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Essays

Francis Bacon
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Francis Bacon

T+E E,,EQ, :* C:<;,E=," C/)/= E;( 5:*E=" :F F*E;C/, =!& )E*<=E5 )/,C:<;T ,T& E=BE;, T+E E,,EQ, :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f Truth (eath <nity in *eligion *e enge E! ersity ,i%ulation an! (issi%ulation Parents an! Chil!ren 5arriage an! ,ingle =ife

:f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f :f

En y =o e Great Place Bol!ness Goo!ness an! Goo!ness of ;ature ;obility ,e!itions an! Troubles Etheis% ,uperstition Tra el E%pire Counsel (elays Cunning 'is!o% for a 5anDs ,elf /nno ations (ispatch ,ee%ing 'ise Frien!ship Expense the True Greatness of Ting!o%s an! Estates *egi%ent of +ealth ,uspicion (iscourse Plantations *iches Prophecies E%bition 5as>ues an! Triu%phs ;ature in 5en Custo% an! E!ucation Fortune <sury Qouth an! Ege Beauty (efor%ity Buil!ing Gar!ens ;egotiating Followers an! Frien!s ,uitors ,tu!ies Faction Cere%onies an! *espects Praise )ain@glory +onor an! *eputation 0u!icature Enger )icissitu!e of Things Fa%e

T: T+E */G+T +:;:*EB=E 5Q )E*Q G::( =:*( T+E (<TE :F B<CT/;G+E5 +/, G*ECE" =:*( +/G+ E(5/*E= :F E;G=E;( EOCE==E;T =:*(? ,E=:5:; saiesR E goo! ;a%e is as a precious oynt%entR En! / assure %y selfe" such wil your Graces ;a%e bee" with Posteritie& For your Fortune" an! 5erit both" ha e been E%inent& En! you ha e plante! Things" that are li#e to last& / !oe now publish %y EssayesR which" of all %y other wor#es" ha e beene %ost Currant? For that" as it see%es" they co%e ho%e" to 5ens Businesse" an! Boso%es& / ha e enlarge! the%" both in ;u%ber" an! 'eightR ,o that they are in!ee! a ;ew 'or#e& / thought it therefore agreeable" to %y Effection" an! :bligation to your Grace" to prefix your ;a%e before the%" both in English" an! in =atine& For / !oe concei e" that the =atine )olu%e of the%" Fbeing in the <ni ersall =anguageG %ay last" as long as Boo#es last& 5y /nstauration" / !e!icate! to the Ting? 5y +istorie of +enry the ,e enth" Fwhich / ha e now also translate! into =atineG an! %y Portions of ;aturall +istory" to the Prince? En! these / !e!icate to your GraceR Being of the best Fruits" that by the goo! Encrease" which Go! gi es to %y Pen an! =abours" / coul! yeel!& Go! lea!e your Grace by the +an!& Qour Graces %ost :blige! an! faithfull ,er ant" F*& ,T& E=BE;

:f Truth

'+ET is truthP sai! jesting Pilate"an! woul! not stay for an answer& Certainly there be" that !elight in gi!!iness" an! count it a bon!age to

fix a beliefR affecting free@will in thin#ing" as well as in acting& En! though the sects of philosophers of that #in! be gone" yet there re%ain certain !is@ coursing wits" which are of the sa%e eins" though there be not so %uch bloo! in the%" as was in those of the ancients& But it is not only the !ifficulty an! labor" which %en ta#e in fin!ing out of truth" nor again" that when it is foun!" it i%poseth upon %enDs thoughts" that !oth bring lies in fa orR but a natural" though corrupt lo e" of the lie itself& :ne of the later school of the Grecians" exa%ineth the %atter" an! is at a stan!" to thin# what shoul! be in it" that %en shoul! lo e liesR where neither they %a#e for pleasure" as with poets" nor for a! an@ tage" as with the %erchantR but for the lieDs sa#e& But / cannot tellR this sa%e truth" is a na#e!" an! open !ay@light" that !oth not show the %as#s" an! %u%%eries" an! triu%phs" of the worl!" half so stately an! !aintily as can!le@lights& Truth %ay perhaps co%e to the price of a pearl" that showeth best by !ayR but it will not rise to the price of a !ia%on!" or carbuncle" that showeth best in arie! lights& E %ixture of a lie !oth e er a!! pleasure& (oth any %an !oubt" that if there were ta#en out of %enDs %in!s" ain opinions" flattering hopes" false aluations" i%aginations as one woul!" an! the li#e" but it woul! lea e the %in!s" of a nu%ber of %en" poor shrun#en things" full of %elancholy an! in!isposition" an! unpleasing to the%sel esP :ne of the fathers" in great se erity" calle! poesy inu% !ae%onu%" because it fireth the i%agina@ tionR an! yet" it is but with the sha!ow of a lie& But it is not the lie that passeth through the %in!" but the lie that sin#eth in" an! settleth in it" that !oth the hurtR such as we spa#e of before& But how@ soe er these things are thus in %enDs !epra e! ju!g%ents" an! affections" yet truth" which only !oth ju!ge itself" teacheth that the in>uiry of truth" which is the lo e@%a#ing" or wooing of it" the #nowle!ge of truth" which is the presence of it" an! the belief of truth" which is the enjoying of it" is the so ereign goo! of hu%an nature& The first creature of Go!" in the wor#s of the !ays" was the light of the senseR the last" was the light of reasonR an! his sabbath wor# e er since" is the illu%ina@ tion of his ,pirit& First he breathe! light" upon the face of the %atter or chaosR then he breathe! light" into the face of %anR an! still he breatheth an! in@ spireth light" into the face of his chosen& The poet" that beautifie! the sect" that was otherwise in@ ferior to the rest" saith yet excellently well? /t is a pleasure" to stan! upon the shore" an! to see ships tosse! upon the seaR a pleasure" to stan! in the win@ !ow of a castle" an! to see a battle" an! the a! en@ tures thereof below? but no pleasure is co%parable to the stan!ing upon the antage groun! of truth Fa hill not to be co%%an!e!" an! where the air is

always clear an! sereneG" an! to see the errors" an! wan!erings" an! %ists" an! te%pests" in the ale belowR so always that this prospect be with pity" an! not with swelling" or pri!e& Certainly" it is hea en upon earth" to ha e a %anDs %in! %o e in charity" rest in pro i!ence" an! turn upon the poles of truth& To pass fro% theological" an! philosophical truth" to the truth of ci il businessR it will be ac@ #nowle!ge!" e en by those that practise it not" that clear" an! roun! !ealing" is the honor of %anDs natureR an! that %ixture of falsehoo!s" is li#e alloy in coin of gol! an! sil er" which %ay %a#e the %etal wor# the better" but it e%baseth it& For these win!ing" an! croo#e! courses" are the goings of the serpentR which goeth basely upon the belly" an! not upon the feet& There is no ice" that !oth so co er a %an with sha%e" as to be foun! false an! perfi!ious& En! therefore 5ontaigne saith pret@ tily" when he in>uire! the reason" why the wor! of the lie shoul! be such a !isgrace" an! such an o!ious chargeP ,aith he" /f it be well weighe!" to say that a %an lieth" is as %uch to say" as that he is bra e towar!s Go!" an! a cowar! towar!s %en& For a lie faces Go!" an! shrin#s fro% %an& ,urely the wic#e!ness of falsehoo!" an! breach of faith" cannot possibly be so highly expresse!" as in that it shall be the last peal" to call the ju!g%ents of Go! upon the generations of %enR it being foretol!" that when Christ co%eth" he shall not fin! faith upon the earth&

:f (eath

5E; fear !eath" as chil!ren fear to go in the !ar#R an! as that natural fear in chil!ren" is increase! with tales" so is the other& Certainly" the conte%plation of !eath" as the wages of sin" an! passage to another worl!" is holy an! relig@ iousR but the fear of it" as a tribute !ue unto nature" is wea#& Qet in religious %e!itations" there is so%e@ ti%es %ixture of anity" an! of superstition& Qou shall rea!" in so%e of the friarsD boo#s of %ortifica@ tion" that a %an shoul! thin# with hi%self" what the pain is" if he ha e but his fingerDs en! presse!" or torture!" an! thereby i%agine" what the pains of !eath are" when the whole bo!y is corrupte!" an! !issol e!R when %any ti%es !eath passeth" with less pain than the torture of a li%bR for the %ost ital parts" are not the >uic#est of sense& En!

by hi% that spa#e only as a philosopher" an! nat@ ural %an" it was well sai!" Po%pa %ortis %agis terret" >ua% %ors ipsa& Groans" an! con ulsions" an! a !iscolore! face" an! frien!s weeping" an! blac#s" an! obse>uies" an! the li#e" show !eath terrible& /t is worthy the obser ing" that there is no passion in the %in! of %an" so wea#" but it %ates" an! %asters" the fear of !eathR an! therefore" !eath is no such terrible ene%y" when a %an hath so %any atten!ants about hi%" that can win the co%bat of hi%& *e enge triu%phs o er !eathR lo e slights itR honor aspireth to itR grief flieth to itR fear preoccupateth itR nay" we rea!" after :tho the e%@ peror ha! slain hi%self" pity Fwhich is the ten!er@ est of affectionsG pro o#e! %any to !ie" out of %ere co%passion to their so ereign" an! as the truest sort of followers& ;ay" ,eneca a!!s niceness an! satiety? Cogita >ua%!iu ea!e% fecerisR %ori elle" non tantu% fortis aut %iser" se! etia% fasti!iosus potest& E %an woul! !ie" though he were neither aliant" nor %iserable" only upon a weariness to !o the sa%e thing so oft" o er an! o er& /t is no less worthy" to obser e" how little alteration in goo! spirits" the approaches of !eath %a#eR for they appear to be the sa%e %en" till the last instant& Eugustus Caesar !ie! in a co%pli%entR =i ia" con@ jugii nostri %e%or" i e et ale& Tiberius in !issi@ %ulationR as Tacitus saith of hi%" 0a% Tiberiu% ires et corpus" non !issi%ulatio" !eserebant& )es@ pasian in a jest" sitting upon the stoolR <t puto !eus fio& Galba with a sentenceR Feri" si ex re sit populi *o%aniR hol!ing forth his nec#& ,epti%ius ,e erus in !espatchR E!este si >ui! %ihi restat agen!u%& En! the li#e& Certainly the ,toics bestowe! too %uch cost upon !eath" an! by their great prepara@ tions" %a!e it appear %ore fearful& Better saith he" >ui fine% itae extre%u% inter %unera ponat naturae& /t is as natural to !ie" as to be bornR an! to a little infant" perhaps" the one is as painful" as the other& +e that !ies in an earnest pursuit" is li#e one that is woun!e! in hot bloo!R who" for the ti%e" scarce feels the hurtR an! therefore a %in! fixe!" an! bent upon so%ewhat that is goo!" !oth a ert the !olors of !eath& But" abo e all" belie e it" the sweetest canticle isD" ;unc !i%ittisR when a %an hath obtaine! worthy en!s" an! expectations& (eath hath this alsoR that it openeth the gate to goo! fa%e" an! extinguisheth en y& @ Extinctus a%abitur i!e%&

:f <nity /; *E=/G/:;

*E=/G/:; being the chief ban! of hu%an so@ ciety" it is a happy thing" when itself is well containe! within the true ban! of unity& The >uarrels" an! !i isions about religion" were e ils un#nown to the heathen& The reason was" because the religion of the heathen" consiste! rather in rites an! cere%onies" than in any constant belief& For you %ay i%agine" what #in! of faith theirs was" when the chief !octors" an! fathers of their church" were the poets& But the true Go! hath this attribute" that he is a jealous Go!R an! therefore" his worship an! religion" will en!ure no %ixture" nor partner&'e shall therefore spea# a few wor!s" concerning the unity of the churchR what are the fruits thereof R what the boun!sR an! what the %eans& The fruits of unity Fnext unto the well pleasing of Go!" which is all in allG are two? the one" towar!s those that are without the church" the other" towar!s those that are within& For the for%erR it is certain" that heresies" an! schis%s" are of all others the greatest scan!alsR yea" %ore than corruption of %anners& For as in the natural bo!y" a woun!" or solution of continuity" is worse than a corrupt hu%orR so in the spiritual& ,o that nothing" !oth so %uch #eep %en out of the church" an! !ri e %en out of the church" as breach of unity& En! there@ fore" whensoe er it co%eth to that pass" that one saith" Ecce in !eserto" another saith" Ecce in pene@ tralibusR that is" when so%e %en see# Christ" in the con enticles of heretics" an! others" in an outwar! face of a church" that oice ha! nee! continually to soun! in %enDs ears" ;olite exire" @ Go not out& The !octor of the Gentiles Fthe propriety of whose ocation" !rew hi% to ha e a special care of those withoutG saith" if an heathen co%e in" an! hear you spea# with se eral tongues" will he not say that you are %a!P En! certainly it is little better" when atheists" an! profane persons" !o hear of so %any !iscor!ant" an! contrary opinions in re@ ligionR it !oth a ert the% fro% the church" an! %a#eth the%" to sit !own in the chair of the scorners& /t is but a light thing" to be ouche! in so serious a %atter" but yet it expresseth well the !efor%ity& There is a %aster of scoffing" that in his catalogue of boo#s of a feigne! library" sets !own this title of a boo#" The 5orris@(ance of +eretics& For in!ee!" e ery sect of the%" hath a !i erse pos@ ture" or cringe by the%sel es" which cannot but %o e !erision in worl!lings" an! !epra e! politics" who are apt to conte%n holy things& Es for the fruit towar!s those that are withinR it is peaceR which containeth infinite blessings& /t

establisheth faithR it #in!leth charityR the outwar! peace of the church" !istilleth into peace of con@ scienceR an! it turneth the labors of writing" an! rea!ing of contro ersies" into treaties of %ortifica@ tion an! !e otion& Concerning the boun!s of unityR the true plac@ ing of the%" i%porteth excee!ingly& There appear to be two extre%es& For to certain 9ealants" all speech of pacification is o!ious& /s it peace" 0ehu"P 'hat hast thou to !o with peaceP turn thee be@ hin! %e& Peace is not the %atter" but following" an! party& Contrariwise" certain =ao!iceans" an! lu#ewar% persons" thin# they %ay acco%%o!ate points of religion" by %i!!le way" an! ta#ing part of both" an! witty reconcile%entsR as if they woul! %a#e an arbitra%ent between Go! an! %an& Both these extre%es are to be a oi!e!R which will be !one" if the league of Christians" penne! by our ,a ior hi%self" were in two cross clauses thereof" soun!ly an! plainly expoun!e!? +e that is not with us" is against usR an! again" +e that is not against us" is with usR that is" if the points fun!a@ %ental an! of substance in religion" were truly !iscerne! an! !istinguishe!" fro% points not %erely of faith" but of opinion" or!er" or goo! in@ tention& This is a thing %ay see% to %any a %atter tri ial" an! !one alrea!y& But if it were !one less partially" it woul! be e%brace! %ore generally& :f this / %ay gi e only this a! ice" accor!ing to %y s%all %o!el& 5en ought to ta#e hee!" of ren!@ ing Go!Ds church" by two #in!s of contro ersies& The one is" when the %atter of the point contro@ erte!" is too s%all an! light" not worth the heat an! strife about it" #in!le! only by contra!iction& For" as it is note!" by one of the fathers" ChristDs coat in!ee! ha! no sea%" but the churchDs esture was of !i ers colorsR whereupon he saith" /n este arietas sit" scissura non sitR they be two things" unity an! unifor%ity& The other is" when the %atter of the point contro erte!" is great" but it is !ri en to an o er@great subtilty" an! obscurityR so that it beco%eth a thing rather ingenious" than substantial& E %an that is of ju!g%ent an! un!er@ stan!ing" shall so%eti%es hear ignorant %en !if@ fer" an! #now well within hi%self" that those which so !iffer" %ean one thing" an! yet they the%sel es woul! ne er agree& En! if it co%e so to pass" in that !istance of ju!g%ent" which is be@ tween %an an! %an" shall we not thin# that Go! abo e" that #nows the heart" !oth not !iscern that frail %en" in so%e of their contra!ictions" inten! the sa%e thingR an! accepteth of bothP The nature of such contro ersies is excellently expresse!" by ,t& Paul" in the warning an! precept" that he gi eth concerning the sa%e" (e ita profanas ocu% no i@ tates" et oppositiones falsi no%inis scientiae& 5en

create oppositions" which are notR an! put the% into new ter%s" so fixe!" as whereas the %eaning ought to go ern the ter%" the ter% in effect go @ erneth the %eaning&There be also two false peaces" or unities? the one" when the peace is groun!e!" but upon an i%plicit ignoranceR for all colors will agree in the !ar#? the other" when it is piece! up" upon a !irect a!%ission of contraries" in fun!a@ %ental points& For truth an! falsehoo!" in such things" are li#e the iron an! clay" in the toes of ;ebucha!ne99arDs i%ageR they %ay clea e" but they will not incorporate& Concerning the %eans of procuring unityR %en %ust beware" that in the procuring" or reuniting" of religious unity" they !o not !issol e an! !eface the laws of charity" an! of hu%an society& There be two swor!s a%ongst Christians" the spiritual an! te%poralR an! both ha e their !ue office an! place" in the %aintenance of religion& But we %ay not ta#e up the thir! swor!" which is 5aho%etDs swor!" or li#e unto itR that is" to propagate religion by wars" or by sanguinary persecutions to force consciencesR except it be in cases of o ert scan!al" blasphe%y" or inter%ixture of practice against the stateR %uch less to nourish se!itionsR to author@ i9e conspiracies an! rebellionsR to put the swor! into the peopleDs han!sR an! the li#eR ten!ing to the sub ersion of all go ern%ent" which is the or!inance of Go!& For this is but to !ash the first table against the secon!R an! so to consi!er %en as Christians" as we forget that they are %en& =ucretius the poet" when he behel! the act of Ega@ %e%non" that coul! en!ure the sacrificing of his own !aughter" exclai%e!? Tantu% *eligio potuit sua!ere %aloru%& 'hat woul! he ha e sai!" if he ha! #nown of the %assacre in France" or the pow!er treason of Englan!P +e woul! ha e been se en ti%es %ore Epicure" an! atheist" than he was& For as the te%@ poral swor! is to be !rawn with great circu%spec@ tion in cases of religionR so it is a thing %onstrous to put it into the han!s of the co%%on people& =et that be left unto the Enabaptists" an! other furies& /t was great blasphe%y" when the !e il sai!" / will ascen!" an! be li#e the highestR but it is greater blasphe%y" to personate Go!" an! bring hi% in saying" / will !escen!" an! be li#e the prince of !ar#nessR an! what is it better" to %a#e the cause of religion to !escen!" to the cruel an! execrable actions of %urthering princes" butchery of people" an! sub ersion of states an! go ern%entsP ,urely this is to bring !own the +oly Ghost" instea! of the li#eness of a !o e" in the shape of a ulture or ra enR an! set" out of the bar# of a Christian church" a flag of a bar# of pirates" an! assassins& Therefore it is %ost necessary" that the church" by

!octrine an! !ecree" princes by their swor!" an! all learnings" both Christian an! %oral" as by their 5ercury ro!" !o !a%n an! sen! to hell for e er" those facts an! opinions ten!ing to the support of the sa%eR as hath been alrea!y in goo! part !one& ,urely in counsels concerning religion" that coun@ sel of the apostle woul! be prefixe!" /ra ho%inis non i%plet justitia% (ei& En! it was a notable obser ation of a wise father" an! no less ingenu@ ously confesse!R that those which hel! an! per@ sua!e! pressure of consciences" were co%%only intereste! therein&" the%sel es" for their own en!s&

:f *e enge *E)E;GE is a #in! of wil! justiceR which the %ore %anD s nature runs to" the %ore ought law to wee! it out& For as for the first wrong" it !oth but offen! the lawR but the re enge of that wrong" putteth the law out of office& Certainly" in ta#ing re enge" a %an is but e en with his ene%yR but in passing it o er" he is superiorR for it is a princeDs part to par!on& En! ,olo%on" / a% sure" saith" /t is the glory of a %an" to pass by an offence& That which is past is gone" an! irre ocableR an! wise %en ha e enough to !o" with things present an! to co%eR therefore they !o but trifle with the%sel es" that labor in past %atters& There is no %an !oth a wrong" for the wrongDs sa#eR but thereby to purchase hi%self profit" or pleasure" or honor" or the li#e& Therefore why shoul! / be angry with a %an" for lo ing hi%self better than %eP En! if any %an shoul! !o wrong" %erely out of ill@nature" why" yet it is but li#e the thorn or briar" which pric# an! scratch" because they can !o no other& The %ost tolerable sort of re enge" is for those wrongs which there is no law to re%e!yR but then let a %an ta#e hee!" the re enge be such as there is no law to punishR else a %anDs ene%y is still before han!" an! it is two for one& ,o%e" when they ta#e re enge" are !esirous" the party shoul! #now" whence it co%eth& This is the %ore gener@ ous& For the !elight see%eth to be" not so %uch in !oing the hurt" as in %a#ing the party repent& But base an! crafty cowar!s" are li#e the arrow that flieth in the !ar#& Cos%us" !u#e of Florence" ha! a !esperate saying against perfi!ious or neglecting frien!s" as if those wrongs were unpar!onableR Qou shall rea! Fsaith heG that we are co%%an!e! to forgi e our ene%iesR but you ne er rea!" that we are co%%an!e! to forgi e our frien!s& But yet the spirit of 0ob was in a better tune? ,hall we Fsaith heG ta#e goo! at Go!Ds han!s" an! not be content to ta#e e il alsoP En! so of frien!s in a proportion&

This is certain" that a %an that stu!ieth re enge" #eeps his own woun!s green" which otherwise woul! heal" an! !o well& Public re enges are for the %ost part fortunateR as that for the !eath of CaesarR for the !eath of PertinaxR for the !eath of +enry the Thir! of FranceR an! %any %ore& But in pri ate re enges" it is not so& ;ay rather" in!ic@ ti e persons li e the life of witchesR who" as they are %ischie ous" so en! they infortunate&

:f E! ersity /T 'E, an high speech of ,eneca Fafter the %anner of the ,toicsG" that the goo! things" which belong to prosperity" are to be wishe!R but the goo! things" that belong to a! ersity" are to be a!%ire!& Bona reru% secun!aru% optabiliaR a!@ ersaru% %irabilia& Certainly if %iracles be the co%%an! o er nature" they appear %ost in a! er@ sity& /t is yet a higher speech of his" than the other F%uch too high for a heathenG" /t is true greatness" to ha e in one the frailty of a %an" an! the security of a Go!& )ere %agnu% habere fragilitate% ho%i@ nis" securitate% (ei& This woul! ha e !one better in poesy" where transcen!ences are %ore allowe!& En! the poets in!ee! ha e been busy with itR for it is in effect the thing" which figure! in that strange fiction of the ancient poets" which see%eth not to be without %ysteryR nay" an! to ha e so%e approach to the state of a ChristianR that +ercules" when he went to unbin! Pro%etheus Fby who% hu%an nature is represente!G" saile! the length of the great ocean" in an earthen pot or pitcherR li ely !escribing Christian resolution" that saileth in the frail bar# of the flesh" through the wa es of the worl!& But to spea# in a %ean& The irtue of pros@ perity" is te%peranceR the irtue of a! ersity" is fortitu!eR which in %orals is the %ore heroical irtue& Prosperity is the blessing of the :l! Testa@ %entR a! ersity is the blessing of the ;ewR which carrieth the greater bene!iction" an! the clearer re elation of Go!Ds fa or& Qet e en in the :l! Testa%ent" if you listen to (a i!Ds harp" you shall hear as %any hearse@li#e airs as carolsR an! the pencil of the +oly Ghost hath labore! %ore in !e@ scribing the afflictions of 0ob" than the felicities of ,olo%on& Prosperity is not without %any fears an! !istastesR an! a! ersity is not without co%@ forts an! hopes& 'e see in nee!le@wor#s an! e%@ broi!eries" it is %ore pleasing to ha e a li ely wor#" upon a sa! an! sole%n groun!" than to ha e a !ar# an! %elancholy wor#" upon a lightso%e groun!? ju!ge therefore of the pleasure of the heart" by the pleasure of the eye& Certainly irtue is li#e precious

o!ors" %ost fragrant when they are incense!" or crushe!? for prosperity !oth best !isco er ice" but a! ersity !oth best !isco er irtue&

:f ,i%ulation E;( (/,,/5<=ET/:;

(/,,/5<=ET/:; is but a faint #in! of pol@ icy" or wis!o%R for it as#eth a strong wit" an! a strong heart" to #now when to tell truth" an! to !o it& Therefore it is the wea#er sort of politics" that are the great !isse%blers& Tacitus saith" =i ia sorte! well with the arts of her husban!" an! !issi%ulation of her sonR attri@ buting arts or policy to Eugustus" an! !issi%ula@ tion to Tiberius& En! again" when 5ucianus encourageth )espasian" to ta#e ar%s against )itel@ lius" he saith" 'e rise not against the piercing ju!g%ent of Eugustus" nor the extre%e caution or closeness of Tiberius& These properties" of arts or policy" an! !issi%ulation or closeness" are in!ee! habits an! faculties se eral" an! to be !istin@ guishe!& For if a %an ha e that penetration of ju!g%ent" as he can !iscern what things are to be lai! open" an! what to be secrete!" an! what to be showe! at half lights" an! to who% an! when Fwhich in!ee! are arts of state" an! arts of life" as Tacitus well calleth the%G" to hi%" a habit of !is@ si%ulation is a hin!erance an! a poorness& But if a %an cannot obtain to that ju!g%ent" then it is left to bi% generally" to be close" an! a !isse%bler& For where a %an cannot choose" or ary in parti@ culars" there it is goo! to ta#e the safest" an! wari@ est way" in generalR li#e the going softly" by one that cannot well see& Certainly the ablest %en that e er were" ha e ha! all an openness" an! fran#ness" of !ealingR an! a na%e of certainty an! eracityR but then they were li#e horses well %anage!R for they coul! tell passing well" when to stop or turnR an! at such ti%es" when they thought the case in!ee! re>uire! !issi%ulation" if then they use! it" it ca%e to pass that the for%er opin@ ion" sprea! abroa!" of their goo! faith an! clear@ ness of !ealing" %a!e the% al%ost in isible& There be three !egrees of this hi!ing an! eil@ ing of a %anDs self& The first" closeness" reser ation" an! secrecyR when a %an lea eth hi%self without obser ation" or without hol! to be ta#en" what he is& The secon!" !issi%ulation" in the negati eR when a %an lets fall signs an! argu%ents" that he is not" that he is& En! the thir!" si%ulation" in the

affir%ati eR when a %an in!ustriously an! ex@ pressly feigns an! preten!s to be" that he is not& For the first of these" secrecyR it is in!ee! the irtue of a confessor& En! assure!ly" the secret %an heareth %any confessions& For who will open hi%self" to a blab or a babblerP But if a %an be thought secret" it in iteth !isco eryR as the %ore close air suc#eth in the %ore openR an! as in con@ fession" the re ealing is not for worl!ly use" but for the ease of a %anDs heart" so secret %en co%e to the #nowle!ge of %any things in that #in!R while %en rather !ischarge their %in!s" than i%part their %in!s& /n few wor!s" %ysteries are !ue to secrecy& Besi!es Fto say truthG na#e!ness is un@ co%ely" as well in %in! as bo!yR an! it a!!eth no s%all re erence" to %enDs %anners an! actions" if they be not altogether open& Es for tal#ers an! futile persons" they are co%%only ain an! cre!u@ lous withal& For he that tal#eth what he #noweth" will also tal# what he #noweth not& Therefore set it !own" that an habit of secrecy" is both politic an! %oral& En! in this part" it is goo! that a %anDs face gi e his tongue lea e to spea#& For the !isco ery of a %anD s self" by the tracts of his countenance" is a great wea#ness an! betrayingR by how %uch it is %any ti%es %ore %ar#e!" an! belie e!" than a %anDs wor!s& For the secon!" which is !issi%ulationR it fol@ loweth %any ti%es upon secrecy" by a necessityR so that he that will be secret" %ust be a !isse%bler in so%e !egree& For %en are too cunning" to suffer a %an to #eep an in!ifferent carriage between both" an! to be secret" without swaying the bal@ ance on either si!e& They will so beset a %an with >uestions" an! !raw hi% on" an! pic# it out of hi%" that" without an absur! silence" he %ust show an inclination one wayR or if he !o not" they will gather as %uch by his silence" as by his speech& Es for e>ui ocations" or oraculous speeches" they can@ not hol! out long& ,o that no %an can be secret" except he gi e hi%self a little scope of !issi%ula@ tionR which is" as it were" but the s#irts or train of secrecy& But for the thir! !egree" which is si%ulation" an! false professionR that / hol! %ore culpable" an! less politicR except it be in great an! rare %at@ ters& En! therefore a general custo% of si%ulation Fwhich is this last !egreeG is a ice" using either of a natural falseness or fearfulness" or of a %in! that hath so%e %ain faults" which because a %an %ust nee!s !isguise" it %a#eth hi% practise si%ulation in other things" lest his han! shoul! be out of use& The great a! antages of si%ulation an! !issi@ %ulation are three& First" to lay asleep opposition"

an! to surprise& For where a %anDs intentions are publishe!" it is an alaru%" to call up all that are against the%& The secon! is" to reser e to a %anDs self a fair retreat& For if a %an engage hi%self by a %anifest !eclaration" he %ust go through or ta#e a fall& The thir! is" the better to !isco er the %in! of another& For to hi% that opens hi%self" %en will har!ly show the%sel es a! erseR but will fair let hi% go on" an! turn their free!o% of speech" to free!o% of thought& En! therefore it is a goo! shrew! pro erb of the ,paniar!" Tell a lie an! fin! a troth& Es if there were no way of !isco ery" but by si%ulation& There be also three !isa! antages" to set it e en& The first" that si%ulation an! !issi@ %ulation co%%only carry with the% a show of fearfulness" which in any business" !oth spoil the feathers" of roun! flying up to the %ar#& The sec@ on!" that it pu99leth an! perplexeth the conceits of %any" that perhaps woul! otherwise co@operate with hi%R an! %a#es a %an wal# al%ost alone" to his own en!s& The thir! an! greatest is" that it !epri eth a %an of one of the %ost principal in@ stru%ents for actionR which is trust an! belief& The best co%position an! te%perature" is to ha e openness in fa%e an! opinionR secrecy in habitR !issi%ulation in seasonable useR an! a power to feign" if there be no re%e!y&

:f Parents E;( C+/=(*E;

T+E joys of parents are secretR an! so are their griefs an! fears& They cannot utter the oneR nor they will not utter the other& Chil!ren sweeten laborsR but they %a#e %isfortunes %ore bitter& They increase the cares of lifeR but they %itigate the re%e%brance of !eath& The perpetuity by generation is co%%on to beastsR but %e%ory" %erit" an! noble wor#s" are proper to %en& En! surely a %an shall see the noblest wor#s an! foun@ !ations ha e procee!e! fro% chil!less %enR which ha e sought to express the i%ages of their %in!s" where those of their bo!ies ha e faile!& ,o the care of posterity is %ost in the%" that ha e no posterity& They that are the first raisers of their houses" are %ost in!ulgent towar!s their chil!renR behol!ing the% as the continuance" not only of their #in!" but of their wor#R an! so both chil!ren an! creatures&

The !ifference in affection" of parents towar!s their se eral chil!ren" is %any ti%es une>ualR an! so%eti%es unworthyR especially in the %othersR as ,olo%on saith" E wise son rejoiceth the father" but an ungracious son sha%es the %other& E %an shall see" where there is a house full of chil!ren" one or two of the el!est respecte!" an! the young@ est %a!e wantonsR but in the %i!st" so%e that are as it were forgotten" who %any ti%es" ne er@ theless" pro e the best& The illiberality of parents" in allowance towar!s their chil!ren" is an har%ful errorR %a#es the% baseR ac>uaints the% with shiftsR %a#es the% sort with %ean co%panyR an! %a#es the% surfeit %ore when they co%e to plenty& En! therefore the proof is best" when %en #eep their authority towar!s the chil!ren" but not their purse& 5en ha e a foolish %anner Fboth par@ ents an! school%asters an! ser antsG in creating an! bree!ing an e%ulation between brothers" !ur@ ing chil!hoo!" which %any ti%es sorteth to !is@ cor! when they are %en" an! !isturbeth fa%ilies& The /talians %a#e little !ifference between chil@ !ren" an! nephews or near #insfol#sR but so they be of the lu%p" they care not though they pass not through their own bo!y& En!" to say truth" in nature it is %uch a li#e %atterR inso%uch that we see a nephew so%eti%es rese%bleth an uncle" or a #ins%an" %ore than his own parentR as the bloo! happens& =et parents choose beti%es" the ocations an! courses they %ean their chil!ren shoul! ta#eR for then they are %ost flexibleR an! let the% not too %uch apply the%sel es to the !isposition of their chil!ren" as thin#ing they will ta#e best to that" which they ha e %ost %in! to& /t is true" that if the affection or aptness of the chil!ren be extra@ or!inary" then it is goo! not to cross itR but gener@ ally the precept is goo!" opti%u% elige" sua e et facile illu! faciet consuetu!o& Qounger brothers are co%%only fortunate" but sel!o% or ne er where the el!er are !isinherite!&

:f 5arriage E;( ,/;G=E =/FE

+E T+ET hath wife an! chil!ren hath gi en hostages to fortuneR for they are i%pe!i@ %ents to great enterprises" either of irtue or %is@ chief& Certainly the best wor#s" an! of greatest

%erit for the public" ha e procee!e! fro% the un@ %arrie! or chil!less %enR which both in affection an! %eans" ha e %arrie! an! en!owe! the public& Qet it were great reason that those that ha e chil@ !ren" shoul! ha e greatest care of future ti%esR unto which they #now they %ust trans%it their !earest ple!ges& ,o%e there are" who though they lea! a single life" yet their thoughts !o en! with the%sel es" an! account future ti%es i%perti@ nences& ;ay" there are so%e other" that account wife an! chil!ren" but as bills of charges& ;ay %ore" there are so%e foolish rich co etous %en" that ta#e a pri!e" in ha ing no chil!ren" because they %ay be thought so %uch the richer& For per@ haps they ha e hear! so%e tal#" ,uch an one is a great rich %an" an! another except to it" Qea" but he hath a great charge of chil!renR as if it were an abate%ent to his riches& But the %ost or!inary cause of a single life" is liberty" especially in certain self@pleasing an! hu%orous %in!s" which are so sensible of e ery restraint" as they will go near to thin# their gir!les an! garters" to be bon!s an! shac#les& <n%arrie! %en are best frien!s" best %asters" best ser antsR but not always best sub@ jectsR for they are light to run awayR an! al%ost all fugiti es" are of that con!ition& E single life !oth well with church%enR for charity will har!ly water the groun!" where it %ust first fill a pool& /t is in!ifferent for ju!ges an! %agistratesR for if they be facile an! corrupt" you shall ha e a ser@ ant" fi e ti%es worse than a wife& For sol!iers" / fin! the generals co%%only in their hortati es" put %en in %in! of their wi es an! chil!renR an! / thin# the !espising of %arriage a%ongst the Tur#s" %a#eth the ulgar sol!ier %ore base& Cer@ tainly wife an! chil!ren are a #in! of !iscipline of hu%anityR an! single %en" though they %ay be %any ti%es %ore charitable" because their %eans are less exhaust" yet" on the other si!e" they are %ore cruel an! har!hearte! Fgoo! to %a#e se ere in>uisitorsG" because their ten!erness is not so oft calle! upon& Gra e natures" le! by custo%" an! therefore constant" are co%%only lo ing hus@ ban!s" as was sai! of <lysses" etula% sua% praetu@ lit i%%ortalitati& Chaste wo%en are often prou! an! frowar!" as presu%ing upon the %erit of their chastity& /t is one of the best bon!s" both of chastity an! obe!ience" in the wife" if she thin# her hus@ ban! wiseR which she will ne er !o" if she fin! hi% jealous& 'i es are young %enDs %istressesR co%@ panions for %i!!le ageR an! ol! %enDs nurses& ,o as a %an %ay ha e a >uarrel to %arry" when he will& But yet he was repute! one of the wise %en" that %a!e answer to the >uestion" when a %an shoul! %arry" @ E young %an not yet" an el!er %an not at all& /t is often seen that ba! husban!s" ha e ery goo! wi esR whether it be" that it raiseth the price of their husban!Ds #in!ness" when it

co%esR or that the wi es ta#e a pri!e in their patience& But this ne er fails" if the ba! husban!s were of their own choosing" against their frien!sD consentR for then they will be sure to %a#e goo! their own folly&

