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Modeling and optimization of process parameters of any manufacturing process is usually a difficult task.This requires knowledge of manufacturing process, empirical equations to develop realistic constrains, specification of machine capabilities, development of an effective optimization criterion, and knowledge of mathematical and numerical optimization techniques. Performance of these processes, however, is affected by many factors and a single parameter change will influence the process in a complex way. Because of the many variables and the complex and stochastic nature of the process, achieving the optimal performance, even for a highly skilled operator is rarely possible. An effective way to solve this problem is to discover the relationship between the performance of the process and its controllable input parameters by modeling the process through suitable mathematical techniques and optimization using suitable optimization algorithm.

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Mr.Anand S.Shivade1, Prof. (Dr.) V.D.Shinde2

1 2

ABSTRACT

Modeling and optimization of process parameters of any manufacturing process is usually a difficult task.This requires knowledge of manufacturing process, empirical equations to develop realistic constrains, specification of machine capabilities, development of an effective optimization criterion, and knowledge of mathematical and numerical optimization techniques. Performance of these processes, however, is affected by many factors and a single parameter change will influence the process in a complex way. Because of the many variables and the complex and stochastic nature of the process, achieving the optimal performance, even for a highly skilled operator is rarely possible. An effective way to solve this problem is to discover the relationship between the performance of the process and its controllable input parameters by modeling the process through suitable mathematical techniques and optimization using suitable optimization algorithm. Keywords- Grey relational analysis, multioptimization, Taguchi robust design, WEDM. Wire continuously feeding through the work piece by a microprocessor, which enable parts of complex shapes to be machined with exceptional high accuracy. A varying degree of taper ranging from 15o for a 100 mm thick to 30ofor a 400 mm thickwork piececan also be obtained on the cut surface[3].The microprocessor also constantly maintains the gap between the wire and the work piece, which varies from 0.025 to 0.05 mm[4]. WEDM eliminates the need for elaborate pre-shaped electrodes, which are commonly required in EDM to perform the roughing and finishing operations.

2. NEED OF OPTIMIZATION

Manufacturing includes various types of processes and todays manufacturing processes are caught between the growing needs for quality, high process safety, minimal manufacturing costs, and short manufacturing times. In order to meet the demands, manufacturing process setting parameters have to be chosen in the best possible way. Due to high capital and manufacturing costs, there is an economic need to operate these machines as efficiently as possible in order to obtain the required pay back. The success of the manufacturing process depends upon the selection of appropriate process parameters. The selection of optimum process parameters plays a significant role to ensure quality of product, to reduce the manufacturing cost and to increase productivity in computer controlled manufacturing process. In the case of Wireelectric discharge machining, significant parameters that need to be optimized are shown in Figure 1.

Workpice Material Electrode parameter Wire size Material Height Wire speed Wire tension

1. INTRODUCTION

WEDM is one of the widely accepted advanced machining processes used tomachine components with intricate shapes and profiles. It is considered as a uniqueadaptation of the conventional EDM process which uses an electrode to initialize the sparking process.WEDM utilizes a continuouslytraveling wire electrode made of thin copper, brass or tungsten [1].After application of a proper voltage, discharge occurs between the wire electrode and the work piece inthe presence of a flood of deionized water of high insulation resistance. The material is eroded ahead of the wire through a series of repetitive sparks between Electrodes, i.e., work piece and the wire.WEDM has been gaining wide acceptance in modern tooling applications, machining of advanced ceramic and modern composite materials. The WEDM has gained advantage due toits uniqueness such as a) As the wire diameter is small (0.050.3 mm), the process is capable ofachieving very small corner radii, b) The wire is kept in tension using a mechanical tensioning device reducing thetendency of producing inaccurate parts.During the WEDM process there is no direct contact between the work piece andthe wire, eliminating the mechanical stresses during machining[2].c) WEDM process is able to machine

Peak current Pulse off time Gap voltage Dielectric flow rate

Electrical parameter

exotic and high strength and temperatureresistive (HSTR) materials and eliminate the geometrical changes occurring in the machining of heat-treated steels. While the material removal mechanisms of EDM and WEDM are similar, their functional

characteristics are not identical. WEDM uses a thin

IJSRET @ 2013

Volume 2 Issue 7 pp 435-439 October 2013 www.ijsret.org ISSN 2278 0882

3. METHODS OF MULTI-OPTIMIZATION There are different methods developed by many researchers for optimizing multiple parameters in

processing on materials. The different methods used for multi-optimization is shown in Figure 2.

