

II. Cther Notes
lnLenL Lo galn and fraudulenL lnLenL are noL necessary
o 1he offense conslsLs ln carrylng ouL a felonlous
lnLenL Lo usurp realLy and Lhls lnLenL musL be
esLabllshed as Lhe moral elemenL before Lhe penalLy
flxed ln Art|c|e 313 can be applled.
Are prlvaLe esLaLes lncluded? ?LS.
;(+"# ! has a general and lndeflnlLe meanlng. Any
alLeraLlon of boundary marks ls enough Lo consLlLuLe Lhe
maLerlal elemenL of Lhe crlme. (1hls ls Lhe '=+9$ #"9$).
o uesLrucLlon of a sLone monumenL or Laklng lL Lo
anoLher place, or removlng a fence ls alLerlng.
o vandallzlng/defaclng ls noL consldered an alLeraLlon.

Chapter S: Cu|pab|e Inso|vency

Art|c|e 314 - Iraudu|ent Inso|vency.
Any person who sha|| abscond w|th h|s property to the pre[ud|ce
of h|s cred|tors, sha|| suffer the pena|ty of pr|s|on mayor, |f he be a
merchant and the pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts max|mum
per|od to pr|s|on mayor |n |ts med|um per|od, |f he be not a
merchant.

CIN1S
I. L|ements of Iraudu|ent Inso|vency: (DA)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a debLor, LhaL ls, he has obllgaLlon due
and payable
2. 1haL he absconds wlLh hls properLy.
3. 1haL Lhere be pre[udlce Lo hls credlLors.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: 1he offender |s a debtor
8elng a merchanL ls noL an elemenL of Lhls offense.
lf Lhe accused ls a merchanL, a hlgher penalLy shall be
lmposed.

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: 1hat he absconds w|th h|s property
8eal properLy may be lnvolved.
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;:$=%&> ! does noL requlres LhaL Lhe debLor should deparL
and physlcally conceal hls properLy.

IV. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: 1hat there be pre[ud|ce to h|s cred|tors
AcLual pre[udlce Lo Lhe credlLor of Lhe debLor - noL
lnLenLlon alone - ls requlred. lraudulenL lnsolvency requlres
mallce.
o 1hus, lf someone else's credlLor (e.g. accused's
husband) - and noL Lhose of Lhe debLor (e.g.
accused) - were pre[udlced, Lhen Lhe accused would
noL be llable for compllclLy under Lhls arLlcle.
(eople v. 1an ulong).

V. Cther Notes
ulsLlngulshed from Lhe Inso|vency Law: 1he lnsolvency Law
requlres for lLs appllcaLlon LhaL Lhe crlmlnal acL should have
been commlLLed afLer Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of lnsolvency
proceedlngs. under Art|c|e 314, Lhere ls no such
requlremenL.
Lxamp|es
A ls lndebLed Lo 8, and relocaLes wlLhouL lnformlng Lhe
laLLer ! lf Lhe obllgaLlon ls demandable, Lhere ls no
culpable lnsolvency.
A ls lndebLed Lo 8 wlLh 108. A buys a car ! no, unless Lhe
credlLor can proved LhaL he suffered acLual pre[udlce.

Chapter 6: Sw|nd||ng and other Dece|ts

Art|c|e 31S - Sw|nd||ng (Lstafa)
Any person who sha|| defraud another by any of the means
ment|oned here|n be|ow sha|| be pun|shed by:

1st. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts max|mum per|od to
pr|s|on mayor |n |ts m|n|mum per|od, |f the amount of the fraud |s
over 12,000 pesos but does not exceed 22,000 pesos, and |f such
amount exceeds the |atter sum, the pena|ty prov|ded |n th|s
paragraph sha|| be |mposed |n |ts max|mum per|od, add|ng one
year for each add|t|ona| 10,000 pesos, but the tota| pena|ty wh|ch
may be |mposed sha|| not exceed twenty years. In such cases, and
|n connect|on w|th the accessory pena|t|es wh|ch may be |mposed
under the prov|s|ons of th|s Code, the pena|ty sha|| be termed
pr|s|on mayor or rec|us|on tempora|, as the case may be.

2nd. 1he pena|ty of pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum and
med|um per|ods, |f the amount of the fraud |s over 6,000 pesos but
does not exceed 12,000 pesos,

3rd. 1he pena|ty of arresto mayor |n |ts max|mum per|od to pr|s|on
correcc|ona| |n |ts m|n|mum per|od |f such amount |s over 200
pesos but does not exceed 6,000 pesos, and

4th. 8y arresto mayor |n |ts max|mum per|od, |f such amount does
not exceed 200 pesos, prov|ded that |n the four cases ment|oned,
the fraud be comm|tted by any of the fo||ow|ng means:

1. W|th unfa|thfu|ness or abuse of conf|dence, name|y:
(a) 8y a|ter|ng the substance, quant|ty, or qua||ty or anyth|ng
of va|ue wh|ch the offender sha|| de||ver by v|rtue of an
ob||gat|on to do so, even though such ob||gat|on be based
on an |mmora| or |||ega| cons|derat|on.
(b) 8y m|sappropr|at|ng or convert|ng, to the pre[ud|ce of
another, money, goods, or any other persona| property
rece|ved by the offender |n trust or on comm|ss|on, or for
adm|n|strat|on, or under any other ob||gat|on |nvo|v|ng the
duty to make de||very of or to return the same, even
though such ob||gat|on be tota||y or part|a||y guaranteed
by a bond, or by deny|ng hav|ng rece|ved such money,
goods, or other property.
(c) 8y tak|ng undue advantage of the s|gnature of the
offended party |n b|ank, and by wr|t|ng any document
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
above such s|gnature |n b|ank, to the pre[ud|ce of the
offended party or of any th|rd person.

2. 8y means of any of the fo||ow|ng fa|se pretenses or
fraudu|ent acts executed pr|or to or s|mu|taneous|y w|th
the comm|ss|on of the fraud:
(a) 8y us|ng f|ct|t|ous name, or fa|se|y pretend|ng to possess
power, |nf|uence, qua||f|cat|ons, property, cred|t, agency,
bus|ness or |mag|nary transact|ons, or by means of other
s|m||ar dece|ts.
(b) 8y a|ter|ng the qua||ty, f|neness or we|ght of anyth|ng
perta|n|ng to h|s art or bus|ness.
(c) 8y pretend|ng to have br|bed any Government emp|oyee,
w|thout pre[ud|ce to the act|on for ca|umny wh|ch the
offended party may deem proper to br|ng aga|nst the
offender. In th|s case, the offender sha|| be pun|shed by
the max|mum per|od of the pena|ty.
(d) 8y post-dat|ng a check, or |ssu|ng a check |n payment of an
ob||gat|on when the offender there|n were not suff|c|ent
to cover the amount of the check. 1he fa||ure of the
drawer of the check to depos|t the amount necessary to
cover h|s check w|th|n three (3) days from rece|pt of not|ce
from the bank and]or the payee or ho|der that sa|d check
has been d|shonored for |ack of |nsuff|c|ency of funds sha||
be pr|ma fac|e ev|dence of dece|t const|tut|ng fa|se
pretense or fraudu|ent act. (!" $%&'(&( )* +,!, GFF/?
$::7<H&( IJ'& =-? =0.-.)
(e) 8y obta|n|ng any food, refreshment or accommodat|on at a
hote|, |nn, restaurant, board|ng house, |odg|ng house, or
apartment house and the ||ke w|thout pay|ng therefor,
w|th |ntent to defraud the propr|etor or manager thereof,
or by obta|n|ng cred|t at hote|, |nn, restaurant, board|ng
house, |odg|ng house, or apartment house by the use of
any fa|se pretense, or by abandon|ng or surrept|t|ous|y
remov|ng any part of h|s baggage from a hote|, |nn,
restaurant, board|ng house, |odg|ng house or apartment
house after obta|n|ng cred|t, food, refreshment or
accommodat|on there|n w|thout pay|ng for h|s food,
refreshment or accommodat|on.

3. 1hrough any of the fo||ow|ng fraudu|ent means:
(a) 8y |nduc|ng another, by means of dece|t, to s|gn any
document.
(b) 8y resort|ng to some fraudu|ent pract|ce to |nsure success
|n a gamb||ng game.
(c) 8y remov|ng, concea||ng or destroy|ng, |n who|e or |n part,
any court record, off|ce f||es, document or any other
papers.

CIN1S
I. L|ements of Lstafa |n genera|:
1. 1haL Lhe accused defrauded anoLher (a) by abuse of
confldence, or (b) by means of decelL.
2. 1haL damage or pre[udlce capable of pecunlary esLlmaLlon ls
caused Lo Lhe offended parLy or Lhlrd person.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Covers three ways of comm|tt|ng Lstafa
1. WlLh unfalLhfulness or abuse of confldence (under a)
2. 8y means of false preLenses or fraudulenL acLs (under b)
3. 1hrough fraudulenL means (under b)
uecelL - noL an essenLlal requlslLe of LsLafa wlLh abuse of
confldence
1he essence of LsLafa ls fraud.
G#'9> ! Lhe presence of (a) or (b).