:f En y

T+E*E be none of the affections" which ha e been note! to fascinate or bewitch" but lo e an! en y& They both ha e ehe%ent wishesR they fra%e the%sel es rea!ily into i%aginations an! suggestionsR an! they co%e easily into the eye" especially upon the present of the objectsR which are the points that con!uce to fascination" if any such thing there be& 'e see li#ewise" the ,cripture calleth en y an e il eyeR an! the astrologers" call the e il influences of the stars" e il aspectsR so that still there see%eth to be ac#nowle!ge!" in the act of en y" an ejaculation or irra!iation of the eye& ;ay" so%e ha e been so curious" as to note" that the ti%es when the stro#e or percussion of an en i@ ous eye !oth %ost hurt" are when the party en ie! is behel! in glory or triu%phR for that sets an e!ge upon en y? an! besi!es" at such ti%es the spirits of the person en ie!" !o co%e forth %ost into the outwar! parts" an! so %eet the blow& But lea ing these curiosities Fthough not un@ worthy to be thought on" in fit placeG" we will han!le" what persons are apt to en y othersR what persons are %ost subject to be en ie! the%sel esR an! what is the !ifference between public an! pri ate en y& E %an that hath no irtue in hi%self" e er en@ ieth irtue in others& For %enDs %in!s" will either fee! upon their own goo!" or upon othersD e ilR an! who wanteth the one" will prey upon the otherR an! whoso is out of hope" to attain to anotherDs irtue" will see# to co%e at e en han!" by !epress@ ing anotherDs fortune& E %an that is busy" an! in>uisiti e" is co%@ %only en ious& For to #now %uch of other %enDs %atters" cannot be because all that a!o %ay con@ cern his own estateR therefore it %ust nee!s be" that he ta#eth a #in! of play@pleasure" in loo#ing upon the fortunes of others& ;either can he" that %in!eth but his own business" fin! %uch %atter for en y& For en y is a ga!!ing passion" an! wal#@ eth the streets" an! !oth not #eep ho%e? ;on est

curiosus" >uin i!e% sit %ale olus& 5en of noble birth" are note! to be en ious towar!s new %en" when they rise& For the !istance is altere!" an! it is li#e a !eceit of the eye" that when others co%e on" they thin# the%sel es" go bac#& (efor%e! persons" an! eunuchs" an! ol! %en" an! bastar!s" are en ious& For he that cannot pos@ sibly %en! his own case" will !o what he can" to i%pair anotherDsR except these !efects light upon a ery bra e" an! heroical nature" which thin#eth to %a#e his natural wants part of his honorR in that it shoul! be sai!" that an eunuch" or a la%e %an" !i! such great %attersR affecting the honor of a %iracleR as it was in ;arses the eunuch" an! Egesi@ laus an! Ta%berlanes" that were la%e %en& The sa%e is the case of %en" that rise after ca@ la%ities an! %isfortunes& For they are as %en fallen out with the ti%esR an! thin# other %enDs har%s" a re!e%ption of their own sufferings& They that !esire to excel in too %any %atters" out of le ity an! ain glory" are e er en ious& For they cannot want wor#R it being i%possible" but %any" in so%e one of those things" shoul! surpass the%& 'hich was the character of E!rian the E%@ perorR that %ortally en ie! poets" an! painters" an! artificers" in wor#s wherein he ha! a ein to excel& =astly" near #insfol#s" an! fellows in office" an! those that ha e been bre! together" are %ore apt to en y their e>uals" when they are raise!& For it !oth upbrai! unto the% their own fortunes" an! pointeth at the%" an! co%eth oftener into their re%e%brance" an! incurreth li#ewise %ore into the note of othersR an! en y e er re!oubleth fro% speech an! fa%e& CainDs en y was the %ore ile an! %alignant" towar!s his brother Ebel" because when his sacrifice was better accepte!" there was no bo!y to loo# on& Thus %uch for those" that are apt to en y& Concerning those that are %ore or less subject to en y? First" persons of e%inent irtue" when they are a! ance!" are less en ie!& For their for@ tune see%eth " but !ue unto the%R an! no %an en ieth the pay%ent of a !ebt" but rewar!s an! liberality rather& Egain" en y is e er joine! with the co%paring of a %anDs selfR an! where there is no co%parison" no en yR an! therefore #ings are not en ie!" but by #ings& ;e ertheless it is to be note!" that unworthy persons are %ost en ie!" at their first co%ing in" an! afterwar!s o erco%e it betterR whereas contrariwise" persons of worth

an! %erit are %ost en ie!" when their fortune continueth long& For by that ti%e" though their irtue be the sa%e" yet it hath not the sa%e lustreR for fresh %en grow up that !ar#en it& Persons of noble bloo!" are less en ie! in their rising& For it see%eth but right !one to their birth& Besi!es" there see%eth not %uch a!!e! to their fortuneR an! en y is as the sunbea%s" that beat hotter upon a ban#" or steep rising groun!" than upon a flat& En! for the sa%e reason" those that are a! ance! by !egrees" are less en ie! than those that are a! ance! su!!enly an! per saltu%& Those that ha e joine! with their honor great tra els" cares" or perils" are less subject to en y& For %en thin# that they earn their honors har!ly" an! pity the% so%eti%esR an! pity e er healeth en y& 'herefore you shall obser e" that the %ore !eep an! sober sort of politic persons" in their greataess" are e er be%oaning the%sel es" what a life they lea!R chanting a >uanta pati%ur$ ;ot that they feel it so" but only to abate the e!ge of en y& But this is to be un!erstoo!" of business that is lai! upon %en" an! not such" as they call unto the%sel es& For nothing increaseth en y %ore" than an unnecessary an! a%bitious engrossing of business& En! nothing !oth extinguish en y %ore" than for a great person to preser e all other infe@ rior officers" in their full lights an! pre@e%inences of their places& For by that %eans" there be so %any screens between hi% an! en y& Ebo e all" those are %ost subject to en y" which carry the greatness of their fortunes" in an insolent an! prou! %annerR being ne er well" but while they are showing how great they are" either by outwar! po%p" or by triu%phing o er all opposi@ tion or co%petitionR whereas wise %en will rather !o sacrifice to en y" in suffering the%sel es so%e@ ti%es of purpose to be crosse!" an! o erborne in things that !o not %uch concern the%& ;otwith@ stan!ing" so %uch is true" that the carriage of greatness" in a plain an! open %anner Fso it be without arrogancy an! ain gloryG !oth !raw less en y" than if it be in a %ore crafty an! cunning fashion& For in that course" a %an !oth but !is@ a ow fortuneR an! see%eth to be conscious of his own want in worthR an! !oth but teach others" to en y hi%& =astly" to conclu!e this partR as we sai! in the beginning" that the act of en y ha! so%ewhat in it of witchcraft" so there is no other cure of en y" but the cure of witchcraftR an! that is" to re%o e the lot Fas they call itG an! to lay it upon another& For which purpose" the wiser sort of great persons" bring in e er upon the stage so%ebo!y upon who%

to !eri e the en y" that woul! co%e upon the%@ sel esR so%eti%es upon %inisters an! ser antsR so%eti%es upon colleagues an! associatesR an! the li#eR an! for that turn there are ne er wanting" so%e persons of iolent an! un!erta#ing natures" who" so they %ay ha e power an! business" will ta#e it at any cost& ;ow" to spea# of public en y& There is yet so%e goo! in public en y" whereas in pri ate" there is none& For public en y" is as an ostracis%" that eclipseth %en" when they grow too great& En! therefore it is a bri!le also to great ones" to #eep the% within boun!s& This en y" being in the =atin wor! in i!ia" goeth in the %o!ern language" by the na%e of !iscontent%entR of which we shall spea#" in han!@ ling se!ition& /t is a !isease" in a state" li#e to infec@ tion& For as infection sprea!eth upon that which is soun!" an! tainteth itR so when en y is gotten once into a state" it tra!uceth e en the best actions thereof" an! turneth the% into an ill o!or& En! therefore there is little won" by inter%ingling of plausible actions& For that !oth argue but a wea#@ ness" an! fear of en y" which hurteth so %uch the %ore" as it is li#ewise usual in infectionsR which if you fear the%" you call the% upon you& This public en y" see%eth to beat chiefly upon principal officers or %inisters" rather than upon #ings" an! estates the%sel es& But this is a sure rule" that if the en y upon the %inister be great" when the cause of it in hi% is s%allR or if the en y be general" in a %anner upon all the %inisters of an estateR then the en y Fthough hi!!enG is truly upon the state itself& En! so %uch of public en y or !iscontent%ent" an! the !ifference thereof fro% pri ate en y" which was han!le! in the first place& 'e will a!! this in general" touching the affec@ tion of en yR that of all other affections" it is the %ost i%portune an! continual& For of other affec@ tions" there is occasion gi en" but now an! thenR an! therefore it was well sai!" /n i!ia festos !ies non agit? for it is e er wor#ing upon so%e or other& En! it is also note!" that lo e an! en y !o %a#e a %an pine" which other affections !o not" because they are not so continual& /t is also the ilest affec@ tion" an! the %ost !epra e!R for which cause it is the proper attribute of the !e il" who is calle!" the en ious %an" that soweth tares a%ongst the wheat by nightR as it always co%eth to pass" that en y wor#eth subtilly" an! in the !ar#" an! to the preju!ice of goo! things" such as is the wheat&

:f =o e

T+E stage is %ore behol!ing to lo e" than the life of %an& For as to the stage" lo e is e er %atter of co%e!ies" an! now an! then of trage!iesR but in life it !oth %uch %ischiefR so%eti%es li#e a siren" so%eti%es li#e a fury& Qou %ay obser e" that a%ongst all the great an! worthy persons Fwhereof the %e%ory re%aineth" either ancient or recentG there is not one" that hath been transporte! to the %a! !egree of lo e? which shows that great spirits" an! great business" !o #eep out this wea# passion& Qou %ust except" ne ertheless" 5arcus Entonius" the half partner of the e%pire of *o%e" an! Eppius Clau!ius" the !ece% ir an! lawgi erR whereof the for%er was in!ee! a oluptuous %an" an! inor!inateR but the latter was an austere an! wise %an? an! therefore it see%s Fthough rarelyG that lo e can fin! entrance" not only into an open heart" but also into a heart well fortifie!" if watch be not well #ept& /t is a poor saying of Epicurus" ,atis %agnu% alter alteri theatru% su%usR as if %an" %a!e for the conte%plation of hea en" an! all noble objects" shoul! !o nothing but #neel be@ fore a little i!ol" an! %a#e hi%self a subject" though not of the %outh Fas beasts areG" yet of the eyeR which was gi en hi% for higher purposes& /t is a strange thing" to note the excess of this passion" an! how it bra es the nature" an! alue of things" by thisR that the spea#ing in a perpetual hyper@ bole" is co%ely in nothing but in lo e& ;either is it %erely in the phraseR for whereas it hath been well sai!" that the arch@flatterer" with who% all the petty flatterers ha e intelligence" is a %anDs selfR certainly the lo er is %ore& For there was ne er prou! %an thought so absur!ly well of hi%@ self" as the lo er !oth of the person lo e!R an! therefore it was well sai!" That it is i%possible to lo e" an! to be wise& ;either !oth this wea#ness appear to others only" an! not to the party lo e!R but to the lo e! %ost of all" except the lo e be reci@ pro>ue& For it is a true rule" that lo e is e er re@ war!e!" either with the recipro>ue" or with an inwar! an! secret conte%pt& By how %uch the %ore" %en ought to beware of this passion" which loseth not only other things" but itself$ Es for the other losses" the poetDs relation !oth well figure the%? that he that preferre! +elena" >uitte! the gifts of 0uno an! Pallas& For whosoe er estee%eth too %uch of a%orous affection" >uitteth both riches an! wis!o%& This passion hath his floo!s" in ery

ti%es of wea#nessR which are great prosperity" an! great a! ersityR though this latter hath been less obser e!? both which ti%es #in!le lo e" an! %a#e it %ore fer ent" an! therefore show it to be the chil! of folly& They !o best" who if they cannot but a!%it lo e" yet %a#e it #eep >uartersR an! se er it wholly fro% their serious affairs" an! actions" of lifeR for if it chec# once with business" it troubleth %enDs fortunes" an! %a#eth %en" that they can no ways be true to their own en!s& / #now not how" but %artial %en are gi en to lo e? / thin#" it is but as they are gi en to wineR for perils co%%only as# to be pai! in pleasures& There is in %anDs nature" a secret inclination an! %otion" towar!s lo e of others" which if it be not spent upon so%e one or a few" !oth naturally sprea! itself towar!s %any" an! %a#eth %en beco%e hu%ane an! charitableR as it is seen so%eti%e in friars& ;uptial lo e %a#eth %an#in!R frien!ly lo e perfecteth itR but wanton lo e corrupteth" an! e%baseth it&

:f Great Place 5E; in great place are thrice ser ants? ser@ ants of the so ereign or stateR ser ants of fa%eR an! ser ants of business& ,o as they ha e no free!o%R neither in their persons" nor in their ac@ tions" nor in their ti%es& /t is a strange !esire" to see# power an! to lose liberty? or to see# power o er others" an! to lose power o er a %anDs self& The rising unto place is laboriousR an! by pains" %en co%e to greater painsR an! it is so%eti%es baseR an! by in!ignities" %en co%e to !ignities& The stan!ing is slippery" an! the regress is either a !ownfall" or at least an eclipse" which is a %elan@ choly thing& Cu% non sis >ui fueris" non esse cur elis i ere& ;ay" retire %en cannot when they woul!" neither will they" when it were reasonR but are i%patient of pri ateness" e en in age an! sic#@ ness" which re>uire the sha!owR li#e ol! towns@ %en" that will be still sitting at their street !oor" though thereby they offer age to sco%& Certainly great persons ha! nee! to borrow other %enDs opinions" to thin# the%sel es happyR for if they ju!ge by their own feeling" they cannot fin! itR but if they thin# with the%sel es" what other %en thin# of the%" an! that other %en woul! fain be" as they are" then they are happy" as it were" by reportR when perhaps they fin! the contrary within& For they are the first" that fin! their own griefs" though they be the last" that fin! their own faults& Certainly %en in great fortunes are strangers to the%sel es" an! while they are in the pu99le of business" they ha e no ti%e to ten! their

health" either of bo!y or %in!& /lli %ors gra is incubat" >ui notus ni%is o%nibus" ignotus %oritur sibi& /n place" there is license to !o goo!" an! e ilR whereof the latter is a curse? for in e il" the best con!ition is not to winR the secon!" not to can& But power to !o goo!" is the true an! lawful en! of aspiring& For goo! thoughts Fthough Go! accept the%G yet" towar!s %en" are little better than goo! !rea%s" except they be put in actR an! that cannot be" without power an! place" as the antage" an! co%%an!ing groun!& 5erit an! goo! wor#s" is the en! of %anDs %otionR an! conscience of the sa%e is the acco%plish%ent of %anDs rest& For if a %an can be parta#er of Go!Ds theatre" he shall li#e@ wise be parta#er of Go!Ds rest& Et con ersus (eus" ut aspiceret opera >uae fecerunt %anus suae" i!it >uo! o%nia essent bona ni%isR an! then the sab@ bath& /n the !ischarge of thy place" set before thee the best exa%plesR for i%itation is a globe of pre@ cepts& En! after a ti%e" set before thee thine own exa%pleR an! exa%ine thyself strictly" whether thou !i!st not best at first& ;eglect not also the exa%ples" of those that ha e carrie! the%sel es ill" in the sa%e placeR not to set off thyself" by tax@ ing their %e%ory" but to !irect thyself" what to a oi!& *efor% therefore" without bra ery" or scan@ !al of for%er ti%es an! personsR but yet set it !own to thyself" as well to create goo! prece!ents" as to follow the%& *e!uce things to the first institution" an! obser e wherein" an! how" they ha e !egen@ erateR but yet as# counsel of both ti%esR of the ancient ti%e" what is bestR an! of the latter ti%e" what is fittest& ,ee# to %a#e thy course regular" that %en %ay #now beforehan!" what they %ay expectR but be not too positi e an! pere%ptoryR an! express thyself well" when thou !igressest fro% thy rule& Preser e the right of thy placeR but stir not >uestions of juris!ictionR an! rather as@ su%e thy right" in silence an! !e facto" than oice it with clai%s" an! challenges& Preser e li#ewise the rights of inferior placesR an! thin# it %ore honor" to !irect in chief" than to be busy in all& E%brace an! in ite helps" an! a! ices" touching the execution of thy placeR an! !o not !ri e away such" as bring thee infor%ation" as %e!!lersR but accept of the% in goo! part& The ices of authority are chiefly four? !elays" corruption" roughness" an! facility& For !elays? gi e easy accessR #eep ti%es appointe!R go through with that which is in han!" an! interlace not business" but of necessity& For corruption? !o not only bin! thine own han!s" or thy ser antsD han!s" fro% ta#ing" but bin! the han!s of suitors also" fro% offering& For integrity use! !oth the oneR but integrity professe!" an! with a %anifest !etestation of bribery" !oth the other& En! a oi! not only the fault" but the sus@ picion& 'hosoe er is foun! ariable" an! changeth %anifestly without %anifest cause" gi eth sus@

picion of corruption& Therefore always" when thou changest thine opinion or course" profess it plainly" an! !eclare it" together with the reasons that %o e thee to changeR an! !o not thin# to steal it& E ser ant or a fa orite" if he be inwar!" an! no other apparent cause of estee%" is co%%only thought" but a by@way to close corruption& For roughness? it is a nee!less cause of !iscontent? se erity bree!eth fear" but roughness bree!eth hate& E en reproofs fro% authority" ought to be gra e" an! not taunting& Es for facility? it is worse than bribery& For bribes co%e but now an! thenR but if i%portunity" or i!le respects" lea! a %an" he shall ne er be without& Es ,olo%on saith" To re@ spect persons is not goo!R for such a %an will transgress for a piece of brea!& /t is %ost true" that was anciently spo#en" E place showeth the %an& En! it showeth so%e to the better" an! so%e to the worse& :%niu% consensu capax i%perii" nisi i%@ perasset" saith Tacitus of GalbaR but of )espasian he saith" ,olus i%perantiu%" )espasianus %utatus in %eliusR though the one was %eant of sufficiency" the other of %anners" an! affection& /t is an assure! sign of a worthy an! generous spirit" who% honor a%en!s& For honor is" or shoul! be" the place of irtueR an! as in nature" things %o e iolently to their place" an! cal%ly in their place" so irtue in a%bition is iolent" in authority settle! an! cal%& Ell rising to great place is by a win!ing starR an! if there be factions" it is goo! to si!e a %anDs self" whilst he is in the rising" an! to balance hi%self when he is place!& <se the %e%ory of thy pre!e@ cessor" fairly an! ten!erlyR for if thou !ost not" it is a !ebt will sure be pai! when thou art gone& /f thou ha e colleagues" respect the%" an! rather call the%" when they loo# not for it" than exclu!e the% " when they ha e reason to loo# to be calle!& Be not too sensible" or too re%e%bering" of thy place in con ersation" an! pri ate answers to suitorsR but let it rather be sai!" 'hen he sits in place" he is another %an&

:f Bol!ness /T /, a tri ial gra%%ar@school text" but yet worthy a wise %anDs consi!eration& Suestion was as#e! of (e%osthenes" what was the chief part of an oratorP he answere!" actionR what nextP actionR what next againP action& +e sai! it" that #new it best" an! ha!" by nature" hi%self no a!@ antage in that he co%%en!e!& E strange thing" that that part of an orator" which is but superficial"

an! rather the irtue of a player" shoul! be place! so high" abo e those other noble parts" of in ention" elocution" an! the restR nay" al%ost alone" as if it were all in all& But the reason is plain& There is in hu%an nature generally" %ore of the fool than of the wiseR an! therefore those faculties" by which the foolish part of %enDs %in!s is ta#en" are %ost potent& 'on!erful li#e is the case of bol!ness in ci il business? what firstP bol!nessR what secon! an! thir!P bol!ness& En! yet bol!ness is a chil! of ignorance an! baseness" far inferior to other parts& But ne ertheless it !oth fascinate" an! bin! han! an! foot" those that are either shallow in ju!g@ %ent" or wea# in courage" which are the greatest partR yea an! pre aileth with wise %en at wea# ti%es& Therefore we see it hath !one won!ers" in popular statesR but with senates" an! princes lessR an! %ore e er upon the first entrance of bol! per@ sons into action" than soon afterR for bol!ness is an ill #eeper of pro%ise& ,urely" as there are %ounte@ ban#s for the natural bo!y" so are there %ounte@ ban#s for the politic bo!yR %en that un!erta#e great cures" an! perhaps ha e been luc#y" in two or three experi%ents" but want the groun!s of science" an! therefore cannot hol! out& ;ay" you shall see a bol! fellow %any ti%es !o 5aho%etDs %iracle& 5aho%et %a!e the people belie e that he woul! call an hill to hi%" an! fro% the top of it offer up his prayers" for the obser ers of his law& The people asse%ble!R 5aho%et calle! the hill to co%e to hi%" again an! againR an! when the hill stoo! still" he was ne er a whit abashe!" but sai!" /f the hill will not co%e to 5aho%et" 5aho%et will go to the hill& ,o these %en" when they ha e pro%ise! great %atters" an! faile! %ost sha%e@ fully" yet Fif they ha e the perfection of bol!nessG they will but slight it o er" an! %a#e a turn" an! no %ore a!o& Certainly to %en of great ju!g%ent" bol! persons are a sport to behol!R nay" an! to the ulgar also" bol!ness has so%ewhat of the ri!icu@ lous& For if absur!ity be the subject of laughter" !oubt you not but great bol!ness is sel!o% without so%e absur!ity& Especially it is a sport to see" when a bol! fellow is out of countenanceR for that puts his face into a %ost shrun#en" an! woo!en pos@ tureR as nee!s it %ustR for in bashfulness" the spirits !o a little go an! co%eR but with bol! %en" upon li#e occasion" they stan! at a stayR li#e a stale at chess" where it is no %ate" but yet the ga%e cannot stir& But this last were fitter for a satire than for a serious obser ation& This is well to be weighe!R that bol!ness is e er blin!R for it seeth not !anger" an! incon eniences& Therefore it is ill in counsel" goo! in executionR so that the right use of bol! per@ sons is" that they ne er co%%an! in chief" but be secon!s" an! un!er the !irection of others& For in counsel" it is goo! to see !angersR an! in execution" not to see the%" except they be ery great&

:f Goo!ness W G::(;E,, :F ;ET<*E

/ TETE goo!ness in this sense" the affecting of the weal of %en" which is that the Grecians call philanthropiaR an! the wor! hu%anity Fas it is use!G is a little too light to express it& Goo!@ ness / call the habit" an! goo!ness of nature" the inclination& This of all irtues" an! !ignities of the %in!" is the greatestR being the character of the (eity? an! without it" %an is a busy" %ischie ous" wretche! thingR no better than a #in! of er%in& Goo!ness answers to the theological irtue" char@ ity" an! a!%its no excess" but error& The !esire of power in excess" cause! the angels to fallR the !esire of #nowle!ge in excess" cause! %an to fall? but in charity there is no excessR neither can angel" nor %an" co%e in !an ger by it& The inclination to goo!@ ness" is i%printe! !eeply in the nature of %anR in@ so%uch" that if it issue not towar!s %en" it will ta#e unto other li ing creaturesR as it is seen in the Tur#s" a cruel people" who ne ertheless are #in! to beasts" an! gi e al%s" to !ogs an! bir!sR inso@ %uch" as Busbechius reporteth" a Christian boy" in Constantinople" ha! li#e to ha e been stone!" for gagging in a waggishness a long@bille! fowl& Errors in!ee! in this irtue of goo!ness" or charity" %ay be co%%itte!& The /talians ha e an ungra@ cious pro erb" Tanto buon che al niente? so goo!" that he is goo! for nothing& En! one of the !octors of /taly" ;icholas 5achia el" ha! the confi!ence to put in writing" al%ost in plain ter%s" That the Christian faith" ha! gi en up goo! %en" in prey to those that are tyrannical an! un@ just& 'hich he spa#e" because in!ee! there was ne er law" or sect" or opinion" !i! so %uch %ag@ nify goo!ness" as the Christian religion !oth& Therefore" to a oi! the scan!al an! the !anger both" it is goo!" to ta#e #nowle!ge of the errors of an habit so excellent& ,ee# the goo! of other %en" but be not in bon!age to their faces or fanciesR for that is but facility" or softnessR which ta#eth an honest %in! prisoner& ;either gi e thou EEsopDs coc# a ge%" who woul! be better please!" an! hap@ pier" if he ha! ha! a barley@corn& The exa%ple of Go!" teacheth the lesson truly? +e sen!eth his rain" an! %a#eth his sun to shine" upon the just an! unjustR but he !oth not rain wealth" nor shine

honor an! irtues" upon %en e>ually& Co%%on benefits" are to be co%%unicate with allR but pe@ culiar benefits" with choice& En! beware how in %a#ing the portraiture" thou brea#est the pattern& For !i inity" %a#eth the lo e of oursel es the pat@ ternR the lo e of our neighbors" but the portraiture& ,ell all thou hast" an! gi e it to the poor" an! fol@ low %e? but" sell not all thou hast" except thou co%e an! follow %eR that is" except thou ha e a ocation" wherein thou %ayest !o as %uch goo!" with little %eans as with greatR for otherwise" in fee!ing the strea%s" thou !riest the fountain& ;either is there only a habit of goo!ness" !irecte! by right reasonR but there is in so%e %en" e en in nature" a !isposition towar!s itR as on the other si!e" there is a natural %alignity& For there be" that in their nature !o not affect the goo! of others& The lighter sort of %alignity" turneth but to a crassness" or frowar!ness" or aptness to oppose" or !ifficulties" or the li#eR but the !eeper sort" to en y an! %ere %ischief& ,uch %en" in other %enDs ca@ la%ities" are" as it were" in season" an! are e er on the loa!ing part? not so goo! as the !ogs" that lic#e! =a9arusD soresR but li#e flies" that are still bu99ing upon any thing that is rawR %isanthropi" that %a#e it their practice" to bring %en to the bough" an! yet ne er a tree for the purpose in their gar@ !ens" as Ti%on ha!& ,uch !ispositions" are the ery errors of hu%an natureR an! yet they are the fittest ti%ber" to %a#e great politics ofR li#e to #nee ti%@ ber" that is goo! for ships" that are or!aine! to be tosse!R but not for buil!ing houses" that shall stan! fir%& The parts an! signs of goo!ness" are %any& /f a %an be gracious an! courteous to strangers" it shows he is a citi9en of the worl!" an! that his heart is no islan!" cut off fro% other lan!s" but a conti@ nent" that joins to the%& /f he be co%passionate towar!s the afflictions of others" it shows that his heart is li#e the noble tree" that is woun!e! itself" when it gi es the bal%& /f he easily par!ons" an! re%its offences" it shows that his %in! is plante! abo e injuriesR so that he cannot be shot& /f he be than#ful for s%all benefits" it shows that he weighs %enDs %in!s" an! not their trash& But abo e all" if he ha e ,t& PaulDs perfection" that he woul! wish to be anathe%a fro% Christ" for the sal ation of his brethren" it shows %uch of a !i ine nature" an! a #in! of confor%ity with Christ hi%self

:f ;obility 'E '/== spea# of nobility" first as a portion of an estate" then as a con!ition of particu@

lar persons& E %onarchy" where there is no nobil@ ity at all" is e er a pure an! absolute tyrannyR as that of the Tur#s& For nobility atte%pers so er@ eignty" an! !raws the eyes of the people" so%ewhat asi!e fro% the line royal& But for !e%ocracies" they nee! it notR an! they are co%%only %ore >uiet" an! less subject to se!ition" than where there are stirps of nobles& For %enDs eyes are upon the business" an! not upon the personsR or if upon the persons" it is for the businessD sa#e" as fittest" an! not for flags an! pe!igree& 'e see the ,wit9ers last well" notwithstan!ing their !i ersity of religion" an! of cantons& For utility is their bon!" an! not respects& The unite! pro inces of the =ow Coun@ tries" in their go ern%ent" excelR for where there is an e>uality" the consultations are %ore in!if@ ferent" an! the pay%ents an! tributes" %ore cheerful& E great an! potent nobility" a!!eth %ajesty to a %onarch" but !i%inisheth powerR an! putteth life an! spirit into the people" but presseth their fortune& /t is well" when nobles are not too great for so ereignty nor for justiceR an! yet %aintaine! in that height" as the insolency of inferiors %ay be bro#en upon the%" before it co%e on too fast upon the %ajesty of #ings& E nu%erous nobility causeth po erty" an! incon enience in a stateR for it is a surcharge of expenseR an! besi!es" it being of necessity" that %any of the nobility fall" in ti%e" to be wea# in fortune" it %a#eth a #in! of !isproportion" between honor an! %eans& Es for nobility in particular personsR it is a re @ eren! thing" to see an ancient castle or buil!ing" not in !ecayR or to see a fair ti%ber tree" soun! an! perfect& +ow %uch %ore" to behol! an ancient noble fa%ily" which has stoo! against the wa es an! weathers of ti%e$ For new nobility is but the act of power" but ancient nobility is the act of ti%e& Those that are first raise! to nobility" are co%@ %only %ore irtuous" but less innocent" than their !escen!antsR for there is rarely any rising" but by a co%%ixture of goo! an! e il arts& But it is reason" the %e%ory of their irtues re%ain to their pos@ terity" an! their faults !ie with the%sel es& ;obil@ ity of birth co%%only abateth in!ustryR an! he that is not in!ustrious" en ieth hi% that is& Besi!es" noble persons cannot go %uch higherR an! he that stan!eth at a stay" when others rise" can har!ly a oi! %otions of en y& :n the other si!e" nobil@ ity extinguisheth the passi e en y fro% others" towar!s the%R because they are in possession of honor& Certainly" #ings that ha e able %en of their nobility" shall fin! ease in e%ploying the%" an! a better sli!e into their businessR for people naturally ben! to the%" as born in so%e sort to co%%an!&

:f ,e!itions E;( T*:<B=E,

,+EP+E*(, of people" ha! nee! #now the calen!ars of te%pests in stateR which are co%@ %only greatest" when things grow to e>ualityR as natural te%pests are greatest about the E>uinoc@ tia& En! as there are certain hollow blasts of win!" an! secret swellings of seas before a te%pest" so are there in states? @@/lle etia% caecos instare tu%ultus ,aepe %onet" frau!es>ue et operta tunescere bella& =ibels an! licentious !iscourses against the state" when they are fre>uent an! openR an! in li#e sort" false news often running up an! !own" to the !is@ a! antage of the state" an! hastily e%brace!R are a%ongst the signs of troubles& )irgil" gi ing the pe!igree of Fa%e" saith" she was sister to the Giants? /lla% Terra parens" irra irritata !eoru%" Extre%a% Fut perhibentG Coeo Encela!o>ue sorore% Progenuit&@ Es if fa%es were the relics of se!itions pastR but they are no less" in!ee!" the prelu!es of se!itions to co%e& +owsoe er he noteth it right" that se!itious tu%ults" an! se!itious fa%es" !iffer no %ore but as brother an! sister" %asculine an! fe%inineR es@ pecially if it co%e to that" that the best actions of a state" an! the %ost plausible" an! which ought to gi e greatest content%ent" are ta#en in ill sense" an! tra!uce!? for that shows the en y great" as Tacitus saithR conflata %agna in i!ia" seu bene seu %ale gesta pre%unt& ;either !oth it follow" that because these fa%es are a sign of troubles" that the suppressing of the% with too %uch se erity" shoul! be a re%e!y of troubles& For the !espising of the%" %any ti%es chec#s the% bestR an! the going about to stop the%" !oth but %a#e a won!er long@li e!& Elso that #in! of obe!ience" which Tacitus spea#eth of" is to be hel! suspecte!? Erant in officio" se! ta%en >ui %allent %an!ata i%pe@ rantiu% interpretari >ua% exe>uiR !isputing" ex@ cusing" ca illing upon %an!ates an! !irections" is a #in! of sha#ing off the yo#e" an! assay of !is@ obe!ienceR especially if in those !isputings" they

which are for the !irection" spea# fearfully an! ten!erly" an! those that are against it" au!aciously& Elso" as 5achia el noteth well" when princes" that ought to be co%%on parents" %a#e the%@ sel es as a party" an! lean to a si!e" it is as a boat" that is o erthrown by une en weight on the one si!eR as was well seen" in the ti%e of +enry the Thir! of FranceR for first" hi%self entere! league for the extirpation of the ProtestantsR an! pres@ ently after" the sa%e league was turne! upon hi%@ self& For when the authority of princes" is %a!e but an accessory to a cause" an! that there be other ban!s" that tie faster than the ban! of so ereignty" #ings begin to be put al%ost out of possession& Elso" when !iscor!s" an! >uarrels" an! factions are carrie! openly an! au!aciously" it is a sign the re erence of go ern%ent is lost& For the %otions of the greatest persons in a go ern%ent" ought to be as the %otions of the planets un!er pri%u% %obileR accor!ing to the ol! opinion? which is" that e ery of the%" is carrie! swiftly by the highest %otion" an! softly in their own %otion& En! therefore" when great ones in their own particular %otion" %o e iolently" an!" as Tacitus expresseth it well" liberius >ua% ut i%peran@ tiu% %e%inissentR it is a sign the orbs are out of fra%e& For re erence is that" wherewith princes are girt fro% Go!R who threateneth the !issol ing thereofR ,ol a% cingula regu%& ,o when any of the four pillars of go ern%ent" are %ainly sha#en" or wea#ene! Fwhich are relig@ ion" justice" counsel" an! treasureG" %en ha! nee! to pray for fair weather& But let us pass fro% this part of pre!ictions Fconcerning which" ne erthe@ less" %ore light %ay be ta#en fro% that which followethGR an! let us spea# first" of the %aterials of se!itionsR then of the %oti es of the%R an! thir!ly of the re%e!ies& Concerning the %aterials of se!itions& /t is a thing well to be consi!ere!R for the surest way to pre ent se!itions Fif the ti%es !o bear itG is to ta#e away the %atter of the%& For if there be fuel pre@ pare!" it is har! to tell" whence the spar# shall co%e" that shall set it on fire& The %atter of se!i@ tions is of two #in!s? %uch po erty" an! %uch !is@ content%ent& /t is certain" so %any o erthrown estates" so %any otes for troubles& =ucan noteth well the state of *o%e before the Ci il 'ar" +inc usura orax" rapi!u%>ue in te%pore foenus" +inc concussa fi!es" et %ultis utile bellu%&

This sa%e %ultis utile bellu%" is an assure! an! infallible sign" of a state !ispose! to se!itions an! troubles& En! if this po erty an! bro#en estate in the better sort" be joine! with a want an! necessity in the %ean people" the !anger is i%%inent an! great& For the rebellions of the belly are the worst& Es for !iscontent%ents" they are" in the politic bo!y" li#e to hu%ors in the natural" which are apt to gather a preternatural heat" an! to infla%e& En! let no prince %easure the !anger of the% by this" whether they be just or unjust? for that were to i%agine people" to be too reasonableR who !o often spurn at their own goo!? nor yet by this" whether the griefs whereupon they rise" be in fact great or s%all? for they are the %ost !angerous !iscontent%ents" where the fear is greater than the feeling& (olen!i %o!us" ti%en!i non ite%& Besi!es" in great oppressions" the sa%e things that pro o#e the patience" !o withal %ate the courageR but in fears it is not so& ;either let any prince" or state" be secure concerning !iscontent%ents" be@ cause they ha e been often" or ha e been long" an! yet no peril hath ensue!? for as it is true" that e ery apor or fu%e !oth not turn into a stor%R so it is ne ertheless true" that stor%s" though they blow o er !i ers ti%es" yet %ay fall at lastR an!" as the ,panish pro erb noteth well" The cor! brea#eth at the last by the wea#est pull& The causes an! %oti es of se!itions are" inno a@ tion in religionR taxesR alteration of laws an! cus@ to%sR brea#ing of pri ilegesR general oppressionR a! ance%ent of unworthy personsR strangersR !earthsR !isban!e! sol!iersR factions grown !es@ perateR an! what soe er" in offen!ing people" joineth an! #nitteth the% in a co%%on cause& For the re%e!iesR there %ay be so%e general preser ati es" whereof we will spea#? as for the just cure" it %ust answer to the particular !iseaseR an! so be left to counsel" rather than rule& The first re%e!y or pre ention is to re%o e" by all %eans possible" that %aterial cause of se!ition whereof we spa#eR which is" want an! po erty in the estate& To which purpose ser eth the opening" an! well@balancing of tra!eR the cherishing of %anufacturesR the banishing of i!lenessR the re@ pressing of waste" an! excess" by su%ptuary lawsR the i%pro e%ent an! husban!ing of the soilR the regulating of prices of things en!ibleR the %o!er@ ating of taxes an! tributesR an! the li#e& Generally" it is to be foreseen that the population of a #ing@ !o% Fespecially if it be not %own !own by warsG !o not excee! the stoc# of the #ing!o%" which shoul! %aintain the%& ;either is the population to be rec#one! only by nu%berR for a s%aller nu%@ ber" that spen! %ore an! earn less" !o wear out an

estate sooner" than a greater nu%ber that li e lower" an! gather %ore& Therefore the %ultiply@ ing of nobility" an! other !egrees of >uality" in an o er proportion to the co%%on people" !oth spee!@ ily bring a state to necessityR an! so !oth li#ewise an o ergrown clergyR for they bring nothing to the stoc#R an! in li#e %anner" when %ore are bre! scholars" than prefer%ents can ta#e off & /t is li#ewise to be re%e%bere!" that foras%uch as the increase of any estate %ust be upon the foreigner Ffor whatsoe er is so%ewhere gotten" is so%ewhere lostG" there be but three things" which one nation selleth unto anotherR the co%%o!ity as nature yiel!eth itR the %anufactureR an! the ec@ ture" or carriage& ,o that if these three wheels go" wealth will flow as in a spring ti!e& En! it co%eth %any ti%es to pass" that %ateria% superabit opusR that the wor# an! carriage is %ore worth than the %aterial" an! enricheth a state %oreR as is notably seen in the =ow@Country%en" who ha e the best %ines abo e groun!" in the worl!& Ebo e all things" goo! policy is to be use!" that the treasure an! %oneys" in a state" be not gath@ ere! into few han!s& For otherwise a state %ay ha e a great stoc#" an! yet star e& En! %oney is li#e %uc#" not goo! except it be sprea!& This is !one" chiefly by suppressing" or at least #eeping a strait han!" upon the !e ouring tra!es of usury" ingrossing great pasturages" an! the li#e& For re%o ing !iscontent%ents" or at least the !anger of the%R there is in e ery state Fas we #nowG two portions of subjectsR the noblesse an! the co%%onalty& 'hen one of these is !iscontent" the !anger is not greatR for co%%on people are of slow %otion" if they be not excite! by the greater sortR an! the greater sort are of s%all strength" except the %ultitu!e be apt" an! rea!y to %o e of the%sel es& Then is the !anger" when the greater sort" !o but wait for the troubling of the waters a%ongst the %eaner" that then they %ay !eclare the%sel es& The poets feign" that the rest of the go!s woul! ha e boun! 0upiterR which he hearing of" by the counsel of Pallas" sent for Briareus" with his hun!re! han!s" to co%e in to his ai!& En e%@ ble%" no !oubt" to show how safe it is for %on@ archs" to %a#e sure of the goo! will of co%%on people& To gi e %o!erate liberty for griefs an! !is@ content%ents to e aporate Fso it be without too great insolency or bra eryG" is a safe way& For he that turneth the hu%ors bac#" an! %a#eth the woun! blee! inwar!s" en!angereth %align ulcers" an! pernicious i%posthu%ations& The part of Epi%etheus %ought well beco%e Pro%etheus" in the case of !iscontent%ents? for

there is not a better pro ision against the%& Epi%e@ theus" when griefs an! e ils flew abroa!" at last shut the li!" an! #ept hope in the botto% of the essel& Certainly" the politic an! artificial nourish@ ing" an! entertaining of hopes" an! carrying %en fro% hopes to hopes" is one of the best anti!otes against the poison of !iscontent%ents& En! it is a certain sign of a wise go ern%ent an! procee!ing" when it can hol! %enDs hearts by hopes" when it cannot by satisfactionR an! when it can han!le things" in such %anner" as no e il shall appear so pere%ptory" but that it hath so%e outlet of hopeR which is the less har! to !o" because both particu@ lar persons an! factions" are apt enough to flatter the%sel es" or at least to bra e that" which they belie e not& Elso the foresight an! pre ention" that there be no li#ely or fit hea!" whereunto !iscontente! per@ sons %ay resort" an! un!er who% they %ay join" is a #nown" but an excellent point of caution& / un!erstan! a fit hea!" to be one that hath great@ ness an! reputationR that hath confi!ence with the !iscontente! party" an! upon who% they turn their eyesR an! that is thought !iscontente!" in his own particular? which #in! of persons" are either to be won" an! reconcile! to the state" an! that in a fast an! true %annerR or to be fronte! with so%e other" of the sa%e party" that %ay oppose the%" an! so !i i!e the reputation& Generally" the !i i!@ ing an! brea#ing" of all factions an! co%binations that are a! erse to the state" an! setting the% at !istance" or at least !istrust" a%ongst the%sel es" is not one of the worst re%e!ies& For it is a !esper@ ate case" if those that hol! with the procee!ing of the state" be full of !iscor! an! faction" an! those that are against it" be entire an! unite!& / ha e note!" that so%e witty an! sharp speeches" which ha e fallen fro% princes" ha e gi en fire to se!itions& Caesar !i! hi%self infinite hurt in that speech" ,ylla nesci it literas" non po@ tuit !ictareR for it !i! utterly cut off that hope" which %en ha! entertaine!" that he woul! at one ti%e or other gi e o er his !ictatorship& Galba un@ !i! hi%self by that speech" legi a se %ilite%" non e%iR for it put the sol!iers out of hope of the !ona@ ti e& Probus li#ewise" by that speech" ,i ixero" non opus erit a%plius *o%ano i%perio %ilitibusR a speech of great !espair for the sol!iers& En! %any the li#e& ,urely princes ha! nee!" in ten!er %atters an! tic#lish ti%es" to beware what they sayR especially in these short speeches" which fly abroa! li#e !arts" an! are thought to be shot out of their secret intentions& For as for large !iscourses" they are flat things" an! not so %uch note!&