Statistical Regression Technique Artificial Neural Networks Gray Relational Analysis (GRA) Taguchi Robust Design Method

Fuzzy Set Theory Response Surface Methodology Taguchi FuzzyBased Approach Factorial Design Method

Figure 2: Different methods of multi-optimization [6] 3.1 Statistical Regression Technique The data collected through experiments usually exhibits a significant degree of error or a noise. In such a case, there is no need to intersect every point as the individual data points may be incorrect. Rather, the curve is designed to follow the pattern of points taken in group. This approach is known as statistical regressiontechnique for investigating functional relationship between output and input decision variables of a process and may be useful for manufacturing process data description, parameter estimation andcontrol [6]. The criteria for fitting the best line through the data in simple linear regressions to minimize the sum of squares of residuals (Sr) between the measured values of response and the values of response calculated with the regression model [7]. Thelinear fit can be expressed by equation 1, Y=a0+a1X (1) Where Y is the value of response and X is the value of variable. The coefficients a0 and a1 are obtained by differentiating Sr with respect to a0 and a1, respectively, and setting these derivatives equal to zero as the aim is to minimize the error. To test whether the data are well fitted in model or not, the values of standard error of estimates (S) of the regression analysis and the values of standard deviation are calculated (Sy) from equation 2 & 3, Standard error of estimate(S) = (Sr/n-2)1/2 (2) Standard deviation; (Sy) = (St/n-1)1/2 (3) Where n = number of data points and St = total sum of squares of the residuals between data points and the mean. The S<Sy indicates that the regression model has merit. The actual extent of improvement, by using regression analysis rather than describing data as an average value, is quantified by coefficient of determination (R2) which varies from 0 to 1. Value of R2 = 1 indicates perfect fit and R2 = 0 indicates no improvement.

3.2 Taguchi Robust Design Method Taguchi methods have been used widely in engineering analysis to optimize performancecharacteristics by means of setting of design parameters.Taguchimethod is a combination of mathematical and statistical techniques used in anempirical study. It usesfewer experiments required in order to study different levels of all input parameters, andfiltering out few effects due to statistical variation. Taguchi method can also determinethe experimental condition having the least variability as the optimum condition.The variability of a property is due to noise factor, which is a factor difficultto control. On the contrary, the factor easy to control is called control factor.Taguchi robust design method is a strong tool for the design of high quality systems. Taguchi robustdesign method presents a systematic approach that is simple and effectivefor optimizingdesigns for quality, performance and cost. Theobjective of Taguchi approach is to determine the optimum setting of processparameters or control factors, thereby making the process insensitive to the sourcesof variations due to uncontrollable or noise factors. In this method, mainprocess parameters or control factors which influence process results are taken asinput parameters and the experiment is performed as per specifically designedorthogonal array [8]. The selection of appropriate orthogonal array is based on totaldegree of freedom (DOF) which is computed as, DOF= (Number of level-1) for each factor + (number of level-1)*(number of level-1) for each interaction The variability of the quality characteristic can be expressed by signal to noise(S/N) ratio. The terms signal and noise represent the desirable and undesirablevalues for the characteristics respectively. Taguchi method uses the S/Nratio to measure the characteristic deviating from the desired value. The experimental condition having the maximum S/N ratio is considered as the optimalcondition, as the variability of characteristic is in inverse proportion to the S/Nratio. The (S/N) ratio represents the quality characteristic for the observeddata in the Taguchis design of experiments (DOE) and mathematically it can becomputed from equation 4 quoted below [9]. = -10log (MSD) (4) Where MSD is the mean square deviation and commonly known as quality lossfunction. Depending on the experimental objective, the quality loss function canbe of three types: lower-the-better (LB), higher-thebetter (HB), and nominal the-best (NB) type. These quality loss functions are computed as follows: 2 MSD= (1/n) (5) Where yi is the observed data of quality characteristic at the ith trial and n is thenumber of repetitions of the same trial. The S/N ratio represents the desired part/undesired part and which is aimed to maximize the S/N ratio always whatever may be the natureof quality characteristics. From the S/N ratio, the effective parameters influencing the process results were studied and the optimal sets of process parameterscan be determined. In addition to the S/N ratio, a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) can be employed to indicate the impact of process parameters onperformance measure [10]. In this way, the optimal levels of process parameters can beestimated.