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: 8as|s of the pena|ty ! ecun|ary
lL ls necessary LhaL Lhe damage or pre[udlce be capable of
pecunlary esLlmaLlon ! basls of Lhe penalLy.
o lf Lhe damage ls lncapable of pecunlary esLlmaLlon,
buL damage ls clearly presenL, Lhe courLs wlll use
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
Lhe lowesL amounL as basls of penalLy.
lf Lhere ls no decelL, no abuse of confldence ! no LsLafa,
[usL clvll llablllLy.
L|ement of damage may cons|st |n
a. 1he offended parLy belng deprlved of hls money or
properLy, as resulL of Lhe defraudaLlon
b. ulsLurbance ln properLy rlghLs (p. 848)
c. 1emporary pre[udlce (p. 849)
1he crlme of LsLafa ls noL obllLeraLed by accepLance of Lhe
offended properLy of a promlssory noLe.
1he accused cannoL be convlcLed of LsLafa wlLh abuse of
confldence under an lnformaLlon alleglng LsLafa by means
of decelL.
1here can be a complex crlme of LhefL and LsLafa (p. 830)

IV. Cther Notes
A person charged of one subsecLlon cannoL be convlcLed
wlLh anoLher subsecLlon.
LsLafa can be complexed wlLh LhefL lf LhefL was a necessary
means Lo commlL esLafa by flcLlLlous name -
mlsrepresenLaLlon of ownershlp (eople v. ?unsay)
____________________
AkAGkAn 1: 1ypes of Lstafa accord|ng to unfa|thfu|ness or
abuse of conf|dence

I. LS1AIA WI1n UNIAI1nIULNLSS
A. L|ements: (CAD)
1. 1haL Lhe offender has an onerous obllgaLlon Lo dellver
someLhlng of value.
2. 1haL he alLers lLs subsLance, quanLlLy, or quallLy.
3. 1haL damage or pre[udlce ls caused Lo anoLher.

8. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Cnerous ob||gat|on
"8y v|rtue of an onerous ob||gat|on" - Lhe dellvery of
anyLhlng of value musL be by vlrLue of an onerous obllgaLlon
Lo do so.
1hus, lf Lhe Lhlng dellvered had noL been fully or parLlally
pald, Lhere ls no LsLafa even lf Lhe quallLy of Lhe lLem was
alLered slnce no damage ls caused.

C. SLCCND kLUISI1L: A|ters |ts substance, quant|ty, or qua||ty
AlLerlng Lhe subsLance, quallLy, or quanLlLy (examples)
a. SubsLance
o uellverlng molasses lnsLead of Lhe oplum promlsed.
b. CuanLlLy
o uellverlng 98 lnsLead of 100 shlrLs promlsed.
c. CuallLy
o uellverlng poor class lnsLead of Lhe flrsL class rlce
promlsed.
When Lhere ls no agreemenL as Lo Lhe quallLy - Lhe dellvery
of Lhe Lhlng noL accepLable Lo Lhe complalnanL ls noL LsLafa
"Lven though such ob||gat|on be based on an |mmora| or
|||ega| cons|derat|on" - Lhe crlme of LsLafa may arlse even lf
Lhe Lhlng Lo be dellvered ls noL a sub[ecL of lawful
commerce, such as oplum.

II. LS1AIA WI1n A8USL CI CCNIIDLNCL
A. L|ements: (1MD)
1. 1haL money, goods, or oLher personal properLy be recelved
by Lhe offender ln LrusL, or on commlsslon, or for
admlnlsLraLlon, or under any oLher obllgaLlon lnvolvlng Lhe
duLy Lo make dellvery of, or Lo reLurn Lhe same
2. 1haL Lhere be mlsapproprlaLlon or converslon of such
money or properLy by Lhe offender, or denlal on hls parL of
such recelpL
3. 1haL such mlsapproprlaLlon or converslon or denlal ls Lo Lhe
pre[udlce of anoLher
4. 1haL Lhere ls a demand made by Lhe offended parLy
noLe: 4Lh elemenL ls noL necessary when Lhere ls evldence
of mlsapproprlaLlon of Lhe goods by Lhe defendanL
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE

8. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: ersona| goods rece|ved |n trust, comm|ss|on,
adm|n|strat|on, or under ob||gat|on to de||ver or return the same.
Check ls lncluded ln Lhe word 2%&","
Money, goods, or oLher personal properLy musL be
#"="/<">8 by Lhe offender (lf Laken wlLhouL consenL of Lhe
owner, Lhe crlme maybe LhefL, noL LsLafa).
MusL be recelved under cerLaln klnds of LransacLlon
Lransferrlng [udlclal possesslon Lo hlm - acqulslLlon of boLh
physlcal and [urldlcal possesslon of Lhe Lhlng recelved: (1) ln
LrusL, (2) on commlsslon, (3) for admlnlsLraLlon, or (4) under
any oLher obllgaLlon lnvolvlng Lhe duLy Lo make dellvery of,
or Lo reLurn Lhe same.
o H9#/>/='( *%$$"$$/%&" - possesslon whlch glves Lhe
Lransferee a rlghL over Lhe Lhlng whlch Lhe
Lransferee may seL up agalnsL Lhe owner
o !urldlcal possesslon may arlse from several
slLuaLlons such as: agreemenLs (e.g. lease)
o When Lhe dellvery of a chaLLel has noL Lhe effecL of
Lransferrlng Lhe [urldlcal possesslon, or LlLle, lL ls
presumed LhaL Lhe possesslon of, and LlLle Lo, Lhe
Lhlng so dellvered remaln ln Lhe owner.
I||ustrat|ons:
a. I?& +#9$+8 - lnsLead of reLurnlng someLhlng lefL ln LrusL wlLh
Lhem, Lhey approprlaLed lL Lo Lhelr own use (e.g. fallure Lo
Lurn over Lo Lhe bank Lhe proceeds of Lhe sale of goods
covered by LrusL recelpLs - p.786)
l. 1rusL
ll. 8ank deposlLs are loans Lo Lhe bank wlLh Lhe laLLer
havlng an obllgaLlon Lo reLurn such upon demand of
Lhe deposlLor Lhrough wlLhdrawal.
b. I4& =%22/$$/%&8 - A recelved money from 8 Lo dellver Lo
Lhe munlclpal Lreasurer whlch A dld noL do so. (p.788)
l. Concerns agency. Lxample: denlal of possesslon of
proceeds of Lhe [ewelry makes one llable for esLafa.
c. IG%# '>2/&/$+#'+/%&8 - when appolnLed Lo Lhe courL Lo
admlnlsLer Lhe properLy of Lhe deceased, offender
mlsapproprlaLed Lhe money for hls personal beneflL
d. 1he phrase "%# 9&>"# '&, %+0"# %:(/.'+/%& /&<%(</&. +0" >9+,
+% 2'7" >"(/<"#, %3A %# +% #"+9#& +0" $'2"" lncludes quasl-
conLracLs and cerLaln conLracLs of ballmenL.
o ln quasl conLracLs and conLracLs of ballmenL,
[urldlcal possesslon ls passed (Lhey also requlre Lhe
reLurn of Lhe very same Lhlng recelved/loaned).
o 8ank deposlLs dlffer from deposlLs. ln Lhe laLLer, Lhe
very same Lhlng glven for safekeeplng ls reLurned.
CbllgaLlon Lo reLurn or dellver Lhe Lhlng - musL be
=%&+#'=+9'( wlLhouL Lransferrlng Lo Lhe accused Lhe
ownershlp of Lhe Lhlng recelved (see p.791).
o AmounLs pald by sLudenLs Lo Lhe school Lo answer
for Lhe value of maLerlals broken are noL mere
deposlLs and musL be reLurned by Lhe school afLer
due deducLlons (p.793).
When ownershlp of Lhe Lhlng ls Lransferred Lo Lhe person
who has recelved lL, hls fallure Lo reLurn lL wlll glve rlse Lo
clvll llablllLy only (p. 791 - 792).
o When Lhe Lhlng ls recelved under a LransacLlon of
purchase and sale, even lf Lhe prlce ls noL pald, Lhe
ownershlp ls Lransferred Lo Lhe buyer upon dellvery.
o ln Lhe same way, Lhe advance paymenL made Lo Lhe
seller prlor Lo dellvery ls owned by Lhe seller and
cannoL be expecLed Lo be reLurned.
When Lhe money or oLher personal properLy recelved by Lhe
accused ls noL Lo be used for a parLlcular purpose or Lo be
reLurned ! no LsLafa.
When Lhe Lhlng ls recelved under a conLracL of sale on credlL
! no LsLafa.
Crlmlnal llablllLy for LsLafa ls noL affecLed by novat|on of
conLracL (p. 794 - 793).
o Powever, novaLlon of conLracL from one of agency
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
Lo one of sale, or Lo one of loan, relleves defendanL
from lnclplenL crlmlnal llablllLy under Lhe flrsL
conLracL.

C. SLCCND kLUISI1L: M|sappropr|at|on or convers|on of such
1hree ways of commlLLlng.
a. MlsapproprlaLlng Lhe Lhlng recelved
b. ConverLlng Lhe Lhlng recelved
c. uenylng LhaL Lhe Lhlng was recelved
When mlsapproprlaLlon or converslon ls evldenL, Lhere ls no
need for demand before LsLafa ls consldered commlLLed.
"8y m|sappropr|at|ng"
o J/$'**#%*#/'+/&. ! Lo own, Lo Lake someLhlng for
one's own beneflL.
o LsLafa by mlsapproprlaLlon does noL make any
dlsLlncLlon beLween Lemporary and permanenL
mlsapproprlaLlon ! as long as Lhere was
mlsapproprlaLlon, Lhere ls LsLafa.
"8y convert|ng"
o E%&<"#+/&. ! connoLes Lhe acL of uslng or dlsposlng
of anoLher's properLy as lL lf were one's own.
o E%&<"#$/%& ! presupposes LhaL Lhe Lhlng has been
devoLed Lo a purpose or use dlfferenL from LhaL
agreed upon.
o Lxample of LsLafa by converslon - aLLempLs Lo
dlspose of Lhe properLy of anoLher wlLhouL rlghL
(e.g. geLLlng a sub-agenL when such was noL wlLhln
Lhe conLemplaLlon of Lhe agreemenL p. 797 - 800).
o WlLhholdlng appllcaLlon by agenL of money recelved
- musL be [udged on a case-Lo-case basls (e.g.
cannoL be lndlcLed for LsLafa lf Lhere was good falLh
Lo reLaln Lhe money for Lhe purpose of necessary
proLecLlon).
8lghL of agenL Lo deducL commlsslon from amounLs
collecLed
o lf auLhorlzed - no LsLafa
o CLherwlse - LsLafa
"8y deny|ng hav|ng rece|ved the th|ng"
o Lxample: A borrowed a rlng from 8. When 8 asked A
Lo reLurn lL, Lhe laLLer denled havlng recelved lL !
LsLafa.

D. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: re[ud|ce |s caused to the offended party
Caln for Lhe offender ls noL necessary ! LsLafa may sLlll be
charged even lf Lhere was no beneflL
1o the pre[ud|ce of another" ! noL necessarlly Lo Lhe
owner of Lhe properLy, lmmaLerlal wheLher Lhe loss was
suffered by Lhe owner or by a Lhlrd person
arLnershlp ! llablllLy of parLners for LsLafa
o arLners are noL llable for LsLafa of money or
properLy recelved for Lhe parLnershlp when Lhe
buslness commenced and proflLs accrued.
" 1he naLure of Lhe conLracL does noL enLall
Lhe reLurn of Lhe exacL same properLy
conLrlbuLed. WhaL a parLner ls enLlLled Lo ls
Lhe proflLs of Lhe parLnershlp.
o lallure of a parLner Lo accounL for parLnershlp funds
may glve rlse Lo only a clvll obllgaLlon, noL LsLafa.
o Lxcept|on: lf a parLner mlsapproprlaLes Lhe share of
anoLher ln Lhe proflLs, Lhere ls LsLafa Lhrough
mlsapproprlaLlon.
o Lxcept|on: when Lhe money or properLy had been
recelved for a speclflc purpose and buL was
mlsapproprlaLed, Lhere ls LsLafa.
Co-ownershlp ! A co-owner ls noL llable for LsLafa
o Lxcept|on: he ls llable lf, afLer Lhe LermlnaLlon of Lhe
co-ownershlp, he mlsapproprlaLes Lhe Lhlngs whlch
has become Lhe excluslve properLy of Lhe oLher.

L. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: Demand made by the offended party
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1hls ls Lhe only klnd of LsLafa under Art|c|e 31S whereln
demand" ls a necessary elemenL.
uemand ls noL requlred by law, buL lL ls nLCLSSA8? ln Lhls
klnds of esLafa, because fallure Lo accounL upon demand ls
clrcumsLanLlal evldence of mlsapproprlaLlon.
resumpLlon of mlsapproprlaLlon arlses when explanaLlon
of Lhe accused ls absoluLely devold of merlL.
eople v. endon (rullng docLrlne)! Lven lf Lhe offender
cannoL be locaLed, or Lhere was agreemenL upon speclflc
Llme for dellvery or reLurn of Lhe Lhlng recelved, demand
cannoL be dlspensed wlLh. 1o uphold such raLlonal ls Lo
deparL unwarranLedly from Lhe consLanL docLrlne of Lhe
Supreme CourL on Lhe sub[ecL.
8u1
eople v. vlllegas ! held LhaL lf Lhe offender ls ln hldlng,
prlor demand ls noL necessary Lo lnsLlLuLe crlmlnal acLlon as
Lhe dlsappearlng acL of Lhe offender ls a clear lndlcaLlon of a
premedlLaLed lnLenLlon Lo abscond wlLh Lhe Lhlng of Lhe
offended.
eople v. Llberea ! Lhe recelpL slgned by Lhe accused whlch
sLlpulaLed LhaL he should Lurn over Lhe proceeds of Lhe sale
or make an accounLlng Lhereof on a speclfled daLe, ls ln
lLself a demand.

I. o|nts to kemember: Some pr|nc|p|es |n Lstafa
nC LsLafa Lhrough negllgence
CravlLy of Lhe crlme ! deLermlned on Lhe basls of Lhe
amounL noL reLurned before Lhe lnsLlLuLlon of Lhe crlmlnal
acLlon.

G. 1heft v. Lstafa w|th Abuse of Conf|dence
1heft Lstafa w|th Abuse of Conf|dence
MaLerlal possesslon !urldlcal possesslon
Cffender Lakes Lhe Lhlng Cffender recelves Lhe Lhlng
1he owner expecLs an 1he owner does noL expecL an
lmmedlaLe reLurn lmmedlaLe reLurn - sub[ecL Lo
agreemenL
o Lxcept|on ! when a servanL, domesLlc, or
employee who mlsapproprlaLes Lhe Lhlng he
recelved from hls masLer or employer ls noL gullLy of
LsLafa, buL LhefL ([urldlcal possesslon remalns wlLh
Lhe owner).
o E%&$+#9=+/<" !%$$"$$/%& ! ls Lhe relaLlon beLween
Lhe owner of Lhe Lhlng and Lhe Lhlng lLself when Lhe
owner ls noL ln Lhe acLual physlcal possesslon, buL
when lL ls sLlll under hls conLrol and managemenL
and sub[ecL Lo hls dlsposlLlon (u.S. v. !uan).
o A Leller of a bank wlll have consLrucLlve possesslon
over Lhe money 8u1 an agenL of a prlnclpal would
have [urldlcal possesslon over a properLy llke
money.
Selllng Lhe Lhlng recelved Lo be pledged for Lhe owner ls
LhefL, when Lhe lnLenL Lo approprlaLe exlsLed aL Lhe Llme
when lL was recelved

n. Lstafa w|th Abuse of Conf|dence v. Ma|versat|on
Lstafa Ma|versat|on
Cffenders are enLrusLed wlLh funds or properLy
ConLlnulng offense
Always prlvaLe funds or properLy usually publlc funds or properLy
Cffender ls a prlvaLe lndlvldual
or a publlc offlcer noL
accounLable for publlc funds or
properLy
Cffender ls a publlc offlcer
accounLable for publlc funds or
properLy
CommlLLed by mlsapproprlaLlng,
converLlng or denylng havlng
recelved Lhe goods
CommlLLed by approprlaLlng,
Laklng, or mlsapproprlaLlon or
consenLlng, abandonmenL or
negllgence
Lxamp|es:
When ln Lhe prosecuLlon for malversaLlon Lhe publlc offlcer
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
accounLable for publlc funds ls acqulLLed, Lhe prlvaLe
lndlvldual allegedly ln consplracy wlLh hlm may be held
llable for LsLafa slnce Lhe elemenL of accounLablllLy of publlc
funds are deleLed from Lhe charge.
MlsapproprlaLlon of flrearms recelved by a pollceman ls
LsLafa, lf lL ls noL lnvolved ln Lhe commlsslon of a crlme, lL ls
malversaLlon lf lL ls lnvolved ln Lhe commlsslon of a crlme.

III. LS1AIA 8 1AkING UNDUL ADVAN1AGL CI 1nL SIGNA1UkL CI
1nL CIILNDLD Ak1 IN 8LANk
A. L|ements: (SDWD)
1. 1haL Lhe paper wlLh Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe offended parLy be
ln blank.
2. 1haL Lhe offended parLy should have dellvered lL Lo Lhe
offender.
3. 1haL above Lhe slgnaLure of Lhe offended parLy a documenL
ls wrlLLen by Lhe offender wlLhouL auLhorlLy Lo do so.
4. 1haL Lhe documenL so wrlLLen creaLes a llablllLy of, or causes
damage Lo, Lhe offended parLy or any Lhlrd person.
noLe: Lhe paper wlLh Lhe slgnaLure ln blank musL be
dellvered by Lhe offended parLy Lo Lhe offended parLy (lf
sLolen, crlme ls falslflcaLlon)

8. Art|c|e 31S, ar.1(c) and Art|c|e 48 (from c|ass d|scuss|on)
A complex crlme ay resulL from Lhe commlsslon of Lhls klnd
of LsLafa such as:
o LsLafa by means of falslflcaLlon of documenLs !
compound complex crlme (one ls a necessary means
Lo commlL Lhe oLher).
____________________
Lstafa by means of dece|t

I. L|ements of Lstafa by means of dece|t: (IkD)
1. 1haL Lhere musL be a false preLense, fraudulenL acL or
fraudulenL means
2. 1haL such false preLense, fraudulenL acL or fraudulenL
means musL be made or execuLed prlor or slmulLaneously
wlLh Lhe commlsslon of Lhe fraud
3. 1haL Lhe offended parLy musL have relled on Lhe false
preLense, fraudulenL acL, or fraudulenL means, LhaL ls, he
was lnduced Lo parL wlLh hls money or properLy because of
Lhe false preLense, fraudulenL acL, or fraudulenL means
4. 1haL as a resulL Lhereof, Lhe offended parLy suffered
damage
noLe: Lhere ls no decelL lf Lhe complalnanL was aware of Lhe
flcLlLlous naLure of Lhe preLense
lraud musL be proved wlLh clear and poslLlve evldence
____________________
AkAGkAn 2: 1ypes of Lstafa by means of any of the fo||ow|ng
fa|se pretenses or fraudu|ent acts executed pr|or to or
s|mu|taneous|y w|th the comm|ss|on of the fraud)