=astly" let princes" against all e ents" not be without so%e great person" one or rather %ore" of %ilitary alor" near unto the%" for the repressing of se!itions in their beginnings& For without that" there useth to be %ore trepi!ation in court upon the first brea#ing out of troubles" than were fit& En! the state runneth the !anger of that which Tacitus saithR Et>ue is habitus ani%oru% fuit" ut pessi%u% facinus au!erent pauci" plures ellent" o%nes paterentur& But let such %ilitary persons be assure!" an! well repute! of" rather than factious an! popularR hol!ing also goo! correspon!ence with the other great %en in the stateR or else the re%e!y" is worse than the !isease&

:f Etheis% / +E( rather belie e all the fables in the =eg@ en!" an! the Tal%u!" an! the Elcoran" than that this uni ersal fra%e is without a %in!& En! therefore" Go! ne er wrought %iracle" to con ince atheis%" because his or!inary wor#s con@ ince it& /t is true" that a little philosophy inclineth %anDs %in! to atheis%R but !epth in philosophy bringeth %enDs %in!s about to religion& For while the %in! of %an loo#eth upon secon! causes scat@ tere!" it %ay so%eti%es rest in the%" an! go no furtherR but when it behol!eth the chain of the%" confe!erate an! lin#e! together" it %ust nee!s fly to Pro i!ence an! (eity& ;ay" e en that school which is %ost accuse! of atheis% !oth %ost !e%@ onstrate religionR that is" the school of =eucippus an! (e%ocritus an! Epicurus& For it is a thousan! ti%es %ore cre!ible" that four %utable ele%ents" an! one i%%utable fifth essence" !uly an! eter@ nally place!" nee! no Go!" than that an ar%y of infinite s%all portions" or see!s unplace!" shoul! ha e pro!uce! this or!er an! beauty" without a !i ine %arshal& The ,cripture saith" The fool hath sai! in his heart" there is no Go!R it is not sai!" The fool hath thought in his heartR so as he rather saith it" by rote to hi%self" as that he woul! ha e" than that he can thoroughly belie e it" or be persua!e! of it& For none !eny" there is a Go!" but those" for who% it %a#eth that there were no Go!& /t ap@ peareth in nothing %ore" that atheis% is rather in the lip" than in the heart of %an" than by thisR that atheists will e er be tal#ing of that their opinion" as if they fainte! in it" within the%sel es" an! woul! be gla! to be strengthene!" by the consent of others& ;ay %ore" you shall ha e atheists stri e to get !isciples" as it fareth with other sects& En!" which is %ost of all" you shall ha e of the%" that

will suffer for atheis%" an! not recantR whereas if they !i! truly thin#" that there were no such thing as Go!" why shoul! they trouble the%sel esP Epi@ curus is charge!" that he !i! but !isse%ble for his cre!itDs sa#e" when he affir%e! there were blesse! natures" but such as enjoye! the%sel es" without ha ing respect to the go ern%ent of the worl!& 'herein they say he !i! te%pori9eR though in secret" he thought there was no Go!& But certainly he is tra!uce!R for his wor!s are noble an! !i ine? ;on !eos ulgi negare profanu%R se! ulgi opini@ ones !iis applicare profanu%& Plato coul! ha e sai! no %ore& En! although he ha! the confi!ence" to !eny the a!%inistration" he ha! not the power" to !eny the nature& The /n!ians of the 'est" ha e na%es for their particular go!s" though they ha e no na%e for Go!? as if the heathens shoul! ha e ha! the na%es 0upiter" Epollo" 5ars" etc&" but not the wor! (eusR which shows that e en those bar@ barous people ha e the notion" though they ha e not the latitu!e an! extent of it& ,o that against atheists" the ery sa ages ta#e part" with the ery subtlest philosophers& The conte%plati e atheist is rare? a (iagoras" a Bion" a =ucian perhaps" an! so%e othersR an! yet they see% to be %ore than they areR for that all that i%pugn a recei e! re@ ligion" or superstition" are by the a! erse part bran!e! with the na%e of atheists& But the great atheists" in!ee! are hypocritesR which are e er han!ling holy things" but without feelingR so as they %ust nee!s be cauteri9e! in the en!& The causes of atheis% are? !i isions in religion" if they be %anyR for any one %ain !i ision" a!!eth 9eal to both si!esR but %any !i isions intro!uce atheis%& Enother is" scan!al of priestsR when it is co%e to that which ,t& Bernar! saith" non est ja% !icere" ut populus sic sacer!osR >uia nec sic populus ut sacer!os& E thir! is" custo% of profane scoffing in holy %attersR which !oth" by little an! little" !e@ face the re erence of religion& En! lastly" learne! ti%es" specially with peace an! prosperityR for troubles an! a! ersities !o %ore bow %enDs %in!s to religion& They that !eny a Go!" !estroy %anDs nobilityR for certainly %an is of #in to the beasts" by his bo!yR an!" if he be not of #in to Go!" by his spirit" he is a base an! ignoble creature& /t !estroys li#ewise %agnani%ity" an! the raising of hu%an natureR for ta#e an exa%ple of a !og" an! %ar# what a generosity an! courage he will put on" when he fin!s hi%self %aintaine! by a %anR who to hi% is instea! of a Go!" or %elior naturaR which courage is %anifestly such" as that creature" with@ out that confi!ence of a better nature than his own" coul! ne er attain& ,o %an" when he resteth an! assureth hi%self" upon !i ine protection an! fa or" gathere! a force an! faith" which hu%an nature in itself coul! not obtain& Therefore" as atheis% is in all respects hateful" so in this" that it

!epri eth hu%an nature of the %eans to exalt it@ self" abo e hu%an frailty& Es it is in particular persons" so it is in nations& ;e er was there such a state for %agnani%ity as *o%e& :f this state hear what Cicero saith? Sua% olu%us licet" patres con@ scripti" nos a%e%us" ta%en nec nu%ero +ispanos" nec robore Gallos" nec calli!itate Poenos" nec arti@ bus Graecos" nec !eni>ue hoc ipso hujus gentis et terrae !o%estico nati o>ue sensu /talos ipsos et =atinosR se! pietate" ac religione" at>ue hac una sapientia" >uo! !eoru% i%%ortaliu% nu%ine o%nia regi gubernari>ue perspexi%us" o%nes gentes nationes>ue supera i%us&

:f ,uperstition /T 'E*E better to ha e no opinion of Go! at all" than such an opinion" as is unworthy of hi%& For the one is unbelief" the other is contu%elyR an! certainly superstition is the reproach of the (eity& Plutarch saith well to that purpose? ,urely Fsaith heG / ha! rather a great !eal" %en shoul! say" there was no such %an at all" as Plutarch" than that they shoul! say" that there was one Plu@ tarch" that woul! eat his chil!ren as soon as they were bornR as the poets spea# of ,aturn& En! as the contu%ely is greater towar!s Go!" so the !anger is greater towar!s %en& Etheis% lea es a %an to sense" to philosophy" to natural piety" to laws" to reputationR all which %ay be gui!es to an outwar! %oral irtue" though religion were notR but super@ stition !is%ounts all these" an! erecteth an abso@ lute %onarchy" in the %in!s of %en& Therefore theis% !i! ne er perturb statesR for it %a#es %en wary of the%sel es" as loo#ing no further? an! we see the ti%es incline! to atheis% Fas the ti%e of Eugustus CaesarG were ci il ti%es& But supersti@ tion hath been the confusion of %any states" an! bringeth in a new pri%u% %obile" that ra isheth all the spheres of go ern%ent&The %aster of super@ stition" is the peopleR an! in all superstition" wise %en follow foolsR an! argu%ents are fitte! to prac@ tice" in a re erse! or!er& /t was gra ely sai! by so%e of the prelates in the Council of Trent" where the !octrine of the ,chool%en bare great sway" that the ,chool%en were li#e astrono%ers" which !i! feign eccentrics an! epicycles" an! such en@ gines of orbs" to sa e the pheno%enaR though they #new there were no such thingsR an! in li#e %an@ ner" that the ,chool%en ha! fra%e! a nu%ber of subtle an! intricate axio%s" an! theore%s" to sa e the practice of the church& The causes of supersti@ tion are? pleasing an! sensual rites an! cere%oniesR excess of outwar! an! pharisaical holinessR o er@

great re erence of tra!itions" which cannot but loa! the churchR the stratage%s of prelates" for their own a%bition an! lucreR the fa oring too %uch of goo! intentions" which openeth the gate to conceits an! no eltiesR the ta#ing an ai% at !i ine %atters" by hu%an" which cannot but bree! %ixture of i%aginations? an!" lastly" bar@ barous ti%es" especially joine! with cala%ities an! !isasters& ,uperstition" without a eil" is a !e@ for%e! thingR for" as it a!!eth !efor%ity to an ape" to be so li#e a %an" so the si%ilitu!e of super@ stition to religion" %a#es it the %ore !efor%e!& En! as wholeso%e %eat corrupteth to little wor%s" so goo! for%s an! or!ers corrupt" into a nu%ber of petty obser ances& There is a superstition in a oi!@ ing superstition" when %en thin# to !o best" if they go furthest fro% the superstition" for%erly re@ cei e!R therefore care woul! be ha! that Fas it fareth in ill purgingsG the goo! be not ta#en away with the ba!R which co%%only is !one" when the people is the refor%er&

:f Tra el T*E)E=" in the younger sort" is a part of e!u@ cation" in the el!er" a part of experience& +e that tra elleth into a country" before he hath so%e entrance into the language" goeth to school" an! not to tra el& That young %en tra el un!er so%e tutor" or gra e ser ant" / allow wellR so that he be such a one that hath the language" an! hath been in the country beforeR whereby he %ay be able to tell the% what things are worthy to be seen" in the country where they goR what ac>uaintances they are to see#R what exercises" or !iscipline" the place yiel!eth& For else" young %en shall go hoo!e!" an! loo# abroa! little& /t is a strange thing" that in sea oyages" where there is nothing to be seen" but s#y an! sea" %en shoul! %a#e !iariesR but in lan!@tra el" wherein so %uch is to be ob@ ser e!" for the %ost part they o%it itR as if chance were fitter to be registere!" than obser ation& =et !iaries" therefore" be brought in use& The things to be seen an! obser e! are? the courts of princes" especially when they gi e au!ience to a%bassa@ !orsR the courts of justice" while they sit an! hear causesR an! so of consistories ecclesiasticR the churches an! %onasteries" with the %onu%ents which are therein extantR the walls an! fortifica@ tions of cities" an! towns" an! so the hea ens an! harborsR anti>uities an! ruinsR librariesR colleges" !isputations" an! lectures" where any areR ship@

ping an! na iesR houses an! gar!ens of state an! pleasure" near great citiesR ar%oriesR arsenalsR %aga9inesR exchangesR bursesR warehousesR exer@ cises of horse%anship" fencing" training of sol@ !iers" an! the li#eR co%e!ies" such whereunto the better sort of persons !o resortR treasuries of jewels an! robesR cabinets an! raritiesR an!" to conclu!e" whatsoe er is %e%orable" in the places where they go& Efter all which" the tutors" or ser ants" ought to %a#e !iligent in>uiry& Es for triu%phs" %as#s" feasts" we!!ings" funerals" capital execu@ tions" an! such shows" %en nee! not to be put in %in! of the%R yet are they not to be neglecte!& /f you will ha e a young %an to put his tra el into a little roo%" an! in short ti%e to gather %uch" this you %ust !o& First" as was sai!" he %ust ha e so%e entrance into the language before he goeth& Then he %ust ha e such a ser ant" or tutor" as #noweth the country" as was li#ewise sai!& =et hi% carry with hi% also" so%e car! or boo#" !escribing the country where he tra ellethR which will be a goo! #ey to his in>uiry& =et hi% #eep also a !iary& =et hi% not stay long" in one city or townR %ore or less as the place !eser eth" but not longR nay" when he stayeth in one city or town" let hi% change his lo!ging fro% one en! an! part of the town" to an@ otherR which is a great a!a%ant of ac>uaintance& =et hi% se>uester hi%self" fro% the co%pany of his country%en" an! !iet in such places" where there is goo! co%pany of the nation where he tra elleth& =et hi%" upon his re%o es fro% one place to another" procure reco%%en!ation to so%e person of >uality" resi!ing in the place whither he re%o ethR that he %ay use his fa or" in those things he !esireth to see or #now& Thus he %ay abri!ge his tra el" with %uch profit& Es for the ac>uaintance" which is to be sought in tra elR that which is %ost of all profitable" is ac>uaintance with the secretaries an! e%ploye! %en of a%bas@ sa!ors? for so in tra elling in one country" he shall suc# the experience of %any& =et hi% also see" an! isit" e%inent persons in all #in!s" which are of great na%e abroa!R that he %ay be able to tell" how the life agreeth with the fa%e& For >uarrels" they are with care an! !iscretion to be a oi!e!& They are co%%only for %istresses" healths" place" an! wor!s& En! let a %an beware" how he #eepeth co%pany with choleric an! >uarrelso%e personsR for they will engage hi% into their own >uarrels& 'hen a tra eller returneth ho%e" let hi% not lea e the countries" where he hath tra elle!" alto@ gether behin! hi%R but %aintain a correspon!@ ence by letters" with those of his ac>uaintance" which are of %ost worth& En! let his tra el appear rather in his !iscourse" than his apparel or gestureR an! in his !iscourse" let hi% be rather a! ise! in his answers" than forwar! to tell storiesR an! let it appear that he !oth not change his country %an@

ners" for those of foreign partsR but only pric# in so%e flowers" of that he hath learne! abroa!" into the custo%s of his own country&

:f E%pire

/T /, a %iserable state of %in!" to ha e few things to !esire" an! %any things to fearR an! yet that co%%only is the case of #ingsR who" being at the highest" want %atter of !esire" which %a#es their %in!s %ore languishingR an! ha e %any rep@ resentations of perils an! sha!ows" which %a#es their %in!s the less clear& En! this is one reason also" of that effect which the ,cripture spea#eth of" That the #ingDs heart is inscrutable& For %ultitu!e of jealousies" an! lac# of so%e pre!o%inant !e@ sire" that shoul! %arshal an! put in or!er all the rest" %a#eth any %anDs heart" har! to fin! or soun!& +ence it co%es li#ewise" that princes %any ti%es %a#e the%sel es !esires" an! set their hearts upon toysR so%eti%es upon a buil!ingR so%eti%es upon erecting of an or!erR so%eti%es upon the a!@ ancing of a personR so%eti%es upon obtaining excellency in so%e art" or feat of the han!R as ;ero for playing on the harp" (o%itian for certainty of the han! with the arrow" Co%%o!us for play@ ing at fence" Caracalla for !ri ing chariots" an! the li#e& This see%eth incre!ible" unto those that #now not the principle" that the %in! of %an" is %ore cheere! an! refreshe! by profiting in s%all things" than by stan!ing at a stay" in great& 'e see also that #ings that ha e been fortunate con>uer@ ors" in their first years" it being not possible for the% to go forwar! infinitely" but that they %ust ha e so%e chec#" or arrest in their fortunes" turn in their latter years to be superstitious" an! %elan@ cholyR as !i! Elexan!er the GreatR (iocletianR an! in our %e%ory" Charles the FifthR an! others? for he that is use! to go forwar!" an! fin!eth a stop" falleth out of his own fa or" an! is not the thing he was& To spea# now of the true te%per of e%pire" it is a thing rare an! har! to #eepR for both te%per" an! !iste%per" consist of contraries& But it is one thing" to %ingle contraries" another to interchange the%& The answer of Epollonius to )espasian" is full of excellent instruction& )espasian as#e! hi%" 'hat was ;eroDs o erthrowP +e answere!" ;ero coul! touch an! tune the harp wellR but in go ern%ent" so%eti%es he use! to win! the pins too high" so%e@ ti%es to let the% !own too low& En! certain it is" that nothing !estroyeth authority so %uch" as the

une>ual an! unti%ely interchange of power presse! too far" an! relaxe! too %uch& This is true" that the wis!o% of all these latter ti%es" in princesD affairs" is rather fine !eli eries" an! shiftings of !angers an! %ischiefs" when they are near" than soli! an! groun!e! courses to #eep the% aloof& But this is but to try %asteries with fortune& En! let %en beware" how they neglect an! suffer %atter of trouble to be prepare!R for no %an can forbi! the spar#" nor tell whence it %ay co%e& The !ifficulties in princesD business are %any an! greatR but the greatest !ifficulty" is often in their own %in!& For it is co%%on with princes Fsaith TacitusG to will contra!ictories" ,unt pler@ u%>ue regu% oluntates ehe%entes" et inter se contrariae& For it is the solecis% of power" to thin# to co%%an! the en!" an! yet not to en!ure the %ean& Tings ha e to !eal with their neighbors" their wi es" their chil!ren" their prelates or clergy" their nobles" their secon!@nobles or gentle%en" their %erchants" their co%%ons" an! their %en of warR an! fro% all these arise !angers" if care an! cir@ cu%spection be not use!& First for their neighborsR there can no general rule be gi en Ffor occasions are so ariableG" sa e one" which e er hol!eth" which is" that princes !o #eep !ue sentinel" that none of their neighbors !o e er grow so Fby increase of territory" by e%brac@ ing of tra!e" by approaches" or the li#eG" as they beco%e %ore able to annoy the%" than they were& En! this is generally the wor# of stan!ing coun@ sels" to foresee an! to hin!er it& (uring that triu%@ irate of #ings" Ting +enry the Eighth of Englan!" Francis the First Ting of France" an! Charles the Fifth E%peror" there was such a watch #ept" that none of the three coul! win a pal% of groun!" but the other two woul! straightways balance it" either by confe!eration" or" if nee! were" by a warR an! woul! not in any wise ta#e up peace at inter@ est& En! the li#e was !one by that league Fwhich Guicciar!ini saith was the security of /talyG %a!e between Fer!inan!o Ting of ;aples" =oren9ius 5e!ici" an! =u!o icus ,for9a" potentates" the one of Florence" the other of 5ilan& ;either is the opin@ ion of so%e of the ,chool%en" to be recei e!" that a war cannot justly be %a!e" but upon a prece!ent injury or pro ocation& For there is no >uestion" but a just fear of an i%%inent !anger" though there be no blow gi en" is a lawful cause of a war& For their wi esR there are cruel exa%ples of the%& =i ia is infa%e!" for the poisoning of her husban!R *oxalana" ,oly%anDs wife" was the !estruction of that renowne! prince" ,ultan 5us@

tapha" an! otherwise trouble! his house an! suc@ cessionR E!war! the ,econ! of Englan!" his >ueen" ha! the principal han! in the !eposing an! %ur@ !er of her husban!& This #in! of !anger" is then to be feare! chiefly" when the wi es ha e plots" for the raising of their own chil!renR or else that they be a! outresses& For their chil!renR the trage!ies li#ewise of !angers fro% the%" ha e been %any& En! gen@ erally" the entering of fathers into suspicion of their chil!ren" hath been e er unfortunate& The !estruction of 5ustapha Fthat we na%e! beforeG was so fatal to ,oly%anDs line" as the succession of the Tur#s" fro% ,oly%an until this !ay" is sus@ pecte! to be untrue" an! of strange bloo!R for that ,ely%us the ,econ!" was thought to be supposi@ tious& The !estruction of Crispus" a young prince of rare towar!ness" by Constantinus the Great" his father" was in li#e %anner fatal to his houseR for both Constantinus an! Constance" his sons" !ie! iolent !eathsR an! Constantius" his other son" !i! little betterR who !ie! in!ee! of sic#ness" but after that 0ulianus ha! ta#en ar%s against hi%& The !e@ struction of (e%etrius" son to Philip the ,econ! of 5ace!on" turne! upon the father" who !ie! of repentance& En! %any li#e exa%ples there areR but few or none" where the fathers ha! goo! by such !istrustR except it were" where the sons were up in open ar%s against the%R as was ,ely%us the First against Baja9etR an! the three sons of +enry the ,econ!" Ting of Englan!& For their prelatesR when they are prou! an! great" there is also !anger fro% the%R as it was in the ti%es of Ensel%us" an! Tho%as Bec#et" Erch@ bishops of CanterburyR who" with their cro9iers" !i! al%ost try it with the #ingDs swor!R an! yet they ha! to !eal with stout an! haughty #ings" 'illia% *ufus" +enry the First" an! +enry the ,econ!& The !anger is not fro% that state" but where it hath a !epen!ence of foreign authorityR or where the church%en co%e in an! are electe!" not by the collation of the #ing" or particular patrons" but by the people& For their noblesR to #eep the% at a !istance" it is not a%issR but to !epress the%" %ay %a#e a #ing %ore absolute" but less safeR an! less able to per@ for%" any thing that he !esires& / ha e note! it" in %y +istory of Ting +enry the ,e enth of Eng@ lan!" who !epresse! bis nobilityR whereupon it ca%e to pass" that his ti%es were full of !ifficulties an! troublesR for the nobility" though they con@ tinue! loyal unto hi%" yet !i! they not co@operate with hi% in his business& ,o that in effect" he was fain to !o all things hi%self&

For their secon!@noblesR there is not %uch !an@ ger fro% the%" being a bo!y !isperse!& They %ay so%eti%es !iscourse high" but that !oth little hurtR besi!es" they are a counterpoise to the higher no@ bility" that they grow not too potentR an!" lastly" being the %ost i%%e!iate in authority" with the co%%on people" they !o best te%per popular co%@ %otions& For their %erchantsR they are ena portaR an! if they flourish not" a #ing!o% %ay ha e goo! li%bs" but will ha e e%pty eins" an! nourish little& Taxes an! i%posts upon the%" !o sel!o% goo! to the #ingDs re enueR for that that he wins in the hun!re!" he leeseth in the shireR the particular rates being increase!" but the total bul# of tra!ing" rather !ecrease!& For their co%%onsR there is little !anger fro% the%" except it be" where they ha e great an! po@ tent hea!sR or where you %e!!le with the point of religion" or their custo%s" or %eans of life& For their %en of warR it is a !angerous state" where they li e an! re%ain in a bo!y" an! are use! to !onati esR whereof we see exa%ples in the jani9aries" an! pretorian ban!s of *o%eR but train@ ings of %en" an! ar%ing the% in se eral places" an! un!er se eral co%%an!ers" an! without !onati es" are things of !efence" an! no !anger& Princes are li#e to hea enly bo!ies" which cause goo! or e il ti%esR an! which ha e %uch enera@ tion" but no rest& Ell precepts concerning #ings" are in effect co%prehen!e! in those two re%e%@ brances? %e%ento >uo! es ho%oR an! %e%ento >uo! es (eus" or ice (eiR the one bri!leth their power" an! the other their will&

:f Counsel T+E greatest trust" between %an an! %an" is the trust of gi ing counsel& For in other con@ fi!ences" %en co%%it the parts of lifeR their lan!s" their goo!s" their chil!ren" their cre!it" so%e par@ ticular affairR but to such as they %a#e their coun@ sellors" they co%%it the whole? by how %uch the %ore" they are oblige! to all faith an! integrity& The wisest princes nee! not thin# it any !i%inu@ tion to their greatness" or !erogation to their suf@ ficiency" to rely upon counsel& Go! hi%self is not without" but hath %a!e it one of the great na%es of his blesse! ,on? The Counsellor& ,olo%on hath

pronounce!" that in counsel is stability& Things will ha e their first" or secon! agitation? if they be not tosse! upon the argu%ents of counsel" they will be tosse! upon the wa es of fortuneR an! be full of inconstancy" !oing an! un!oing" li#e the reeling of a !run#en %an& ,olo%onDs son foun! the force of counsel" as his father saw the necessity of it& For the belo e! #ing!o% of Go!" was first rent" an! bro#en" by ill counselR upon which coun@ sel" there are set for our instruction" the two %ar#s whereby ba! counsel is for e er best !iscerne!R that it was young counsel" for the personR an! iolent counsel" for the %atter& The ancient ti%es" !o set forth in figure" both the incorporation" an! inseparable conjunction" of counsel with #ings" an! the wise an! politic use of counsel by #ings? the one" in that they say 0upi@ ter !i! %arry 5etis" which signifieth counselR whereby they inten! that ,o ereignty" is %arrie! to Counsel? the other in that which followeth" which was thus? They say" after 0upiter was %ar@ rie! to 5etis" she concei e! by hi%" an! was with chil!" but 0upiter suffere! her not to stay" till she brought forth" but eat her upR whereby he beca%e hi%self with chil!" an! was !eli ere! of Pallas ar%e!" out of his hea!& 'hich %onstrous fable containeth a secret of e%pireR how #ings are to %a#e use of their counsel of state& That first" they ought to refer %atters unto the%" which is the first begetting" or i%pregnationR but when they are elaborate" %oul!e!" an! shape! in the wo%b of their counsel" an! grow ripe" an! rea!y to be brought forth" that then they suffer not their coun@ sel to go through with the resolution an! !irec@ tion" as if it !epen!e! on the%R but ta#e the %atter bac# into their own han!s" an! %a#e it appear to the worl!" that the !ecrees an! final !irections Fwhich" because they co%e forth" with pru!ence an! power" are rese%ble! to Pallas ar%e!G pro@ cee!e! fro% the%sel esR an! not only fro% their authority" but Fthe %ore to a!! reputation to the%@ sel esG fro% their hea! an! !e ice& =et us now spea# of the incon eniences of coun@ sel" an! of the re%e!ies& The incon eniences that ha e been note!" in calling an! using counsel" are three& First" the re ealing of affairs" whereby they beco%e less secret& ,econ!ly" the wea#ening of the authority of princes" as if they were less of the%@ sel es& Thir!ly" the !anger of being unfaithfully counselle!" an! %ore for the goo! of the% that counsel" than of hi% that is counselle!& For which incon eniences" the !octrine of /taly" an! practice of France" in so%e #ingsD ti%es" hath intro!uce! cabinet counselsR a re%e!y worse than the !isease& Es to secrecyR princes are not boun! to co%%u@

nicate all %atters" with all counsellorsR but %ay extract an! select& ;either is it necessary" that he that consulteth what he shoul! !o" shoul! !eclare what he will !o& But let princes beware" that the unsecreting of their affairs" co%es not fro% the%@ sel es& En! as for cabinet counsels" it %ay be their %otto" plenus ri%aru% su%? one futile person" that %a#eth it his glory to tell" will !o %ore hurt than %any" that #now it their !uty to conceal& /t is true there be so%e affairs" which re>uire extre%e secrecy" which will har!ly go beyon! one or two persons" besi!es the #ing? neither are those coun@ sels unprosperousR for" besi!es the secrecy" they conunonly go on constantly" in one spirit of !irec@ tion" without !istraction& But then it %ust be a pru!ent #ing" such as is able to grin! with a han!@ %illR an! those inwar! counsellors ha! nee! also be wise %en" an! especially true an! trusty to the #ingDs en!sR as it was with Ting +enry the ,e enth of Englan!" who" in his great business" i%parte! hi%self to none" except it were to 5orton an! Fox& For wea#ening of authorityR the fable showeth the re%e!y& ;ay" the %ajesty of #ings" is rather exalte! than !i%inishe!" when they are in the chair of counselR neither was there e er prince" be@ rea e! of his !epen!ences" by his counsel" except where there hath been" either an o er@greatness in one counsellor" or an o er@strict co%bination in !i ersR which are things soon foun!" an! holpen& For the last incon enience" that %en will coun@ sel" with an eye to the%sel esR certainly" non in eniet fi!e% super terra% is %eant" of the na@ ture of ti%es" an! not of all particular persons& There be" that are in nature faithful" an! sincere" an! plain" an! !irectR not crafty an! in ol e!R let princes" abo e all" !raw to the%sel es such na@ tures& Besi!es" counsellors are not co%%only so unite!" but that one counsellor" #eepeth sentinel o er anotherR so that if any !o counsel out of fac@ tion or pri ate en!s" it co%%only co%es to the #ingDs ear& But the best re%e!y is" if princes #now their counsellors" as well as their counsellors #now the%? Principis est irtus %axi%a nosse suos& En! on the other si!e" counsellors shoul! not be too speculati e into their so ereignDs person& The true co%position of a counsellor" is rather to be s#ilful in their %asterDs business" than in his na@ tureR for then he is li#e to a! ise hi%" an! not fee! his hu%or& /t is of singular use to princes" if they ta#e the opinions of their counsel" both separately an! together& For pri ate opinion is %ore freeR but opinion before others" is %ore re erent& /n

pri ate" %en are %ore bol! in their own hu%orsR an! in consort" %en are %ore obnoxious to othersD hu%orsR therefore it is goo! to ta#e bothR an! of the inferior sort" rather in pri ate" to preser e free@ !o%R of the greater" rather in consort" to preser e respect& /t is in ain for princes" to ta#e counsel concerning %atters" if they ta#e no counsel li#e@ wise concerning personsR for all %atters are as !ea! i%agesR an! the life of the execution of af@ fairs" resteth in the goo! choice of persons& ;either is it enough" to consult concerning persons secun@ !u% genera" as in an i!ea" or %athe%atical !e@ scription" what the #in! an! character of the person shoul! beR for the greatest errors are co%@ %itte!" an! the %ost ju!g%ent is shown" in the choice of in!i i!uals& /t was truly sai!" opti%i con@ siliarii %ortui? boo#s will spea# plain" when coun@ sellors blanch&Therefore it is goo! to be con ersant in the%" specially the boo#s of such as the%sel es ha e been actors upon the stage& The counsels at this !ay" in %ost places" are but fa%iliar %eetings" where %atters are rather tal#e! on" than !ebate!& En! they run too swift" to the or!er" or act" of counsel& /t were better that in causes of weight" the %atter were propoun!e! one !ay" an! not spo#en to till the next !ayR in nocte consiliu%& ,o was it !one in the Co%%ission of <nion" between Englan! an! ,cotlan!R which was a gra e an! or!erly asse%bly& / co%%en! set !ays for petitionsR for both it gi es the su!tors %ore certainty for their atten!ance" an! it frees the %eetings for %atters of estate" that they %ay hoc agere& /n choice of co%%itteesR for ripening busi@ ness for the counsel" it is better to choose in!ifferent persons" than to %a#e an in!ifferency" by putting in those" that are strong on both si!es& / co%%en! also stan!ing co%%issionsR as for tra!e" for treas@ ure" for war" for suits" for so%e pro incesR for where there be !i ers particular counsels" an! but one counsel of estate Fas it is in ,painG" they are" in effect" no %ore than stan!ing co%%issions? sa e that they ha e greater authority& =et such as are to infor% counsels" out of their particular profes@ sions Fas lawyers" sea%en" %int%en" an! the li#eG be first hear! before co%%itteesR an! then" as oc@ casion ser es" before the counsel& En! let the% not co%e in %ultitu!es" or in a tribunitious %annerR for that is to cla%or counsels" not to infor% the%& E long table an! a s>uare table" or seats about the walls" see% things of for%" but are things of sub@ stanceR for at a long table a few at the upper en!" in effect" sway all the businessR but in the other for%" there is %ore use of the counsellorsD opinions" that sit lower& E #ing" when he presi!es in counsel" let hi% beware how he opens his own inclination too %uch" in that which he propoun!ethR for else counsellors will but ta#e the win! of hi%" an! in@

stea! of gi ing free counsel" sing hi% a song of placebo&

:f (elays F:*T<;E is li#e the %ar#etR where %any ti%es if you can stay a little" the price will fall& Egain" it is so%eti%es li#e ,ibyllaDs offerR which at first" offereth the co%%o!ity at full" then con@ su%eth part an! part" an! still hol!eth up the price& For occasion Fas it is in the co%%on erseG turneth a bal! no!!le" after she hath presente! her loc#s in front" an! no hol! ta#enR or at least turneth the han!le of the bottle" first to be recei e!" an! after the belly" which is har! to clasp& There is surely no greater wis!o%" than well to ti%e the beginnings" an! onsets" of things& (angers are no %ore light" if they once see% lightR an! %ore !an@ gers ha e !ecei e! %en" than force! the%& ;ay" it were better" to %eet so%e !angers half way" though they co%e nothing near" than to #eep too long a watch upon their approachesR for if a %an watch too long" it is o!!s he will fall asleep& :n the other si!e" to be !ecei e! with too long sha!ows Fas so%e ha e been" when the %oon was low" an! shone on their ene%iesD bac#G" an! so to shoot off before the ti%eR or to teach !angers to co%e on" by o er early buc#ling towar!s the%R is another ex@ tre%e& The ripeness" or unripeness" of the occasion Fas we sai!G %ust e er be well weighe!R an! gener@ ally it is goo!" to co%%it the beginnings of all great actions to Ergus" with his hun!re! eyes" an! the en!s to Briareus" with his hun!re! han!sR first to watch" an! then to spee!& For the hel%et of Pluto" which %a#eth the politic %an go in isible" is secrecy in the counsel" an! celerity in the execu@ tion& For when things are once co%e to the execu@ tion" there is no secrecy" co%parable to celerityR li#e the %otion of a bullet in the air" which flieth so swift" as it outruns the eye&

