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Major Depressive Disorder Charles Ian M.

Seedo Concept Paper

We experience a lot of challenges in our daily life. As

e live!

e try our very

"est to i#prove ourselves. We go to school to learn acade#ically! lessons a"out life as a

e learn values and

hole "y doing house chores! ta$ing up responsi"ilities! and "y ant!

learning fro# #ista$es. People #ay also have the need! and so#eti#es have the for #oney! fa#e! glory! recognition! respect! and pride. %or#ally! stresses! "ut our "ody and #ind cope up

e experience

ith the needed rest and recovery. &o ever!

so#e people experience difficulty in recovering fro# stresses. It #ay ta$e the# a fe days! fe ee$s! fe #onths! fe years! or even a hole lifeti#e. 'ife "eco#es a lot

orse to the#! even to the point that they

ill push the#selves to self(har# and even ill revolve #uch on

death. )his condition is called depression! and this paper depression! and also #ajor depressive disorder.

According to the %ational Institute for Mental &ealth! depression is a "road and heterogeneous diagnosis! characterised "y depressed #ood and*or loss of pleasure in #ost activities. Depression #ay also "e characteri+ed ith having lo self(estee# and

"y a loss of attention or li$ing in nor#al day(to(day activities. As defined "y the %ational Institute of Clinical ,xcellence! depression refers to an extensive scope of #ental health pro"le#s descri"ed "y the a"sence of a positive affect lo #ood and a range of associated e#otional! cognitive! physical and "ehavioural

sy#pto#s. Distinguishing the #ood changes "et een #ajor depression and those

occurring -nor#ally. re#ains pro"le#atic/ persistence! severity! the presence of other sy#pto#s and the degree of functional and social i#pair#ent for# the "asis of that distinction. 0enerally! #oods in a #ajor depressive disorder are unreactive to situation! continuing lo all through all day. 1ehavioral and physical sy#pto#s usually include ithdra al! sleeping pro"le#s! hich leads so#eti#es leading

tearfulness! irrita"ility or having a "ad te#per! social orsening of pre(existing disco#forts! lo ered appetite to significant

eight loss! a lac$ of li"ido or desire for sexual activity! and fatigue. Along

ith it is a loss of concern and satisfaction in everyday life! #ental state of guilt! insignificance ith regards to self and justified self(punish#ent! as are lo ered self(

estee#! loss of confidence! feelings of helplessness! suicidal ideation and atte#pts at self(har# or suicide. Changes in reasoning include reduced concentration and

attention! pessi#istic and regularly negative thoughts a"out oneself. Depression is also often go along ith anxiety! or #ixed depression and anxiety! hich can "e diagnosed

depending on the sy#pto#s that co#prise the #ost relating to clinical psychology. 2urther#ore! depression varies ith age. )he young! relating to people at around t enty years of age! sho #ore "ehavioral sy#pto#s! and older adults #ore so#atic

sy#pto#s! physical or relating to the "ody! and fe er co#plaints of "ehaviour pro"le#s. Also! those ith #ore severe and #anifestations! including physical slo ness or anxiety and a range of so#atic sy#pto#s! are often referred to as #elancholic depressions! or depression ith #elancholia. According to the Merria#(We"ster

dictionary! #elancholia is a #ental condition and especially a #anic(depressive condition characteri+ed "y extre#e depression! "odily co#plaints! and often

hallucinations and delusions. )here are #ovies that have characters ith depression! or ali$e diseases. )he ith

fil# A 1eautiful Mind! directed "y 3on &o ard! features a genius #athe#atician

paranoid schi+ophrenia and endures delusional episodes. )he fil# is a 4556 A#erican "iographical dra#a fil# "ased on the life of 7ohn %ash! a %o"el 'aureate in ,cono#ics. )he fil# )he Machinist "y director 1rad Anderson features a character inso#nia! to the point ith severe