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Volume 2 Issue 7 pp 435-439 October 2013 www.ijsret.org ISSN 2278 0882

3.3 Response Surface Methodology Response surface methodology (RSM) is a collection of statistical and mathematicalmethods that are useful for the modeling and optimization of the engineeringscience problems. In this technique, the main objective is to optimize theresponses that are influenced by various input process parameters. RSM alsoquantifies the relationship between the controllable input parameters and theobtained responses. In modeling and optimization of manufacturing processesusing RSM, the sufficient data is collected through designed experimentation. In general, a second-order regression model is developed because first-orderModels often give lack-of-fit. According to RSM, all the input processparameters are assumed to be measurable and the corresponding responses can be calculated from the equation 6, which can be expressed as [11]: Y=f(x1,x2,..,xk)+ (6) Where y is the response which is required to be optimized, fis the unknownfunction of response, x1 to xk denote the independent parameters or variables, also called natural variables; k is the number of the independent variables and is the statistical error that represents other sources of variability notaccounted for by f. These sources include the effects such as the measurementerror. It is generally assumed that has a normal distribution with mean zero andvariance. It is possible to separate an optimization study using RSM into three stages.The first stage is the preliminary work in which the determination of the independentparameters and their levels are carried out. The second stage is theselection of the experimental design and the prediction and verification of themodel equation. The last one is obtaining the response surface plot and contourplot of the response as a function of the independent parameters for the determinationof optimum points.It is assumed that the independent variables (input process parameters) arecontinuous and controllable by experiments with negligible errors. It is alsorequired to find a suitable approximation for the true functional relationshipbetween independent variables and responses. Usually, a second-order regressionmodelexpressed in equation 7is utilized in RSM [11]. Y=b0+ + 2+ (7)

process response. A higher S/N ratio for one process response may correspondto a lower S/N ratio for another process response. As a result, an overallevaluation of S/N ratios is required for the optimization of multi-processresponse. To solve this problem, fuzzy logic analysis is introduced into Taguchimethod for optimization of multi process response. Fuzzy logic is used todevelop the fuzzy reasoning of multiple performance characteristics. The lossFunction corresponding to each process response is fuzzified and then a singlefuzzy reasoning grade is obtained by fuzzy inference and defuzzification [12].A fuzzy logic unit comprises of a fuzzifier, a membership function, a fuzzy rulebase, an inference engine and a defuzzifier. First, the fuzzifier uses membership functions to fuzzify the signal to noise (S/N) ratios obtained by Taguchi method.Next; the inference engine performs the fuzzy reasoning on fuzzy rules togenerate a fuzzy value. Finally, the defuzzifier converts the fuzzy value into amulti-response performance index. A fuzzy logic system is thus used to investigaterelationships between responses for determining the efficiency of eachparameter design of the Taguchi dynamic experiments. From the fuzzy inferenceprocess mentioned above, the optimal process conditions can be easily determined [13, 14]. 3.5 Gray Relational Analysis (GRA) In WEDM, the quality and integrity of machined surfaces are dependent on different process parameter combination shown in Figure 1. These process parameter significantly affect the performance measures such as, surface roughness, metal removal rate (MRR),Dimensional deviation, machining time,kerf.In order to minimize these machining problems, scientific method based on Taguchi design of experiments isused.However, Taguchimethod has been designed to optimize single performance characteristic and is not appropriate for multipleperformance optimization. To solve such kind of problem, grey relational analysis (GRA) is necessary. Deng [15] proposed applications of GRA to engineering problems and proved it to be useful in dealing with poor, incomplete, and uncertain information. The GRA was used to solve the complicated interrelationships amongthe multiple performance characteristics effectively.As a result, optimization of the complicated multiple performance characteristics can be converted into optimization of a single Grey relational grade [16]. 3.5.1 Steps of GRA The optimization of multiple performancecharacteristics using GRA includes the following steps [17] 1) Identification of performance characteristics and process parameters to be evaluated. 2) Selection of different levels of process parameters. 3) Selection of orthogonal array and assigning the process parameters to the array. 4) Experimentation as per the designed orthogonal array. 5) Normalization of S/N ratio according to the S/N ratio characteristics, out of three conditions as: larger-the-better, smaller-thebetter and Nominal-the-better.