I. LS1AIA 8 ICLLCWING IALSL kL1LNSLS
A. 1hree ways of comm|tt|ng: (I-ICA8-S)
1. 8y uslng flcLlLlous name
2. 8y falsely preLendlng Lo possess (a) power, (b) lnfluence, (c)
quallflcaLlons, (d) properLy, (e) credlL, (f) agency, (g)
buslness or lmaglnary LransacLlons
3. 8y means of oLher slmllar decelLs

8. Gu|d|ng r|nc|p|es
Ind|spens|b|e requ|rement ! Lhe elemenL of >"="/+,
(conslsLlng ln Lhe false sLaLemenL or fraudulenL
represenLaLlon) be made prlor Lo or aL leasL $/29(+'&"%9$(,
wlLh Lhe dellvery of Lhe Lhlng by Lhe complalnanL, lL belng
"$$"&+/'( LhaL such consLlLuLe Lhe cause or Lhe only moLlve
whlch lnduces Lhe complalnanL Lo parL wlLh Lhe Lhlng.
retense must be fa|se
Cffended parLy must be depr|ved of hls properLy

!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
C. "8y us|ng f|ct|t|ous name"
I|ct|t|ous name - person uses a name oLher Lhan hls real
name

D. "8y fa|se|y pretend|ng to."
ossess|ng power - e.g. falsely preLendlng LhaL a worLhless
plece of paper possessed power, preLendlng Lo be a
maglclan wlLh powers Lo dlscover hldden Lreasure
ossess|ng |nf|uence - !"#" %&'(!') *!+*!(!,-.,# -/&- 0,! /&1
!"#$%&"'& !" )*$*'*+*",
ossess|ng qua||f|cat|ons - e.g. Lhe accused falsely
represenLed hlmself as quallfled ln law.
ossess|ng property (money) - e.g. preLendlng Lhe
presence of sufflclenL funds Lo pay ln cash.
ossess|ng cred|t - e.g. falsely presenLlng oneself as havlng
credlLs Lo pay for a servlce.
ossess|ng agency - e.g. preLendlng Lo be Lhe deposlLary of
goods.
ossess|ng bus|ness - e.g. preLendlng Lo have a buslness.

L. "8y other s|m||ar dece|ts"
8y means of other s|m||ar dece|ts - e.g. preLendlng LhaL a
deed was valldly made.
uecelL noL covered ln any of Lhose speclflcally menLloned ln
Subdlvlslon 2, paragraph (a), buL slmllar Lo any of Lhem, may
glve rlse Lo LsLafa under Lhls phrase.

I. Lstafa by means of dece|t v. 1heft
lmmaLerlal ! resence or absence of decelL or fraud.
MaLerlal ! Lransfer of maLerlal possesslon or [urldlcal and
physlcal possesslon.

G. Cther Notes
Lstafa through fa|s|f|cat|on - any person who falslfles,
counLerfelLs or lmlLaLes Lhe slgnaLures of oLhers may by
llable for LsLafa Lhru falslflcaLlon
o LsLafa Lhrough false preLense made ln wrlLlng ls only
a slmple crlme of LsLafa, noL LsLafa Lhrough
falslflcaLlon

II. LS1AIA 8 AL1LkING 1nL UALI1, IINLNLSS Ck WLIGn1
Lstafa by a|ter|ng the qua||ty, f|neness or we|ght of
anyth|ng perta|n|ng to h|s art or bus|ness - may be
lllusLraLed whereln a [eweler defrauded a person who asked
for a gold rlng buL was glven a rlng creaLed from a sLone
wlLh lower value.
ManlpulaLlon of scale ls punlshed under Lhe kev|sed
Adm|n|strat|ve Code.

III. LS1AIA 8 kL1LNDING 1C nAVL GIVLN 8kI8L
Lstafa by pretend|ng to have g|ven br|be - commlLLed by
any person who would ask money from anoLher for Lhe
alleged purpose of brlblng a governmenL employee, when ln
LruLh and ln facL Lhe offender lnLended Lo converL Lhe
money Lo hls own personal use and beneflL. 8uL lf Lhe
money was really used Lo brlbe, Lhe crlme ls corrupLlon of
publlc offlcer.
ln addlLlon Lo LsLafa, Lhe offender may sLlll be llable for Lhe
crlme of defamaLlon whlch Lhe governmenL employee
allegedly brlbed may deem proper Lo brlng agalnsL offender.
E'(92&, ! Lhe maklng of false and defamaLory sLaLemenLs
abouL someone ln order Lo damage Lhelr repuLaLlon, slander
o noL double [eopardy because Lhe basls of offended
parLy ls LsLafa, whlle Lhe governmenL offlclals you
sald you'd brlbe can flle for calumny.

LS1AIA 8 MLANS CI IkAUDULLN1 AC1S
1he acLs musL be 3#'9>9("&+ ! acLs characLerlzed by, or
founded on, decelL, Lrlck or cheaL.

!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
IV. LS1AIA 8 CS1DA1ING A CnLCk Ck ISSUING A CnLCk IN
AMLN1 CI AN C8LIGA1ICN
LsLafa by lssulng a bad check ls a conLlnulng crlme (p.842)
A. L|ements: (N)
1. 1haL Lhe offender posLdaLed a check, or lssued a check ln
paymenL of an obllgaLlon
2. 1haL such posLdaLlng or lssulng a check was done when Lhe
offender had no funds ln Lhe bank, or hls funds deposlLed
Lhereln were noL sufflclenL Lo cover Lhe amounL of Lhe check

8. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Issued a check for an ob||gat|on
1he check lssued musL be genulne, noL falslfled (lf falslfled,
Lhe crlme ls LsLafa Lhrough falslflcaLlon of a commerclal
documenL).
1he check musL be posLdaLed or lssued ln paymenL of an
obllgaLlon conLracLed aL Lhe Llme of Lhe lssuance and
dellvery of Lhe check ! check should noL be lssued ln
paymenL of a pre-exlsLlng obllgaLlon.
o When a check ls lssued ln lleu of a promlssory noLe,
lL ls ln paymenL of a pre-exlsLlng obllgaLlon.
ln order Lo convlcL an accused for LsLafa under Art|c|e 31S,
par. 2(d) Lhe accused musL have obLalned Lhe goods
because of Lhe check.
o 1he accused MuS1 be able Lo obLaln someLhlng
from Lhe offended parLy by means of Lhe check he
lssues and dellvers
Lxcept|on: when Lhe check ls lssued noL ln paymenL of an
obllgaLlon"
o When posLdaLed checks are lssued by Lhe parLles
only as promlssory noLes - no LsLafa even lf Lhere
are no sufflclenL funds.
o When Lhe check ls lssued by a guaranLor - no LsLafa

C. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Issuance was done when there were
|nsuff|c|ent funds to cover the check
k.A. No. 488Sb ellmlnaLed Lhe phrase Lhe offender
knowlng LhaL aL Lhe Llme he had no funds ln Lhe bank".
o lL ls no longer a defense LhaL Lhe drawer, Lhrough
overslghL, dld noL know LhaL he had lnsufflclenL or
no funds ln Lhe bank when he posLdaLed or lssued
Lhe check.
rlma facle evldence of decelL ! Lhe drawer ls glven Lhree
days Lo make good Lhe sald check by deposlLlng Lhe
necessary funds Lo cover Lhe amounL Lhereof, oLherwlse, a
prlma facle presumpLlon wlll arlse as Lo exlsLence of fraud,
whlch ls an elemenL ln Lhe crlme of LsLafa.
CCCu lAl1P ! defense ln a charge of LsLafa by posLdaLlng
or lssulng a check (bellef LhaL one may by able Lo deposlL
sufflclenL funds ln Lhe bank).
Cne who uses Lhe check may also be llable - Lhere musL be
knowledge LhaL Lhe drawer had no sufflclenL funds
1he payee recelvlng Lhe check musL be defrauded.

kLSIDLN1IAL DLCkLLS NC. 818
I. App||cat|on
Applles only Lo LsLafa under paragraph 2(d) of Art|c|e 31S,
and does noL apply Lo oLher forms of LsLafa under Lhe oLher
paragraphs of Lhe same arLlcle.
enalLy prescrlbed ln .D. No. 818, noL Lhe penalLy provlded
for ln Art|c|e 31S should be lmposed when Lhe LsLafa
commlLLed ls covered by paragraph 2(d), Art|c|e 31S.

8A1AS AM8ANSA 8LG. 22
SLC1ICN 1
I. aragraph 1, Sect|on 1
A. L|ements
1. 1haL a person makes or draws and lssues any check.
2. 1haL Lhe check ls made or drawn and lssued Lo apply on
accounL or for value.
3. 1haL Lhe person who makes or draws and lssues Lhe check
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
knows aL Lhe Llme of lssue LhaL he does noL have sufflclenL
funds ln or credlL wlLh Lhe drawee bank for Lhe paymenL of
such check ln full upon lLs presenLmenL.
4. 1haL Lhe check ls subsequenLly dlshonored by Lhe drawee
bank for lnsufflclency of funds or credlL, or would have been
dlshonored for Lhe same reason had noL Lhe drawer, wlLhouL
any valld reason, ordered Lhe bank Lo sLop paymenL.

8. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Draw|ng or |ssu|ng a check
8.. 22 |s Ma|a roh|b|tum
o Cravamen of 8.. 22 ls Lhe lssuance of a check
o uecelL ls noL requlred under 8.. 22
lf Lhe offender lssues a check ln paymenL (of) or
conLemporaneously wlLh lncurrlng an obllgaLlon - he may
be punlshed by boLh Lhe 8C and 8.. 22.
ln case Lhe check ls drawn by a corporaLlon, company or
enLlLy, Lhe person or persons who acLually slgned Lhe check
ln behalf of such drawer shall be llable under Lhls AcL.