:f Cunning 'E TETE cunning for a sinister or croo#e! wis!o%& En! certainly there is a great !if@ ference" between a cunning %an" an! a wise %anR not only in point of honesty" but in point of ability& There be" that can pac# the car!s" an! yet cannot

play wellR so there are so%e that are goo! in can@ asses an! factions" that are otherwise wea# %en& Egain" it is one thing to un!erstan! persons" an! another thing to un!erstan! %attersR for %any are perfect in %enDs hu%ors" that are not greatly capable of the real part of businessR which is the constitution of one that hath stu!ie! %en" %ore than boo#s& ,uch %en are fitter for practice" than for counselR an! they are goo!" but in their own alley? turn the% to new %en" an! they ha e lost their ai%R so as the ol! rule" to #now a fool fro% a wise %an" 5itte a%bos nu!os a! ignotos" et i!e@ bis" !oth scarce hol! for the%& En! because these cunning %en" are li#e haber!ashers of s%all wares" it is not a%iss to set forth their shop& /t is a point of cunning" to wait upon hi% with who% you spea#" with your eyeR as the 0esuits gi e it in precept? for there be %any wise %en" that ha e secret hearts" an! transparent countenances& Qet this woul! be !one with a !e%ure abasing of your eye" so%eti%es" as the 0esuits also !o use& Enother is" that when you ha e anything to obtain" of present !espatch" you entertain an! a%use the party" with who% you !eal" with so%e other !iscourseR that he be not too %uch awa#e to %a#e objections& / #new a counsellor an! secre@ tary" that ne er ca%e to Sueen Eli9abeth of Eng@ lan!" with bills to sign" but he woul! always first put her into so%e !iscourse of estate" that she %ought the less %in! the bills& The li#e surprise %ay be %a!e by %o ing things" when the party is in haste" an! cannot stay to consi!er a! ise!ly of that is %o e!& /f a %an woul! cross a business" that he !oubts so%e other woul! han!so%ely an! effectually %o e" let hi% preten! to wish it well" an! %o e it hi%self in such sort as %ay foil it& The brea#ing off" in the %i!st of that one was about to say" as if he too# hi%self up" bree!s a greater appetite in hi% with who% you confer" to #now %ore& En! because it wor#s better" when anything see%eth to be gotten fro% you by >uestion" than if you offer it of yourself" you %ay lay a bait for a >uestion" by showing another isage" an! counte@ nance" than you are wontR to the en! to gi e occa@ sion" for the party to as#" what the %atter is of the changeP Es ;ehe%ias !i!R En! / ha! not before that ti%e" been sa! before the #ing& /n things that are ten!er an! unpleasing" it is goo! to brea# the ice" by so%e whose wor!s are of

less weight" an! to reser e the %ore weighty oice" to co%e in as by chance" so that he %ay be as#e! the >uestion upon the otherDs speech? as ;arcissus !i!" relating to Clau!ius the %arriage of 5essa@ lina an! ,ilius& /n things that a %an woul! not be seen in hi%@ self" it is a point of cunning" to borrow the na%e of the worl!R as to say" The worl! says" or There is a speech abroa!& / #new one that" when he wrote a letter" he woul! put that" which was %ost %aterial" in the postscript" as if it ha! been a by@%atter& / #new another that" when he ca%e to ha e speech" he woul! pass o er that" that he inten!e! %ostR an! go forth" an! co%e bac# again" an! spea# of it as of a thing" that he ha! al%ost forgot& ,o%e procure the%sel es" to be surprise!" at such ti%es as it is li#e the party that they wor# upon" will su!!enly co%e upon the%R an! to be foun! with a letter in their han!" or !oing so%e@ what which they are not accusto%e!R to the en!" they %ay be appose! of those things" which of the%sel es they are !esirous to utter& /t is a point of cunning" to let fall those wor!s in a %anDs own na%e" which he woul! ha e another %an learn" an! use" an! thereupon ta#e a! an@ tage& / #new two" that were co%petitors for the secretaryDs place in Sueen Eli9abethDs ti%e" an! yet #ept goo! >uarter between the%sel esR an! woul! confer" one with another" upon the busi@ nessR an! the one of the% sai!" That to be a secre@ tary" in the !eclination of a %onarchy" was a tic#lish thing" an! that he !i! not affect it? the other straight caught up those wor!s" an! !is@ course! with !i ers of his frien!s" that he ha! no reason to !esire to be secretary" in the !eclination of a %onarchy& The first %an too# hol! of it" an! foun! %eans it was tol! the SueenR who" hearing of a !eclination of a %onarchy" too# it so ill" as she woul! ne er after hear of the otherDs suit& There is a cunning" which we in Englan! call" the turning of the cat in the panR which is" when that which a %an says to another" he lays it as if another ha! sai! it to hi%& En! to say truth" it is not easy" when such a %atter passe! between two" to %a#e it appear fro% which of the% it first %o e! an! began& /t is a way that so%e %en ha e" to glance an! !art at others" by justifying the%sel es by nega@ ti esR as to say" This / !o notR as Tigellinus !i! towar!s Burrhus" ,e non !i ersas spes" se! incolu@

%itate% i%peratoris si%pliciter spectare& ,o%e ha e in rea!iness so %any tales an! stories" as there is nothing they woul! insinuate" but they can wrap it into a taleR which ser eth both to #eep the%sel es %ore in guar!" an! to %a#e others carry it with %ore pleasure& /t is a goo! point of cunning" for a %an to shape the answer he woul! ha e" in his own wor!s an! propositionsR for it %a#es the other party stic# the less& /t is strange how long so%e %en will lie in wait to spea# so%ewhat they !esire to sayR an! how far about they will fetchR an! how %any other %at@ ters they will beat o er" to co%e near it& /t is a thing of great patience" but yet of %uch use& E su!!en" bol!" an! unexpecte! >uestion !oth %any ti%es surprise a %an" an! lay hi% open& =i#e to hi% that " ha ing change! his na%e" an! wal#ing in PaulDs" another su!!enly ca%e behin! hi%" an! calle! hi% by his true na%e" whereat straightways he loo#e! bac#& But these s%all wares" an! petty points" of cun@ ning" are infiniteR an! it were a goo! !ee! to %a#e a list of the%R for that nothing !oth %ore hurt in a state" than that cunning %en pass for wise& But certainly so%e there are that #now the re@ sorts an! falls of business" that cannot sin# into the %ain of itR li#e a house that hath con enient stairs an! entries" but ne er a fair roo%& Therefore" you shall see the% fin! out pretty looses in the con@ clusion" but are no ways able to exa%ine or !ebate %atters& En! yet co%%only they ta#e a! antage of their inability" an! woul! be thought wits of !irection& ,o%e buil! rather upon the abusing of others" an! Fas we now sayG putting tric#s upon the%" than upon soun!ness of their own procee!@ ings& But ,olo%on saith" Pru!ens a! ertit a! gres@ sus suosR stultus !i ertit a! !olos&

:f 'is!o% F:* E 5E;D, ,E=F

E; E;T is a wise creature for itself" but it is a shrew! thing" in an orchar! or gar!en& En!

certainly" %en that are great lo ers of the%sel es" waste the public& (i i!e with reasonR between self@ lo e an! societyR an! be so true to thyself" as thou be not false to othersR specially to thy #ing an! country& /t is a poor centre of a %anDs actions" hi%@ self& /t is right earth& For that only stan!s fast upon his own centreR whereas all things" that ha e af@ finity with the hea ens" %o e upon the centre of another" which they benefit& The referring of all to a %anDs self" is %ore tolerable in a so ereign princeR because the%sel es are not only the%@ sel es" but their goo! an! e il is at the peril of the public fortune& But it is a !esperate e il" in a ser@ ant to a prince" or a citi9en in a republic& For whatsoe er affairs pass such a %anDs han!s" he croo#eth the% to his own en!sR which %ust nee!s be often eccentric to the en!s of his %aster" or state& Therefore" let princes" or states" choose such ser@ ants" as ha e not this %ar#R except they %ean their ser ice shoul! be %a!e but the accessory& That which %a#eth the effect %ore pernicious" is that all proportion is lost& /t were !isproportion enough" for the ser antDs goo! to be preferre! be@ fore the %asterDsR but yet it is a greater extre%e" when a little goo! of the ser ant" shall carry things against a great goo! of the %asterDs& En! yet that is the case of ba! officers" treasurers" a%bassa!ors" generals" an! other false an! corrupt ser antsR which set a bias upon their bowl" of their own petty en!s an! en ies" to the o erthrow of their %asterDs great an! i%portant affairs& En! for the %ost part" the goo! such ser ants recei e" is after the %o!el of their own fortuneR but the hurt they sell for that goo!" is after the %o!el of their %asterDs fortune& En! certainly it is the nature of extre%e self@lo ers" as they will set an house on fire" an! it were but to roast their eggsR an! yet these %en %any ti%es hol! cre!it with their %asters" because their stu!y is but to please the%" an! profit the%sel esR an! for either respect" they will aban@ !on the goo! of their affairs& 'is!o% for a %anDs self is" in %any branches thereof" a !epra e! thing& /t is the wis!o% of rats" that will be sure to lea e a house" so%ewhat before it fall& /t is the wis!o% of the fox" that thrusts out the ba!ger" who !igge! an! %a!e roo% for hi%& /t is the wis!o% of croco!iles" that she! tears when they woul! !e our& But that which is specially to be note! is" that those which Fas Cicero says of Po%peyG are sui a%antes" sine ri ali" are %any ti%es unfortunate& En! whereas they ha e" all their ti%es" sacrifice! to the%sel es" they beco%e in the en!" the%sel es sacrifices to the inconstancy of fortune" whose wings they thought" by their self@wis!o%" to ha e pinione!&

:f /nno ations E, T+E births of li ing creatures" at first are ill@ shapen" so are all inno ations" which are the births of ti%e& Qet notwithstan!ing" as those that first bring honor into their fa%ily" are co%%only %ore worthy than %ost that succee!" so the first prece!ent Fif it be goo!G is sel!o% attaine! by i%itation& For ill" to %anDs nature" as it stan!s per erte!" hath a natural %otion" strongest in con@ tinuanceR but goo!" as a force! %otion" strongest at first& ,urely e ery %e!icine is an inno ationR an! he that will not apply new re%e!ies" %ust expect new e ilsR for ti%e is the greatest inno atorR an! if ti%e of course alter things to the worse" an! wis!o% an! counsel shall not alter the% to the better" what shall be the en!P /t is true" that what is settle! by custo%" though it be not goo!" yet at least it is fitR an! those things which ha e long gone together" are" as it were" confe!erate within the%sel esR whereas new things piece not so wellR but though they help by their utility" yet they trouble by their inconfor%ity& Besi!es" they are li#e strangersR %ore a!%ire!" an! less fa ore!& Ell this is true" if ti%e stoo! stillR which contrariwise %o eth so roun!" that a frowar! retention of cus@ to%" is as turbulent a thing as an inno ationR an! they that re erence too %uch ol! ti%es" are but a scorn to the new& /t were goo!" therefore" that %en in their inno ations woul! follow the exa%ple of ti%e itselfR which in!ee! inno ateth greatly" but >uietly" by !egrees scarce to be percei e!& For otherwise" whatsoe er is new is unloo#e! forR an! e er it %en!s so%e" an! pairs othersR an! he that is holpen" ta#es it for a fortune" an! than#s the ti%eR an! he that is hurt" for a wrong" an! i%put@ eth it to the author& /t is goo! also" not to try experi@ %ents in states" except the necessity be urgent" or the utility e i!entR an! well to beware" that it be the refor%ation" that !raweth on the change" an! not the !esire of change" that preten!eth the refor@ %ation& En! lastly" that the no elty" though it be not rejecte!" yet be hel! for a suspectR an!" as the ,cripture saith" that we %a#e a stan! upon the ancient way" an! then loo# about us" an! !isco er what is the straight an! right way" an! so to wal# in it&

:f (ispatch

EFFECTE( !ispatch is one of the %ost !anger@ ous things to business that can be& /t is li#e that" which the physicians call pre!igestion" or hasty !igestionR which is sure to fill the bo!y full of cru!ities" an! secret see!s of !iseases& Therefore %easure not !ispatch" by the ti%es of sitting" but by the a! ance%ent of the business& En! as in races it is not the large stri!e or high lift that %a#es the spee!R so in business" the #eeping close to the %atter" an! not ta#ing of it too %uch at once" pro@ cureth !ispatch& /t is the care of so%e" only to co%e off spee!ily for the ti%eR or to contri e so%e false perio!s of business" because they %ay see% %en of !ispatch& But it is one thing" to abbre iate by contracting" another by cutting off & En! business so han!le!" at se eral sittings or %eetings" goeth co%%only bac#war! an! forwar! in an unstea!y %anner& / #new a wise %an that ha! it for a by@ wor!" when he saw %en hasten to a conclusion" ,tay a little" that we %ay %a#e an en! the sooner& :n the other si!e" true !ispatch is a rich thing& For ti%e is the %easure of business" as %oney is of waresR an! business is bought at a !ear han!" where there is s%all !ispatch& The ,partans an! ,paniar!s ha e been note! to be of s%all !ispatchR 5i enga la %uerte !e ,pagnaR =et %y !eath co%e fro% ,painR for then it will be sure to be long in co%ing& Gi e goo! hearing to those" that gi e the first infor%ation in businessR an! rather !irect the% in the beginning" than interrupt the% in the con@ tinuance of their speechesR for he that is put out of his own or!er" will go forwar! an! bac#war!" an! be %ore te!ious" while he waits upon his %e%ory" than he coul! ha e been" if he ha! gone on in his own course& But so%eti%es it is seen" that the %o!erator is %ore troubleso%e" than the actor& /terations are co%%only loss of ti%e& But there is no such gain of ti%e" as to iterate often the state of the >uestionR for it chaseth away %any a fri o@ lous speech" as it is co%ing forth& =ong an! curious speeches" are as fit for !ispatch" as a robe or %antle" with a long train" is for race& Prefaces an! pas@ sages" an! excusations" an! other speeches of refer@ ence to the person" are great wastes of ti%eR an! though they see% to procee! of %o!esty" they are bra ery& Qet beware of being too %aterial" when there is any i%pe!i%ent or obstruction in %enDs willsR for pre@occupation of %in! e er re>uireth preface of speechR li#e a fo%entation to %a#e the unguent enter&

Ebo e all things" or!er" an! !istribution" an! singling out of parts" is the life of !ispatchR so as the !istribution be not too subtle? for he that !oth not !i i!e" will ne er enter well into businessR an! he that !i i!eth too %uch" will ne er co%e out of it clearly& To choose ti%e" is to sa e ti%eR an! an un@ seasonable %otion" is but beating the air& There be three parts of businessR the preparation" the !ebate or exa%ination" an! the perfection& 'hereof" if you loo# for !ispatch" let the %i!!le only be the wor# of %any" an! the first an! last the wor# of few& The procee!ing upon so%ewhat concei e! in writing" !oth for the %ost part facilitate !ispatch? for though it shoul! be wholly rejecte!" yet that negati e is %ore pregnant of !irection" than an in!efiniteR as ashes are %ore generati e than !ust&

:f ,ee%ing 'ise /T +ET+ been an opinion" that the French are wiser than they see%" an! the ,paniar!s see% wiser than they are& But howsoe er it be between nations" certainly it is so between %an an! %an& For as the Epostle saith of go!liness" +a ing a show of go!liness" but !enying the power thereofR so certainly there are" in point of wis!o% an! suf@ ficiently" that !o nothing or little ery sole%nly? %agno conatu nugas& /t is a ri!iculous thing" an! fit for a satire to persons of ju!g%ent" to see what shifts these for%alists ha e" an! what prospecti es to %a#e superficies to see% bo!y" that hath !epth an! bul#& ,o%e are so close an! reser e!" as they will not show their wares" but by a !ar# lightR an! see% always to #eep bac# so%ewhatR an! when they #now within the%sel es" they spea# of that they !o not well #now" woul! ne ertheless see% to others" to #now of that which they %ay not well spea#& ,o%e help the%sel es with countenance an! gesture" an! are wise by signsR as Cicero saith of Piso" that when he answere! hi%" he fetche! one of his brows up to his forehea!" an! bent the other !own to his chinR *espon!es" altero a! fron@ te% sublato" altero a! %entu% !epresso super@ cilio" cru!elitate% tibi non placere& ,o%e thin# to bear it by spea#ing a great wor!" an! being per@ e%ptoryR an! go on" an! ta#e by a!%ittance" that which they cannot %a#e goo!& ,o%e" whatsoe er is beyon! their reach" will see% to !espise" or %a#e light of it" as i%pertinent or curiousR an! so woul!

ha e their ignorance see% ju!g%ent& ,o%e are ne er without a !ifference" an! co%%only by a%using %en with a subtilty" blanch the %atterR of who% E& Gellius saith" +o%ine% !eliru%" >ui erboru% %inutiis reru% frangit pon!era& :f which #in! also" Plato" in his Protagoras" bringeth in Pro!ius in scorn" an! %a#eth hi% %a#e a speech" that consisteth of !istinction fro% the be@ ginning to the en!& Generally" such %en in all !eliberations fin! ease to be of the negati e si!e" an! affect a cre!it to object an! foretell !ifficul@ tiesR for when propositions are !enie!" there is an en! of the%R but if they be allowe!" it re>uireth a new wor#R which false point of wis!o% is the bane of business& To conclu!e" there is no !ecaying %er@ chant" or inwar! beggar" hath so %any tric#s to uphol! the cre!it of their wealth" as these e%pty persons ha e" to %aintain the cre!it of their suf@ ficiency& ,ee%ing wise %en %ay %a#e shift to get opinionR but let no %an choose the% for e%ploy@ %entR for certainly you were better ta#e for busi@ ness" a %an so%ewhat absur!" than o er@for%al& :f Frien!ship

/T +E( been har! for hi% that spa#e it to ha e put %ore truth an! untruth together in few wor!s" than in that speech" 'hatsoe er is !elighte! in solitu!e" is either a wil! beast or a go!& For it is %ost true" that a natural an! secret hatre!" an! a ersation towar!s society" in any %an" hath so%ewhat of the sa age beastR but it is %ost un@ true" that it shoul! ha e any character at all" of the !i ine natureR except it procee!" not out of a pleas@ ure in solitu!e" but out of a lo e an! !esire to se>uester a %anDs self" for a higher con ersation? such as is foun! to ha e been falsely an! feigne!ly in so%e of the heathenR as Epi%eni!es the Can@ !ian" ;u%a the *o%an" E%pe!ocles the ,icilian" an! Epollonius of TyanaR an! truly an! really" in !i ers of the ancient her%its an! holy fathers of the church& But little !o %en percei e what soli@ tu!e is" an! how far it exten!eth& For a crow! is not co%panyR an! faces are but a gallery of pic@ turesR an! tal# but a tin#ling cy%bal" where there is no lo e& The =atin a!age %eeteth with it a little? 5agna ci itas" %agna solitu!oR because in a great town frien!s are scattere!R so that there is not that fellowship" for the %ost part" which is in less neighborhoo!s& But we %ay go further" an! affir% %ost truly" that it is a %ere an! %iserable solitu!e to want true frien!sR without which the worl! is but a wil!ernessR an! e en in this sense also of solitu!e" whosoe er in the fra%e of his nature an! affections" is unfit for frien!ship" he

ta#eth it of the beast" an! not fro% hu%anity& E principal fruit of frien!ship" is the ease an! !ischarge of the fulness an! swellings of the heart" which passions of all #in!s !o cause an! in!uce& 'e #now !iseases of stoppings" an! suffocations" are the %ost !angerous in the bo!yR an! it is not %uch otherwise in the %in!R you %ay ta#e sar9a to open the li er" steel to open the spleen" flowers of sulphur for the lungs" castoreu% for the brainR but no receipt openeth the heart" but a true frien!R to who% you %ay i%part griefs" joys" fears" hopes" suspicions" counsels" an! whatsoe er lieth upon the heart to oppress it" in a #in! of ci il shrift or confession& /t is a strange thing to obser e" how high a rate great #ings an! %onarchs !o set upon this fruit of frien!ship" whereof we spea#? so great" as they purchase it" %any ti%es" at the ha9ar! of their own safety an! greatness& For princes" in regar! of the !istance of their fortune fro% that of their subjects an! ser ants" cannot gather this fruit" ex@ cept Fto %a#e the%sel es capable thereofG they raise so%e persons to be" as it were" co%panions an! al%ost e>uals to the%sel es" which %any ti%es sorteth to incon enience& The %o!ern lan@ guages gi e unto such persons the na%e of fa or@ ites" or pri a!oesR as if it were %atter of grace" or con ersation& But the *o%an na%e attaineth the true use an! cause thereof" na%ing the% parti@ cipes curaru%R for it is that which tieth the #not& En! we see plainly that this hath been !one" not by wea# an! passionate princes only" but by the wisest an! %ost politic that e er reigne!R who ha e oftenti%es joine! to the%sel es so%e of their ser antsR who% both the%sel es ha e calle! frien!s" an! allowe! other li#ewise to call the% in the sa%e %annerR using the wor! which is re@ cei e! between pri ate %en& =& ,ylla" when he co%%an!e! *o%e" raise! Po%pey Fafter surna%e! the GreatG to that height" that Po%pey aunte! hi%self for ,yllaDs o er@ %atch& For when he ha! carrie! the consulship for a frien! of his" against the pursuit of ,ylla" an! that ,ylla !i! a little resent thereat" an! began to spea# great" Po%pey turne! upon hi% again" an! in effect ba!e hi% be >uietR for that %ore %en a!ore! the sun rising" than the sun setting& 'ith 0ulius Caesar" (eci%us Brutus ha! obtaine! that interest as he set hi% !own in his testa%ent" for heir in re%ain!er" after his nephew& En! this was the %an that ha! power with hi%" to !raw hi% forth to his !eath& For when Caesar woul! ha e !ischarge! the senate" in regar! of so%e ill pres@ ages" an! specially a !rea% of CalpurniaR this %an lifte! hi% gently by the ar% out of his chair"

telling hi% he hope! he woul! not !is%iss the senate" till his wife ha! !rea%t a better !rea%& En! it see%eth his fa or was so great" as Entonius" in a letter which is recite! erbati% in one of CiceroDs Philippics" calleth hi% enefica" witchR as if he ha! enchante! Caesar& Eugustus raise! Egrippa Fthough of %ean birthG to that height" as when he consulte! with 5aecenas" about the %ar@ riage of his !aughter 0ulia" 5aecenas too# the liberty to tell hi%" that he %ust either %arry his !aughter to Egrippa" or ta#e away his lifeR there was no thir! way" he ha! %a!e hi% so great& 'ith Tiberius Caesar" ,ejanus ha! ascen!e! to that height" as they two were ter%e!" an! rec#one!" as a pair of frien!s& Tiberius in a letter to hi% saith" +aec pro a%icitia nostra non occulta iR an! the whole senate !e!icate! an altar to Frien!ship" as to a go!!ess" in respect of the great !earness of frien!ship" between the% two& The li#e" or %ore" was between ,epti%ius ,e erus an! Plautianus& For he force! his el!est son to %arry the !aughter of PlautianusR an! woul! often %aintain Plau@ tianus" in !oing affronts to his sonR an! !i! write also in a letter to the senate" by these wor!s? / lo e the %an so well" as / wish he %ay o er@li e %e& ;ow if these princes ha! been as a Trajan" or a 5arcus Eurelius" a %an %ight ha e thought that this ha! procee!e! of an abun!ant goo!ness of natureR but being %en so wise" of such strength an! se erity of %in!" an! so extre%e lo ers of the%sel es" as all these were" it pro eth %ost plainly that they foun! their own felicity Fthough as great as e er happene! to %ortal %enG but as an half piece" except they %ought ha e a frien!" to %a#e it entireR an! yet" which is %ore" they were princes that ha! wi es" sons" nephewsR an! yet all these coul! not supply the co%fort of frien!@ ship& /t is not to be forgotten" what Co%ineus obser @ eth of his first %aster" (u#e Charles the +ar!y" na%ely" that he woul! co%%unicate his secrets with noneR an! least of all" those secrets which trouble! hi% %ost& 'hereupon he goeth on" an! saith that towar!s his latter ti%e" that closeness !i! i%pair" an! a little perish his un!erstan!ing& ,urely Co%ineus %ought ha e %a!e the sa%e ju!g%ent also" if it ha! please! hi%" of his secon! %aster" =ewis the Ele enth" whose closeness was in!ee! his tor%entor& The parable of Pythagoras is !ar#" but trueR Cor ne e!itoR Eat not the heart& Certainly" if a %an woul! gi e it a har! phrase" those that want frien!s" to open the%sel es unto" are carnnibals of their own hearts& But one thing is %ost a!%irable Fwherewith / will conclu!e this first fruit of frien!shipG" which is" that this co%@ %unicating of a %anDs self to his frien!" wor#s two contrary effectsR for it re!oubleth joys" an!

cutteth griefs in hal es& For there is no %an" that i%parteth his joys to his frien!" but he joyeth the %oreR an! no %an that i%parteth his griefs to his frien!" but he grie eth the less& ,o that it is in truth" of operation upon a %anDs %in!" of li#e irtue as the alche%ists use to attribute to their stone" for %anDs bo!yR that it wor#eth all contrary effects" but still to the goo! an! benefit of nature& But yet without praying in ai! of alche%ists" there is a %anifest i%age of this" in the or!inary course of nature& For in bo!ies" union strengtheneth an! cherisheth any natural actionR an! on the other si!e" wea#eneth an! !ulleth any iolent i%pres@ sion? an! e en so it is of %in!s& The secon! fruit of frien!ship" is healthful an! so ereign for the un!erstan!ing" as the first is for the affections& For frien!ship %a#eth in!ee! a fair !ay in the affections" fro% stor% an! te%pestsR but it %a#eth !aylight in the un!erstan!ing" out of !ar#ness" an! confusion of thoughts& ;either is this to be un!erstoo! only of faithful counsel" which a %an recei eth fro% his frien!R but before you co%e to that" certain it is" that whosoe er hath his %in! fraught with %any thoughts" his wits an! un!erstan!ing !o clarify an! brea# up" in the co%%unicating an! !iscoursing with anotherR he tosseth his thoughts %ore easilyR he %arshalleth the% %ore or!erly" he seeth how they loo# when they are turne! into wor!s? finally" he waxeth wiser than hi%selfR an! that %ore by an hourDs !iscourse" than by a !ayDs %e!itation& /t was well sai! by The%istocles" to the #ing of Persia" That speech was li#e cloth of Erras" opene! an! put abroa!R whereby the i%agery !oth appear in figureR whereas in thoughts they lie but as in pac#s& ;either is this secon! fruit of frien!ship" in opening the un!erstan!ing" restraine! only to such frien!s as are able to gi e a %an counselR Fthey in!ee! are bestRG but e en without that" a %an learneth of hi%self" an! bringeth his own thoughts to light" an! whetteth his wits as against a stone" which itself cuts not& /n a wor!" a %an were better relate hi%self to a statua" or picture" than to suffer his thoughts to pass in s%other& E!! now" to %a#e this secon! fruit of frien!ship co%plete" that other point" which lieth %ore open" an! falleth within ulgar obser ationR which is faithful counsel fro% a frien!& +eraclitus saith well in one of his enig%as" (ry light is e er the best& En! certain it is" that the light that a %an recei eth by counsel fro% another" is !rier an! purer" than that which co%eth fro% his own un!erstan!ing an! ju!g%entR which is e er in@ fuse!" an! !renche!" in his affections an! custo%s& ,o as there is as %uch !ifference between the coun@ sel" that a frien! gi eth" an! that a %an gi eth

hi%self" as there is between the counsel of a frien!" an! of a flatterer& For there is no such flatterer as is a %anDs selfR an! there is no such re%e!y against flattery of a %anDs self" as the liberty of a frien!& Counsel is of two sorts? the one concerning %an@ ners" the other concerning business& For the first" the best preser ati e to #eep the %in! in health" is the faithful a!%onition of a frien!& The calling of a %anDs self to a strict account" is a %e!icine" so%e@ ti%e too piercing an! corrosi e& *ea!ing goo! boo#s of %orality" is a little flat an! !ea!& :bser @ ing our faults in others" is so%eti%es i%proper for our case& But the best receipt Fbest" / say" to wor#" an! best to ta#eG is the a!%onition of a frien!& /t is a strange thing to behol!" what gross errors an! extre%e absur!ities %any Fespecially of the greater sortG !o co%%it" for want of a frien! to tell the% of the%R to the great !a%age both of their fa%e an! fortune? for" as ,t& 0a%es saith" they are as %en that loo# so%eti%es into a glass" an! pres@ ently forget their own shape an! fa or& Es for business" a %an %ay thin#" if he win" that two eyes see no %ore than oneR or that a ga%ester seeth always %ore than a loo#er@onR or that a %an in anger" is as wise as he that hath sai! o er the four an! twenty lettersR or that a %us#et %ay be shot off as well upon the ar%" as upon a restR an! such other fon! an! high i%aginations" to thin# hi%@ self all in all& But when all is !one" the help of goo! counsel" is that which setteth business straight& En! if any %an thin# that he will ta#e counsel" but it shall be by piecesR as#ing counsel in one business" of one %an" an! in another business" of another %anR it is well Fthat is to say" better" per@ haps" than if he as#e! none at allGR but he runneth two !angers? one" that he shall not be faithfully counselle!R for it is a rare thing" except it be fro% a perfect an! entire frien!" to ha e counsel gi en" but such as shall be bowe! an! croo#e! to so%e en!s" which he hath" that gi eth it& The other" that he shall ha e counsel gi en" hurtful an! unsafe Fthough with goo! %eaningG" an! %ixe! partly of %ischief an! partly of re%e!yR e en as if you woul! call a physician" that is thought goo! for the cure of the !isease you co%plain of" but is unac@ >uainte! with your bo!yR an! therefore %ay put you in way for a present cure" but o erthroweth your health in so%e other #in!R an! so cure the !isease" an! #ill the patient& But a frien! that is wholly ac>uainte! with a %anDs estate" will be@ ware" by furthering any present business" how he !asheth upon other incon enience& En! therefore rest not upon scattere! counselsR they will rather !istract an! %islea!" than settle an! !irect& Efter these two noble fruits of frien!ship Fpeace in the affections" an! support of the ju!g%entG" followeth the last fruitR which is li#e the po%e@

granate" full of %any #ernelsR / %ean ai!" an! bearing a part" in all actions an! occasions& +ere the best way to represent to life the %anifol! use of frien!ship" is to cast an! see how %any things there are" which a %an cannot !o hi%selfR an! then it will appear" that it was a sparing speech of the ancients" to say" that a frien! is another hi%@ selfR for that a frien! is far %ore than hi%self& 5en ha e their ti%e" an! !ie %any ti%es" in !e@ sire of so%e things which they principally ta#e to heartR the bestowing of a chil!" the finishing of a wor#" or the li#e& /f a %an ha e a true frien!" he %ay rest al%ost secure that the care of those things will continue after hi%& ,o that a %an hath" as it were" two li es in his !esires& E %an hath a bo!y" an! that bo!y is confine! to a placeR but where frien!ship is" all offices of life are as it were grante! to hi%" an! his !eputy& For he %ay exercise the% by his frien!& +ow %any things are there which a %an cannot" with any face or co%eliness" say or !o hi%selfP E %an can scarce allege his own %erits with %o!esty" %uch less extol the%R a %an cannot so%eti%es broo# to supplicate or begR an! a nu%ber of the li#e& But all these things are grace@ ful" in a frien!Ds %outh" which are blushing in a %anDs own& ,o again" a %anDs person hath %any proper relations" which he cannot put off& E %an cannot spea# to his son but as a fatherR to his wife but as a husban!R to his ene%y but upon ter%s? whereas a frien! %ay spea# as the case re>uires" an! not as it sorteth with the person& But to enu@ %erate these things were en!lessR / ha e gi en the rule" where a %an cannot fitly play his own partR if he ha e not a frien!" he %ay >uit the stage&

:f Expense */C+E, are for spen!ing" an! spen!ing for honor an! goo! actions& Therefore extra@ or!inary expense %ust be li%ite! by the worth of the occasionR for oluntary un!oing" %ay be as well for a %anDs country" as for the #ing!o% of hea en& But or!inary expense" ought to be li%ite! by a %anDs estateR an! go erne! with such regar!" as it be within his co%passR an! not subject to !e@ ceit an! abuse of ser antsR an! or!ere! to the best show" that the bills %ay be less than the esti%a@ tion abroa!& Certainly" if a %an will #eep but of e en han!" his or!inary expenses ought to be but to the half of his receiptsR an! if he thin# to wax rich" but to the thir! part& /t is no baseness" for the greatest to !escen! an! loo# into their own estate& ,o%e forbear it" not upon negligence alone" but !oubting to bring the%sel es into %elancholy" in respect they shall fin! it bro#en& But woun!s can@

not be cure! without searching& +e that cannot loo# into his own estate at all" ha! nee! both choose well those who% he e%ployeth" an! change the% oftenR for new are %ore ti%orous an! less subtle& +e that can loo# into his estate but sel!o%" it be@ hoo eth hi% to turn all to certainties& E %an ha! nee!" if he be plentiful in so%e #in! of expense" to be as sa ing again in so%e other& Es if he be plenti@ ful in !iet" to be sa ing in apparelR if he be plenti@ ful in the hall" to be sa ing in the stableR an! the li#e& For he that is plentiful in expenses of all #in!s" will har!ly be preser e! fro% !ecay& /n clearing of a %anDs estate" he %ay as well hurt hi%self in being too su!!en" as in letting it run on too long& For hasty selling" is co%%only as !isa! antage@ able as interest& Besi!es" he that clears at once will relapseR for fin!ing hi%self out of straits" he will re ert to his custo%? but he that cleareth by !e@ grees" in!uceth a habit of frugality" an! gaineth as well upon his %in!" as upon his estate& Cer@ tainly" who hath a state to repair" %ay not !espise s%all thingsR an! co%%only it is less !ishonor@ able" to abri!ge petty charges" than to stoop to petty gettings& E %an ought warily to begin charges which once begun will continueR but in %atters that return not" he %ay be %ore %agni@ ficent&