Where y is the response and the xi (1, 2,,k) are the coded levels of kquantitative variables. The coefficient b0 is the free term, the coefficients bi are the linear terms, the coefficients bii are the quadratic terms, and the coefficients bij are the interaction terms. The equations relating the response with the variables are then derived by determining the values of the coefficients using the method of least squares (MLS). 3.4 Taguchi Fuzzy-Based Approach Taguchi fuzzy-based approach is the fuzzy logic analysis coupled with Taguchimethods for optimization in case of multiple performance characteristics. InTaguchi method, for single process response, the optimum level of the processparameters is the level having highest S/N ratio. However, optimization of multiple responses is not as straightforward as that of the optimization of asingle

IJSRET @ 2013

Volume 2 Issue 7 pp 435-439 October 2013 www.ijsret.org ISSN 2278 0882

If the number of experiments is m and the number of responses (i.e. performance characteristics) are n, then the ith experiment can be expressed as Yi= (yi1, yi2yij, ,yin) In decision matrixform, where yij is the performance value of response j (j = 1, 2, 3 n) for experiment i (i = 1, 2, 3, m). 1) If the expectancy of the response is larger-thebetter, then it can be expressed by equation 8 as: Xij= (yij-min (yij))/ (max (yij)-min (yij)) (8) 2) If the expectancy of the response is smallerthe-better, then it can be expressed by equation 9 as: Xij= (max (yij)-yij) / (max (yij)-min (yij)) (9) 3) If the expectancy of the response is nominalthe-best (i.e. closer to the desired value or target value), then it can be expressed byequation 10 as: Xij=1-(|yij-yj*|)/ (max (max (yij)-yj*, yj*- min (yij))) (10) Where yj* is closer to the desired value of jth response 6) Gray relational coefficient- Gray relational coefficient is used for determininghow close xij is to x0j. The larger the grey relational coefficient, thecloser xij and x0jare. The gray relational coefficient can be calculated by equation 11 as: + ( , )= + (11) ( , ) is the gray relational coefficient between xij and x0j and =| | = min { , = 1,2, , = 1,2, } = max { { , = 1,2, , = 1,2, } = distinguishing , (0,1)

andvalue of MRR is 2.60mm/min, achieved from experiments using optimal input parameter setting (A1B1C3D2E1F2) and value of surface roughness as0.85m, which is derived from experiments (A1B3C1D3E2F3).But, Taguchi method is useful only to optimize single performance characteristic, to optimize both parameters at a time i.e. for multioptimization of variables for the same conditions, Grey relational analysis is used. Hereoptimalcombination for maximizing MRR need not be same as for minimizing surface roughness. Therefore, an improvement of one performance characteristic may cause a deterioration of another performance characteristic. Using grey relational analysis, multi-optimization of both MRR and surface roughness done & by considering maximum grey relational grade, single input parameter setting (A1B3C1D2E2F3) is used to find out value of MRR and surface roughness as 1.80mm/min and 1.13m respectively.By using only one input parametercombination, both performance characteristicsare optimized using GRA.Thus,GRA method is more effective, less complex and less time consuming as compared to other multi-optimization methods.

4. CONCLUSIONS

1) In this work, an attempt was made to review the different multi-optimization method used in WEDM for optimizationof process parameters such as MRR, Surface roughness, kerf, machining time, dimensional deviation. 2) The main objective of the WEDM process is to obtain the optimal parameters without making compromise with its performance measures, by use of different multi-optimization methods. 3) The recentadvancement in the materials has become a challenge forWEDM process to be used in the coming decades. It is very necessary to make continuousimprovement in the current WEDM process to increase theirproductivity and efficiency. 4) Both the performance parameters, MRR and surface roughness are optimized in one optimal input setting using Grey relational analysis method.