here the character have not slept for a year! co#plicating to

paranoia! delusional episodes! and o"sessive(co#pulsive disorder. According to the %ational Institute of Mental &ealth! there is no distinct ac$no ledged cause of depression. Instead! it pro"a"ly results fro# a co#"ination of "ioche#ical! environ#ental! genetic! and psychological factors. 3esearch sho s that depressive disorders are disorders of the "rain. 1rain(i#aging technologies! such as #agnetic resonance i#aging 8M3I9! have sho n that the "rains of clinically depressed people differ co#pared to those of people ithout depression. )he parts of the "rain

responsi"le for regulating appetite! "ehaviour! #ood! sleep! and thin$ing! appear to function a"nor#ally. In addition! i#portant neurotrans#itters act to "e out of "alance. %eurotrans#itters are che#icals that trans#it neural signals "et een synapses of neurons. An exa#ple of hich is serotonin! a neurotrans#itter that regulates appetite!

"ehaviour! #e#ory and learning! #ood! #uscle contraction! sleep! and te#perature. So#e for#s of depression tend to appear in fa#ilies! suggesting a genetic lin$. %evertheless! depression can also occur in people ithout ancestral origin of

depression. People #ay have a higher ris$ of depression fro# the effect of #ultiple genes acting out together ith environ#ental factors and other sti#uli. Moreover!

physical trau#a! loss of fa#ily #e#"ers and loved ones! a de#anding relationship relating to the fa#ily or at or$! or any nerve( rac$ing circu#stances #ay trigger a ith or ithout an

depressive episode. Successive depressive episodes #ay occur o"vious trigger.

Depression is #ore co##on a#ong co#pared to #en. 1iological! hor#onal! life cycle! and psychosocial factors uni:ue to o#en #ay "e associated to o#en having a higher depression rate. &or#ones can directly affect "rain che#istry that control #ood. 2or instance! happens o#en are typically exposed to depression right after giving "irth. )his ith the ne #others.

hen there are hor#onal and physical changes! along

responsi"ility of caring for the child. )his is also $no n as ;"a"y "lues< "y ne So#e ill develop postpartu# or postnatal depression! ith childcare. Wo#en

hich lead #others to "e

inconsistent

ith postnatal depression often focus #ore on the ith the child.s needs. So#e

negative actions of childcare! resulting in poor dealing

o#en #ay also "e vulnera"le to a severe for# of pre#enstrual syndro#e 8PMS9! so#eti#es called pre#enstrual dysphoric disorder 8PMDD9! an illness "rought a"out fro# the hor#onal changes that usually occur around ovulation and "efore #enstruation. During the shift into #enopause! so#e o#en experience a "igger ris$

for depression. )he recurrent rise and fall of estrogen and other hor#ones #ay affect the "rain che#istry that is associated ith depressive illness. 'astly! #any o#en face

the extra hassles of responsi"ilities in the ho#e and at elderly parents! and other life pro"le#s. Men regularly experience depression in a different have different ays of dealing

or$! caring for children and

ay than

o#en! and #ay

ith the sy#pto#s. Men are #ore li$ely to accept having

"ad te#per! fatigue! and loss of interest in day(to(day activities! and sleep disorders! hile o#en are #ore li$ely to ad#it to feelings of sadness! orthlessness and even hen they

excessive guilt. Men are #ore li$ely than

o#en to turn to alcohol or drugs

are depressed! or "eco#e frustrated! discouraged! irrita"le! angry and so#eti#es a"usive. So#e #en thro depression though #ore States. A child ith depression #ay pretend to "e sic$! refuse to go to school! "eco#e orry that a loved one #ay die. >lder children #ay "e "ad rong the#selves into their or$ to avoid tal$ing a"out their

ith fa#ily or friends! or engage in rec$less! ris$y "ehavior. And even o#en atte#pt suicide! #any #ore #en die "y suicide in the =nited

clingy to a parent! or

te#pered! get into trou"le at school! "e negative and irrita"le! and feel ta$en the