:f the True G*EET;E,, :F T/;G@ (:5, E;( E,TETE, T+E speech of The%istocles the Ethenian" which was haughty an! arrogant" in ta#ing so %uch to hi%self" ha! been a gra e an! wise obser ation an! censure" applie! at large to others& (esire! at a feast to touch a lute" he sai!" +e coul! not fi!!le" but yet he coul! %a#e a s%all town" a great city& These wor!s Fholpen a little with a %etaphorG %ay express two !iffering abilities" in those that !eal in business of estate& For if a true sur ey be ta#en of counsellors an! states%en" there %ay be foun! Fthough rarelyG those which can %a#e a s%all state great" an! yet cannot fi!@ !leR as on the other si!e" there will be foun! a great %any" that can fi!!le ery cunningly" but yet are so far fro% being able to %a#e a s%all state great" as their gift lieth the other wayR to bring a great an! flourishing estate" to ruin an! !ecay& En! cer@ tainly whose !egenerate arts an! shifts" whereby %any counsellors an! go ernors gain both fa or with their %asters" an! esti%ation with the ulgar" !eser e no better na%e than fi!!lingR being things rather pleasing for the ti%e" an! graceful to the%@

sel es only" than ten!ing to the weal an! a! ance@ %ent of the state which they ser e& There are also Fno !oubtG counsellors an! go ernors which %ay be hel! sufficient Fnegotiis paresG" able to %anage affairs" an! to #eep the% fro% precipices an! %anifest incon eniencesR which ne ertheless are far fro% the ability to raise an! a%plify an estate in power" %eans" an! fortune& But be the wor#%en what they %ay be" let us spea# of the wor#R that is" the true greatness of #ing!o%s an! estates" an! the %eans thereof& En argu%ent fit for great an! %ighty princes to ha e in their han!R to the en! that neither by o er@%easuring their forces" they leese the%sel es in ain enterprisesR nor on the other si!e" by un!er aluing the%" they !escen! to fearful an! pusillani%ous counsels& The greatness of an estate" in bul# an! territory" !oth fall un!er %easureR an! the greatness of finances an! re enue" !oth fall un!er co%puta@ tion& The population %ay appear by %ustersR an! the nu%ber an! greatness of cities an! towns by car!s an! %aps& But yet there is not any thing a%ongst ci il affairs %ore subject to error" than the right aluation an! true ju!g%ent concerning the power an! forces of an estate& The #ing!o% of hea en is co%pare!" not to any great #ernel or nut" but to a grain of %ustar!@see!? which is one of the least grains" but hath in it a property an! spirit hastily to get up an! sprea!& ,o are there states" great in territory" an! yet not apt to enlarge or co%%an!R an! so%e that ha e but a s%all !i%en@ sion of ste%" an! yet apt to be the foun!ations of great %onarchies& 'alle! towns" store! arsenals an! ar%ories" goo!ly races of horse" chariots of war" elephants" or!nance" artillery" an! the li#eR all this is but a sheep in a lionDs s#in" except the bree! an! !isposi@ tion of the people" be stout an! warli#e& ;ay" nu%@ ber FitselfG in ar%ies i%porteth not %uch" where the people is of wea# courageR for Fas )irgil saithG /t ne er troubles a wolf" how %any the sheep be& The ar%y of the Persians" in the plains of Erbela" was such a ast sea of people" as it !i! so%ewhat astonish the co%%an!ers in Elexan!erDs ar%yR who ca%e to hi% therefore" an! wishe! hi% to set upon the% by nightR an! he answere!" +e woul! not pilfer the ictory& En! the !efeat was easy& 'hen Tigranes the Er%enian" being enca%pe! upon a hill with four hun!re! thousan! %en" !is@ co ere! the ar%y of the *o%ans" being not abo e fourteen thousan!" %arching towar!s hi%" he %a!e hi%self %erry with it" an! sai!" Qon!er %en are too %any for an e%bassage" an! too few for a fight& But before the sun set" he foun! the% enow to gi e hi% the chase with infinite slaughter& 5any are the exa%ples of the great o!!s" between

nu%ber an! courageR so that a %an %ay truly %a#e a ju!g%ent" that the principal point of great@ ness in any state" is to ha e a race of %ilitary %en& ;either is %oney the sinews of war Fas it is tri ially sai!G" where the sinews of %enDs ar%s" in base an! effe%inate people" are failing& For ,olon sai! well to Croesus Fwhen in ostentation he showe! hi% his gol!G" ,ir" if any other co%e" that hath better iron" than you" he will be %aster of all this gol!& There@ fore let any prince or state thin# solely of his forces" except his %ilitia of nati es be of goo! an! aliant sol!iers& En! let princes" on the other si!e" that ha e subjects of %artial !isposition" #now their own strengthR unless they be otherwise wanting unto the%sel es& Es for %ercenary forces Fwhich is the help in this caseG" all exa%ples show" that whatsoe er estate or prince !oth rest upon the%" he %ay sprea! his feathers for a ti%e" but he will %ew the% soon after& The blessing of 0u!ah an! /ssachar will ne er %eetR that the sa%e people" or nation" shoul! be both the lionDs whelp an! the ass between bur@ thensR neither will it be" that a people o erlai! with taxes" shoul! e er beco%e aliant an! %ar@ tial& /t is true that taxes le ie! by consent of the estate" !o abate %enDs courage less? as it hath been seen notably" in the excises of the =ow CountriesR an!" in so%e !egree" in the subsi!ies of Englan!& For you %ust note" that we spea# now of the heart" an! not of the purse& ,o that although the sa%e tribute an! tax" lai! by consent or by i%posing" be all one to the purse" yet it wor#s !i ersely upon the courage& ,o that you %ay conclu!e" that no people o ercharge! with tribute" is fit for e%pire& =et states that ai% at greatness" ta#e hee! how their nobility an! gentle%en !o %ultiply too fast& For that %a#eth the co%%on subject" grow to be a peasant an! base swain" !ri en out of heart" an! in effect but the gentle%anDs laborer& E en as you %ay see in coppice woo!sR if you lea e your sta!@ !les too thic#" you shall ne er ha e clean un!er@ woo!" but shrubs an! bushes& ,o in countries" if the gentle%en be too %any" the co%%ons will be baseR an! you will bring it to that" that not the hun!re! poll" will be fit for an hel%etR especially as to the infantry" which is the ner e of an ar%yR an! so there will be great population" an! little strength& This which / spea# of" hath been nowhere better seen" than by co%paring of Englan! an! FranceR whereof Englan!" though far less in territory an! population" hath been Fne erthelessG an o er@ %atchR in regar! the %i!!le people of Englan! %a#e goo! sol!iers" which the peasants of France !o not& En! herein the !e ice of #ing +enry the ,e enth Fwhereof / ha e spo#en largely in the +istory of his =ifeG was profoun! an! a!%irableR

in %a#ing far%s an! houses of husban!ry of a stan!ar!R that is" %aintaine! with such a propor@ tion of lan! unto the%" as %ay bree! a subject to li e in con enient plenty an! no ser ile con!itionR an! to #eep the plough in the han!s of the owners" an! not %ere hirelings& En! thus in!ee! you shall attain to )irgilDs character which he gi es to an@ cient /taly? Terra potens ar%is at>ue ubere glebae& ;either is that state Fwhich" for any thing / #now" is al%ost peculiar to Englan!" an! har!ly to be foun! anywhere else" except it be perhaps in Polan!G to be passe! o erR / %ean the state of free ser ants" an! atten!ants upon noble%en an! gentle%enR which are no ways inferior unto the yeo%anry for ar%s& En! therefore out of all >ues@ tions" the splen!or an! %agnificence" an! great retinues an! hospitality" of noble%en an! gentle@ %en" recei e! into custo%" !oth %uch con!uce unto %artial greatness& 'hereas" contrariwise" the close an! reser e! li ing of noble%en an! gentle@ %en" causeth a penury of %ilitary forces& By all %eans it is to be procure!" that the trun# of ;ebucha!ne99arDs tree of %onarchy" be great enough to bear the branches an! the boughsR that is" that the natural subjects of the crown or state" bear a sufficient proportion to the stranger sub@ jects" that they go ern&Therefore all states that are liberal of naturali9ation towar!s strangers" are fit for e%pire& For to thin# that an han!ful of people can" with the greatest courage an! policy in the worl!" e%brace too large extent of !o%inion" it %ay hol! for a ti%e" but it will fail su!!enly& The ,partans were a nice people in point of naturali9a@ tionR whereby" while they #ept their co%pass" they stoo! fir%R but when they !i! sprea!" an! their boughs were beco%en too great for their ste%" they beca%e a win!fall" upon the su!!en& ;e er any state was in this point so open to recei e strangers into their bo!y" as were the *o%ans& Therefore it sorte! with the% accor!inglyR for they grew to the greatest %onarchy& Their %anner was to grant naturali9ation Fwhich they calle! jus ci itatisG" an! to grant it in the highest !egreeR that is" not only jus co%%ercii" jus connubii" jus haere@ !itatisR but also jus suffragii" an! jus honoru%& En! this not to singular persons alone" but li#ewise to whole fa%iliesR yea to cities" an! so%eti%es to nations& E!! to this their custo% of plantation of coloniesR whereby the *o%an plant was re%o e! into the soil of other nations& En! putting both constitutions together" you will say that it was not the *o%ans that sprea! upon the worl!" but it was the worl! that sprea! upon the *o%ansR an! that

was the sure way of greatness& / ha e %ar elle!" so%eti%es" at ,pain" how they clasp an! contain so large !o%inions" with so few natural ,paniar!sR but sure the whole co%pass of ,pain" is a ery great bo!y of a treeR far abo e *o%e an! ,parta at the first& En! besi!es" though they ha e not ha! that usage" to naturali9e liberally" yet they ha e that which is next to itR that is" to e%ploy" al%ost in!if@ ferently" all nations in their %ilitia of or!inary sol!iersR yea" an! so%eti%es in their highest co%@ %an!s& ;ay" it see%eth at this instant they are sensible" of this want of nati esR as by the Prag@ %atical ,anction" now publishe!" appeareth& /t is certain that se!entary" an! within@!oor arts" an! !elicate %anufactures Fthat re>uire rather the finger than the ar%G" ha e" in their na@ ture" a contrariety to a %ilitary !isposition& En! generally" all warli#e people are a little i!le" an! lo e !anger better than tra ail& ;either %ust they be too %uch bro#en of it" if they shall be preser e! in igor& Therefore it was great a! antage" in the ancient states of ,parta" Ethens" *o%e" an! others" that they ha! the use of sla es" which co%%only !i! ri! those %anufactures& But that is abolishe!" in greatest part" by the Christian law& That which co%eth nearest to it" is to lea e those arts chiefly to strangers Fwhich" for that purpose" are the %ore easily to be recei e!G" an! to contain the principal bul# of the ulgar nati es" within those three #in!s" @ tillers of the groun!R free ser antsR an! han!icrafts%en of strong an! %anly arts" as s%iths" %asons" carpenters" etc&R not rec#oning professe! sol!iers& But abo e all" for e%pire an! greatness" it i%@ porteth %ost" that a nation !o profess ar%s" as their principal honor" stu!y" an! occupation& For the things which we for%erly ha e spo#en of" are but habilitations towar!s ar%sR an! what is habilita@ tion without intention an! actP *o%ulus" after his !eath Fas they report or feignG" sent a present to the *o%ans" that abo e all" they shoul! inten! ar%sR an! then they shoul! pro e the greatest e%pire of the worl!& The fabric of the state of ,parta was wholly Fthough not wiselyG fra%e! an! co%pose!" to that scope an! en!& The Persians an! 5ace!o@ nians ha! it for a flash& The Gauls" Ger%ans" Goths" ,axons" ;or%ans" an! others" ha! it for a ti%e& The Tur#s ha e it at this !ay" though in great !eclination& :f Christian Europe" they that ha e it are" in effect" only the ,paniar!s& But it is so plain" that e ery %an profiteth in that" he %ost inten!eth" that it nee!eth not to be stoo! upon& /t is enough to point at itR that no nation which !oth not !irectly profess ar%s" %ay loo# to ha e great@ ness fall into their %ouths& En! on the other si!e" it is a %ost certain oracle of ti%e" that those states

that continue long in that profession Fas the *o@ %ans an! Tur#s principally ha e !oneG !o won@ !ers& En! those that ha e professe! ar%s but for an age" ha e" notwithstan!ing" co%%only at@ taine! that greatness" in that age" which %ain@ taine! the% long after" when their profession an! exercise of ar%s hath grown to !ecay& /nci!ent to this point is" for a state to ha e those laws or custo%s" which %ay reach forth unto the% just occasions Fas %ay be preten!e!G of war& For there is that justice" i%printe! in the nature of %en" that they enter not upon wars Fwhereof so %any cala%ities !o ensueG but upon so%e" at the least specious" groun!s an! >uarrels& The Tur# hath at han!" for cause of war" the propagation of his law or sectR a >uarrel that he %ay always co%@ %an!& The *o%ans" though they estee%e! the exten!ing the li%its of their e%pire" to be great honor to their generals" when it was !one" yet they ne er reste! upon that alone" to begin a war& First" therefore" let nations that preten! to greatness ha e thisR that they be sensible of wrongs" either upon bor!erers" %erchants" or politic %inistersR an! that they sit not too long upon a pro ocation& ,econ!ly" let the% be prest" an! rea!y to gi e ai!s an! succors" to their confe!eratesR as it e er was with the *o%ansR inso%uch" as if the confe!erate ha! leagues !efensi e" with !i ers other states" an!" upon in asion offere!" !i! i%plore their ai!s se erally" yet the *o%ans woul! e er be the fore@ %ost" an! lea e it to none other to ha e the honor& Es for the wars which were anciently %a!e" on the behalf of a #in! of party" or tacit confor%ity of estate" / !o not see how they %ay be well justifie!? as when the *o%ans %a!e a war" for the liberty of GreciaR or when the =ace!ae%onians an! Ethe@ nians" %a!e wars to set up or pull !own !e%oc@ racies an! oligarchiesR or when wars were %a!e by foreigners" un!er the pretence of justice or pro@ tection" to !eli er the subjects of others" fro% tyranny an! oppressionR an! the li#e& =et it suf@ fice" that no estate expect to be great" that is not awa#e upon any just occasion of ar%ing& ;o bo!y can be healthful without exercise" neither natural bo!y nor politicR an! certainly to a #ing!o% or estate" a just an! honorable war" is the true exercise& E ci il war" in!ee!" is li#e the heat of a fe erR but a foreign war is li#e the heat of exercise" an! ser eth to #eep the bo!y in healthR for in a slothful peace" both courages will effe%i@ nate" an! %anners corrupt& But howsoe er it be for happiness" without all >uestion" for greatness" it %a#eth to be still for the %ost part in ar%sR an! the strength of a eteran ar%y Fthough it be a chargeable businessG always on foot" is that which co%%only gi eth the law" or at least the reputa@

tion" a%ongst all neighbor statesR as %ay well be seen in ,pain" which hath ha!" in one part or other" a eteran ar%y al%ost continually" now by the space of six score years& To be %aster of the sea" is an abri!g%ent of a %onarchy& Cicero" writing to Etticus of Po%pey his preparation against Caesar" saith" Consiliu% Po%peii plane The%istocleu% estR putat eni%" >ui %ari potitur" eu% reru% potiri& En!" without !oubt" Po%pey ha! tire! out Caesar" if upon ain confi!ence" he ha! not left that way& 'e see the great effects of battles b sea& The battle of Ectiu%" !eci!e! the e%pire of the worl!& The battle of =e@ panto" arreste! the greatness of the Tur#& There be %any exa%ples" where sea@fights ha e been final to the warR but this is when princes or states ha e set up their rest" upon the battles& But thus %uch is certain" that he that co%%an!s the sea" is at great liberty" an! %ay ta#e as %uch" an! as little" of the war as he will& 'hereas those that be strong@ est by lan!" are %any ti%es ne ertheless in great straits& ,urely" at this !ay" with us of Europe" the antage of strength at sea Fwhich is one of the prin@ cipal !owries of this #ing!o% of Great BritainG is greatR both because %ost of the #ing!o%s of Eu@ rope" are not %erely inlan!" but girt with the sea %ost part of their co%passR an! because the wealth of both /n!ies see%s in great part" but an accessory to the co%%an! of the seas& The wars of latter ages see% to be %a!e in the !ar#" in respect of the glory" an! honor" which reflecte! upon %en fro% the wars" in ancient ti%e& There be now" for %artial encourage%ent" so%e !egrees an! or!ers of chi alryR which ne ertheless are conferre! pro%iscuously" upon sol!iers an! no sol!iersR an! so%e re%e%brance perhaps" upon the scutcheonR an! so%e hospitals for %ai%e! sol@ !iersR an! such li#e things& But in ancient ti%es" the trophies erecte! upon the place of the ictoryR the funeral lau!ati es an! %onu%ents for those that !ie! in the warsR the crowns an! garlan!s per@ sonalR the style of e%peror" which the great #ings of the worl! after borrowe!R the triu%phs of the generals" upon their returnR the great !onati es an! largesses" upon the !isban!ing of the ar%iesR were things able to infla%e all %enDs courages& But abo e all" that of the triu%ph" a%ongst the *o%ans" was not pageants or gau!ery" but one of the wisest an! noblest institutions" that e er was& For it containe! three things? honor to the generalR riches to the treasury out of the spoilsR an! !ona@ ti es to the ar%y& But that honor" perhaps were not fit for %onarchiesR except it be in the person of the %onarch hi%self" or his sonsR as it ca%e to pass in the ti%es of the *o%an e%perors" who !i! i%pro@ priate the actual triu%phs to the%sel es" an! their

sons" for such wars as they !i! achie e in personR an! left only" for wars achie e! by subjects" so%e triu%phal gar%ents an! ensigns to the general& To conclu!e? no %an can by care ta#ing Fas the ,cripture saithG a!! a cubit to his stature" in this little %o!el of a %anDs bo!yR but in the great fra%e of #ing!o%s an! co%%onwealths" it is in the power of princes or estates" to a!! a%plitu!e an! greatness to their #ing!o%sR for by intro!ucing such or!inances" constitutions" an! custo%s" as we ha e now touche!" they %ay sow greatness to their posterity an! succession& But these things are co%%only not obser e!" but left to ta#e their chance&

:f *egi%ent :F +EE=T+

T+E*E is a wis!o% in thisR beyon! the rules of physic? a %anDs own obser ation" what he fin!s goo! of" an! what he fin!s hurt of" is the best physic to preser e health& But it is a safer conclu@ sion to say" This agreeth not well with %e" there@ fore" / will not continue itR than this" / fin! no offence of this" therefore / %ay use it& For strength of nature in youth" passeth o er %any excesses" which are owing a %an till his age& (iscern of the co%ing on of years" an! thin# not to !o the sa%e things stillR for age will not be !efie!& Beware of su!!en change" in any great point of !iet" an!" if necessity enforce it" fit the rest to it& For it is a secret both in nature an! state" that it is safer to change %any things" than one& Exa%ine thy custo%s of !iet" sleep" exercise" apparel" an! the li#eR an! try" in any thing thou shalt ju!ge hurtful" to !iscon@ tinue it" by little an! littleR but so" as if thou !ost fin! any incon enience by the change" thou co%e bac# to it again? for it is har! to !istinguish that which is generally hel! goo! an! wholeso%e" fro% that which is goo! particularly" an! fit for thine own bo!y& To be free@%in!e! an! cheerfully !ispose!" at hours of %eat" an! of sleep" an! of exercise" is one of the best precepts of long lasting& Es for the passions" an! stu!ies of the %in!R a oi! en y" anxious fearsR anger fretting inwar!sR subtle an! #notty in>uisitionsR joys an! exhilara@ tions in excessR sa!ness not co%%unicate!& Enter@ tain hopesR %irth rather than joyR ariety of

!elights" rather than surfeit of the%R won!er an! a!%iration" an! therefore no eltiesR stu!ies that fill the %in! with splen!i! an! illustrious objects" as histories" fables" an! conte%plations of nature& /f you fly physic in health altogether" it will be too strange for your bo!y" when you shall nee! it& /f you %a#e it too fa%iliar" it will wor# no extra@ or!inary effect" when sic#ness co%eth& / co%%en! rather so%e !iet for certain seasons" than fre>uent use of physic" except it be grown into a custo%& For those !iets alter the bo!y %ore" an! trouble it less& (espise no new acci!ent in your bo!y" but as# opinion of it& /n sic#ness" respect health prin@ cipallyR an! in health" action& For those that put their bo!ies to en!ure in health" %ay in %ost sic#@ nesses" which are not ery sharp" be cure! only with !iet" an! ten!ering& Celsus coul! ne er ha e spo#en it as a physician" ha! he not been a wise %an withal" when he gi eth it for one of the great precepts of health an! lasting" that a %an !o ary" an! interchange contraries" but with an inclina@ tion to the %ore benign extre%e? use fasting an! full eating" but rather full eatingR watching an! sleep" but rather sleepR sitting an! exercise" but rather exerciseR an! the li#e& ,o shall nature be cherishe!" an! yet taught %asteries& Physicians are" so%e of the%" so pleasing an! confor%able to the hu%or of the patient" as they press not the true cure of the !iseaseR an! so%e other are so regular" in procee!ing accor!ing to art for the !isease" as they respect not sufficiently the con!ition of the patient& Ta#e one of a %i!!le te%perR or if it %ay not be foun! in one %an" co%bine two of either sortR an! forget not to call as well" the best ac@ >uainte! with your bo!y" as the best repute! of for his faculty&

:f ,uspicion ,<,P/C/:;, a%ongst thoughts" are li#e bats a%ongst bir!s" they e er fly by twilight& Cer@ tainly they are to be represse!" or at least well guar!e!? for they clou! the %in!R they leese frien!sR an! they chec# with business" whereby business cannot go on currently an! constantly& They !ispose #ings to tyranny" husban!s to jeal@ ousy" wise %en to irresolution an! %elancholy& They are !efects" not in the heart" but in the brainR for they ta#e place in the stoutest naturesR as in the exa%ple of +enry the ,e enth of Englan!& There was not a %ore suspicious %an" nor a %ore stout& En! in such a co%position they !o s%all hurt& For co%%only they are not a!%itte!" but with exa%i@ nation" whether they be li#ely or no& But in fearful

natures they gain groun! too fast& There is nothing %a#es a %an suspect %uch" %ore than to #now littleR an! therefore %en shoul! re%e!y suspicion" by procuring to #now %ore" an! not to #eep their suspicions in s%other& 'hat woul! %en ha eP (o they thin#" those they e%ploy an! !eal with" are saintsP (o they not thin#" they will ha e their own en!s" an! be truer to the%sel es" than to the%P Therefore there is no better way" to %o!erate sus@ picions" than to account upon such suspicions as true" an! yet to bri!le the% as false& For so far a %an ought to %a#e use of suspicions" as to pro i!e" as if that shoul! be true" that he suspects" yet it %ay !o hi% no hurt& ,uspicions that the %in! of itself gathers" are but bu99esR but suspicions that are artificially nourishe!" an! put into %enDs hea!s" by the tales an! whisperings of others" ha e stings& Certainly" the best %ean" to clear the way in this sa%e woo! of suspicions" is fran#ly to co%@ %unicate the% with the party" that he suspectsR for thereby he shall be sure to #now %ore of the truth of the%" than he !i! beforeR an! withal shall %a#e that party %ore circu%spect" not to gi e further cause of suspicion& But this woul! not be !one to %en of base naturesR for they" if they fin! the%sel es once suspecte!" will ne er be true& The /talian says" ,ospetto licentia fe!eR as if suspicion" !i! gi e a passport to faithR but it ought" rather" to #in!le it to !ischarge itself&

:f (iscourse ,:5E" in their !iscourse" !esire rather co%@ %en!ation of wit" in being able to hol! all argu%ents" than of ju!g%ent" in !iscerning what is trueR as if it were a praise" to #now what %ight be sai!" an! not" what shoul! be thought& ,o%e ha e certain co%%on places" an! the%es" wherein they are goo! an! want arietyR which #in! of po erty is for the %ost part te!ious" an! when it is once percei e!" ri!iculous& The honorablest part of tal#" is to gi e the occasionR an! again to %o!erate" an! pass to so%ewhat elseR for then a %an lea!s the !ance& /t is goo!" in !iscourse an! speech of con@ ersation" to ary an! inter%ingle speech of the present occasion" with argu%ents" tales with rea@ sons" as#ing of >uestions" with telling of opinions" an! jest with earnest? for it is a !ull thing to tire" an!" as we say now" to ja!e" any thing too far& Es for jest" there be certain things" which ought to be pri ilege! fro% itR na%ely" religion" %atters of state" great persons" any %anDs present business of i%portance" an! any case that !eser eth pity& Qet there be so%e" that thin# their wits ha e been asleep" except they !art out so%ewhat that is

pi>uant" an! to the >uic#& That is a ein which woul! be bri!le!? Parce" puer" sti%ulis" et fortius utere loris& En! generally" %en ought to fin! the !ifference" between saltness an! bitterness& Certainly" he that hath a satirical ein" as he %a#eth others afrai! of his wit" so he ha! nee! be afrai! of othersD %e%ory& +e that >uestioneth %uch" shall learn %uch" an! content %uchR but especially" if he apply his >ues@ tions to the s#ill of the persons who% he as#ethR for he shall gi e the% occasion" to please the%sel es in spea#ing" an! hi%self shall continually gather #nowle!ge& But let his >uestions not be trouble@ so%eR for that is fit for a poser& En! let hi% be sure to lea e other %en" their turns to spea#& ;ay" if there be any" that woul! reign an! ta#e up all the ti%e" let hi% fin! %eans to ta#e the% off" an! to bring others onR as %usicians use to !o" with those that !ance too long galliar!s& /f you !is@ se%ble" so%eti%es" your #nowle!ge of that you are thought to #now" you shall be thought" another ti%e" to #now that you #now not& ,peech of a %anDs self ought to be sel!o%" an! well chosen& / #new one" was wont to say in scorn" +e %ust nee!s be a wise %an" he spea#s so %uch of hi%self? an! there is but one case" wherein a %an %ay co%@ %en! hi%self with goo! graceR an! that is in co%%en!ing irtue in anotherR especially if it be such a irtue" whereunto hi%self preten!eth& ,peech of touch towar!s others" shoul! be spar@ ingly use!R for !iscourse ought to be as a fiel!" without co%ing ho%e to any %an& / #new two noble%en" of the west part of Englan!" whereof the one was gi en to scoff" but #ept e er royal cheer in his houseR the other woul! as#" of those that ha! been at the otherDs table" Tell truly" was there ne er a flout or !ry blow gi enP To which the guest woul! answer" ,uch an! such a thing passe!& The lor! woul! say" / thought" he woul! %ar a goo! !inner& (iscretion of speech" is %ore than elo>uenceR an! to spea# agreeably to hi%" with who% we !eal" is %ore than to spea# in goo! wor!s" or in goo! or!er& E goo! continue! speech" without a goo! speech of interlocution" shows slowness? an! a goo! reply or secon! speech" with@ out a goo! settle! speech" showeth shallowness an! wea#ness& Es we see in beasts" that those that are wea#est in the course" are yet ni%blest in the turnR as it is betwixt the greyhoun! an! the hare& To use too %any circu%stances" ere one co%e to the %atter" is weariso%eR to use none at all" is blunt&

:f Plantations P=E;TET/:;, are a%ongst ancient" pri%i@ ti e" an! heroical wor#s& 'hen the worl! was young" it begat %ore chil!renR but now it is ol!" it begets fewer? for / %ay justly account new plan@ tations" to be the chil!ren of for%er #ing!o%s& / li#e a plantation in a pure soilR that is" where people are not !isplante!" to the en!" to plant in others& For else it is rather an extirpation" than a plantation& Planting of countries" is li#e planting of woo!sR for you %ust %a#e account to leese al@ %ost twenty yearsD profit" an! expect your reco%@ pense in the en!& For the principal thing" that hath been the !estruction of %ost plantations" hath been the base an! hasty !rawing of profit" in the first years& /t is true" spee!y profit is not to be neg@ lecte!" as far as %ay stan! with the goo! of the plantation" but no further& /t is a sha%eful an! unblesse! thing" to ta#e the scu% of people" an! wic#e! con!e%ne! %en" to be the people with who% you plantR an! not only so" but it spoileth the plantationR for they will e er li e li#e rogues" an! not fall to wor#" but be la9y" an! !o %ischief" an! spen! ictuals" an! be >uic#ly weary" an! then certify o er to their country" to the !iscre!it of the plantation& The people wherewith you plant ought to be gar!eners" plough%en" laborers" s%iths" carpenters" joiners" fisher%en" fowlers" with so%e few apothecaries" surgeons" coo#s" an! ba#ers& /n a country of plantation" first loo# about" what #in! of ictual the country yiel!s of itself to han!R as chestnuts" walnuts" pineapples" oli es" !ates" plu%s" cherries" wil! honey" an! the li#eR an! %a#e use of the%& Then consi!er what ictual or esculent things there are" which grow spee!ily" an! within the yearR as parsnips" carrots" turnips" onions" ra!ish" articho#es of +ierusale%" %ai9e" an! the li#e& For wheat" barley" an! oats" they as# too %uch laborR but with pease an! beans you %ay begin" both because they as# less labor" an! be@ cause they ser e for %eat" as well as for brea!& En! of rice" li#ewise co%eth a great increase" an! it is a #in! of %eat& Ebo e all" there ought to be brought store of biscuit" oat@%eal" flour" %eal" an! the li#e" in the beginning" till brea! %ay be ha!& For beasts" or bir!s" ta#e chiefly such as are least subject to !iseases" an! %ultiply fastestR as swine" goats" coc#s" hens" tur#eys" geese" house@!o es" an! the li#e& The ictual in plantations" ought to be ex@ pen!e! al%ost as in a besiege! townR that is" with certain allowance& En! let the %ain part of the groun!" e%ploye! to gar!ens or corn" be to a co%@ %on stoc#R an! to be lai! in" an! store! up" an! then !eli ere! out in proportionR besi!es so%e

spots of groun!" that any particular person will %anure for his own pri ate& Consi!er li#ewise what co%%o!ities" the soil where the plantation is" !oth naturally yiel!" that they %ay so%e way help to !efray the charge of the plantation Fso it be not" as was sai!" to the unti%ely preju!ice of the %ain businessG" as it hath fare! with tobacco in )irginia& 'oo! co%%only aboun!eth but too %uchR an! therefore ti%ber is fit to be one& /f there be iron ore" an! strea%s whereupon to set the %ills" iron is a bra e co%%o!ity where woo! aboun!eth& 5a#ing of bay@salt" if the cli%ate be proper for it" woul! be put in experience& Growing sil# li#ewise" if any be" is a li#ely co%%o!ity& Pitch an! tar" where store of firs an! pines are" will not fail& ,o !rugs an! sweet woo!s" where they are" cannot but yiel! great profit& ,oap@ashes li#ewise" an! other things that %ay be thought of& But %oil not too %uch un!er groun!R for the hope of %ines is ery uncertain" an! useth to %a#e the planters la9y" in other things& For go ern%entR let it be in the han!s of one" assiste! with so%e counselR an! let the% ha e co%%ission to exercise %artial laws" with so%e li%itation& En! abo e all" let %en %a#e that profit" of being in the wil!erness" as they ha e Go! always" an! his ser ice" before their eyes& =et not the go ern%ent of the plantation" !epen! upon too %any counsellors" an! un!erta#ers" in the country that planteth" but upon a te%perate nu%berR an! let those be rather noble%en an! gentle%en" than %erchantsR for they loo# e er to the present gain& =et there be free!o% fro% cus@ to%" till the plantation be of strengthR an! not only free!o% fro% custo%" but free!o% to carry their co%%o!ities" where they %ay %a#e their best of the%" except there be so%e special cause of caution& Cra% not in people" by sen!ing too fast co%pany after co%panyR but rather har#en how they waste" an! sen! supplies proportionablyR but so" as the nu%ber %ay li e well in the plantation" an! not by surcharge be in penury& /t hath been a great en!angering to the health of so%e planta@ tions" that they ha e built along the sea an! ri ers" in %arish an! unwholeso%e groun!s& Therefore" though you begin there" to a oi! carriage an! li#e !isco%%o!ities" yet buil! still rather upwar!s fro% the strea%s" than along& /t concerneth li#e@ wise the health of the plantation" that they ha e goo! store of salt with the%" that they %ay use it in their ictuals" when it shall be necessary& /f you plant where sa ages are" !o not only entertain the%" with trifles an! gingles" but use the% justly an! graciously" with sufficient guar! ne erthelessR an! !o not win their fa or" by helping the% to in@ a!e their ene%ies" but for their !efence it is not a%issR an! sen! oft of the%" o er to the country that plants" that they %ay see a better con!ition than their own" an! co%%en! it when they re@

turn& 'hen the plantation grows to strength" then it is ti%e to plant with wo%en" as well as with %enR that the plantation %ay sprea! into genera@ tions" an! not be e er piece! fro% without& /t is the sinfullest thing in the worl!" to forsa#e or !estitute a plantation once in forwar!nessR for besi!es the !ishonor" it is the guiltiness of bloo! of %any co%@ %iserable persons&

:f *iches / CE;;:T call riches better than the baggage of irtue& The *o%an wor! is better" i%pe!i@ %enta& For as the baggage is to an ar%y" so is riches to irtue& /t cannot be spare!" nor left behin!" but it hin!ereth the %archR yea" an! the care of it" so%eti%es loseth or !isturbeth the ictory& :f great riches there is no real use" except it be in the !istributionR the rest is but conceit& ,o saith ,olo@ %on" 'here %uch is" there are %any to consu%e itR an! what hath the owner" but the sight of it with his eyesP The personal fruition in any %an" cannot reach to feel great riches? there is a custo!y of the%R or a power of !ole" an! !onati e of the%R or a fa%e of the%R but no soli! use to the owner& (o you not see what feigne! prices" are set upon little stones an! raritiesP an! what wor#s of osten@ tation are un!erta#en" because there %ight see% to be so%e use of great richesP But then you will say" they %ay be of use" to buy %en out of !angers or troubles& Es ,olo%on saith" *iches are as a strong hol!" in the i%agination of the rich %an& But this is excellently expresse!" that it is in i%agi@ nation" an! not always in fact& For certainly great riches" ha e sol! %ore %en" than they ha e bought out& ,ee# not prou! riches" but such as thou %ayest get justly" use soberly" !istribute cheerfully" an! lea e contente!ly& Qet ha e no abstract nor friarly conte%pt of the%& But !istinguish" as Cicero saith well of *abirius Posthu%us" /n stu!io rei a%pli@ fican!ae apparebat" non a aritiae prae!a%" se! instru%entu% bonitati >uaeri& +ar#en also to ,olo%on" an! beware of hasty gathering of richesR Sui festinat a! !i itias" non erit insons& The poets feign" that when Plutus Fwhich is *ichesG is sent fro% 0upiter" he li%ps an! goes slowlyR but when he is sent fro% Pluto" he runs" an! is swift of foot& 5eaning that riches gotten by goo! %eans" an! just labor" pace slowlyR but when they co%e by the !eath of others Fas by the course of inheritance" testa%ents" an! the li#eG" they co%e tu%bling upon a %an& But it %ought be applie! li#ewise to

Pluto" ta#ing hi% for the !e il& For when riches co%e fro% the !e il Fas by frau! an! oppression" an! unjust %eansG" they co%e upon spee!& The ways to enrich are %any" an! %ost of the% foul& Parsi%ony is one of the best" an! yet is not inno@ centR for it withhol!eth %en fro% wor#s of liberal@ ity an! charity& The i%pro e%ent of the groun!" is the %ost natural obtaining of richesR for it is our great %otherDs blessing" the earthDsR but it is slow& En! yet where %en of great wealth !o stoop to husban!ry" it %ultiplieth riches excee!ingly& / #new a noble%an in Englan!" that ha! the great@ est au!its of any %an in %y ti%eR a great gra9ier" a great sheep@%aster" a great ti%ber %an" a great collier" a great corn@%aster" a great lea!@%an" an! so of iron" an! a nu%ber of the li#e points of hus@ ban!ry& ,o as the earth see%e! a sea to hi%" in respect of the perpetual i%portation& /t was truly obser e! by one" that hi%self ca%e ery har!ly" to a little riches" an! ery easily" to great riches& For when a %anDs stoc# is co%e to that" that he can expect the pri%e of %ar#ets" an! o erco%e those bargains" which for their greatness are few %enDs %oney" an! be partner in the in!ustries of younger %en" he cannot but increase %ainly& The gains of or!inary tra!es an! ocations are honestR an! furthere! by two things chiefly? by !iligence" an! by a goo! na%e" for goo! an! fair !ealing& But the gains of bargains" are of a %ore !oubtful natureR when %en shall wait upon othersD necessity" bro#e by ser ants an! instru%ents to !raw the% on" put off others cunningly" that woul! be better chap@ %en" an! the li#e practices" which are crafty an! naught& Es for the chopping of bargains" when a %an buys not to hol! but to sell o er again" that co%%only grin!eth !ouble" both upon the seller" an! upon the buyer& ,harings !o greatly enrich" if the han!s be well chosen" that are truste!& <sury is the certainest %eans of gain" though one of the worstR as that whereby a %an !oth eat his brea!" in su!ore ultus alieniR an! besi!es" !oth plough upon ,un!ays& But yet certain though it be" it hath flawsR for that the scri eners an! bro#ers !o alue unsoun! %en" to ser e their own turn& The fortune in being the first" in an in ention or in a pri ilege" !oth cause so%eti%es a won!erful o ergrowth in richesR as it was with the first sugar %an" in the Canaries& Therefore if a %an can play the true logician" to ha e as well ju!g%ent" as in ention" he %ay !o great %attersR especially if the ti%es be fit& +e that resteth upon gains certain" shall har!ly grow to great richesR an! he that puts all upon a! entures" !oth oftenti%es brea# an! co%e to po erty? it is goo!" therefore" to guar! a! entures with certainties" that %ay uphol! losses& 5onopo@ lies" an! coe%ption of wares for re@sale" where they are not restraine!" are great %eans to enrichR especially if the party ha e intelligence" what

things are li#e to co%e into re>uest" an! so store hi%self beforehan!& *iches gotten by ser ice" though it be of the best rise" yet when they are gotten by flattery" fee!ing hu%ors" an! other ser @ ile con!itions" they %ay be place! a%ongst the worst& Es for fishing for testa%ents an! executor@ ships Fas Tacitus saith of ,eneca" testa%enta et orbos ta%>ua% in!agine capiG" it is yet worseR by how %uch %en sub%it the%sel es to %eaner per@ sons" than in ser ice& Belie e not %uch" the% that see% to !espise richesR for they !espise the%" that !espair of the%R an! none worse" when they co%e to the%& Be not penny@wiseR riches ha e wings" an! so%eti%es they fly away of the%sel es" so%e@ ti%es they %ust be set flying" to bring in %ore& 5en lea e their riches" either to their #in!re!" or to the publicR an! %o!erate portions" prosper best in both& E great state left to an heir" is as a lure to all the bir!s of prey roun! about" to sei9e on hi%" if he be not the better stablishe! in years an! ju!g@ %ent& =i#ewise glorious gifts an! foun!ations" are li#e sacrifices without saltR an! but the painte! sepulchres of al%s" which soon will putrefy" an! corrupt inwar!ly& Therefore %easure not thine a! ance%ents" by >uantity" but fra%e the% by %easure? an! !efer not charities till !eathR for" certainly" if a %an weigh it rightly" he that !oth so" is rather liberal of another %anDs" than of his own& :f Prophecies

/ 5EE; not to spea# of !i ine propheciesR nor of heathen oraclesR nor of natural pre!ictionsR but only of prophecies that ha e been of cer@ tain %e%ory" an! fro% hi!!en causes& ,aith the Pythonissa to ,aul" To@%orrow thou an! thy son shall be with %e& +o%er hath these erses? Et !o%us EEneae cunctis !o%inabitur oris" Et nati natoru%" et >ui nascentur ab illis& E prophecy" as it see%s" of the *o%an e%pire& ,eneca the trage!ian hath these erses? @@)enient annis ,aecula seris" >uibus :ceanus )incula reru% laxet" et ingens Pateat Tellus" Tiphys>ue no os (etegat orbesR nec sit terris <lti%a Thule?

a prophecy of the !isco ery of E%erica& The !augh@ ter of Polycrates" !rea%e! that 0upiter bathe! her father" an! Epollo anointe! hi%R an! it ca%e to pass" that he was crucifie! in an open place" where the sun %a!e his bo!y run with sweat" an! the rain washe! it& Philip of 5ace!on !rea%e!" he seale! up bis wifeDs bellyR whereby he !i! expoun! it" that his wife shoul! be barrenR but Eristan!er the soothsayer" tol! hi% his wife was with chil!" because %en !o not use to seal essels" that are e%pty& E phantas% that appeare! to 5& Brutus" in his tent" sai! to hi%" Philippis iteru% %e i!ebis& Tiberius sai! to Galba" Tu >uo>ue" Galba" !egusta@ bis i%periu%& /n )espasianDs ti%e" there went a prophecy in the East" that those that shoul! co%e forth of 0u!ea" shoul! reign o er the worl!? which though it %ay be was %eant of our ,a iorR yet Tacitus expoun!s it of )espasian& (o%itian !rea%e!" the night before he was slain" that a gol!en hea! was growing" out of the nape of his nec#? an! in!ee!" the succession that followe! hi% for %any years" %a!e gol!en ti%es& +enry the ,ixth of Englan!" sai! of +enry the ,e enth" when he was a la!" an! ga e hi% water" This is the la! that shall enjoy the crown" for which we stri e& 'hen / was in France" / hear! fro% one (r& Pena" that the Sueen 5other" who was gi en to curious arts" cause! the Ting her husban!Ds nati ity to be calculate!" un!er a false na%eR an! the astrologer ga e a ju!g%ent" that he shoul! be #ille! in a !uelR at which the Sueen laughe!" thin#ing her hus@ ban! to be abo e challenges an! !uels? but he was slain upon a course at tilt" the splinters of the staff of 5ontgo%ery going in at his bea er& The tri ial prophecy" which / hear! when / was a chil!" an! Sueen Eli9abeth was in the flower of her years" was" 'hen he%pe is spun Englan!Ds !one? whereby it was generally concei e!" that after the princes ha! reigne!" which ha! the principal letters of that wor! he%pe Fwhich were +enry" E!war!" 5ary" Philip" an! Eli9abethG" Englan! shoul! co%e to utter confusionR which" than#s be to Go!" is erifie! only in the change of the na%eR for that the TingDs style" is now no %ore of Eng@ lan! but of Britain& There was also another proph@ ecy" before the year of DBB" which / !o not well un!erstan!& There shall be seen upon a !ay" Between the Baugh an! the 5ay"