D|fference of 8.. 22 w|th Art|c|e 31S, ar.2(d)
8atas ambansa 8|g. 22 Art|c|e 31S, ar. 2(d)
Mere lssuance lssuance caused Lhe oLher Lo parL
wlLh hls personal properLy
Appllcable when Lhe obllgaLlon
was lncurred slmulLaneous or
prlor Lo lssuance
Appllcable only when Lhe
obllgaLlon was lncurred
slmulLaneous wlLh lssuance
3 days 3 days
knowledge ls maLerlal knowledge ls lmmaLerlal
uamage ls lmmaLerlal 1here musL be damage

C. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: "know|ng of the |nsuff|c|ency of funds at the
t|me the t|me the check |s |ssued"
8.. 22 requlres LhaL Lhe person who made or drew and
lssued Lhe check knew aL Lhe Llme of lssue LhaL he dldn'L
have sufflclenL funds.
lf he had sufflclenL funds ln or credlL wlLh Lhe draw bank aL
Lhe Llme he lssued Lhe check, buL laLer he wlLhdrew all hls
funds from or losL credlL wlLh Lhe draw bank, he ls noL llable
under paragraph 1, buL may be llable under paragraph 2.
lf Lhe paymenL of Lhe check was ordered Lo be sLopped for
no valld reason, Lhe person who ordered such may be llable
under Lhls AcL.
1he acL of Lhe offender when he orders" Lhe bank Lo sLop
paymenL of Lhe check, lL ls noL a valld defense lf he had no
sufflclenL funds LhaL would have made Lhe check dlshonored
anyway

II. L|ements of the offense under paragraph 2, Sect|on 1
1. 1haL a person has sufflclenL funds ln or credlL wlLh Lhe
drawee bank when he makes or draws and lssues a check.
2. 1haL he falls Lo keep sufflclenL funds or Lo malnLaln a credlL
Lo cover Lhe full amounL of Lhe check lf presenLed wlLhln a
perlod of 90 days from Lhe daLe appearlng Lhereon.
3. 1haL Lhe check ls dlshonored by Lhe drawee bank.

Lack of wrlLLen noLlce of dlshonor ls faLal - a mere oral
noLlce or demand Lo pay would appear Lo be lnsufflclenL for
convlcLlon under Lhe law
noLlce of dlshonor Lo corporaLlon ls nC1 noLlce Lo offlcer
who lssued Lhe check

SLC1ICN 2
resumpLlon - urawer had knowledge of Lhe lnsufflclency of
funds.
Lxcept|ons:
o Check ls presenLed afLer 90 days from Lhe daLe of
Lhe check.
o urawer pays Lhe holder of Lhe check Lhe amounL
due Lhereon wlLhln 3 banklng days afLer recelvlng
noLlce LhaL such check has noL been pald by Lhe
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
drawee.
o urawer makes arrangemenLs for paymenL ln full by
Lhe drawee of such check wlLhln 3 banklng days
afLer noLlce of non-paymenL.
rlma facle evldence does noL arlse where noLlce of
nonpaymenL ls noL senL Lo Lhe maker or drawer of Lhe check

SLC1ICN 3
Sect|on 3 requlres Lhe drawee Lo cause Lo be wrlLLen,
prlnLed or sLamped ln plaln language Lhe reason for hls
dlshonor or refusal Lo pay Lhe same.
ln all prosecuLlons under 8.. 22, Lhe lnLroducLlon of
evldence of any unpald and dlshonored check wlLh Lhe
drawee's refusal Lo pay shall be prlma facle evldence of:
o 1he maklng or lssuance of Lhe check
o 1he due presenLmenL Lo Lhe drawee for paymenL
and Lhe dlshonor Lhereof
o 1he facL LhaL Lhe same was properly dlshonored for
Lhe reason wrlLLen, sLamped, or aLLached by Lhe
draw on such dlshonored check.


V. LS1AIA 8 C81AINING ICCD Ck ACCCMMCDA1ICN A1 A
nC1LL, L1C.
A. Acts pun|shab|e:
1. 8y obLalnlng food, refreshmenL or accommodaLlon aL a
hoLel, lnn, resLauranL, boardlng house, lodglng house or
aparLmenL house wlLhouL paylng Lherefor, wlLh lnLenL Lo
defraud Lhe proprleLor or manager Lhereof
2. 8y obLalnlng credlL aL any of sald esLabllshmenLs by Lhe use
of any false preLense
3. 8y abandonlng or surrepLlLlously removlng any parL of hls
baggage from any of sald esLabllshmenLs afLer obLalnlng
credlL, food, refreshmenL or accommodaLlon Lhereln,
wlLhouL paylng Lherefor.
____________________
AkAGkAn 3: Lstafa comm|tted through any of the fo||ow|ng
fraudu|ent means

I. LS1AIA 8 INDUCING ANC1nLk 1C SIGN AN DCCUMLN1
A. L|ements: (IDS)
1. 1haL Lhe offender lnduced Lhe offended parLy Lo slgn a
documenL
2. 1haL decelL be employed Lo make hlm slgn Lhe documenL
3. 1haL Lhe offended parLy personally slgned Lhe documenL
4. 1haL pre[udlce be caused

8. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Inducement must be present
1here musL be an lnducemenL Lo slgn Lhe documenL.
lf Lhe offended parLy ls wllllng and ready from Lhe beglnnlng
Lo slgn Lhe documenL, and Lhere ls merely decelL as Lo Lhe
characLer or conLenLs of Lhe documenL, because Lhe
conLenLs are dlfferenL from Lhose whlch Lhe offended parLy
Lold Lhe accused Lo sLaLe ln Lhe documenL, Lhe crlme ls
falslflcaLlon.

C. SLCCND kLUISI1L: Dece|t must be emp|oyed
uecelL musL be employed - Lhere can be no convlcLlon ln
Lhe absence of proof LhaL defendanL made sLaLemenLs
Lendlng Lo mlslead complalnanL.

II. LS1AIA 8 kLSCk1ING 1C SCML IkAUDULLN1 kAC1ICL 1C
INSUkL SUCCLSS
A. Lxamp|es
eople v. 8omero ! 1he offended parLy, who dld noL know
how Lo play black[ack, was lnduced by Lhe accused Lo
allegedly cheaL a rlch frlend. lnsLead Lhe offended parLy
lncurred losses Lo Lhe game Lwlce. 1here ls LsLafa.
u.S. v. nerl ! LsLafa was commlLLed when Lhe offender,
momenLs before Lhe cockflghL, replaced one of Lhe
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
gamecocks wlLhouL consenL of Lhe owner Lhereby flxlng Lhe
game and maklng Lhe owner lncur losses.

III. LS1AIA 8 kLMCVING, CCNCLALING, Ck DLS1kCING DCCS
A. L|ements:(DkI)
1. 1haL Lhere be courL record, offlce flles, documenLs or any
oLher papers
2. 1haL Lhe offender removed, concealed, or desLroyed any of
Lhem
3. 1haL Lhe offender had lnLenL Lo defraud anoLher
lf Lhere was no lnLenL Lo defraud, Lhe acL of desLroylng courL
records would be mallclous mlschlef.
uesLroylng a promlssory noLe lnLended Lo pay for someLhlng
- prlma facle evldence for LsLafa

8. Lstafa through fraudu|ent means v. Inf|de||ty |n custody of
documents v. Ma||c|ous m|sch|ef
Lstafa through
fraudu|ent means
(Art|c|e 31S)
Inf|de||ty |n the
custody of documents
(Art|c|e 226)
Ma||c|ous
M|sch|ef
Same ln Lhe manner of commlLLlng Lhe offense
Cffender ls a prlvaLe
lndlvldual or even a
publlc offlcer nC1
offlclally enLrusLed
wlLh Lhe documenL
Cffender ls a publlc
offlcer who ls offlclally
enLrusLed wlLh Lhe
documenL
Cffender ls a
prlvaLe lndlvldual
1here ls lnLenL Lo
defraud
lnLenL Lo defraud ls
noL requlred
no lnLenL Lo
defraud

Art|c|e 316 - Cther forms of sw|nd||ng.
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor |n |ts m|n|mum and med|um per|od
and a f|ne of not |ess than the va|ue of the damage caused and not
more than three t|mes such va|ue, sha|| be |mposed upon:
1. Any person who, pretend|ng to be owner of any rea|
property, sha|| convey, se||, encumber or mortgage the
same.
2. Any person, who, know|ng that rea| property |s
encumbered, sha|| d|spose of the same, a|though such
encumbrance be not recorded.
3. 1he owner of any persona| property who sha||
wrongfu||y take |t from |ts |awfu| possessor, to the
pre[ud|ce of the |atter or any th|rd person.
4. Any person who, to the pre[ud|ce of another, sha||
execute any f|ct|t|ous contract.
S. Any person who sha|| accept any compensat|on g|ven
h|m under the be||ef that |t was |n payment of serv|ces
rendered or |abor performed by h|m, when |n fact he
d|d not actua||y perform such serv|ces or |abor.
6. Any person who, wh||e be|ng a surety |n a bond g|ven
|n a cr|m|na| or c|v|| act|on, w|thout express author|ty
from the court or before the cance||at|on of h|s bond or
before be|ng re||eved from the ob||gat|on contracted
by h|m, sha|| se||, mortgage, or, |n any other manner,
encumber the rea| property or propert|es w|th wh|ch
he guaranteed the fu|f|||ment of such ob||gat|on.