7) Gray relational grade- The measurement formula for quantification in gray relational space is called the gray relational grade. A gray relational grade is a weighted sum of the grey relational coefficients and it can be calculated using equation 12 as: (X0, Xi) = . ( , ) (12) For i=1,2,..,m Where =1 The gray relational grade indicates the degree of similarity between the comparability sequence and the reference sequence. If an experiment gets the highest gray relational grade with the reference sequence, it means that comparability sequence is most similar to the reference sequence and that experiment would be the best choice.Jangra et.al [18] conducted research on wire cut electrical discharge machining of WC-Co composite. Influence oftaper angle (A), peak current (B), pulse-on time(C), pulse-off time (D), wire tension (E) and dielectric flow rate (F) areinvestigated for material removal rate and surface roughness during machining of carbide block. To optimize both parameter separately by using Taguchi robust design

REFERENCES

[1]J.Kapoor, S. Singh and J.Khamba, 2010, Recent Developments in Wire Electrodes for High Performance WEDM, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering, Vol.2, pp.1-4. [2] S.Kalpakjian and S.Schmid, 2009, Manufacturing process for engineering materials,Pearson education, South Asia. [3]V.Patel and R.Vaghmare, 2013, Review of recent work in wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM), International Journal of Engineering Research, Vol.3, (3), pp.805-816. [4]R.Kumar and S.Singh, 2012, Current Research Trends in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining: An Overview, International Journal on Emerging Technologies, Vol. 3(1), pp.33-40. [5] R.Garg, Effect of process parameters on performance measures of wire electrical discharge machining, Ph.D thesisMay 2010, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India.

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[6] R.Venkata Rao, 2011, Advanced modeling and optimization of manufacturing process, Springer verlag London limited. [7] V.Parashar, A.Rehman, J.Bhagoria and Y.Puri, 2010. Statistical and regression analysis of Material Removal Rate for wire cut Electro Discharge Machining of SS 304L using design of experiments International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology,Vol. 2(5),pp.1021-1028. [8]G.Taguchi, S.Chowdhury and Y.Wu, 2005, Taguchis Quality Engineering Handbook,John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [9] M.S.Phadke, 2012, Quality engineering using robust design, Pearson education, South Asia. [10] P.J.Ross, 2005, Taguchi technique for quality engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill Edition. [11]S.Datta, S.Mahapatra,2010, Modeling, simulation and parametric optimization of wire EDM process using response surface methodology coupled with grey-Taguchi technique, International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology,Vol. 2(5), pp.162-183. [12] M. ravish and V.Kumar, 2011, A review on application of fuzzy logic technique related to the engineering applications, Indian journal of applied research, vol.1, (3), pp.1-2. [13]Y.Puri and N.Deshpande, 2004, Simultaneous optimization of multiple quality characteristicsof WEDM based on fuzzy logic and Taguchi technique, Proceedings of the fifth Asia Pacific Industrial Engineering and Management Systems Conference, pp.1-12. [14] G.Rajyalakshmi and P.Ramaiah, 2013, Optimization of Process Parameters of Wire Electrical Discharge MachiningUsing Fuzzy logic Integrated with Taguchi Method, International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology, Vol.2 (6), pp.600-606. [15] J.Deng, 1989, Introduction to grey system, Journal of grey system, 1, pp.1-24. [16] S.liu and J.Forrest, 2007, The current developing status on grey system theory, Journal of grey system, 2, pp.111-123. [17]U.Dabade, 2013, Multi-objective process optimization to improve surface integrity on turned surface of Al/SiCp metal matrix composites using grey relational analysis, forty sixth CIRP conference on manufacturing system, pp.299-304. [18]K.Jangra, S.Grovera and A.Aggarwal, 2011. Simultaneous optimization of material removal rate and surface roughness for WEDM of WC-Co composite using grey relational analysis along with Taguchi methodInternational Journal of Industrial Engineering Computations,pp.479-490.

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