The blac# fleet of ;orway& 'hen that that is co%e an! gone" Englan! buil! houses of li%e an! stone" For after wars shall you ha e none& /t was generally concei e! to be %eant" of the ,panish fleet that ca%e in DBB? for that the #ing of ,painDs surna%e" as they say" is ;orway& The pre@ !iction of *egio%ontanus" :ctogesi%us octa us %irabilis annus" was thought li#ewise acco%plishe! in the sen!ing of that great fleet" being the greatest in strength" though not in nu%ber" of all that e er swa% upon the sea& Es for CleonDs !rea%" / thin# it was a jest& /t was" that he was !e oure! of a long !ragonR an! it was expoun!e! of a %a#er of sausages" that trouble! hi% excee!ingly& There are nu%bers of the li#e #in!R especially if you inclu!e !rea%s" an! pre!ictions of astrology& But / ha e set !own these few only" of certain cre!it" for exa%ple& 5y ju!g@ %ent is" that they ought all to be !espise!R an! ought to ser e but for winter tal# by the firesi!e& Though when / say !espise!" / %ean it as for be@ liefR for otherwise" the sprea!ing" or publishing" of the%" is in no sort to be !espise!& For they ha e !one %uch %ischiefR an! / see %any se ere laws %a!e" to suppress the%& That that hath gi en the% grace" an! so%e cre!it" consisteth in three things& First" that %en %ar# when they hit" an! ne er %ar# when they %issR as they !o generally also of !rea%s& The secon! is" that probable conjectures" or obscure tra!itions" %any ti%es turn the%sel es into propheciesR while the nature of %an" which co eteth !i ination" thin#s it no peril to foretell that which in!ee! they !o but collect& Es that of ,enecaDs erse& For so %uch was then subject to !e%onstration" that the globe of the earth ha! great parts beyon! the Etlantic" which %ought be probably concei e! not to be all sea? an! a!!ing thereto the tra!ition in PlatoDs Ti%aeus" an! his Etlanticus" it %ought encourage one to turn it to a pre!iction& The thir! an! last Fwhich is the great oneG is" that al%ost all of the%" being infinite in nu%ber" ha e been i%postures" an! by i!le an! crafty brains %erely contri e! an! feigne!" after the e ent past&

:f E%bition

E5B/T/:; is li#e cholerR which is an hu%or that %a#eth %en acti e" earnest" full of alac@ rity" an! stirring" if it be not stoppe!& But if it be stoppe!" an! cannot ha e his way" it beco%eth a!ust" an! thereby %align an! eno%ous& ,o a%@ bitious %en" if they fin! the way open for their rising" an! still get forwar!" they are rather busy than !angerousR but if they be chec#e! in their !esires" they beco%e secretly !iscontent" an! loo# upon %en an! %atters with an e il eye" an! are best please!" when things go bac#war!R which is the worst property in a ser ant of a prince" or state& Therefore it is goo! for princes" if they use a%bi@ tious %en" to han!le it" so as they be still progres@ si e an! not retrogra!eR which" because it cannot be without incon enience" it is goo! not to use such natures at all& For if they rise not with their ser ice" they will ta#e or!er" to %a#e their ser ice fall with the%& But since we ha e sai!" it were goo! not to use %en of a%bitious natures" except it be upon necessity" it is fit we spea#" in what cases they are of necessity& Goo! co%%an!ers in the wars %ust be ta#en" be they ne er so a%bitiousR for the use of their ser ice" !ispenseth with the restR an! to ta#e a sol!ier without a%bition" is to pull off his spurs& There is also great use of a%bitious %en" in being screens to princes in %atters of !anger an! en yR for no %an will ta#e that part" except he be li#e a seele! !o e" that %ounts an! %ounts" be@ cause he cannot see about hi%& There is use also of a%bitious %en" in pulling !own the greatness of any subject that o ertopsR as Tiberius use! 5arco" in the pulling !own of ,ejanus& ,ince" therefore" they %ust be use! in such cases" there resteth to spea#" how they are to be bri!le!" that they %ay be less !angerous& There is less !anger of the%" if they be of %ean birth" than if they be nobleR an! if they be rather harsh of nature" than gracious an! popu@ lar? an! if they be rather new raise!" than grown cunning" an! fortifie!" in their greatness& /t is counte! by so%e" a wea#ness in princes" to ha e fa oritesR but it is" of all others" the best re%e!y against a%bitious great@ones& For when the way of pleasuring" an! !ispleasuring" lieth by the fa orite" it is i%possible any other shoul! be o er@ great& Enother %eans to curb the%" is to balance the% by others" as prou! as they& But then there %ust be so%e %i!!le counsellors" to #eep things stea!yR for without that ballast" the ship will roll too %uch& Et the least" a prince %ay ani%ate an! inure so%e %eaner persons" to be as it were scourges" to a%bitions %en& Es for the ha ing of the% obnoxious to ruinR if they be of fearful natures" it %ay !o wellR but if they be stout an! !aring" it %ay precipitate their !esigns" an! pro e !angerous& Es for the pulling of the% !own" if the affairs re>uire it" an! that it %ay not be !one with

safety su!!enly" the only way is the interchange" continually" of fa ors an! !isgracesR whereby they %ay not #now what to expect" an! be" as it were" in a woo!& :f a%bitions" it is less har%ful" the a%bition to pre ail in great things" than that other" to appear in e ery thingR for that bree!s confusion" an! %ars business& But yet it is less !an@ ger" to ha e an a%bitious %an stirring in business" than great in !epen!ences& +e that see#eth to be e%inent a%ongst able %en" hath a great tas#R but that is e er goo! for the public& But he" that plots to be the only figure a%ongst ciphers" is the !ecay of a whole age& +onor hath three things in it? the antage groun! to !o goo!R the approach to #ings an! principal personsR an! the raising of a %anDs own fortunes& +e that hath the best of these inten@ tions" when he aspireth" is an honest %anR an! that prince" that can !iscern of these intentions in an@ other that aspireth" is a wise prince& Generally" let princes an! states choose such %inisters" as are %ore sensible of !uty than of usingR an! such as lo e business rather upon conscience" than upon bra ery" an! let the% !iscern a busy nature" fro% a willing %in!& :f 5as>ues E;( T*/<5P+,

T+E,E things are but toys" to co%e a%ongst such serious obser ations& But yet" since princes will ha e such things" it is better they shoul! be grace! with elegancy" than !aube! with cost& (ancing to song" is a thing of great state an! pleasure& / un!erstan! it" that the song be in >uire" place! aloft" an! acco%panie! with so%e bro#en %usicR an! the !itty fitte! to the !e ice& Ecting in song" especially in !ialogues" hath an extre%e goo! graceR / say acting" not !ancing Ffor that is a %ean an! ulgar thingGR an! the oices of the !ia@ logue woul! be strong an! %anly Fa base an! a tenorR no trebleGR an! the !itty high an! tragicalR not nice or !ainty& ,e eral >uires" place! one o er against another" an! ta#ing the oice by catches" anthe%@wise" gi e great pleasure& Turning !ances into figure" is a chil!ish curiosity& En! generally let it be note!" that those things which / here set !own" are such as !o naturally ta#e the sense" an! not respect petty won!er%ents& /t is true" the al@ terations of scenes" so it be >uietly an! without noise" are things of great beauty an! pleasureR for they fee! an! relie e the eye" before it be full of the sa%e object& =et the scenes aboun! with light"

specially colore! an! arie!R an! let the %as>uers" or any other" that are to co%e !own fro% the scene" ha e so%e %otions upon the scene itself" before their co%ing !ownR for it !raws the eye strangely" an! %a#es it" with great pleasure" to !esire to see" that it cannot perfectly !iscern& =et the songs be lou! an! cheerful" an! not chirpings or pulings& =et the %usic li#ewise be sharp an! lou!" an! well place!& The colors that show best by can!le@light are white" carnation" an! a #in! of sea@water@greenR an! oes" or spangs" as they are of no great cost" so they are of %ost glory& Es for rich e%broi!ery" it is lost an! not !iscerne!& =et the suits of the %as>uers be graceful" an! such as be@ co%e the person" when the i9ors are offR not after exa%ples of #nown attiresR Tur#e" sol!iers" %ari@ nersD" an! the li#e& =et anti@%as>ues not be longR they ha e been co%%only of fools" satyrs" baboons" wil!@%en" antics" beasts" sprites" witches" Ethiops" pig%ies" tur>uets" ny%phs" rustics" Cupi!s" statuas %o ing" an! the li#e& Es for angels" it is not co%i@ cal enough" to put the% in anti@%as>uesR an! anything that is hi!eous" as !e ils" giants" is on the other si!e as unfit& But chiefly" let the %usic of the% be recreati e" an! with so%e strange changes& ,o%e sweet o!ors su!!enly co%ing forth" without any !rops falling" are" in such a co%pany as there is stea% an! heat" things of great pleasure an! refresh%ent& (ouble %as>ues" one of %en" another of la!ies" a!!eth state an! ariety& But all is nothing except the roo% be #ept clear an! neat& For justs" an! tourneys" an! barriersR the glories of the% are chiefly in the chariots" wherein the challengers %a#e their entryR especially if they be !rawn with strange beasts? as lions" bears" ca%els" an! the li#eR or in the !e ices of their en@ tranceR or in the bra ery of their li eriesR or in the goo!ly furniture of their horses an! ar%or& But enough of these toys&

:f ;ature /; 5E;

;ET<*E is often hi!!enR so%eti%es o er@ co%eR sel!o% extinguishe!& Force" %a#eth nature %ore iolent in the returnR !octrine an! !is@ course" %a#eth nature less i%portuneR but custo% only !oth alter an! sub!ue nature& +e that see#eth ictory o er his nature" let hi% not set hi%self too great" nor too s%all tas#sR for the first will %a#e

hi% !ejecte! by often failingsR an! the secon! will %a#e hi% a s%all procee!er" though by often pre@ ailings& En! at the first let hi% practise with helps" as swi%%ers !o with bla!!ers or rushesR but after a ti%e let hi% practise with !isa! an@ tages" as !ancers !o with thic# shoes& For it bree!s great perfection" if the practice be har!er than the use& 'here nature is %ighty" an! therefore the ictory har!" the !egrees ha! nee! be" first to stay an! arrest nature in ti%eR li#e to hi% that woul! say o er the four an! twenty letters when he was angryR then to go less in >uantityR as if one shoul!" in forbearing wine" co%e fro% !rin#ing healths" to a !raught at a %ealR an! lastly" to !iscontinue altogether& But if a %an ha e the fortitu!e" an! resolution" to enfranchise hi%self at once" that is the best? :pti%us ille ani%i in!ex lae!entia pectus )incula >ui rupit" !e!oluit>ue se%el& ;either is the ancient rule a%iss" to ben! nature" as a wan!" to a contrary extre%e" whereby to set it right" un!erstan!ing it" where the contrary ex@ tre%e is no ice& =et not a %an force a habit upon hi%self" with a perpetual continuance" but with so%e inter%ission& For both the pause reinforceth the new onsetR an! if a %an that is not perfect" be e er in practice" he shall as well practise his errors" as his abilities" an! in!uce one habit of bothR an! there is no %eans to help this" but by seasonable inter%issions& But let not a %an trust his ictory o er his nature" too farR for nature will lay burie! a great ti%e" an! yet re i e" upon the occasion or te%ptation& =i#e as it was with EEsopDs !a%sel" turne! fro% a cat to a wo%an" who sat ery !e@ %utely at the boar!Ds en!" till a %ouse ran before her& Therefore" let a %an either a oi! the occasion altogetherR or put hi%self often to it" that he %ay be little %o e! with it& E %anDs nature is best per@ cei e! in pri ateness" for there is no affectationR in passion" for that putteth a %an out of his pre@ ceptsR an! in a new case or experi%ent" for there custo% lea eth hi%& They are happy %en" whose natures sort with their ocationsR otherwise they %ay say" %ultu% incola fuit ani%a %eaR when they con erse in those things" they !o not affect& /n stu!ies" whatsoe er a %an co%%an!eth upon hi%self" let hi% set hours for itR but whatsoe er is agreeable to his nature" let hi% ta#e no care for any set ti%esR for his thoughts will fly to it" of the%sel esR so as the spaces of other business" or stu!ies" will suffice& E %anDs nature" runs either to herbs or wee!sR therefore let hi% seasonably water the one" an! !estroy the other&

:f Custo% E;( E(<CET/:;

5E;D, thoughts" are %uch accor!ing to their inclinationR their !iscourse an! speeches" accor!ing to their learning an! infuse! opinionsR but their !ee!s" are after as they ha e been accus@ to%e!& En! therefore" as 5achia el well noteth Fthough in an e il@fa ore! instanceG" there is no trusting to the force of nature" nor to the bra ery of wor!s" except it be corroborate by custo%& +is instance is" that for the achie ing of a !esperate conspiracy" a %an shoul! not rest upon the fierce@ ness of any %anDs nature" or his resolute un!er@ ta#ingsR but ta#e such an one" as hath ha! his han!s for%erly in bloo!& But 5achia el #new not of a Friar Cle%ent" nor a *a illac" nor a 0aureguy" nor a Balta9ar Gerar!R yet his rule hol!eth still" that nature" nor the engage%ent of wor!s" are not so forcible" as custo%& :nly superstition is now so well a! ance!" that %en of the first bloo!" are as fir% as butchers by occupationR an! otary reso@ lution" is %a!e e>uipollent to custo%" e en in %at@ ter of bloo!& /n other things" the pre!o%inancy of custo% is e erywhere isibleR inso%uch as a %an woul! won!er" to hear %en profess" protest" en@ gage" gi e great wor!s" an! then !o" just as they ha e !one beforeR as if they were !ea! i%ages" an! engines %o e! only by the wheels of custo%& 'e see also the reign or tyranny of custo%" what it is& The /n!ians F/ %ean the sect of their wise %enG lay the%sel es >uietly upon a stoc# of woo!" an! so sacrifice the%sel es by fire& ;ay" the wi es stri e to be burne!" with the corpses of their hus@ ban!s& The la!s of ,parta" of ancient ti%e" were wont to be scourge! upon the altar of (iana" with@ out so %uch as >ueching& / re%e%ber" in the be@ ginning of Sueen Eli9abethDs ti%e of Englan!" an /rish rebel con!e%ne!" put up a petition to the !eputy" that he %ight be hange! in a withe" an! not in an halterR because it ha! been so use!" with for%er rebels& There be %on#s in *ussia" for pen@ ance" that will sit a whole night in a essel of water" till they be engage! with har! ice& 5any exa%ples %ay be put of the force of custo%" both upon %in! an! bo!y& Therefore" since custo% is the principal %agistrate of %anDs life" let %en by all %eans en@ !ea or" to obtain goo! custo%s& Certainly custo% is %ost perfect" when it beginneth in young years? this we call e!ucationR which is" in effect" but an

early custo%& ,o we see" in languages" the tongue is %ore pliant to all expressions an! soun!s" the joints are %ore supple" to all feats of acti ity an! %otions" in youth than afterwar!s& For it is true" that late learners cannot so well ta#e the plyR ex@ cept it be in so%e %in!s" that ha e not suffere! the%sel es to fix" but ha e #ept the%sel es open" an! prepare! to recei e continual a%en!%ent" which is excee!ing rare& But if the force of cus@ to% si%ple an! separate" be great" the force of custo% copulate an! conjoine! an! collegiate" is far greater& For there exa%ple teacheth" co%pany co%forteth" e%ulation >uic#eneth" glory raiseth? so as in such places the force of custo% is in his exaltation& Certainly the great %ultiplication of irtues upon hu%an nature" resteth upon socie@ ties well or!aine! an! !iscipline!& For co%%on@ wealths" an! goo! go ern%ents" !o nourish irtue grown but !o not %uch %en! the !ee!s& But the %isery is" that the %ost effectual %eans" are now applie! to the en!s" least to be !esire!& :f Fortune /T CE;;:T be !enie!" but outwar! acci!ents con!uce %uch to fortuneR fa or" opportunity" !eath of others" occasion fitting irtue& But chiefly" the %oul! of a %anDs fortune is in his own han!s& Faber >uis>ue fortunae suae" saith the poet& En! the %ost fre>uent of external causes is" that the folly of one %an" is the fortune of another& For no %an prospers so su!!enly" as by othersD errors& ,erpens nisi serpente% co%e!erit non fit !raco& : ert an! apparent irtues" bring forth praiseR but there be secret an! hi!!en irtues" that bring forth fortuneR certain !eli eries of a %anDs self" which ha e no na%e& The ,panish na%e" !ese%boltura" partly expresseth the%R when there be not ston!s nor resti eness in a %anDs natureR but that the wheels of his %in!" #eep way with the wheels of his fortune& For so =i y Fafter he ha! !escribe! Cato 5ajor in these wor!s" /n illo iro tantu% ro@ bur corporis et ani%i fuit" ut >uocun>ue loco natus esset" fortuna% sibi facturus i!ereturG falleth upon that" that he ha! ersatile ingeniu%& There@ fore if a %an loo# sharply an! attenti ely" he shall see Fortune? for though she be blin!" yet she is not in isible& The way of fortune" is li#e the 5il#en 'ay in the s#yR which is a %eeting or #not of a nu%ber of s%all starsR not seen asun!er" but gi @ ing light together& ,o are there a nu%ber of little" an! scarce !iscerne! irtues" or rather facul@ ties an! custo%s" that %a#e %en fortunate& The /talians note so%e of the%" such as a %an woul! little thin#& 'hen they spea# of one that cannot !o a%iss" they will throw in" into his other con!itions"

that he hath Poco !i %atto& En! certainly there be not two %ore fortunate properties" than to ha e a little of the fool" an! not too %uch of the honest& Therefore extre%e lo ers of their country or %asters" were ne er fortunate" neither can they be& For when a %an placeth his thoughts without hi%self" he goeth not his own way& En hasty for@ tune %a#eth an enterpriser an! re%o er Fthe French hath it better" entreprenant" or re%uantGR but the exercise! fortune %a#eth the able %an& Fortune is to be honore! an! respecte!" an! it be but for her !aughters" Confi!ence an! *eputation& For those two" Felicity bree!ethR the first within a %anDs self" the latter in others towar!s hi%& Ell wise %en" to !ecline the en y of their own irtues" use to ascribe the% to Pro i!ence an! FortuneR for so they %ay the better assu%e the%? an!" besi!es" it is greatness in a %an" to be the care of the higher powers& ,o Caesar sai! to the pilot in the te%pest" Caesare% portas" et fortuna% ejus& ,o ,ylla chose the na%e of Felix" an! not of 5agnus& En! it hath been note!" that those who ascribe openly too %uch to their own wis!o% an! policy" en! infor@ tunate& /t is written that Ti%otheus the Ethenian" after he ha!" in the account he ga e to the state of his go ern%ent" often interlace! this speech" an! in this" Fortune ha! no part" ne er prospere! in anything" he un!ertoo# afterwar!s& Certainly there be" whose fortunes are li#e +o%erDs erses" that ha e a sli!e an! easiness %ore than the erses of other poetsR as Plutarch saith of Ti%oleonDs for@ tune" in respect of that of Egesilaus or Epa%inon@ !as& En! that this shoull! be" no !oubt it is %uch" in a %anDs self&

:f <sury 5E;Q ha e %a!e witty in ecti es against usury& They say that it is a pity" the !e il shoul! ha e Go!Ds part" which is the tithe& That the usurer is the greatest ,abbath@brea#er" because his plough goeth e ery ,un!ay& That the usurer is the !rone" that )irgil spea#eth ofR /gna u% fucos pecus a praesepibus arcent& That the usurer brea#eth the first law" that was %a!e for %an#in! after the fall" which was" in su!ore ultus tui co%e!es pane% tuu%R not" in su!ore ultus alieni& That usurers shoul! ha e orange@tawny bonnets" because they !o ju!ai9e&

That it is against nature for %oney to beget %oneyR an! the li#e& / say this only" that usury is a conces@ su% propter !uritie% cor!isR for since there %ust be borrowing an! len!ing" an! %en are so har! of heart" as they will not len! freely" usury %ust be per%itte!& ,o%e others" ha e %a!e suspicious an! cunning propositions of ban#s" !isco ery of %enDs estates" an! other in entions& But few ha e spo#en of usury usefully& /t is goo! to set before us" the inco%%o!ities an! co%%o!ities of usury" that the goo!" %ay be either weighe! out or culle! outR an! warily to pro i!e" that while we %a#e forth to that which is better" we %eet not with that which is worse& The !isco%%o!ities of usury are" First" that it %a#es fewer %erchants& For were it not for this la9y tra!e of usury" %oney woul! not he still" but woul! in great part be e%ploye! upon %erchan@ !i9ingR which is the ena porta of wealth in a state& The secon!" that it %a#es poor %erchants& For" as a far%er cannot husban! his groun! so well" if he sit at a great rentR so the %erchant cannot !ri e his tra!e so well" if he sit at great usury& The thir! is inci!ent to the other twoR an! that is the !ecay of custo%s of #ings or states" which ebb or flow" with %erchan!i9ing& The fourth" that it bringeth the treasure of a real%" or state" into a few han!s& For the usurer being at certainties" an! others at uncer@ tainties" at the en! of the ga%e" %ost of the %oney will be in the boxR an! e er a state flourisheth" when wealth is %ore e>ually sprea!& The fifth" that it beats !own the price of lan!R for the e%@ ploy%ent of %oney" is chiefly either %erchan!i9@ ing or purchasingR an! usury waylays both& The sixth" that it !oth !ull an! !a%p all in!ustries" i%@ pro e%ents" an! new in entions" wherein %oney woul! be stirring" if it were not for this slug& The last" that it is the can#er an! ruin of %any %enDs estatesR which" in process of ti%e" bree!s a public po erty& :n the other si!e" the co%%o!ities of usury are" first" that howsoe er usury in so%e respect hin!er@ eth %erchan!i9ing" yet in so%e other it a! anceth itR for it is certain that the greatest part of tra!e is !ri en by young %erchants" upon borrowing at interestR so as if the usurer either call in" or #eep bac#" his %oney" there will ensue" presently" a great stan! of tra!e& The secon! is" that were it not for this easy borrowing upon interest" %enDs neces@ sities woul! !raw upon the% a %ost su!!en un@ !oingR in that they woul! be force! to sell their %eans Fbe it lan!s or goo!sG far un!er footR an! so" whereas usury !oth but gnaw upon the%" ba! %ar#ets woul! swallow the% >uite up& Es for %ortgaging or pawning" it will little %en! the %atter? for either %en will not ta#e pawns with@

out useR or if they !o" they will loo# precisely for the forfeiture& / re%e%ber a cruel %oneye! %an in the country" that woul! say" The !e il ta#e this usury" it #eeps us fro% forfeitures" of %ortgages an! bon!s& The thir! an! last is" that it is a anity to concei e" that there woul! be or!inary borrow@ ing without profitR an! it is i%possible to concei e" the nu%ber of incon eniences that will ensue" if borrowing be cra%pe!& Therefore to spea# of the abolishing of usury is i!le& Ell states ha e e er ha! it" in one #in! or rate" or other& ,o as that opinion %ust be sent to <topia& To spea# now of the refor%ation" an! reigle@ %ent" of usuryR how the !isco%%o!ities of it %ay be best a oi!e!" an! the co%%o!ities retaine!& /t appears" by the balance of co%%o!ities an! !is@ co%%o!ities of usury" two things are to be recon@ cile!& The one" that the tooth of usury be grin!e!" that it bite not too %uchR the other" that there be left open a %eans" to in ite %oneye! %en to len! to the %erchants" for the continuing an! >uic#en@ ing of tra!e& This cannot be !one" except you intro@ !uce two se eral sorts of usury" a less an! a greater& For if you re!uce usury to one low rate" it will ease the co%%on borrower" but the %erchant will be to see# for %oney& En! it is to be note!" that the tra!e of %erchan!i9e" being the %ost lucrati e" %ay bear usury at a goo! rateR other contracts not so& To ser e both intentions" the way woul! be briefly thus& That there be two rates of usury? the one free" an! general for allR the other un!er license only" to certain persons" an! in certain places of %erchan!i9ing& First" therefore" let usury in general" be re!uce! to fi e in the hun!re!R an! let that rate be proclai%e!" to be free an! currentR an! let the state shut itself out" to ta#e any penalty for the sa%e& This will preser e borrowing" fro% any general stop or !ryness& This will ease infinite borrowers in the country& This will" in goo! part" raise the price of lan!" because lan! purchase! at sixteen yearsD purchase will yiel! six in the hun!re!" an! so%ewhat %oreR whereas this rate of interest" yiel!s but fi e& This by li#e reason will encourage" an! e!ge" in!ustrious an! profit@ able i%pro e%entsR because %any will rather enture in that #in!" than ta#e fi e in the hun@ !re!" especially ha ing been use! to greater profit& ,econ!ly" let there be certain persons license!" to len! to #nown %erchants" upon usury at a higher rateR an! let it be with the cautions fol@ lowing& =et the rate be" e en with the %erchant hi%self" so%ewhat %ore easy than that he use! for%erly to payR for by that %eans" all bor@ rowers" shall ha e so%e ease by this refor%ation" be he %erchant" or whosoe er& =et it be no

ban# or co%%on stoc#" but e ery %an be %aster of his own %oney& ;ot that / altogether %is@ li#e ban#s" but they will har!ly be broo#e!" in regar! of certain suspicions& =et the state be answere! so%e s%all %atter for the license" an! the rest left to the len!erR for if the abate%ent be but s%all" it will no whit !iscourage the len!er& For he" for exa%ple" that too# before ten or nine in the hun!re!" will sooner !escen! to eight in the hun!re! than gi e o er his tra!e of usury" an! go fro% certain gains" to gains of ha9ar!& =et these license! len!ers be in nu%ber in!efinite" but re@ straine! to certain principal cities an! towns of %erchan!i9ingR for then they will be har!ly able to color other %enDs %oneys in the country? so as the license of nine will not suc# away the current rate of fi eR for no %an will sen! his %oneys far off" nor put the% into un#nown han!s& /f it be objecte! that this !oth in a sort authori9e usury" which before" was in so%e places but per@ %issi eR the answer is" that it is better to %itigate usury" by !eclaration" than to suffer it to rage" by conni ance&

:f Qouth E;( EGE E 5E; that is young in years" %ay be ol! in hours" if he ha e lost no ti%e& But that hap@ peneth rarely& Generally" youth is li#e the first cogitations" not so wise as the secon!& For there is a youth in thoughts" as well as in ages& En! yet the in ention of young %en" is %ore li ely than that of ol!R an! i%aginations strea% into their %in!s better" an!" as it were" %ore !i inely& ;atures that ha e %uch heat" an! great an! iolent !esires an! perturbations" are not ripe for action" till they ha e passe! the %eri!ian of their yearsR as it was with 0ulius Caesar an! ,epti%ius ,e erus& :f the latter" of who% it is sai!" 0u entute% egit erroribus" i%o furoribus" plena%& En! yet he was the ablest e%@ peror" al%ost" of all the list& But repose! natures %ay !o well in youth& Es it is seen in Eugustus Caesar" Cos%us (u#e of Florence" Gaston !e Foix" an! others& :n the other si!e" heat an! i acity in age" is an excellent co%position for business& Qoung %en are fitter to in ent" than to ju!geR fitter

for execution" than for counselR an! fitter for new projects" than for settle! business& For the experi@ ence of age" in things that fall within the co%pass of it" !irecteth the%R but in new things" abuseth the%& The errors of young %en" are the ruin of busi@ nessR but the errors of age! %en" a%ount but to this" that %ore %ight ha e been !one" or sooner& Qoung %en" in the con!uct an! %anage of actions" e%brace %ore than they can hol!R stir %ore than they can >uietR fly to the en!" without consi!era@ tion of the %eans an! !egreesR pursue so%e few principles" which they ha e chance! upon absur!lyR care not to inno ate" which !raws un@ #nown incon eniencesR use extre%e re%e!ies at firstR an!" that which !oubleth all errors" will not ac#nowle!ge or retract the%R li#e an unrea!y horse" that will neither stop nor turn& 5en of age object too %uch" consult too long" a! enture too little" repent too soon" an! sel!o% !ri e business ho%e to the full perio!" but content the%sel es with a %e!iocrity of success& Certainly it is goo! to co%poun! e%ploy%ents of bothR for that will be goo! for the present" because the irtues of either age" %ay correct the !efects of bothR an! goo! for succession" that young %en %ay be learners" while %en in age are actorsR an!" lastly" goo! for extern acci!ents" because authority followeth ol! %en" an! fa or an! popularity" youth& But for the %oral part" perhaps youth will ha e the pre@e%inence" as age hath for the politic& E certain rabbin" upon the text" Qour young %en shall see isions" an! your ol! %en shall !rea% !rea%s" inferreth that young %en" are a!%itte! nearer to Go! than ol!" because ision" is a clearer re elation" than a !rea%& En! certainly" the %ore a %an !rin#eth of the worl!" the %ore it intoxicatethR an! age !oth profit rather in the powers of un!erstan!ing" than in the irtues of the will an! affections& There be so%e" ha e an o er@early ripeness in their years" which fa!eth beti%es& These are" first" such as ha e brittle wits" the e!ge whereof is soon turne!R such as was +er@ %ogenes the rhetorician" whose boo#s are excee!@ ing subtleR who afterwar!s waxe! stupi!& E secon! sort" is of those that ha e so%e natural !ispositions which ha e better grace in youth" than in ageR such as is a fluent an! luxuriant speechR which beco%es youth well" but not age? so Tully saith of +ortensius" /!e% %anebat" ne>ue i!e% !ecebat& The thir! is of such" as ta#e too high a strain at the first" an! are %agnani%ous" %ore than tract of years can uphol!& Es was ,cipio Efricanus" of who% =i y saith in effect" <lti%a pri%is ce!ebant&

:f Beauty )/*T<E is li#e a rich stone" best plain setR an! surely irtue is best" in a bo!y that is co%ely" though not of !elicate featuresR an! that hath rather !ignity of presence" than beauty of aspect& ;either is it al%ost seen" that ery beautiful per@ sons are otherwise of great irtueR as if nature were rather busy" not to err" than in labor to pro!uce excellency& En! therefore they pro e acco%@ plishe!" but not of great spiritR an! stu!y rather beha ior" than irtue& But this hol!s not always? for Eugustus Caesar" Titus )espasianus" Philip le Belle of France" E!war! the Fourth of Englan!" Elcibia!es of Ethens" /s%ael the ,ophy of Persia" were all high an! great spiritsR an! yet the %ost beautiful %en of their ti%es& /n beauty" that of fa or" is %ore than that of colorR an! that of !ecent an! gracious %otion" %ore than that of fa or& That is the best part of beauty" which a picture cannot expressR no" nor the first sight of the life& There is no excellent beauty" that hath not so%e strangeness in the proportion& E %an cannot tell whether Epelles" or Elbert (urer" were the %ore triflerR whereof the one" woul! %a#e a personage by geo@ %etrical proportionsR the other" by ta#ing the best parts out of !i ers faces" to %a#e one excellent& ,uch personages" / thin#" woul! please nobo!y" but the painter that %a!e the%& ;ot but / thin# a painter %ay %a#e a better face than e er wasR but he %ust !o it by a #in! of felicity Fas a %usician that %a#eth an excellent air in %usicG" an! not by rule& E %an shall see faces" that if you exa%ine the% part by part" you shall fin! ne er a goo!R an! yet altogether !o well& /f it be true that the principal part of beauty is in !ecent %otion" cer@ tainly it is no %ar el" though persons in years see% %any ti%es %ore a%iableR pulchroru% autu%nus pulcherR for no youth can be co%ely but by par!on" an! consi!ering the youth" as to %a#e up the co%eliness& Beauty is as su%%er fruits"G which are easy to corrupt" an! cannot lastR an! for the %ost part it %a#es a !issolute youth" an! an age a little out of countenanceR but yet cer@ tainly again" if it light well" it %a#eth irtue shine" an! ices blush& :f (efor%ity

(EF:*5E( persons are co%%only e en with natureR for as nature hath !one ill by the%" so !o they by natureR being for the %ost part Fas

the ,cripture saithG oi! of natural affectionR an! so they ha e their re enge of nature& Certainly there is a consent" between the bo!y an! the %in!R an! where nature erreth in the one" she entureth in the other& <bi peccat in uno" periclitatur in al@ tero& But because there is" in %an" an election touching the fra%e of his %in!" an! a necessity in the fra%e of his bo!y" the stars of natural inclina@ tion are so%eti%es obscure!" by the sun of !isci@ pline an! irtue& Therefore it is goo! to consi!er of !efor%ity" not as a sign" which is %ore !ecei ableR but as a cause" which sel!o% faileth of the effect& 'hosoe er hath anything fixe! in his person" that !oth in!uce conte%pt" hath also a perpetual spur in hi%self" to rescue an! !eli er hi%self fro% scorn& Therefore all !efor%e! persons" are extre%e bol!& First" as in their own !efence" as being ex@ pose! to scornR but in process of ti%e" by a general habit& Elso it stirreth in the% in!ustry" an! espe@ cially of this #in!" to watch an! obser e the wea#@ ness of others" that they %ay ha e so%ewhat to repay& Egain" in their superiors" it >uencheth jealousy towar!s the%" as persons that they thin# they %ay" at pleasure" !espise? an! it layeth their co%petitors an! e%ulators asleepR as ne er belie @ ing they shoul! be in possibility of a! ance%ent" till they see the% in possession& ,o that upon the %atter" in a great wit" !efor%ity is an a! antage to rising& Tings in ancient ti%es Fan! at this pres@ ent in so%e countriesG were wont to put great trust in eunuchsR because they that are en ious towar!s all are %ore obnoxious an! officious" towar!s one& But yet their trust towar!s the%" hath rather been as to goo! spials" an! goo! wbisperers" than goo! %agistrates an! officers& En! %uch li#e is the reason of !efor%e! persons& ,till the groun! is" they will" if they be of spirit" see# to free the%@ sel es fro% scornR which %ust be either by irtue or %aliceR an! therefore let it not be %ar elle!" if so%eti%es they pro e excellent personsR as was Egesilaus" Xanger the son of ,oly%an" EEsop" Gasca" Presi!ent of PeruR an! ,ocrates %ay go li#ewise a%ongst the%R with others& :f Buil!ing

+:<,E, are built to li e in" an! not to loo# onR therefore let use be preferre! before uni@ for%ity" except where both %ay be ha!& =ea e the goo!ly fabrics of houses" for beauty only" to the enchante! palaces of the poetsR who buil! the% with s%all cost& +e that buil!s a fair house" upon an ill seat" co%%itteth hi%self to prison& ;either !o / rec#on it an ill seat" only where the air is un@ wholeso%eR but li#ewise where the air is une>ualR

as you shall see %any fine seats set upon a #nap of groun!" en irone! with higher hills roun! about itR whereby the heat of the sun is pent in" an! the win! gathereth as in troughsR so as you shall ha e" an! that su!!enly" as great !i ersity of heat an! col! as if you !welt in se eral places& ;either is it ill air only that %a#eth an ill seat" but ill ways" ill %ar#etsR an!" if you will consult with 5o%us" ill neighbors& / spea# not of %any %oreR want of waterR want of woo!" sha!e" an! shelterR want of fruitfulness" an! %ixture of groun!s of se eral naturesR want of prospectR want of le el groun!sR want of places at so%e near !istance for sports of hunting" haw#ing" an! racesR too near the sea" too re%oteR ha ing the co%%o!ity of na igable ri ers" or the !isco%%o!ity of their o erflowingR too far off fro% great cities" which %ay hin!er business" or too near the%" which lurcheth all pro isions" an! %a#eth e erything !earR where a %an hath a great li ing lai! together" an! where he is scante!? all which" as it is i%possible perhaps to fin! together" so it is goo! to #now the%" an! thin# of the%" that a %an %ay ta#e as %any as he canR an! if he ha e se eral !wellings" that he sort the% so that what he wanteth in the one" he %ay fin! in the other& =ucullus answere! Po%pey wellR who" when he saw his stately galleries" an! roo%s so large an! lightso%e" in one of his houses" sai!" ,urely an excellent place for su%%er" but how !o you in winterP =ucullus answere!" 'hy" !o you not thin# %e as wise as so%e fowl are" that e er change their abo!e towar!s the winterP To pass fro% the seat" to the house itselfR we will !o as Cicero !oth in the oratorDs artR who writes boo#s (e :ratore" an! a boo# he entitles :ratorR whereof the for%er" !eli ers the precepts of the art" an! the latter" the perfection& 'e will there@ fore !escribe a princely palace" %a#ing a brief %o!el thereof& For it is strange to see" now in Europe" such huge buil!ings as the )atican an! Escurial an! so%e others be" an! yet scarce a ery fair roo% in the%& First" therefore" / say you cannot ha e a perfect palace except you ha e two se eral si!esR a si!e for the ban>uet" as it is spo#en of in the boo# of +ester" an! a si!e for the househol!R the one for feasts an! triu%phs" an! the other for !welling& / un!erstan! both these si!es to be not only returns" but parts of the frontR an! to be unifor% without" though se erally partitione! withinR an! to be on both si!es of a great an! stately tower" in the %i!st of the front" that" as it were" joineth the% together on either han!& / woul! ha e on the si!e of the ban@ >uet" in front" one only goo!ly roo% abo e stairs" of so%e forty foot highR an! un!er it a roo% for a !ressing" or preparing place" at ti%es of triu%phs&