CIN1S
AkAGkAn 1: 8y convey|ng, se|||ng, encumber|ng, or mortgag|ng
any rea| property, pretend|ng to be the owner of the same

I. L|ements: (IkA)
1. 1haL Lhe Lhlng be lmmovable, such as a parcel of land or a
bulldlng
2. 1haL Lhe offender who ls noL Lhe owner of Lhe sald properLy
should represenL LhaL he ls Lhe owner Lhereof.
3. 1haL Lhe offender should have execuLed an acL of ownershlp
(selllng, leaslng, encumberlng or morLgaglng Lhe real
properLy).
4. 1haL Lhe acL be made Lo Lhe pre[udlce of Lhe owner or a
Lhlrd person.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE

II. Cther o|nts
AcLus 8eus: passlng oneself off as owner.
o ls lL slgnlflcanL lf lL ls Lhe owner who does Lhls
crlme?
-9/(>/&. ! Lrue bulldlngs (noL Lhe ones merely
superlmposed on Lhe soll) are real properLy by
lncorporaLlon, wheLher Lhey be erecLed by Lhe owner of Lhe
land or by a usurfrucLuary or lessee.
o Lx: A sold a parcel of land Lo 8. LaLer, A sold Lhe
same parcel of land Lo C, represenLlng Lo Lhe laLLer
LhaL he (A) was Lhe owner Lhereof. AL Lhe Llme he
sold Lhe land Lo C, A was no longer Lhe owner of Lhe
properLy.
1he Lhlng dlsposed of musL be real properLy. lf Lhe properLy
ls a chaLLel, Lhe acL ls punlshable as LsLafa under Art|c|e
31S, LhaL ls, by falsely preLendlng Lo possess properLy or by
means of oLher slmllar decelLs.
1here musL be exlsLlng real properLy. Where Lhe accused
sold non-exlsLenL land, he ls gullLy of LsLafa by means of
false preLenses.
Art|c|e 316, ar. 1 penallzes only a person who *#"+"&>$ Lo
be Lhe owner and noL one who clalms Lo be Lhe owner.
o Lven lf Lhe decelL ls pracLlced agalnsL Lhe second
purchaser, and Lhe damage ls lncurred by Lhe flrsL
purchaser, Lhere ls vlolaLlon of ar. 1, Art|c|e 316.
o Lxample: A sold a plece of land wlLh pacL de reLro Lo
8. A falled Lo repurchase, 8 became Lhe owner.
Whlle sLlll ln possesslon of Lhe land, and preLendlng
Lo be Lhe owner Lhereof, A sold Lhe land Lo C who
reglsLered lL before 8 could do Lhe same.
Slnce Lhe penalLy ls based on Lhe value of Lhe damage
caused", mere lnLenL Lo cause damage ls noL sufflclenL.
1here musL be acLual damage caused.

Art|c|e 316, ar. 1 Art|c|e 31S, ar.2(a)
Covers a speclflc slLuaLlon where
Lhe offender exerclses or
execuLes, some acL of domlnlon
or ownershlp over Lhe properLy
Lo Lhe damage and pre[udlce of
Lhe real owner of Lhe Lhlng.
1hls clrcumsLance need noL be
presenL under Lhls arLlcle.
____________________
AkAGkAn 2: 8y d|spos|ng of rea| property as free from
encumbrance, a|though such encumbrance be not recorded

I. L|ements: (kLkD)
1. 1haL Lhe Lhlng dlsposed of be real properLy.
2. 1haL Lhe offender knew LhaL Lhe real properLy was
encumbered wheLher Lhe encumbrance ls recorded or noL
3. 1haL Lhere musL be express represenLaLlon by Lhe offender
LhaL Lhe real properLy ls free from encumbrance
4. 1haL Lhe acL of dlsposlng of Lhe real properLy be made Lo Lhe
damage of anoLher

II. Cther o|nts
A morLgaged hls properLy Lo 8. LaLer, A, mlsrepresenLlng
LhaL sald properLy ls free from encumbrance, morLgaged lL
agaln, Lhls Llme Lo C. 8uL lf C knew LhaL Lhe properLy had
already been morLgaged Lo 8, C cannoL complaln, as Lhere ls
nelLher decelL nor fraud.
"Sha|| d|spose of the same"
o 1he acL consLlLuLlng Lhe offense ls dlsposlng of Lhe
real properLy falsely represenLlng LhaL lL ls free from
encumbrance.
o K&=92:#'&=" ! lncludes every rlghL or lnLeresL ln
Lhe land whlch exlsLs ln favor of Lhlrd persons.
o Lx: morLgage, ordlnary lease, aLLachmenL, llen of a
[udgmenL, execuLlon sale sub[ecL Lo redempLlon.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1here musL have been decelL
o 1he offended parLy would noL have granLed Lhe loan
had he known LhaL Lhe properLy was already
encumbered.
When Lhe loan had already been granLed when defendanL
offered Lhe properLy as securlLy for Lhe paymenL of Lhe
loan, Art|c|e 316, ar. 2 ls noL appllcable.
"A|though such encumbrance be not recorded"
o 1here are several Lypes of encumbrances. Some
requlre reglsLraLlon Lo be valld. under Lhls arLlcle,
alLhough such encumbrance be noL recorded, lL
musL be valld.
Actus keus: mlsrepresenLaLlon of Lhe properLy's avallablllLy
MorLgage operaLe ln Lerms of prlorlLy. lf Lhe properLy ls
morLgaged a second Llme, Lhe second morLgagee cannoL
make an acLlon on Lhe properLy unLll Lhe flrsL morLgagee
has been able Lo geL whaL ls rlghLfully hls from Lhe properLy.
uue ulllgence ls requlred of Lhe second morLgagor.
8eglsLraLlon of Lhe morLgagee Lhe 8eglsLry of ueds ls due
noLlce Lo Lhe publlc.

III. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: kea| property
1he Lhlng dlsposed of musL be real properLy. lf personal
properLy, Art|c|e 319 (ChaLLel MorLgage) applles.

IV. SLCCND kLUISI1L: roperty |s known to be encumbered
1he offender musL know LhaL Lhe real properLy ls
encumbered.

V. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: M|srepresentat|on, fraud or dece|t
1hese words lnvolve acLs or spoken or wrlLLen words by a
parLy Lo mlslead anoLher lnLo bellevlng someLhlng Lo be Lrue
when lL ls noL ln facL.
lL ls necessary Lo prove fraud or decelL. 1he mere facL LhaL
Lhe encumbered real properLy ls dlsposed of agaln by Lhe
owner does noL ln lLself consLlLuLe swlndllng.
When Lhe Lhlrd elemenL ls noL esLabllshed, Lhere ls no
crlme. asslve aLLlLude ls lnsufflclenL Lo consLlLuLe fraud.
1he fraud conLemplaLed ln Lhe law musL be Lhe resulL of
some overL acLs ! express represenLaLlon.

VI. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: Damage caused
1here musL be damage caused. lf no damage, no crlme of
LsLafa. lnLenLlon Lo cause damage ls noL sufflclenL because
Lhe basls of Lhe flne ls Lhe value of Lhe damage caused"
____________________
AkAGkAn 3: 8y wrongfu||y tak|ng by the owner h|s persona|
property from |ts |awfu| possessor

I. L|ements: (C-1A)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls Lhe owner of personal properLy
2. 1haL sald properLy ls ln Lhe lawful possesslon of anoLher.
3. 1haL Lhe offender wrongfully Lakes lL from lLs lawful
possessor.
4. 1haL pre[udlce ls Lhereby cause Lo Lhe possessor or Lhlrd
person.
Lxample:
1he accused pawned hls waLch Lo Lhe complalnanL. LaLer,
preLendlng Lo have Lhe money for redeemlng Lhe waLch, Lhe
accused asked Lhe offended parLy Lo glve hlm Lhe waLch.
Cnce ln possesslon of lL, he carrled lL away wlLhouL paylng
Lhe loan.

II. IIkS1 kLUISI1L: Cffender |s the owner
1he offender musL be Lhe owner of Lhe personal properLy. lf
he ls a Lhlrd person and hls purpose ln Laklng lL ls Lo reLurn lL
Lo Lhe owner, lL ls LhefL slnce Lhe absLracLlon was made wlLh
Lhe lnLenL LhaL anoLher mlghL proflL Lhereby.
ln no case may Lhe owner be held gullLy of LhefL of hls own
properLy LxCL1 lf afLer Laklng lL, he charges Lhe possessor
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
for lLs value (u.S. v. Albao).

III. SLCCND kLUISI1L: In the |awfu| possess|on of another
A ls noL gullLy of reLurnlng a rlng found by 8 Lo lLs owner,
alLhough done wlLhouL 8's knowledge or consenL. 8 was noL
Lhe lawful possessor of Lhe rlng.
1he flnder of losL properLy has no rlghL Lo possess Lhe same,
lL belng hls obllgaLlon Lo glve lL Lo lLs owner or auLhorlLles.

IV. 1nIkD kLUISI1L: Wrongfu||y takes from |awfu| possessor
1he Laklng ls wrongful when lL ls wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe
possessor, or when decelL ls employed by Lhe owner of Lhe
personal properLy ln lnduclng Lhe possessor Lo glve lL Lo
hlm.
u.S. v. Albao ! Laklng possesslon from Lhe lawful possessor
wlLh lnLenL Lo charge for lLs value ls robbery.
Art|c|e 286 (Crave Coerclon) applles lf Lhe ob[ecL ls Laken
wlLhouL lnLenL Lo galn.