ay. 1ecause these signs #ay "e considered as nor#al #ood s ings usual of children as they experience develop#ental periods! it #ay "e difficult to correctly diagnose a young person ith depression 8Con ay et al! 455?9. Depression in adolescence co#es at a ti#e of great personal change. It happens hen "oys and girls are for#ing an identity separate fro# their parents! coping ith

gender concerns and developing sexuality! and #a$ing decisions for the first ti#e in their lives. Depression in adolescence co##only exist ith other disorders such as

anxiety! disruptive "ehavior! eating disorders or su"stance a"use. It can also lead to increased ris$ for suicide. Depression is a highly treata"le disorder! even at the intuition orst degree of illness. As

ould say a"out #any illnesses! the earlier that treat#ent can "egin! the #ore

effective it is and the greater the chance that reappearance of the disease can "e

stopped. )he first step to getting appropriate treat#ent is to visit a doctor. )he doctor ill conduct a co#plete diagnostic assess#ent. &e should discuss any fa#ily history of depression! and get a co#plete history of sy#pto#s! such as hen! ho severe!

fre:uency! and first(aid treat#ent. &e should also as$ if the patient is using alcohol or drugs! and person hether the patient is thin$ing a"out death or suicide. >nce diagnosed! a ith a nu#"er of #ethods. )he #ost co##on

ith depression can "e treated

treat#ents are #edication and psychotherapy. )he author ould li$e to pro#ote a areness a"out depression. It really has a "ig effect on people! and the negative far out eighs the "enefits. @es! it lets the person affected learn on ho to appreciate life "etter and to ta$e care of his "ody! yet he ould

really have the difficulty to do so. Depression is curse! and can even "ring death.

References Online Periodical or Document

Depression. 455A. %ational Institute of Mental &ealth. Pu"lication no. 5A BC?6. 3etrieved fro# http/** .ni#h.nih.gov

Depression/ Manage#ent of depression in pri#ary and secondary care. %ational Colla"orating Centre for Mental &ealth. %ational Clinical Practice 0uideline %u#"er 4B. 3etrieved fro# http/** .nice.org.u$

Depression. 455D. %ational Colla"orating Centre for Mental &ealth. %IC, clinical guidelines D5 and D6. 3etrieved fro# http/** 2ield! ). 84565 2e"ruary9. .nice.org.u$

Postpartu# depression effects on early interactions!

parenting! and safety practices/ A revie . Infant 1ehavior and Develop#ent. 3etrieved %ove#"er B5! 456B. A$ins! 3! et al. 8455A Septe#"er9. Co#or"id Depression and AD&D in Children and Adolescents. http/** Psychiatric )i#es. 3etrieved fro#

.psychiatricti#es.co#*adhd*co#or"id(depression(and(adhd(children(

and(adolescents Database Article =n$no n author. =n$no n date of pu"lication. Major Depressive Disorder. Ar#enian Medical %et or$. 3etrieved fro# http/** disorder* Melancholia. 8n.d.9. Merria#(We"ster.co#. 3etrieved 7anuary 6E! 456E! fro# http/** Film .#erria#( e"ster.co#*dictionary*#elancholia .health.a#*psy*#ajor(depressive(

&o ard! 3onn! 0ra+er! 1rian 8Producers9. &o ard! 3on 8Director9. 4556. A 1eautiful Mind. I#agine ,ntertain#ent 8Studio9. Motion picture. =nited States of A#erica. 2ernFnde+! Carlos! 2ernFnde+! 7ulio! %ava! Antonia 8Producers9. Anderson! 1rad. 455E. ,l Ma:uinista 8Spain9! )he Machinist 8,nglish9. 2il#ax ,ntertain#ent! CanalG ,spaa! Instituto de la Cine#atografHa y de las Artes Audiovisuales 8ICAA9! IC2 8Producers9. Spain! =nited States of A#erica.