:n the other si!e" which is the househol! si!e" / wish it !i i!e! at the first" into a hall an! a chapel Fwith a partition betweenGR both of goo! state an! bignessR an! those not to go all the length" but to ha e at the further en!" a winter an! a su%%er parlor" both fair& En! un!er these roo%s" a fair an! large cellar" sun# un!er groun!R an! li#ewise so%e pri y #itchens" with butteries an! pantries" an! the li#e& Es for the tower" / woul! ha e it two stories" of eighteen foot high apiece" abo e the two wingsR an! a goo!ly lea!s upon the top"raile! with statuas interpose!R an! the sa%e tower to be !i@ i!e! into roo%s" as shall be thought fit& The stairs li#ewise to the upper roo%s" let the% be upon a fair open newel" an! finely raile! in" with i%ages of woo!" cast into a brass colorR an! a ery fair lan!ing@place at the top& But this to be" if you !o not point any of the lower roo%s" for a !ining place of ser ants& For otherwise" you shall ha e the ser@ antsD !inner after your own? for the stea% of it" will co%e up as in a tunnel& En! so %uch for the front& :nly / un!erstan! the height of the first stairs to be sixteen foot" which is the height of the lower roo%& Beyon! this front" is there to be a fair court" but three si!es of it" of a far lower buil!ing than the front& En! in all the four corners of that court" fair staircases" cast into turrets" on the outsi!e" an! not within the row of buil!ings the%sel es& But those towers" are not to be of the height of the front" but rather proportionable to the lower buil!ing& =et the court not be pa e!" for that stri#eth up a great heat in su%%er" an! %uch col! in winter& But only so%e si!e alleys" with a cross" an! the >uar@ ters to gra9e" being #ept shorn" but not too near shorn& The row of return on the ban>uet si!e" let it be all stately galleries? in which galleries let there be three" or fi e" fine cupolas in the length of it" place! at e>ual !istanceR an! fine colore! win!ows of se eral wor#s& :n the househol! si!e" cha%bers of presence an! or!inary entertain%ents" with so%e be!@cha%bersR an! let all three si!es be a !ouble house" without thorough lights on the si!es" that you %ay ha e roo%s fro% the sun" both for forenoon an! afternoon& Cast it also" that you %ay ha e roo%s" both for su%%er an! winterR sha!y for su%%er" an! war% for winter& Qou shall ha e so%eti%es fair houses so full of glass" that one can@ not tell where to beco%e" to be out of the sun or col!& For inbowe! win!ows" / hol! the% of goo! use Fin cities" in!ee!" upright !o better" in respect of the unifor%ity towar!s the streetGR for they be pretty retiring places for conferenceR an! besi!es" they #eep both the win! an! sun offR for that which woul! stri#e al%ost through the roo%" !oth scarce pass the win!ow& But let the% be but few" four in the court" on the si!es only&

Beyon! this court" let there be an inwar! court" of the sa%e s>uare an! heightR which is to be en@ irone! with the gar!en on all si!esR an! in the insi!e" cloistere! on all si!es" upon !ecent an! beautiful arches" as high as the first story& :n the un!er story" towar!s the gar!en" let it be turne! to a grotto" or a place of sha!e" or esti ation& En! only ha e opening an! win!ows towar!s the gar@ !enR an! be le el upon the floor" no whit sun#en un!er groun!" to a oi! all !a%pishness& En! let there be a fountain" or so%e fair wor# of statuas" in the %i!st of this courtR an! to be pa e! as the other court was& These buil!ings to be for pri y lo!gings on both si!esR an! the en! for pri y galleries& 'hereof you %ust foresee that one of the% be for an infir%ary" if the prince or any special person shoul! be sic#" with cha%bers" be!@cha%ber" ante@ ca%era" an! reca%era joining to it& This upon the secon! story& <pon the groun! story" a fair gallery" open" upon pillarsR an! upon the thir! story li#e@ wise" an open gallery" upon pillars" to ta#e the prospect an! freshness of the gar!en& Et both cor@ ners of the further si!e" by way of return" let there be two !elicate or rich cabinets" !aintily pa e!" richly hange!" gla9e! with crystalline glass" an! a rich cupola in the %i!stR an! all other elegancy that %ay be thought upon& /n the upper gallery too" / wish that there %ay be" if the place will yiel! it" so%e fountains running in !i ers places fro% the wall" with so%e fine a oi!ances& En! thus %uch for the %o!el of the palaceR sa e that you %ust ha e" before you co%e to the front" three courts& E green court plain" with a wall about itR a secon! court of the sa%e" but %ore garnishe!" with little turrets" or rather e%bellish%ents" upon the wallR an! a thir! court" to %a#e a s>uare with the front" but not to be built" nor yet enclose! with a na#e! wall" but enclose! with terraces" lea!e! aloft" an! fairly garnishe!" on the three si!esR an! cloistere! on the insi!e" with pillars" an! not with arches below& Es for offices" let the% stan! at !is@ tance" with so%e low galleries" to pass fro% the% to the palace itself& :f Gar!ens G7( El%ighty first plante! a gar!en& En! in!ee! it is the purest of hu%an pleasures& /t is the greatest refresh%ent to the spirits of %anR without which" buil!ings an! palaces are but gross han!iwor#sR an! a %an shall e er see" that when ages grow to ci ility an! elegancy" %en co%e to buil! stately sooner than to gar!en finelyR as if gar!ening were the greater perfection& / !o hol! it" in the royal or!ering of gar!ens" there

ought to be gar!ens" for all the %onths in the yearR in which se erally things of beauty %ay be then in season& For (ece%ber" an! 0anuary" an! the latter part of ;o e%ber" you %ust ta#e such things as are green all winter? hollyR i yR baysR juniperR cypress@treesR yewR pine@apple@treesR fir@treesR rose%aryR la en!erR periwin#le" the white" the purple" an! the blueR ger%an!erR flagsR orange@ treesR le%on@treesR an! %yrtles" if they be sto e!R an! sweet %arjora%" war% set& There followeth" for the latter part of 0anuary an! February" the %e9ereon@tree" which then blosso%sR crocus er@ nus" both the yellow an! the greyR pri%roses" ane%onesR the early tulippaR hyacinthus orien@ talisR cha%airisR fritellaria& For 5arch" there co%e iolets" specially the single blue" which are the earliestR the yellow !affo!ilR the !aisyR the al%on!@tree in blosso%R the peach@tree in blos@ so%R the cornelian@tree in blosso%R sweet@briar& /n Epril follow the !ouble white ioletR the wall@ flowerR the stoc#@gilliflowerR the cowslipR flower@ !elices" an! lilies of all naturesR rose%ary@flowersR the tulippaR the !ouble peonyR the pale !affo!ilR the French honeysuc#leR the cherry@tree in blos@ so%R the !a%son an! plu%@trees in blosso%R the white thorn in leafR the lilac@tree& /n 5ay an! 0une co%e pin#s of all sorts" specially the blush@ pin#R roses of all #in!s" except the %us#" which co%es laterR honeysuc#lesR strawberriesR buglossR colu%bineR the French %arigol!" flos EfricanusR cherry@tree in fruitR ribesR figs in fruitR raspsR ine@ flowersR la en!er in flowersR the sweet satyrian" with the white flowerR herba %uscariaR liliu% con alliu%R the apple@tree in blosso%& /n 0uly co%e gilliflowers of all arietiesR %us#@rosesR the li%e@tree in blosso%R early pears an! plu%s in fruitR jennetings" co!lins& /n Eugust co%e plu%s of all sorts in fruitR pearsR apricoc#sR berberriesR filber!sR %us#@%elonsR %on#s@hoo!s" of all colors& /n ,epte%ber co%e grapesR applesR poppies of all colorsR peachesR %elocotonesR nectarinesR cor@ neliansR war!ensR >uinces& /n :ctober an! the beginning of ;o e%ber co%e ser icesR %e!larsR bullacesR roses cut or re%o e! to co%e lateR holly@ hoc#sR an! such li#e& These particulars are for the cli%ate of =on!onR but %y %eaning is percei e!" that you %ay ha e er perpetuu%" as the place affor!s& En! because the breath of flowers is far sweeter in the air Fwhere it co%es an! goes li#e the warb@ ling of %usicG than in the han!" therefore nothing is %ore fit for that !elight" than to #now what be the flowers an! plants that !o best perfu%e the air& *oses" !a%as# an! re!" are fast flowers of their s%ellsR so that you %ay wal# by a whole row of the%" an! fin! nothing of their sweetnessR yea though it be in a %orningDs !ew& Bays li#ewise

yiel! no s%ell as they grow& *ose%ary littleR nor sweet %arjora%& That which abo e all others yiel!s the sweetest s%ell in the air is the iolet" specially the white !ouble iolet" which co%es twice a yearR about the %i!!le of Epril" an! about Bartholo%ew@ti!e& ;ext to that is the %us#@rose& Then the strawberry@lea es !ying" which yiel! a %ost excellent cor!ial s%ell& Then the flower of inesR it is a little !ust" li#e the !ust of a bent" which grows upon the cluster in the first co%ing forth& Then sweet@briar& Then wall@flowers" which are ery !elightful to be set un!er a parlor or lower cha%ber win!ow& Then pin#s an! gilliflowers" especially the %atte! pin# an! clo e gilliflower& Then the flowers of the li%e@tree& Then the honey@ suc#les" so they be so%ewhat afar off& :f bean@ flowers / spea# not" because they are fiel! flowers& But those which perfu%e the air %ost !elightfully" not passe! by as the rest" but being tro!!en upon an! crushe!" are threeR that is" burnet" wil!@ thy%e" an! water%ints& Therefore you are to set whole alleys of the%" to ha e the pleasure when you wal# or trea!& For gar!ens Fspea#ing of those which are in!ee! princeli#e" as we ha e !one of buil!ingsG" the con@ tents ought not well to be un!er thirty acres of groun!R an! to be !i i!e! into three partsR a green in the entranceR a heath or !esert in the going forthR an! the %ain gar!en in the %i!stR besi!es alleys on both si!es& En! / li#e well that four acres of groun! be assigne! to the greenR six to the heathR four an! four to either si!eR an! twel e to the %ain gar!en& The green hath two pleasures? the one" because nothing is %ore pleasant to the eye than green grass #ept finely shornR the other" because it will gi e you a fair alley in the %i!st" by which you %ay go in front upon a stately he!ge" which is to enclose the gar!en& But because the alley will be long" an!" in great heat of the year or !ay" you ought not to buy the sha!e in the gar!en" by going in the sun through the green" therefore you are" of either si!e the green" to plant a co ert alley upon carpenterDs wor#" about twel e foot in height" by which you %ay go in sha!e into the gar!en& Es for the %a#ing of #nots or figures" with !i ers colore! earths" that they %ay lie un!er the win!ows of the house on that si!e which the gar@ !en stan!s" they be but toysR you %ay see as goo! sights" %any ti%es" in tarts& The gar!en is best to be s>uare" enco%passe! on all the four si!es with a stately arche! he!ge& The arches to be upon pil@ lars of carpenterDs wor#" of so%e ten foot high" an! six foot broa!R an! the spaces between of the sa%e !i%ension with the brea!th of the arch& : er the arches let there be an entire he!ge of so%e four foot high" fra%e! also upon carpenterDs wor#R an! upon the upper he!ge" o er e ery arch" a little tur@

ret" with a belly" enough to recei e a cage of bir!s? an! o er e ery space between the arches so%e other little figure" with broa! plates of roun! col@ ore! glass gilt" for the sun to play upon& But this he!ge / inten! to be raise! upon a ban#" not steep" but gently slope" of so%e six foot" set all with flowers& Elso / un!erstan!" that this s>uare of the gar!en" shoul! not be the whole brea!th of the groun!" but to lea e on either si!e" groun! enough for !i ersity of si!e alleysR unto which the two co ert alleys of the green" %ay !eli er you& But there %ust be no alleys with he!ges" at either en! of this great enclosureR not at the hither en!" for letting your prospect upon this fair he!ge fro% the greenR nor at the further en!" for letting your prospect fro% the he!ge" through the arches upon the heath& For the or!ering of the groun!" within the great he!ge" / lea e it to ariety of !e iceR a! ising ne ertheless" that whatsoe er for% you cast it into" first" it be not too busy" or full of wor#& 'herein /" for %y part" !o not li#e i%ages cut out in juniper or other gar!en stuffR they be for chil!ren& =ittle low he!ges" roun!" li#e welts" with so%e pretty pyra%i!s" / li#e wellR an! in so%e places" fair colu%ns upon fra%es of carpenterDs wor#& / woul! also ha e the alleys" spacious an! fair& Qou %ay ha e closer alleys" upon the si!e groun!s" but none in the %ain gar!en& / wish also" in the ery %i!!le" a fair %ount" with three ascents" an! alleys" enough for four to wal# abreastR which / woul! ha e to be perfect circles" without any bulwar#s or e%boss%entsR an! the whole %ount to be thirty foot highR an! so%e fine ban>ueting@house" with so%e chi%neys neatly cast" an! without too %uch glass& For fountains" they are a great beauty an! re@ fresh%entR but pools %ar all" an! %a#e the gar!en unwholeso%e" an! full of flies an! frogs& Foun@ tains / inten! to be of two natures? the one that sprin#leth or spouteth waterR the other a fair re@ ceipt of water" of so%e thirty or forty foot s>uare" but without fish" or sli%e" or %u!& For the first" the orna%ents of i%ages gilt" or of %arble" which are in use" !o well? but the %ain %atter is so to con ey the water" as it ne er stay" either in the bowls or in the cisternR that the water be ne er by rest !iscolore!" green or re! or the li#eR or gather any %ossiness or putrefaction& Besi!es that" it is to be cleanse! e ery !ay by the han!& Elso so%e steps up to it" an! so%e fine pa e%ent about it" !oth well& Es for the other #in! of fountain" which we %ay call a bathing pool" it %ay a!%it %uch curiosity an! beautyR wherewith we will not trouble oursel es? as" that the botto% be finely pa e!" an! with i%agesR the si!es li#ewiseR an!

withal e%bellishe! with colore! glass" an! such things of lustreR enco%passe! also with fine rails of low statuas& But the %ain point is the sa%e which we %entione! in the for%er #in! of foun@ tainR which is" that the water be in perpetual %otion" fe! by a water higher than the pool" an! !eli ere! into it by fair spouts" an! then !is@ charge! away un!er groun!" by so%e e>uality of bores" that it stay little& En! for fine !e ices" of arching water without spilling" an! %a#ing it rise in se eral for%s Fof feathers" !rin#ing glasses" canopies" an! the li#eG" they be pretty things to loo# on" but nothing to health an! sweetness& For the heath" which was the thir! part of our plot" / wish it to be fra%e!" as %uch as %ay be" to a natural wil!ness& Trees / woul! ha e none in it" but so%e thic#ets %a!e only of sweet@briar an! honeysuc#le" an! so%e wil! ine a%ongstR an! the groun! set with iolets" strawberries" an! pri%roses& For these are sweet" an! prosper in the sha!e& En! these to be in the heath" here an! there" not in any or!er& / li#e also little heaps" in the na@ ture of %ole@hills Fsuch as are in wil! heathsG" to be set" so%e with wil! thy%eR so%e with pin#sR so%e with ger%an!er" that gi es a goo! flower to the eyeR so%e with periwin#leR so%e with ioletsR so%e with strawberriesR so%e with cowslipsR so%e with !aisiesR so%e with re! rosesR so%e with liliu% con alliu%R so%e with sweet@willia%s re!R so%e with bearDs@foot? an! the li#e low flowers" being withal sweet an! sightly& Part of which heaps" are to be with stan!ar!s of little bushes pric#e! upon their top" an! part without& The stan!ar!s to be rosesR juniperR hollyR berberries Fbut here an! there" because of the s%ell of their blosso%sGR re! currantsR gooseberriesR rose%aryR baysR sweet@ briarR an! such li#e& But these stan!ar!s to be #ept with cutting" that they grow not out of course& For the si!e groun!s" you are to fill the% with ariety of alleys" pri ate" to gi e a full sha!e" so%e of the%" wheresoe er the sun be& Qou are to fra%e so%e of the%" li#ewise" for shelter" that when the win! blows sharp you %ay wal# as in a gallery& En! those alleys %ust be li#ewise he!ge! at both en!s" to #eep out the win!R an! these closer alleys %ust be e er finely gra elle!" an! no grass" be@ cause of going wet& /n %any of these alleys" li#e@ wise" you are to set fruit@trees of all sortsR as well upon the walls" as in ranges& En! this woul! be generally obser e!" that the bor!ers wherein you plant your fruit@trees" be fair an! large" an! low" an! not steepR an! set with fine flowers" but thin an! sparingly" lest they !ecei e the trees& Et the en! of both the si!e groun!s" / woul! ha e a %ount of so%e pretty height" lea ing the wall of the en@ closure breast high" to loo# abroa! into the fiel!s&

For the %ain gar!en" / !o not !eny" but there shoul! be so%e fair alleys range! on both si!es" with fruit@treesR an! so%e pretty tufts of fruit@ trees" an! arbors with seats" set in so%e !ecent or!erR but these to be by no %eans set too thic#R but to lea e the %ain gar!en so as it be not close" but the air open an! free& For as for sha!e" / woul! ha e you rest upon the alleys of the si!e groun!s" there to wal#" if you be !ispose!" in the heat of the year or !ayR but to %a#e account" that the %ain gar!en is for the %ore te%perate parts of the yearR an! in the heat of su%%er" for the %orning an! the e ening" or o ercast !ays& For a iaries" / li#e the% not" except they be of that largeness as they %ay be turfe!" an! ha e li ing plants an! bushes set in the%R that the bir!s %ay ha e %ore scope" an! natural nesting" an! that no foulness appear in the floor of the a iary& ,o / ha e %a!e a platfor% of a princely gar!en" partly by precept" partly by !rawing" not a %o!el" but so%e general lines of itR an! in this / ha e spare! for no cost& But it is nothing for great princes" that for the %ost part ta#ing a! ice with wor#%en" with no less cost set their things to@ getherR an! so%eti%es a!! statuas an! such things for state an! %agnificence" but nothing to the true pleasure of a gar!en&

:f ;egotiating

/T /, generally better to !eal by speech than by letterR an! by the %e!iation of a thir! than by a %anDs self& =etters are goo!" when a %an woul! !raw an answer by letter bac# againR or when it %ay ser e for a %anDs justification afterwar!s to pro!uce his own letterR or where it %ay be !anger to be interrupte!" or hear! by pieces& To !eal in person is goo!" when a %anDs face bree!eth regar!" as co%%only with inferiorsR or in ten!er cases" where a %anDs eye" upon the countenance of hi% with who% he spea#eth" %ay gi e hi% a !irection how far to goR an! generally" where a %an will reser e to hi%self liberty" either to !isa ow or to expoun!& /n choice of instru%ents" it is better to choose %en of a plainer sort" that are li#e to !o that" that is co%%itte! to the%" an! to report bac# again faithfully the success" than those that are cunning" to contri e" out of other %enDs business" so%ewhat to grace the%sel es" an! will help the %atter in report for satisfactionDs sa#e& <se also such persons as affect the business" wherein they

are e%ploye!R for that >uic#eneth %uchR an! such" as are fit for the %atterR as bol! %en for ex@ postulation" fair@spo#en %en for persuasion" crafty %en for in>uiry an! obser ation" frowar!" an! absur! %en" for business that !oth not well bear out itself& <se also such as ha e been luc#y" an! pre aile! before" in things wherein you ha e e%@ ploye! the%R for that bree!s confi!ence" an! they will stri e to %aintain their prescription& /t is bet@ ter to soun! a person" with who% one !eals afar off" than to fall upon the point at firstR except you %ean to surprise hi% by so%e short >uestion& /t is better !ealing with %en in appetite" than with those that are where they woul! be& /f a %an !eal with another upon con!itions" the start or first per@ for%ance is allR which a %an cannot reasonably !e%an!" except either the nature of the thing be such" which %ust go beforeR or else a %an can persua!e the other party" that he shall still nee! hi% in so%e other thingR or else that he be counte! the honester %an& Ell practice is to !isco er" or to wor#& 5en !isco er the%sel es in trust" in passion" at unawares" an! of necessity" when they woul! ha e so%ewhat !one" an! cannot fin! an apt pre@ text& /f you woul! wor# any %an" you %ust either #now his nature an! fashions" an! so lea! hi%R or his en!s" an! so persua!e hi%R or his wea#ness an! !isa! antages" an! so awe hi%R or those that ha e interest in hi%" an! so go ern hi%& /n !ealing with cunning persons"we %ust e er consi!er their en!s" to interpret their speechesR an! it is goo! to say little to the%" an! that which they least loo# for& /n all negotiations of !ifficulty" a %an %ay not loo# to sow an! reap at onceR but %ust prepare business" an! so ripen it by !egrees&

7f Followers E;( F*/E;(,

C:,T=Q followers are not to be li#e!R lest while a %an %a#eth his train longer" he %a#e his wings shorter& / rec#on to be costly" not the% alone which charge the purse" but which are weariso%e" an! i%portune in suits& :r!inary fol@ lowers ought to challenge no higher con!itions" than countenance" reco%%en!ation" an! protec@ tion fro% wrongs& Factious followers are worse to be li#e!" which follow not upon affection to hi%" with who% they range the%sel es" but upon

!iscontent%ent concei e! against so%e otherR whereupon co%%only ensueth that ill intelli@ gence" that we %any ti%es see between great per@ sonages& =i#ewise glorious followers" who %a#e the%sel es as tru%pets of the co%%en!ation of those they follow" are full of incon enienceR for they taint business through want of secrecyR an! they export honor fro% a %an" an! %a#e hi% a return in en y& There is a #in! of followers li#e@ wise" which are !angerous" being in!ee! espialsR which in>uire the secrets of the house" an! bear tales of the%" to others& Qet such %en" %any ti%es" are in great fa orR for they are officious" an! co%@ %only exchange tales& The following by certain estates of %en" answerable to that" which a great person hi%self professeth Fas of sol!iers" to hi% that hath been e%ploye! in the wars" an! the li#eG" hath e er been a thing ci il" an! well ta#en" e en in %onarchiesR so it be without too %uch po%p or popularity& But the %ost honorable #in! of fol@ lowing" is to be followe! as one" that apprehen!eth to a! ance irtue" an! !esert" in all sorts of per@ sons& En! yet" where there is no e%inent o!!s in sufficiency" it is better to ta#e with the %ore pass@ able" than with the %ore able& En! besi!es" to spea# truth" in base ti%es" acti e %en are of %ore use than irtuous& /t is true that in go ern%ent" it is goo! to use %en of one ran# e>ually? for to coun@ tenance so%e extraor!inarily" is to %a#e the% insolent" an! the rest !iscontentR because they %ay clai% a !ue& But contrariwise" in fa or" to use %en with %uch !ifference an! election is goo!R for it %a#eth the persons preferre! %ore than#ful" an! the rest %ore officious? because all is of fa or& /t is goo! !iscretion" not to %a#e too %uch of any %an at the firstR because one cannot hol! out that proportion& To be go erne! Fas we call itG by one is not safeR for it shows softness" an! gi es a free!o%" to scan!al an! !isreputationR for those" that woul! not censure or spea# ill of a %an i%%e@ !iately" will tal# %ore bol!ly of those that are so great with the%" an! thereby woun! their honor& Qet to be !istracte! with %any is worseR for it %a#es %en to be of the last i%pression" an! full of change& To ta#e a! ice of so%e few frien!s" is e er honorableR for loo#ers@on %any ti%es see %ore than ga%estersR an! the ale best !isco ereth the hill& There is little frien!ship in the worl!" an! least of all between e>uals" which was wont to be %ag@ nifie!& That that is" is between superior an! in@ ferior" whose fortunes %ay co%prehen! the one the other&

:f ,uitors

5E;Q ill %atters an! projects are un!er@ ta#enR an! pri ate suits !o putrefy the pub@ lic goo!& 5any goo! %atters" are un!erta#en with ba! %in!sR / %ean not only corrupt %in!s" but crafty %in!s" that inten! not perfor%ance& ,o%e e%brace suits" which ne er %ean to !eal effectu@ ally in the%R but if they see there %ay be life in the %atter" by so%e other %ean" they will be con@ tent to win a than#" or ta#e a secon! rewar!" or at least to %a#e use" in the %eanti%e" of the suitorDs hopes& ,o%e ta#e hol! of suits" only for an occa@ sion to cross so%e otherR or to %a#e an infor%a@ tion" whereof they coul! not otherwise ha e apt pretextR without care what beco%e of the suit" when that turn is ser e!R or" generally" to %a#e other %enDs business a #in! of entertain%ent" to bring in their own& ;ay" so%e un!erta#e suits" with a full purpose to let the% fallR to the en! to gratify the a! erse party" or co%petitor& ,urely there is in so%e sort a right in e ery suitR either a right of e>uity" if it be a suit of contro ersyR or a right of !esert" if it be a suit of petition& /f affection lea! a %an to fa or the wrong si!e in justice" let hi% rather use his countenance to co%poun! the %atter" than to carry it& /f affection lea! a %an to fa or the less worthy in !esert" let hi% !o it" without !epra ing or !isabling the better !eser er& /n suits which a %an !oth not well un!erstan!" it is goo! to refer the% to so%e frien! of trust an! ju!g%ent" that %ay report" whether he %ay !eal in the% with honor? but let hi% choose well his referen!aries" for else he %ay be le! by the nose& ,uitors are so !istaste! with !elays an! abuses" that plain !ealing" in !enying to !eal in suits at first" an! reporting the success barely" an! in chal@ lenging no %ore than#s than one hath !eser e!" is grown not only honorable" but also gracious& /n suits of fa or" the first co%ing ought to ta#e little place? so far forth" consi!eration %ay be ha! of his trust" that if intelligence of the %atter coul! not otherwise ha e been ha!" but by hi%" a! an@ tage be not ta#en of the note" but the party left to his other %eansR an! in so%e sort reco%pense!" for his !isco ery& To be ignorant of the alue of a suit" is si%plicityR as well as to be ignorant of the right thereof" is want of conscience& ,ecrecy in suits" is a great %ean of obtainingR for oicing the% to be in forwar!ness" %ay !iscourage so%e #in! of suitors" but !oth >uic#en an! awa#e others& But ti%ing of the suit is the principal& Ti%ing" / say" not only in respect of the person that shoul! grant it" but in respect of those" which are li#e to cross it& =et a %an" in the choice of his %ean" rather choose the fittest %ean" than the greatest %eanR an! rather the% that !eal in certain things" than those that are general& The reparation of a !enial"

is so%eti%es e>ual to the first grantR if a %an show hi%self neither !ejecte! nor !iscontente!& /ni>uu% petas ut ae>uu% feras is a goo! rule" where a %an hath strength of fa or? but other@ wise" a %an were better rise in his suitR for he" that woul! ha e enture! at first to ha e lost the suitor" will not in the conclusion lose both the suitor" an! his own for%er fa or& ;othing is thought so easy a re>uest to a great person" as his letterR an! yet" if it be not in a goo! cause" it is so %uch out of his reputation& There are no worse instru%ents" than these general contri ers of suitsR for they are but a #in! of poison" an! infection" to public procee!ings&

:f ,tu!ies

,T<(/E, ser e for !elight" for orna%ent" an! for ability& Their chief use for !elight" is in pri ateness an! retiringR for orna%ent" is in !is@ courseR an! for ability" is in the ju!g%ent" an! !isposition of business& For expert %en can exe@ cute" an! perhaps ju!ge of particulars" one by oneR but the general counsels" an! the plots an! %ar@ shalling of affairs" co%e best" fro% those that are learne!& To spen! too %uch ti%e in stu!ies is slothR to use the% too %uch for orna%ent" is affectationR to %a#e ju!g%ent wholly by their rules" is the hu%or of a scholar& They perfect nature" an! are perfecte! by experience? for natural abilities are li#e natural plants" that nee! proyning" by stu!yR an! stu!ies the%sel es" !o gi e forth !irections too %uch at large" except they be boun!e! in by ex@ perience& Crafty %en conte%n stu!ies" si%ple %en a!%ire the%" an! wise %en use the%R for they teach not their own useR but that is a wis!o% with@ out the%" an! abo e the%" won by obser ation& *ea! not to contra!ict an! confuteR nor to belie e an! ta#e for grante!R nor to fin! tal# an! !is@ courseR but to weigh an! consi!er& ,o%e boo#s are to be taste!" others to be swallowe!" an! so%e few to be chewe! an! !igeste!R that is" so%e boo#s are to be rea! only in partsR others to be rea!" but not curiouslyR an! so%e few to be rea! wholly" an! with !iligence an! attention& ,o%e boo#s also %ay be rea! by !eputy" an! extracts %a!e of the% by othersR but that woul! be only in the less i%por@ tant argu%ents" an! the %eaner sort of boo#s" else !istille! boo#s are li#e co%%on !istille! waters" flashy things& *ea!ing %a#eth a full %anR confer@ ence a rea!y %anR an! writing an exact %an& En! therefore" if a %an write little" he ha! nee! ha e a great %e%oryR if he confer little" he ha! nee!

ha e a present wit? an! if he rea! little" he ha! nee! ha e %uch cunning" to see% to #now" that he !oth not& +istories %a#e %en wiseR poets wittyR the %athe%atics subtileR natural philosophy !eepR %oral gra eR logic an! rhetoric able to conten!& Ebeunt stu!ia in %ores& ;ay" there is no ston! or i%pe!i%ent in the wit" but %ay be wrought out by fit stu!iesR li#e as !iseases of the bo!y" %ay ha e appropriate exercises& Bowling is goo! for the stone an! reinsR shooting for the lungs an! breastR gentle wal#ing for the sto%achR ri!ing for the hea!R an! the li#e& ,o if a %anDs wit be wan@ !ering" let hi% stu!y the %athe%aticsR for in !e%onstrations" if his wit be calle! away ne er so little" he %ust begin again& /f his wit be not apt to !istinguish or fin! !ifferences" let hi% stu!y the ,chool%enR for they are cy%ini sectores& /f he be not apt to beat o er %atters" an! to call up one thing to pro e an! illustrate another" let hi% stu!y 1-. the lawyersD cases& ,o e ery !efect of the %in!" %ay ha e a special receipt&

:f Faction 5E;Q ha e an opinion not wise" that for a prince to go ern his estate" or for a great person to go ern his procee!ings" accor!ing to the respect of factions" is a principal part of policyR whereas contrariwise" the chiefest wis!o%" is either in or!ering those things which are general" an! wherein %en of se eral factions !o ne erthe@ less agreeR or in !ealing with correspon!ence to particular persons" one by one& But / say not that the consi!erations of factions" is to be neglecte!& 5ean %en" in their rising" %ust a!hereR but great %en" that ha e strength in the%sel es" were better to %aintain the%sel es in!ifferent" an! neutral& Qet e en in beginners" to a!here so %o!er@ ately" as he be a %an of the one faction" which is %ost passable with the other" co%%only gi eth best way& The lower an! wea#er faction" is the fir%er in conjunctionR an! it is often seen" that a few that are stiff" !o tire out a greater nu%ber" that are %ore %o!erate& 'hen one of the factions is ex@ tinguishe!" the re%aining sub!i i!ethR as the faction between =ucullus" an! the rest of the nobles of the senate Fwhich they calle! :pti%atesG hel! out awhile" against the faction of Po%pey an! CaesarR but when the senateDs authority was pulle! !own" Caesar an! Po%pey soon after bra#e& The faction or party of Entonius an! :cta ianus Caesar" against Brutus an! Cassius" hel! out li#e@ wise for a ti%eR but when Brutus an! Cassius were

o erthrown" then soon after" Entonius an! :cta@ ianus bra#e an! sub!i i!e!& These exa%ples are of wars" but the sa%e hol!eth in pri ate factions& En! therefore" those that are secon!s in factions" !o %any ti%es" when the faction sub!i i!eth" pro e principalsR but %any ti%es also" they pro e ciphers an! cashiere!R for %any a %anDs strength is in oppositionR an! when that faileth" he groweth out of use& /t is co%%only seen" that %en" once place!" ta#e in with the contrary faction" to that by which they enter? thin#ing beli#e" that they ha e the first sure" an! now are rea!y for a new purchase& The traitor in faction" lightly goeth away with itR for when %atters ha e stuc# long in balancing" the winning of so%e one %an casteth the%" an! he getteth all the than#s& The e en car@ riage between two factions" procee!eth not always of %o!eration" but of a trueness to a %anDs self" with en! to %a#e use of both& Certainly in /taly" they hol! it a little suspect in popes" when they ha e often in their %outh Pa!re co%%une? an! ta#e it to be a sign of one" that %eaneth to refer all to the greatness of his own house& Tings ha! nee! beware" how they si!e the%sel es" an! %a#e the%sel es as of a faction or partyR for leagues within the state" are e er pernicious to %onarchies? for they raise an obligation" para%ount to obliga@ tion of so ereignty" an! %a#e the #ing tan>ua% unus ex nobisR as was to be seen in the =eague of France& 'hen factions are carrie! too high an! too iolently" it is a sign of wea#ness in princesR an! %uch to the preju!ice" both of their authority an! business& The %otions of factions un!er #ings ought to be" li#e the %otions Fas the astrono%ers spea#G of the inferior orbs" which %ay ha e their proper %otions" but yet still are >uietly carrie!" by the higher %otion of pri%u% %obile&

:f Cere%onies" E;( *E,PECT,

+E T+ET is only real" ha! nee! ha e excee!@ ing great parts of irtueR as the stone ha! nee! to be rich" that is set without foil& But if a %an %ar# it well" it is" in praise an! co%%en!a@ tion of %en" as it is in gettings an! gains? for the pro erb is true" That light gains %a#e hea y pursesR for light gains co%e thic#" whereas great" co%e but now an! then& ,o it is true" that s%all

%atters win great co%%en!ation" because they are continually in use an! in note? whereas the occasion of any great irtue" co%eth but on festi@ als& Therefore it !oth %uch a!! to a %anDs reputa@ tion" an! is Fas Sueen /sabella sai!G li#e perpetual letters co%%en!atory" to ha e goo! for%s& To at@ tain the%" it al%ost sufficeth not to !espise the%R for so shall a %an obser e the% in othersR an! let hi% trust hi%self with the rest& For if he labor too %uch to express the%" he shall lose their graceR which is to be natural an! unaffecte!& ,o%e %enDs beha ior is li#e a erse" wherein e ery syllable is %easure!R how can a %an co%prehen! great %at@ ters" that brea#eth his %in! too %uch" to s%all obser ationsP ;ot to use cere%onies at all" is to teach others not to use the% againR an! so !i%in@ isheth respect to hi%selfR especially they be not to be o%itte!" to strangers an! for%al naturesR but the !welling upon the%" an! exalting the% abo e the %oon" is not only te!ious" but !oth !i%inish the faith an! cre!it of hi% that spea#s& En! cer@ tainly" there is a #in! of con eying" of effectual an! i%printing passages a%ongst co%pli%ents" which is of singular use" if a %an can hit upon it& E%ongst a %anDs peers" a %an shall be sure of fa%iliarityR an! therefore it is goo!" a little to #eep state& E%ongst a %anDs inferiors one shall be sure of re erenceR an! therefore it is goo!" a little to be fa%iliar& +e that is too %uch in anything" so that he gi eth another occasion of satiety" %a#eth hi%@ self cheap& To apply oneDs self to others" is goo!R so it be with !e%onstration" that a %an !oth it upon regar!" an! not upon facility& /t is a goo! precept generally" in secon!ing another" yet to a!! so%e@ what of oneDs own? as if you will grant his opinion" let it be with so%e !istinctionR if you will follow his %otion" let it be with con!itionR if you allow his counsel" let it be with alleging further reason& 5en ha! nee! beware" how they be too perfect in co%pli%entsR for be they ne er so sufficient other@ wise" their en iers will be sure to gi e the% that attribute" to the !isa! antage of their greater ir@ tues& /t is loss also in business" to be too full of re@ spects" or to be curious" in obser ing ti%es an! opportunities& ,olo%on saith" +e that consi!ereth the win!" shall not sow" an! he that loo#eth to the clou!s" shall not reap& E wise %an will %a#e %ore opportunities" than he fin!s& 5enDs beha ior shoul! be" li#e their apparel" not too strait or point !e ice" but free for exercise or %otion&