V. ICUk1n kLUISI1L: Damage |s essent|a|.
____________________
AkAGkAn 4: 8y execut|ng any f|ct|t|ous contract to the
pre[ud|ce of another

A person who slmulaLes a conveyance of hls properLy Lo
anoLher for Lhe purpose of defraudlng hls credlLors (causlng
pre[udlce LhereLo) would be gullLy under Lhls paragraph.
8u1 lf Lhe conLracL was real and for a conslderaLlon, lL
would be a case of fraudu|ent |nso|vency (Art|c|e 314).
____________________
AkAGkAn S: 8y accept|ng any compensat|on for serv|ces not
rendered or for |abor not performed.

1hls klnd of LsLafa requlres fraud as an lmporLanL elemenL.
lf Lhere ls no fraud, lL becomes paymenL noL owlng, known
as so|ut|o |ndeb|t| (whlch resulLs Lo clvll llablllLy only). lL
would seem LhaL whaL consLlLuLes LsLafa under Lhls
paragraph ls Lhe mallclous fallure Lo reLurn Lhe
compensaLlon wrongfully recelved.
____________________
AkAGkAn 6: 8y se|||ng, mortgag|ng or encumber|ng rea|
property or propert|es w|th wh|ch the offender guaranteed the
fu|f|||ment of h|s ob||gat|on as surety.

I. L|ements: (SkL-ACk)
1. 1haL Lhe offender ls a sureLy ln a bond glven ln a crlmlnal or
clvll acLlon.
2. 1haL he guaranLeed Lhe fulflllmenL of such obllgaLlon wlLh
hls real properLy or properLles.
3. 1haL he sells, morLgages, or ln any oLher manner encumbers
sald real properLy.
4. 1haL such sale, morLgage or encumbrance ls (a) wlLhouL
express auLhorlLy from Lhe courL or (b) made before Lhe
cancellaLlon of hls bond, or (c) before belng relleved from
Lhe obllgaLlon conLracLed by hlm.
Important L|ement: 1here musL be damage caused. 1he
damage should noL be merely poLenLlal or speculaLlve.

Art|c|e 317 - Sw|nd||ng a m|nor.
Any person who tak|ng advantage of the |nexper|ence or emot|ons
or fee||ngs of a m|nor, to h|s detr|ment, sha|| |nduce h|m to assume
any ob||gat|on or to g|ve any re|ease or execute a transfer of any
property r|ght |n cons|derat|on of some |oan of money, cred|t or
other persona| property, whether the |oan c|ear|y appears |n the
document or |s shown |n any other form, sha|| suffer the pena|ty of
arresto mayor and a f|ne of a sum rang|ng from 10 to S0 per cent
of the va|ue of the ob||gat|on contracted by the m|nor.

CIN1S
I. L|ements: (A-AkL-LC-D)
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04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
1. 1haL Lhe offender Lakes advanLage of Lhe lnexperlence or
emoLlons or feellng of a mlnor.
2. 1haL he lnduces such mlnor (1) Lo assume an obllgaLlon, or
(2) Lo glve release, or (3) Lo execuLe a Lransfer of any
properLy rlghL.
3. 1haL Lhe conslderaLlon ls (1) some loan of money, (2) credlL,
or (3) oLher personal properLy
4. 1haL Lhe LransacLlon ls Lo Lhe deLrlmenL of such mlnor.

II. Cther o|nts
J/&%# ! under 18 years of age (k.A. 6809).
Lxample: 1he acL of causlng a mlnor Lo slgn a recelpL for
480 when as a maLLer of facL Lhe mlnor recelved 400 only,
coupled wlLh Lhe clrcumsLance LhaL Lhe mlnor was a fuglLlve
from Lhe house of hls parenLs and was very badly ln need of
money.
AcLual proof of decelL or mlsrepresenLaLlon ls noL essenLlal
as lL ls sufflclenL LhaL Lhe offender Lakes advanLage of Lhe
lnexperlence or emoLlons of Lhe mlnor.
8eal properLy noL lncluded slnce a mlnor cannoL convey real
properLy wlLhouL [udlclal auLhorlLy.

Art|c|e 318 - Cther dece|ts.
1he pena|ty of arresto mayor and a f|ne of not |ess than the
amount of the damage caused and not more than tw|ce such
amount sha|| be |mposed upon any person who sha|| defraud or
damage another by any other dece|t not ment|oned |n the
preced|ng art|c|es of th|s chapter.

Any person who, for prof|t or ga|n, sha|| |nterpret dreams, make
forecasts, te|| fortunes, or take advantage of the credu||ty of the
pub||c |n any other s|m||ar manner, sha|| suffer the pena|ty of
arresto menor or a f|ne not exceed|ng 200 pesos.

CIN1S
I. Cther dece|ts are:
1. 8y defraudlng or damaglng anoLher by any oLher decelL noL
menLloned ln Lhe precedlng arLlcles.
2. 8y lnLerpreLlng dreams, by maklng forecasLs, by Lelllng
forLunes, or by Laklng advanLage of Lhe credullLy of Lhe
publlc ln any oLher slmllar manner, for proflL or galn.

II. Cther o|nts
uamage ls requlred.
o eople v. SanLlago ! 1he accused hlred and used a
vehlcle and Lhen falled Lo pay Lhe fare, because he
had no money.
1he decelLs ln Lhls arLlcle lnclude false preLenses and
fraudulenL acLs.
o uS v. 8asco ! 1o glve copper cenLs whlLened by
qulcksllver and represenLlng Lhem as sllver peseLas
Lhereby decelvlng Lhe persons wlLh regard Lo Lhe
real value of Lhe colns. (8y fraudulenL acL)
o eople v. anllleo ! A person who represenLs
hlmself as a house helper Lo borrow money ln
advance buL laLer leaves. (8y false preLense)
CLher examples:
o alm reader ln fronL of uC!, why ls he noL belng
prosecuLed? 8ecause he ls noL able Lo Lake
advanLage of Lhe credullLy of Lhe publlc.

Chapter 7: Chatte| Mortgage

Art|c|e 319 - kemova|, sa|e or p|edge of mortgaged property.
1he pena|ty or arresto mayor or a f|ne amount|ng to tw|ce the
va|ue of the property sha|| be |mposed upon:
1. Any person who sha|| know|ng|y remove any persona|
property mortgaged under the Chatte| Mortgage Law to
any prov|nce or c|ty other than the one |n wh|ch |t was
|ocated at the t|me of the execut|on of the mortgage,
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
w|thout the wr|tten consent of the mortgagee, or h|s
executors, adm|n|strators or ass|gns.
2. Any mortgagor who sha|| se|| or p|edge persona| property
a|ready p|edged, or any part thereof, under the terms of
the Chatte| Mortgage Law, w|thout the consent of the
mortgagee wr|tten on the back of the mortgage and noted
on the record hereof |n the off|ce of the keg|ster of Deeds
of the prov|nce where such property |s |ocated.

CIN1S
I. Cb[ect of Art|c|e 319:
1he sancLlons provlded by Lhls arLlcle alm Lo deLer morLgage
debLors from vlolaLlng lL provlslons so LhaL morLgage
credlLors may be proLecLed agalnsL loss or lnconvenlence
resulLlng from Lhe wrongful removal or sale of Lhe
morLgaged properLy.

II. urpose of aragraph 1, Art|c|e 319
1he proLecLlon of Lhe morLgagee who should be able Lo
have a ready access Lo, and easy reach of Lhe properLy
sub[ecL of Lhe morLgage.

III. Acts pun|shab|e under Art|c|e 319
1. 8y knowlngly removlng any personal properLy morLgaged
under Lhe ChaLLel MorLgage Law Lo any provlnce or clLy
oLher Lhan Lhe one ln whlch lL was locaLed aL Lhe Llme of
execuLlon of Lhe morLgage, wlLhouL Lhe wrlLLen consenL of
Lhe morLgagee or hls execuLors, admlnlsLraLors, or asslgns.
2. 8y selllng or pledglng personal properLy already pledged, or
any parL Lhereof, under Lhe Lerms of Lhe ChaLLel MorLgage
Law, wlLhouL Lhe consenL of Lhe morLgagee wrlLLen on Lhe
back of Lhe morLgage and noLed on Lhe record Lhereof ln Lhe
offlce of Lhe reglsLer of deeds of Lhe provlnce where such
properLy ls locaLed.
____________________
AkAGkAn 1: know|ng|y remove any persona| property
mortgaged under the Chatte| Mortgage Law

I. L|ements: (LkkN)
1. 1haL personal properLy ls morLgaged under Lhe ChaLLel
MorLgage Law.
2. 1haL Lhe offender knows LhaL such properLy ls so morLgaged
3. 1haL he removes such morLgaged personal properLy Lo any
provlnce or clLy oLher Lhan Lhe one ln whlch lL was locaLed
aL Lhe Llme of Lhe execuLlon of Lhe morLgage.
4. 1haL Lhe removal ls permanenL.
3. 1haL Lhere ls no wrlLLen consenL of Lhe morLgagee or hls
execuLors, admlnlsLraLors, or asslgns Lo such removal.