:f Praise

P*E/,E is the reflection of irtueR but it is as the glass or bo!y" which gi eth the reflec@ tion& /f it be fro% the co%%on people" it is co%@ %only false an! naughtR an! rather followeth ain persons" than irtuous& For the co%%on people un!erstan! not %any excellent irtues& The lowest irtues !raw praise fro% the%R the %i!!le irtues wor# in the% astonish%ent or a!%irationR but of the highest irtues" they ha e no sense of percei @ ing at all& But shows" an! species irtutibus si%iles" ser e best with the%& Certainly fa%e is li#e a ri er" that beareth up things light an! swoln" an! !rowns things weighty an! soli!& But if persons of >uality an! ju!g%ent concur" then it is Fas the ,cripture saithG no%en bonu% instar unguenti fragrantis& /t fireth all roun! about" an! will not easily away& For the o!ors of oint%ents are %ore !urable" than those of flowers& There be so %any false points of praise" that a %an %ay justly hol! it a suspect& ,o%e praises procee! %erely of flatteryR an! if he be an or!inary flatterer" he will ha e certain co%@ %on attributes" which %ay ser e e ery %anR if he be a cunning flatterer" he will follow the arch@ flatterer" which is a %anDs selfR an! wherein a %an thin#eth best of hi%self" therein the flatterer will uphol! hi% %ost? but if he be an i%pu!ent flat@ terer" loo# wherein a %an is conscious to hi%self" that he is %ost !efecti e" an! is %ost out of counte@ nance in hi%self" that will the flatterer entitle hi% to perforce" spreta conscientia& ,o%e praises co%e of goo! wishes an! respects" which is a for% !ue" in ci ility" to #ings an! great persons" lau!an!o praecipere" when by telling %en what they are" they represent to the%" what they shoul! be& ,o%e %en are praise! %aliciously" to their hurt" thereby to stir en y an! jealousy towar!s the%? pessi%u% genus ini%icoru% lau!antiu%R inso%uch as it was a pro erb" a%ongst the Grecians" that he that was praise! to his hurt" shoul! ha e a push rise upon his noseR as we say" that a blister will rise upon oneDs tongue" that tells a lie& Certainly %o!@ erate praise" use! with opportunity" an! not ul@ gar" is that which !oth the goo!& ,olo%on saith" +e that praiseth his frien! alou!" rising early" it shall be to hi% no better than a curse& Too %uch %agnifying of %an or %atter" !oth irritate con@ tra!iction" an! procure en y an! scorn& To praise a %anDs self" cannot be !ecent" except it be in rare casesR but to praise a %anDs office or profession" he %ay !o it with goo! grace" an! with a #in! of %ag@ nani%ity& The car!inals of *o%e" which are theo@ logues" an! friars" an! ,chool%en" ha e a phrase of notable conte%pt an! scorn towar!s ci il busi@ ness? for they call all te%poral business of wars" e%bassages" ju!icature" an! other e%ploy%ents" sbirrerie" which is un!er@sheriffriesR as if they were but %atters" for un!er@sheriffs an! catch@

poles? though %any ti%es those un!er@sheriffries !o %ore goo!" than their high speculations& ,t& Paul" when he boasts of hi%self" he !oth oft inter@ lace" / spea# li#e a foolR but spea#ing of his calling" he saith" %agnificabo apostolatu% %eu%&

:f )ain@glory

/T 'E, prettily !e ise! of EEsop" The fly sat upon the axle@tree of the chariot wheel" an! sai!" 'hat a !ust !o / raise$ ,o are there so%e ain persons" that whatsoe er goeth alone" or %o eth upon greater %eans" if they ha e ne er so little han! in it" they thin# it is they that carry it& They that are glorious" %ust nee!s be factiousR for all bra ery stan!s upon co%parisons& They %ust nee!s be iolent" to %a#e goo! their own aunts& ;either can they be secret" an! therefore not ef@ fectualR but accor!ing to the French pro erb" Beaucoup !e bruit" peu !e fruitR 5uch bruit little fruit& Qet certainly" there is use of this >uality in ci il affairs& 'here there is an opinion an! fa%e to be create!" either of irtue or greatness" these %en are goo! tru%peters& Egain" as Titus =i ius noteth" in the case of Entiochus an! the EEtolians" There are so%eti%es great effects" of cross liesR as if a %an" that negotiates between two princes" to !raw the% to join in a war against the thir!" !oth extol the forces of either of the%" abo e %easure" the one to the other? an! so%eti%es he that !eals be@ tween %an an! %an" raiseth his own cre!it with both" by preten!ing greater interest than he hath in either& En! in these an! the li#e #in!s" it often falls out" that so%ewhat is pro!uce! of nothingR for lies are sufficient to bree! opinion" an! opinion brings on substance& /n %ilitar co%%an!ers an! sol!iers" ain@glory is an essential pointR for as iron sharpens iron" so by glory" one courage sharp@ eneth another& /n cases of great enterprise upon charge an! a! enture" a co%position of glorious natures" !oth put life into businessR an! those that are of soli! an! sober natures" ha e %ore of the ballast" than of the sail& /n fa%e of learning" the flight will be slow without so%e feathers of osten@ tation& Sui !e conte%nen!a gloria libros scri@ bunt" no%en" suu% inscribunt& ,ocrates" Eristotle" Galen" were %en full of ostentation& Certainly ain@glory helpeth to perpetuate a %anDs %e%oryR an! irtue was ne er so behol!ing to hu%an na@ ture" as it recei e! his !ue at the secon! han!& ;either ha! the fa%e of Cicero" ,eneca" Plinius ,ecun!us" borne her age so well" if it ha! not been joine! with so%e anity in the%sel esR li#e unto

arnish" that %a#es ceilings not only shine but last& But all this while" when / spea# of ain@glory" / %ean not of that property" that Tacitus !oth at@ tribute to 5ucianusR :%niu% >uae !ixerat fece@ rat>ue arte >ua!a% ostentator? for that procee!s not of anity" but of natural %agnani%ity an! !iscretionR an! in so%e persons" is not only co%ely" but gracious& For excusations" cessions" %o!esty itself well go erne!" are but arts of ostentation& En! a%ongst those arts" there is none better than that which Plinius ,ecun!us spea#eth of" which is to be liberal of praise an! co%%en!ation to others" in that" wherein a %anDs self hath any perfection& For saith Pliny" ery wittily" /n co%%en!ing another" you !o yourself rightR for he that you co%%en!" is either superior to you in that you co%%en!" or inferior& /f he be inferior" if he be to be co%%en!e!" you %uch %oreR if he be superior" if he be not to be co%%en!e!" you %uch less& Glorious %en are the scorn of wise %en" the a!@ %iration of fools" the i!ols of parasites" an! the sla es of their own aunts&

:f +onor E;( *EP<TET/:;

T+E winning of honor" is but the re ealing of a %an"s irtue an! worth" without !isa! an@ tage& For so%e in their actions" !o woo an! effect honor an! reputation" which sort of %en" are co%%only %uch tal#e! of" but inwar!ly little a!%ire!& En! so%e" contrariwise" !ar#en their irtue in the show of itR so as they be un!er alue! in opinion& /f a %an perfor% that" which hath not been atte%pte! beforeR or atte%pte! an! gi en o erR or hath been achie e!" but not with so goo! circu%stanceR he shall purchase %ore honor" than by effecting a %atter of greater !ifficulty or irtue" wherein he is but a follower& /f a %an so te%per his actions" as in so%e one of the% he !oth content e ery faction" or co%bination of people" the %usic will be the fuller& E %an is an ill husban! of bis honor" that entereth into any action" the failing wherein %ay !isgrace hi%" %ore than the carry@ ing of it through" can honor hi%& +onor that is gaine! an! bro#en upon another" hath the >uic#@ est reflection" li#e !ia%on!s cut with facets& En! therefore" let a %an conten! to excel any co%peti@ tors of his in honor" in outshooting the%" if he can" in their own bow& (iscreet followers an! ser ants" help %uch to reputation& :%nis fa%a a !o%esticis

e%anat& En y" which is the can#er of honor" is best extinguishe! by !eclaring a %anDs self in his en!s" rather to see# %erit than fa%eR an! by attributing a %anDs successes" rather to !i ine Pro i!ence an! felicity" than to his own irtue or policy& The true %arshalling of the !egrees of so ereign honor" are these? /n the first place are con!itores i%perioru%" foun!ers of states an! co%%on@ wealthsR such as were *o%ulus" Cyrus" Caesar" :tto%an" /s%ael& /n the secon! place are legis@ latores" lawgi ersR which are also calle! secon! foun!ers" or perpetui principes" because they go @ ern by their or!inances after they are goneR such were =ycurgus" ,olon" 0ustinian" Ea!gar" Elphon@ sus of Castile" the 'ise" that %a!e the ,iete Parti@ !as& /n the thir! place are liberatores" or sal atores" such as co%poun! the long %iseries of ci il wars" or !eli er their countries fro% ser itu!e of strangers or tyrantsR as Eugustus Caesar" )espasi@ anus" Eurelianus" Theo!oricus" Ting +enry the ,e enth of Englan!" Ting +enry the Fourth of France& /n the fourth place are propagatores or propugnatores i%periiR such as in honorable wars enlarge their territories" or %a#e noble !efence against in a!ers& En! in the last place are patres patriaeR which reign justly" an! %a#e the ti%es goo! wherein they li e& Both which last #in!s nee! no exa%ples" they are in such nu%ber& (egrees of honor" in subjects" are" first participes curaru%" those upon who%" princes !o !ischarge the great@ est weight of their affairsR their right han!s" as we call the%& The next are !uces belli" great lea!ers in warR such as are princesD lieutenants" an! !o the% notable ser ices in the wars& The thir! are gratiosi" fa oritesR such as excee! not this scant@ ling" to be solace to the so ereign" an! har%less to the people& En! the fourth" negotiis paresR such as ha e great places un!er princes" an! execute their places" with sufficiency& There is an honor" li#e@ wise" which %ay be ran#e! a%ongst the greatest" which happeneth rarelyR that is" of such as sacri@ fice the%sel es to !eath or !anger for the goo! of their countryR as was 5& *egulus" an! the two (ecii&

:f 0u!icature 0<(GE, ought to re%e%ber" that their office is jus !icere" an! not jus !areR to interpret law" an! not to %a#e law" or gi e law& Else will it be li#e the authority" clai%e! by the Church of *o%e" which un!er pretext of exposition of ,cripture" !oth not stic# to a!! an! alterR an! to pronounce

that which they !o not fin!R an! by show of an@ ti>uity" to intro!uce no elty& 0u!ges ought to be %ore learne!" than witty" %ore re eren!" than plausible"an! %ore a! ise!" than confi!ent& Ebo e all things" integrity is their portion an! proper irtue& Curse! Fsaith the lawG is he that re%o eth the lan!%ar#& The %islayer of a %ere@stone is to bla%e& But it is the unjust ju!ge" that is the capital re%o er of lan!%ar#s" when he !efineth a%iss" of lan!s an! property& :ne foul sentence !oth %ore hurt" than %any foul exa%ples& For these !o but corrupt the strea%" the other corrupteth the foun@ tain& ,o with ,olo%on" Fons turbatus" et ena corrupta" est justus ca!ens in causa sua cora% a! ersario& The office of ju!ges %ay ha e reference unto the parties that use" unto the a! ocates that plea!" unto the cler#s an! %inisters of justice un!erneath the%" an! to the so ereign or state abo e the%& First" for the causes or parties that sue& There be Fsaith the ,criptureG that turn ju!g%ent" into wor%woo!R an! surely there be also" that turn it into inegarR for injustice %a#eth it bitter" an! !elays %a#e it sour& The principal !uty of a ju!ge" is to suppress force an! frau!R whereof force is the %ore pernicious" when it is open" an! frau!" when it is close an! !isguise!& E!! thereto contentious suits" which ought to be spewe! out" as the surfeit of courts& E ju!ge ought to prepare his way to a just sentence" as Go! useth to prepare his way" by raising alleys an! ta#ing !own hills? so when there appeareth on either si!e an high han!" io@ lent prosecution" cunning a! antages ta#en" co%@ bination" power" great counsel" then is the irtue of a ju!ge seen" to %a#e ine>uality e>ualR that he %ay plant his ju!g%ent as upon an e en groun!& Sui fortiter e%ungit" elicit sanguine%R an! where the wine@press is har! wrought" it yiel!s a harsh wine" that tastes of the grape@stone& 0u!ges %ust beware of har! constructions" an! straine! infer@ encesR for there is no worse torture" than the tor@ ture of laws& ,pecially in case of laws penal" they ought to ha e care" that that which was %eant for terror" be not turne! into rigorR an! that they bring not upon the people" that shower whereof the ,cripture spea#eth" Pluet super eos la>ueosR for penal laws presse!" are a shower of snares upon the people& Therefore let penal laws" if they ha e been sleepers of long" or if they be grown unfit for the present ti%e" be by wise ju!ges confine! in the execution? 0u!icis officiu% est" ut res" ita te%pora reru%" etc& /n causes of life an! !eath" ju!ges ought Fas far as the law per%ittethG in justice to re%e%@ ber %ercyR an! to cast a se ere eye upon the exa%ple" but a %erciful eye upon the person& ,econ!ly" for the a! ocates an! counsel that

plea!& Patience an! gra ity of hearing" is an essen@ tial part of justiceR an! an o erspea#ing ju!ge is no well@tune! cy%bal& /t is no grace to a ju!ge" first to fin! that" which he %ight ha e hear! in !ue ti%e fro% the barR or to show >uic#ness of conceit" in cutting off e i!ence or counsel too shortR or to pre ent infor%ation by >uestions" though perti@ nent& The parts of a ju!ge in hearing" are four? to !irect the e i!enceR to %o!erate length" repetition" or i%pertinency of speechR to recapitulate" select" an! collate the %aterial points" of that which hath been sai!R an! to gi e the rule or sentence& 'hat@ soe er is abo e these is too %uchR an! procee!eth either of glory" an! willingness to spea#" or of i%@ patience to hear" or of shortness of %e%ory" or of want of a stai! an! e>ual attention& /t is a strange thing to see" that the bol!ness of a! ocates shoul! pre ail with ju!gesR whereas they shoul! i%itate Go!" in whose seat they sitR who represseth the pre@ su%ptuous" an! gi eth grace to the %o!est& But it is %ore strange" that ju!ges shoul! ha e note! fa oritesR which cannot but cause %ultiplication of fees" an! suspicion of by@ways& There is !ue fro% the ju!ge to the a! ocate" so%e co%%en!ation an! gracing" where causes are well han!le! an! fair plea!e!R especially towar!s the si!e which obtaineth notR for that uphol!s in the client" the reputation of his counsel" an! beats !own in hi% the conceit of his cause& There is li#ewise !ue to the public" a ci il reprehension of a! ocates" where there appeareth cunning counsel" gross neglect" slight infor%ation" in!iscreet pressing" or an o er@ bol! !efence& En! let not the counsel at the bar" chop with the ju!ge" nor win! hi%self into the han!ling of the cause anew" after the ju!ge hath !eclare! his sentenceR but" on the other si!e" let not the ju!ge %eet the cause half way" nor gi e occasion to the party" to say his counsel or proofs were not hear!& Thir!ly" for that that concerns cler#s an! %inis@ ters& The place of justice is an hallowe! placeR an! therefore not only the bench" but the foot@placeR an! precincts an! purprise thereof" ought to be preser e! without scan!al an! corruption& For certainly grapes Fas the ,cripture saithG will not be gathere! of thorns or thistlesR either can justice yiel! her fruit with sweetness" a%ongst the briars an! bra%bles of catching an! polling cler#s" an! %inisters& The atten!ance of courts" is subject to four ba! instru%ents& First" certain persons that are sowers of suitsR which %a#e the court swell" an! the country pine& The secon! sort is of those" that engage courts in >uarrels of juris!iction" an! are not truly a%ici curiae" but parasiti curiae" in puffing a court up beyon! her boun!s" for their own scraps an! a! antage& The thir! sort" is of those that %ay be accounte! the left han!s of

courtsR persons that are full of ni%ble an! sinister tric#s an! shifts" whereby they per ert the plain an! !irect courses of courts" an! bring justice into obli>ue lines an! labyrinths& En! the fourth" is the poller an! exacter of feesR which justifies the co%@ %on rese%blance of the courts of justice" to the bush whereunto" while the sheep flies for !efence in weather" he is sure to lose part of his fleece& :n the other si!e" an ancient cler#" s#ilful in prece@ !ents" wary in procee!ing" an! un!erstan!ing in the business of the court" is an excellent finger of a courtR an! !oth %any ti%es point the way to the ju!ge hi%self& Fourthly" for that which %ay concern the so @ ereign an! estate& 0u!ges ought abo e all to re@ %e%ber the conclusion of the *o%an Twel e TablesR ,alus populi supre%a lexR an! to #now that laws" except they be in or!er to that en!" are but things captious" an! oracles not well inspire!& Therefore it is an happy thing in a state" when #ings an! states !o often consult with ju!gesR an! again" when ju!ges !o often consult with the #ing an! state? the one" when there is %atter of law" inter enient in business of stateR the other" when there is so%e consi!eration of state" inter enient in %atter of law& For %any ti%es the things !e@ !uce! to ju!g%ent %ay be %eu% an! tuu%" when the reason an! conse>uence thereof %ay trench to point of estate? / call %atter of estate" not only the parts of so ereignty" but whatsoe er intro!uceth any great alteration" or !angerous prece!entR or concerneth %anifestly any great portion of peo@ ple& En! let no %an wea#ly concei e" that just laws an! true policy ha e any antipathyR for they are li#e the spirits an! sinews" that one %o es with the other& =et ju!ges also re%e%ber" that ,olo@ %onDs throne was supporte! by lions on both si!es? let the% be lions" but yet lions un!er the throneR being circu%spect that they !o not chec# or oppose any points of so ereignty& =et not ju!ges also be ignorant of their own right" as to thin# there is not left to the%" as a principal part of their office" a wise use an! application of laws& For they %ay re%e%ber" what the apostle saith of a greater law than theirsR ;os sci%us >uia lex bona est" %o!o >uis ea utatur legiti%e&

:f Enger T: ,EET to extinguish anger utterly" is but a bra ery of the ,toics& 'e ha e better oracles? Be angry" but sin not& =et not the sun go !own

upon your anger& Enger %ust be li%ite! an! con@ fine!" both in race an! in ti%e& 'e will first spea# how the natural inclination an! habit to be angry" %ay be atte%pte! an! cal%e!& ,econ!ly" how the particular %otions of anger %ay be represse!" or at least refraine! fro% !oing %ischief& Thir!ly" how to raise anger" or appease anger in another& For the firstR there is no other way but to %e!i@ tate" an! ru%inate well upon the effects of anger" how it troubles %anDs life& En! the best ti%e to !o this" is to loo# bac# upon anger" when the fit is thoroughly o er& ,eneca saith well" That anger is li#e ruin" which brea#s itself upon that it falls& The ,cripture exhorteth us to possess our souls in patience& 'hosoe er is out of patience" is out of possession of his soul& 5en %ust not turn beesR &&& ani%as>ue in ulnere ponunt&

Enger is certainly a #in! of basenessR as it ap@ pears well in the wea#ness of those subjects in who% it reignsR chil!ren" wo%en" ol! fol#s" sic# fol#s& :nly %en %ust beware" that they carry their anger rather with scorn" than with fearR so that they %ay see% rather to be abo e the injury" than below itR which is a thing easily !one" if a %an will gi e law to hi%self in it& For the secon! pointR the causes an! %oti es of anger" are chiefly three& First" to be too sensible of hurtR for no %an is angry" that feels not hi%self hurtR an! therefore ten!er an! !elicate persons %ust nee!s be oft angryR they ha e so %any things to trouble the%" which %ore robust natures ha e little sense of& The next is" the apprehension an! construction of the injury offere!" to be" in the cir@ cu%stances thereof" full of conte%pt? for conte%pt is that" which putteth an e!ge upon anger" as %uch or %ore than the hurt itself& En! therefore" when %en are ingenious in pic#ing out circu%stances of conte%pt" they !o #in!le their anger %uch& =astly" opinion of the touch of a %anDs reputation" !oth %ultiply an! sharpen anger& 'herein the re%e!y is" that a %an shoul! ha e" as Consal o was wont to say" tela% honoris crassiore%& But in all refrain@ ings of anger" it is the best re%e!y to win ti%eR an! to %a#e a %anDs self belie e" that the oppor@ tunity of his re enge is not yet co%e" but that he foresees a ti%e for itR an! so to still hi%self in the %eanti%e" an! reser e it& To contain anger fro% %ischief" though it ta#e hol! of a %an" there be two things" whereof you %ust ha e special caution& The one" of extre%e bit@

terness of wor!s" especially if they be aculeate an! properR for cu%%unia %ale!icta are nothing so %uchR an! again" that in anger a %an re eal no secretsR for that" %a#es hi% not fit for society& The other" that you !o not pere%ptorily brea# off" in any business" in a fit of angerR but howsoe er you show bitterness" !o not act anything" that is not re ocable& For raising an! appeasing anger in anotherR it is !one chiefly by choosing of ti%es" when %en are frowar!est an! worst !ispose!" to incense the%& Egain" by gathering Fas was touche! beforeG all that you can fin! out" to aggra ate the con@ te%pt& En! the two re%e!ies are by the contraries& The for%er to ta#e goo! ti%es" when first to relate to a %an an angry businessR for the first i%pres@ sion is %uchR an! the other is" to se er" as %uch as %ay be" the construction of the injury fro% the point of conte%ptR i%puting it to %isun!erstan!@ ing" fear" passion" or what you will&

:f )icissitu!e :F T+/;G,

,:=:5:; saith" There is no new thing upon the earth& ,o that as Plato ha! an i%agination" That all #nowle!ge was but re%e%branceR so ,olo%on gi eth his sentence" That all no elty is but obli ion& 'hereby you %ay see" that the ri er of =ethe runneth as well abo e groun! as below& There is an abstruse astrologer that saith" /f it were not for two things that are constant Fthe one is" that the fixe! stars e er stan! a li#e !istance one fro% another" an! ne er co%e nearer together" nor go further asun!erR the other" that the !iurnal %otion perpetually #eepeth ti%eG" no in!i i!ual woul! last one %o%ent& Certain it is" that the %at@ ter is in a perpetual flux" an! ne er at a stay& The great win!ing@sheets" that bury all things in ob@ li ion" are twoR !eluges an! earth>ua#es& Es for conflagrations an! great !roughts" they !o not %erely !ispeople an! !estroy& PhaetonDs car went but a !ay& En! the three yearsD !rought in the ti%e of Elias" was but particular" an! left people ali e& Es for the great burnings by lightnings" which are often in the 'est /n!ies" they are but narrow& But in the other two !estructions" by !eluge an! earth@ >ua#e" it is further to be note!" that the re%nant of people which hap to be reser e!" are co%%only ignorant an! %ountainous people" that can gi e no account of the ti%e pastR so that the obli ion is all one" as if none ha! been left& /f you consi!er

well of the people of the 'est /n!ies" it is ery probable that they are a newer or a younger peo@ ple" than the people of the :l! 'orl!& En! it is %uch %ore li#ely" that the !estruction that hath heretofore been there" was not by earth>ua#es Fas the Egyptian priest tol! ,olon concerning the islan! of Etlantis" that it was swallowe! by an earth>ua#eG" but rather that it was !esolate! by a particular !eluge& For earth>ua#es are sel!o% in those parts& But on the other si!e" they ha e such pouring ri ers" as the ri ers of Esia an! Efric# an! Europe" are but broo#s to the%& Their En!es" li#e@ wise" or %ountains" are far higher than those with usR whereby it see%s" that the re%nants of gen@ eration of %en" were in such a particular !eluge sa e!& Es for the obser ation that 5achia el hath" that the jealousy of sects" !oth %uch extinguish the %e%ory of thingsR tra!ucing Gregory the Great" that he !i! what in hi% lay" to extinguish all heathen anti>uitiesR / !o not fin! that those 9eals !o any great effects" nor last longR as it ap@ peare! in the succession of ,abinian" who !i! re i e the for%er anti>uities& The icissitu!e of %utations in the superior globe" are no fit %atter for this present argu%ent& /t %ay be" PlatoDs great year" if the worl! shoul! last so long" woul! ha e so%e effectR not in renew@ ing the state of li#e in!i i!uals Ffor that is the fu%e of those" that concei e the celestial bo!ies ha e %ore accurate influences upon these things below" than in!ee! they ha eG" but in gross& Co%ets" out of >uestion" ha e li#ewise power an! effect" o er the gross an! %ass of thingsR but they are rather ga9e! upon" an! waite! upon in their journey" than wisely obser e! in their effectsR specially in" their respecti e effectsR that is" what #in! of co%et" for %agnitu!e" color" ersion of the bea%s" plac@ ing in the reign of hea en" or lasting" pro!uceth what #in! of effects& There is a toy which / ha e hear!" an! / woul! not ha e it gi en o er" but waite! upon a little& They say it is obser e! in the =ow Countries F/ #now not in what partG that e ery fi e an! thirty years" the sa%e #in! an! suit of years an! weath@ ers co%e about againR as great frosts" great wet" great !roughts" war% winters" su%%ers with little heat" an! the li#eR an! they call it the Pri%e& /t is a thing / !o the rather %ention" because" co%put@ ing bac#war!s" / ha e foun! so%e concurrence& But to lea e these points of nature" an! to co%e to %en& The greatest icissitu!e of things a%ongst %en" is the icissitu!e of sects an! religions& For those orbs rule in %enDs %in!s %ost& The true re@ ligion is built upon the roc#R the rest are tosse!" upon the wa es of ti%e& To spea#" therefore" of the

causes of new sectsR an! to gi e so%e counsel con@ cerning the%" as far as the wea#ness of hu%an ju!g%ent can gi e stay" to so great re olutions& 'hen the religion for%erly recei e!" is rent by !iscor!sR an! when the holiness of the professors of religion" is !ecaye! an! full of scan!alR an! withal the ti%es be stupi!" ignorant" an! bar@ barousR you %ay !oubt the springing up of a new sectR if then also" there shoul! arise any extra a@ gant an! strange spirit" to %a#e hi%self author thereof& Ell which points hel!" when 5aho%et publishe! his law& /f a new sect ha e not two prop@ erties" fear it notR for it will not sprea!& The one is the supplanting" or the opposing" of authority es@ tablishe!R for nothing is %ore popular than that& The other is the gi ing license to pleasures" an! a oluptuous life& For as for speculati e heresies Fsuch as were in ancient ti%es the Erians" an! now the Er%eniansG" though they wor# %ightily upon %enDs wits" yet they !o not pro!uce any great al@ terations in statesR except it be by the help of ci il occasions& There be three %anner of plantations of new sects& By the power of signs an! %iraclesR by the elo>uence" an! wis!o%" of speech an! persua@ sionR an! by the swor!& For %artyr!o%s" / rec#on the% a%ongst %iraclesR because they see% to ex@ cee! the strength of hu%an nature? an! / %ay !o the li#e" of superlati e an! a!%irable holiness of life& ,urely there is no better way" to stop the rising of new sects an! schis%s" than to refor% abusesR to co%poun! the s%aller !ifferencesR to procee! %il!ly" an! not with sanguinary persecutionsR an! rather to ta#e off the principal authors by win@ ning an! a! ancing the%" than to enrage the% by iolence an! bitterness& The changes an! icissitu!e in wars are %anyR but chiefly in three thingsR in the seats or stages of the warR in the weaponsR an! in the %anner of the con!uct& 'ars" in ancient ti%e" see%e! %ore to %o e fro% east to westR for the Persians" Essyrians" Erabians" Tartars Fwhich were the in a!ersG were all eastern people& /t is true" the Gauls were west@ ernR but we rea! but of two incursions of theirs? the one to Gallo@Grecia" the other to *o%e& But east an! west ha e no certain points of hea enR an! no %ore ha e the wars" either fro% the east or west" any certainty of obser ation& But north an! south are fixe!R an! it hath sel!o% or ne er been seen that the far southern people ha e in a!e! the northern" but contrariwise& 'hereby it is %anifest that the northern tract of the worl!" is in nature the %ore %artial region? be it in respect of the stars of that he%isphereR or of the great continents that are upon the north" whereas the south part" for aught that is #nown" is al%ost all seaR or Fwhich is %ost apparentG of the col! of the northern parts" which is that which" without ai! of !iscipline"

!oth %a#e the bo!ies har!est" an! the courages war%est& <pon the brea#ing an! shi ering of a great state an! e%pire" you %ay be sure to ha e wars& For great e%pires" while they stan!" !o ener ate an! !estroy the forces of the nati es which they ha e sub!ue!" resting upon their own protecting forcesR an! then when they fail also" all goes to ruin" an! they beco%e a prey& ,o was it in the !ecay of the *o%an e%pireR an! li#ewise in the e%pire of El%aigne" after Charles the Great" e ery bir! ta#@ ing a featherR an! were not unli#e to befall to ,pain" if it shoul! brea#& The great accessions an! unions of #ing!o%s" !o li#ewise stir up warsR for when a state grows to an o er@power" it is li#e a great floo!" that will be sure to o erflow& Es it hath been seen in the states of *o%e" Tur#ey" ,pain" an! others& =oo# when the worl! hath fewest bar@ barous peoples" but such as co%%only will not %arry or generate" except they #now %eans to li e Fas it is al%ost e erywhere at this !ay" except Tar@ taryG" there is no !anger of inun!ations of peopleR but when there be great shoals of people" which go on to populate" without foreseeing %eans of life an! sustentation" it is of necessity that once in an age or two" they !ischarge a portion of their people upon other nationsR which the ancient northern people were wont to !o by lotR casting lots what part shoul! stay at ho%e" an! what shoul! see# their fortunes& 'hen a warli#e state grows soft an! effe%inate" they %ay be sure of a war& For co%@ %only such states are grown% rich in the ti%e of their !egeneratingR an! so the prey in iteth" an! their !ecay in alor" encourageth a war& Es for the weapons" it har!ly falleth un!er rule an! obser ation? yet we see e en they" ha e re@ turns an! icissitu!es& For certain it is" that or!@ nance was #nown in the city of the :xi!ra#es in /n!iaR an! was that" which the 5ace!onians calle! thun!er an! lightning" an! %agic& En! it is well #nown that the use of or!nance" hath been in China abo e two thousan! years& The con!itions of weapons" an! their i%pro e%ent" areR First" the fetching afar offR for that outruns the !angerR as it is seen in or!nance an! %us#ets& ,econ!ly" the strength of the percussionR wherein li#ewise or!@ nance !o excee! all arietations an! ancient in en@ tions& The thir! is" the co%%o!ious use of the%R as that they %ay ser e in all weathersR that the car@ riage %ay be light an! %anageableR an! the li#e& For the con!uct of the war? at the first" %en reste! extre%ely upon nu%ber? they !i! put the wars li#ewise upon %ain force an! alorR pointing !ays for pitche! fiel!s" an! so trying it out upon an e en %atch an! they were %ore ignorant in

ranging an! arraying their battles& Efter" they grew to rest upon nu%ber rather co%petent" than astR they grew to a! antages of place" cunning !i ersions" an! the li#e? an! they grew %ore s#il@ ful in the or!ering of their battles& /n the youth of a state" ar%s !o flourishR in the %i!!le age of a state" learningR an! then both of the% together for a ti%eR in the !eclining age of a state" %echanical arts an! %erchan!i9e& =earning hath his infancy" when it is but beginning an! al%ost chil!ishR then his youth" when it is luxuri@ ant an! ju enileR then his strength of years" when it is soli! an! re!uce!R an! lastly" his ol! age" when it waxeth !ry an! exhaust& But it is not goo! to loo# too long upon these turning wheels of icissitu!e" lest we beco%e gi!!y& Es for the philology of the%" that is but a circle of tales" an! therefore not fit for this writing&

:f Fa%e T+E poets %a#e Fa%e a %onster& They !e@ scribe her in part finely an! elegantly" an! in part gra ely an! sententiously& They say" loo# how %any feathers she hath" so %any eyes she hath un!erneathR so %any tonguesR so %any oicesR she pric#s up so %any ears& This is a flourish& There follow excellent par@ ablesR as that" she gathereth strength in goingR that she goeth upon the groun!" an! yet hi!eth her hea! in the clou!sR that in the !ayti%e she sitteth in a watch tower" an! flieth %ost by nightR that she %ingleth things !one" with things not !oneR an! that she is a terror to great cities& But that which passeth all the rest is? They !o recount that the Earth" %other of the giants that %a!e war against 0upiter" an! were by hi% !estroye!" there@ upon in an anger brought forth Fa%e& For certain it is" that rebels" figure! by the giants" an! se!itious fa%es an! libels" are but brothers an! sisters" %as@ culine an! fe%inine& But now" if a %an can ta%e this %onster" an! bring her to fee! at the han!" an! go ern her" an! with her fly other ra ening fowl an! #ill the%" it is so%ewhat worth& But we are infecte! with the style of the poets& To spea# now in a sa! an! serious %anner? There is not" in all the politics" a place less han!le! an! %ore worthy to be han!le!" than this of fa%e& 'e will therefore spea# of these points? 'hat are false fa%esR an! what are true fa%esR an! how they %ay be best !iscerne!R how fa%es %ay be sown"

an! raise!R how they %ay be sprea!" an! %ulti@ plie!R an! how they %ay be chec#e!" an! lai! !ea!& En! other things concerning the nature of fa%e& Fa%e is of that force" as there is scarcely any great action" wherein it hath not a great partR es@ pecially in the war& 5ucianus un!i! )itellius" by a fa%e that he scattere!" that )itellius ha! in pur@ pose to re%o e the legions of ,yria into Ger%any" an! the legions of Ger%any into ,yriaR where@ upon the legions of ,yria were infinitely infla%e!& 0ulius Caesar too# Po%pey unpro i!e!" an! lai! asleep his in!ustry an! preparations" by a fa%e that he cunningly ga e out? CaesarDs own sol!iers lo e! hi% not" an! being wearie! with the wars" an! la!en with the spoils of Gaul" woul! forsa#e hi%" as soon as he ca%e into /taly& =i ia settle! all things for the succession of her son Tiberius" by continual gi ing out" that her husban! Eugustus was upon reco ery an! a%en!%ent" an! it is an usual thing with the pashas" to conceal the !eath of the Great Tur# fro% the jani9aries an! %en of war" to sa e the sac#ing of Constantinople an! other towns" as their %anner is& The%istocles %a!e Oerxes" #ing of Persia" post apace out of Grecia" by gi ing out" that the Grecians ha! a purpose to brea# his bri!ge of ships" which he ha! %a!e ath@ wart +ellespont& There be a thousan! such li#e exa%plesR an! the %ore they are" the less they nee! to be repeate!R because a %an %eeteth with the% e erywhere& Therefore let all wise go ernors ha e as great a watch an! care o er fa%es" as they ha e of the actions an! !esigns the%sel es& 2This essay was not finishe!4

E Glossary :F E*C+E/C ':*(, E;( P+*E,E,

Ebri!g%ent? %iniature Ebsur!? stupi!" unpolishe! Ebuse? cheat" !ecei e Eculeate? stinging E!a%ant? loa!stone E!ust? scorche! E! outress? a!ulteress Effect? li#e" !esire Entic? clown Eppose? >uestion Erietation? battering@ra% Eu!it? re enue E oi!ance? secret outlet

Battle? battalion Bestow? settle in life Blanch? flatter" e a!e Bra e? boastful Bra ery? boast" ostentation Bro#e? !eal in bro#erage Bro#en? shine by co%parison Bro#en %usic? part %usic Cabinet? secret Calen!ar? weather forecast Car!? chart" %ap Care not to? are rec#less Cast? plan Cat? cate" ca#e Charge an! a! enture? cost an! ris# Chec# with? interfere Chop? ban!y wor!s Ci il? peaceful Close? secret" secreti e Collect? infer Co%poun!? co%pro%ise Consent? agree%ent Curious? elaborate Custo%? i%port !uties (ecei e? rob (eri e? !i ert (ifficileness? %oroseness (isco er? re eal (onati e? %oney gift (oubt? fear E>uipollent? e>ually powerful Espial? spy Estate? state Facility? of easy persuasion Fair? rather Fa%e? ru%or Fa or? feature Flashy? insipi! Foot@pace? lobby Foreseen? guar!e! against Frowar!? stubborn Futile? babbling Globe? co%plete bo!y Glorious? showy" boastful +u%orous? capricious +un!re! poll? hun!re!th hea! /%pertinent? irrele ant /%plicit? entangle!

/n a %ean? in %o!eration /n s%other? suppresse! /n!ifferent? i%partial /nten!? atten! to Tnap?#noll =eese? lose

=et? hin!er =oose? shot =ot? spell =urch? intercept 5a#e? profit" get 5anage? train 5ate? con>uer 5aterial? business@li#e 5ere@stone? boun!ary stone 5uniting? fortifying ;er e? sinew :bnoxious? subser ient" liable :es? roun! spangles Pair? i%pair Par!on? allowance Passable? %e!iocre Pine@apple@tree? pine Plantation? colony Platfor%? plan Plausible? praiseworthy Point !e ice? excessi ely precise Politic? politician Poll? extort Poser? exa%iner Practice? plotting Preoccupate? anticipate Prest? prepare! Pric#? plant Proper? personal Prospecti e? stereoscope Proyne? prune Purprise? enclosure Push? pi%ple Suarrel? pretext Suech? flinch *eason? principle *eca%era? retiring@roo% *eturn? reaction *eturn? wing running bac# *ise? !ignity *oun!? straight ,a e? account for ,cantling? %easure ,eel? blin! ,hrew!? %ischie ous ,ort? associate ,pial? spy ,ta!!le? sapling ,teal? !o secretly ,tirp? fa%ily ,ton!? stop" stan! ,to e!? hot@house! ,tyle? title ,uccess? outco%e ,u%ptuary law? law against extra agance ,uperior globe? the hea ens Te%per? proportion

Ten!ering? nursing Tract? line" trait Tra el? tra ail" labor Treaties? treatises Trench to? touch Tri ial? co%%on Tur>uet? Tur#ish !warf <n!er foot? below alue <nrea!y? untraine! <sury? interest )alue? certify )irtuous? able )otary? owe! 'anton? spoile! 'oo!? %a9e 'or#? %anage" utili9e

En! of The Project Gutenberg Etext of Essays of Francis Bacon