II. Cther o|nts
1he Lhlrd person who removed Lhe properLy ls llable under
Lhls arLlcle because of Lhe phrase Lhe offender ls any
person"
lf Lhe chaLLel morLgage ls noL reglsLered, Lhere ls no
vlolaLlon of Art|c|e 319.
no felonlous lnLenL when Lransfer of personal properLy ls
due Lo change of resldence.
o WhaL lf you dldnL noLlfy Lhe bank regardlng your
change ln resldence?
o WhaL lf your change of resldences as abroad and
you dldn'L noLlfy Lhe morLgagee?
1he removal musL be coupled wlLh lnLenL Lo defraud.
llllng a clvll for collecLlon, noL for foreclosure of chaLLel
morLgage, relleves Lhe accused of crlmlnal responslblllLy.
o Such acLlon abandons Lhe morLgage as a basls of
rellef.
?ou and your frlends go Lo 8agulo wlLh your car for 3 weeks.
?ou falled Lo pay Lhe monLhly amorLlzaLlon, and dld so only
when you goL back. can Lhe bank flle a case agalnsL you for
vlolaLlng ArLlcle 319? no slnce removal ls noL permanenL.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
____________________
AkAGkAn 2: Se|||ng or p|edg|ng persona| property a|ready
p|edged

I. L|ements: (ASN)
1. 1haL personal properLy ls already pledged under Lhe Lerms
of Lhe ChaLLel MorLgage Law
2. 1haL Lhe offender, who ls Lhe morLgagor of such properLy,
sells or pledges Lhe same or any parL Lhereof
3. 1haL Lhere ls no consenL of Lhe morLgagee wrlLLen on Lhe
back of Lhe morLgage and noLed on Lhe record Lhereof ln
Lhe offlce of Lhe reglsLer of deeds.

II. Cther o|nts
Second chaLLel morLgage ls, aslde from sale or pledge,
conLemplaLed by Lhe law as wlLhln Lhe prohlblLlon.
ConsenL of Lhe morLgage musL be (1) ln wrlLlng, (2) on Lhe
back of Lhe morLgage, and (3) noLed on Lhe record Lhereof
ln Lhe offlce of Lhe reglsLer of deeds.
uamage ls noL necessary.
vlolaLlon of ArLlcle 316(2) and ArLlcle 319 can be vlolaLed
slmulLaneously lf Lhe real properLy ls agreed Lo be under Lhe
ChaLLel MorLgage Law

Art|c|e 316 Art|c|e 319
ln ar. 2 of Art|c|e 316, Lhe
properLy lnvolved ls real
properLy

urpose: Lo proLecL Lhe
purchaser
1he properLy lnvolved ls
personal properLy.

urpose: Lo proLecL Lhe
morLgagee

Chapter 8: Arson and Cther Cr|mes Invo|v|ng
Destruct|ons

Art|c|e 320 - Destruct|ve Arson.
1he pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora| |n |ts max|mum per|od to death
sha|| be |mposed upon any person who sha|| burn:
1. Cne (1) or more bu||d|ngs or ed|f|ces, consequent to one
s|ng|e act of burn|ng, or as resu|t of s|mu|taneous burn|ngs,
or comm|tted on severa| or d|fferent occas|ons.
2. Any bu||d|ng of pub||c or pr|vate ownersh|p, devoted to the
use of the pub||c |n genera|, or where peop|e usua||y
gather or congregated for a def|n|te purpose such as but
not ||m|ted to off|c|a| governmenta| funct|on or bus|ness,
pr|vate transact|on, commerce, trade, worsh|p, meet|ngs
and conferences, or mere|y |nc|denta| to a def|n|te purpose
such as but not ||m|ted to hote|s, mote|s, trans|ent
dwe|||ngs, pub||c conveyance or stops or term|na|s,
regard|ess of whether the offender had know|edge that
there are persons |n sa|d bu||d|ng or ed|f|ce at the t|me |t |s
set on f|re, and regard|ess a|so of whether the bu||d|ng |s
actua||y |nhab|ted or not.
3. Any tra|n or |ocomot|ve, sh|p or vesse|, a|rsh|p or a|rp|ane,
devoted to transportat|on or conven|ence, or pub||c use,
enterta|nment or |e|sure.
4. Any bu||d|ng, factory, warehouse |nsta||at|on and any
appurtenances thereto, wh|ch are devoted to the serv|ce
of pub||c ut|||t|es.
S. Any bu||d|ng, the burn|ng of wh|ch |s for the purpose of
concea||ng or destroy|ng ev|dence of another v|o|at|on of
|aw, or for the purpose of concea||ng bankruptcy or
defraud|ng cred|tors or to co||ect from |nsurance.

Irrespect|ve of the app||cat|on of the above enumerated qua||fy|ng
c|rcumstances, the pena|ty of death sha|| ||kew|se be |mposed
when the arson |s perpetrated or comm|tted by two (2) or more
persons or by a group of persons, regard|ess of whether the|r
purpose |s mere|y to burn or destroy the bu||d|ng or the ed|f|ce, or
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
the burn|ng mere|y const|tutes an overt act |n the comm|ss|on or
another v|o|at|on of |aw.

1he pena|ty of rec|us|on tempora| |n |ts max|mum per|od to death
sha|| a|so be |mposed upon any person who sha|| burn:
1. Any arsena|, sh|pyard, storehouse or m|||tary powder or
f|reworks factory, ord|nance storehouse, arch|ves or
genera| museum of the government.
2. In an |nhab|ted p|ace, any storehouse or factory of
|nf|ammab|e or exp|os|ve mater|a|s.

If as a consequence of the comm|ss|on of any of the acts pena||zed
under th|s Art|c|e, death or |n[ury resu|ts, or any va|uab|e
documents, equ|pment, mach|ner|es, apparatus, or other va|uab|e
propert|es were burned or destroyed, the mandatory pena|ty of
death sha|| be |mposed. K!" $%&'(&( )* +,!, 1<, -./0L

CIN1S
I. Destruct|ve Arson
ConLemplaLes Lhe mallclous burnlng (by flre) of sLrucLure,
boLh publlc and prlvaLe by any person or group of persons.
1he arLlcle Lakes lnLo conslderaLlon: (eople v. Sorlano)
o 1he exLreme danger Lo human llves exposed by Lhe
mallclous burnlng of Lhese sLrucLures.
o 1he danger Lo properLy resulLlng from Lhe
conflagraLlon.
o 1he facL LhaL lL ls normally dlfflculL Lo adopL
precauLlons agalnsL lLs commlsslon.
o 1he dlfflculLy ln plnpolnLlng Lhe perpeLraLors.
o 1he greaLer lmpacL on Lhe soclal, economlc, securlLy
and pollLlcal fabrlc of Lhe naLlon.
urpose: Lo effecLlvely dlscourage and deLer Lhe
commlsslon of Lhls dasLardly crlme, Lo prevenL Lhe
desLrucLlon of properLles and proLecL Lhe llves of lnnocenL
people.
1he power to destroy your own property |s part of your
ownersh|p power so |ong as |t does not pose danger to
other peop|e and the|r property

II. ena|ty for destruct|ve arson resu|t|ng |n death
8ecluslon perpeLua wlLh no ellglblllLy for parole.

Art|c|e 321. Cther forms of arson.
When the arson cons|sts |n the burn|ng of other property and
under the c|rcumstances g|ven hereunder, the offender sha|| be
pun|shab|e:
1. 8y rec|us|on tempora| or rec|us|on perpetua:
a. If the offender sha|| set f|re to any bu||d|ng,
farmhouse, warehouse, hut, she|ter, or vesse| |n
port, know|ng |t to be occup|ed at the t|me by one
or more persons,
b. If the bu||d|ng burned |s a pub||c bu||d|ng and va|ue
of the damage caused exceeds 6,000 pesos,
c. If the bu||d|ng burned |s a pub||c bu||d|ng and the
purpose |s to destroy ev|dence kept there|n to be
used |n |nst|tut|ng prosecut|on for the pun|shment
of v|o|ators of the |aw, |rrespect|ve of the amount
of the damage,
d. If the bu||d|ng burned |s a pub||c bu||d|ng and the
purpose |s to destroy ev|dence kept there|n to be
used |n |eg|s|at|ve, [ud|c|a| or adm|n|strat|ve
proceed|ngs, |rrespect|ve of the amount of the
damage, rov|ded, however, 1hat |f the ev|dence
destroyed |s to be used aga|nst the defendant for
the prosecut|on of any cr|me pun|shab|e under
ex|st|ng |aws, the pena|ty sha|| be rec|us|on
perpetua,
e. If the arson sha|| have been comm|tted w|th the
|ntent|on of co||ect|ng under an |nsurance po||cy
aga|nst |oss or damage by f|re.
!"#$#%&' '&) ## "*+#*)*" &,,-. /01* &",2"0 3* !&1,"0


04565789 $8:;4589 <4=> !"0$?0%1 @ABCCDABCAE. *F5:;F GH "8IJ;99; &77; KL:5;44;M @ABCADABCNE
2. 8y rec|us|on tempora|:
a. If an |nhab|ted house or any other bu||d|ng |n
wh|ch peop|e are accustomed to meet |s set on
f|re, and the cu|pr|t d|d not know that such house
or bu||d|ng was occup|ed at the t|me, or |f he sha||
set f|re to a mov|ng fre|ght tra|n or motor veh|c|e,
and the va|ue of the damage caused exceeds 6,000
pesos,
b. If the va|ue of the damage caused |n paragraph (b)
of the preced|ng subd|v|s|on does not exceed 6,000
pesos,
c. If a farm, sugar m|||, cane m|||, m||| centra|, bamboo
groves or any s|m||ar p|antat|on |s set on f|re and
the damage caused exceeds 6,000 pesos, and
d. If gra|n f|e|ds, pasture |ands, or forests, or p|ant|ngs
are set on f|re, and the damage caused exceeds
6,000 pesos.
3. 8y pr|s|on mayor:
a. If the va|ue of the damage caused |n the case
ment|oned |n paragraphs (a), (c), and (d) |n the
next preced|ng subd|v|s|on does not exceed 6,000
pesos,
b. If a bu||d|ng not used as a dwe|||ng or p|ace of
assemb|y, |ocated |n a popu|ated p|ace, |s set on
f|re, and the damage caused exceeds 6,000 pesos,
4. 8y pr|s|on correcc|ona| |n |ts max|mum per|od to pr|s|on