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Upgrading Existing Chilled-Water Systems

Kevin Rice, Comprehensive Solutions Account Executive


2008 Trane 2010 Trane

Existing Buildings

Gordon Holness, 2009 ASHRAE President*


75%

to 85% of all the buildings that will exist in urban areas in 2030 exist today.

Energy

efficiency in existing buildings our greatest opportunity for a sustainable future.


can sustain our future by rebuilding our past.

we

*Presidential address, June 2009

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Business Climate

Budgets
Capital

budgets limited, meet ROI to reduce operating costs

Pressure

Maintenance
Deferred

(ignored?)

Enhanced

longer

to keep equipment working

Sustainability reduce energy use


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Upgrade Goals

Use existing equipment and infrastructure whenever possible


Reduce energy use but not at the expense of comfort or the process Show internal rate of return consistent with present internal requirements

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The Building HVAC System

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Chilled-Water System
air-cooled chiller

pump

coil

control valve
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Existing Chilled-Water Systems


Chiller

Pumps and pipes


Chilled

water water

Condenser

Cooling towers and fans System controls

Pictures

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Chiller Products

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Upgrade options

Change the Chiller


Retrofit Replace

Select different design parameters Change system configuration

Enhance controls

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Chiller Upgrade Options

Comply with ASHRAE 90.1


Add a variable speed drive Replace the chiller
Size

the new chiller properly same-price new chiller options

Compare

Variable speed drive High efficiency

2010 Trane

ASHRAE 90.1

Two Paths in 90.1-2010

Once a path is chosen, both full and part load requirements must be met

Positive displacement chillers evaluated only at AHRI Standard 550/590 standard conditions

Chilled water: 44F leaving, 2.4 gpm/ton Condenser water: 85F entering, 3.0 gpm/ton

Centrifugal chiller requirements must be adjusted for non-standard conditions

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ASHRAE 90.1
Air-cooled Chillers Capacity (tons) <150 150 Full Load 9.562 9.562 2007 IPLV 10.416 10.416 2010 Path A Full Load 9.562 9.562 IPLV 12.500 12.750 2010 Path B Full Load NA NA IPLV NA NA

Positive displacement chillers evaluated only at AHRI Standard 550/590 standard conditions

All requirements in EER.


Chiller performance must be greater than or equal to the requirements in the table

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ASHRAE 90.1
Capacity (tons) <75 75 and < 150 150 and < 300 300

Water-cooled positive Displacement Chillers

2007
Full Load
0.790 0.790 0.717 0.639

2010 Path A
Full Load
0.780 0.775 0.680 0.620

2010 Path B
Full Load
0.800 0.790 0.718 0.639

IPLV
0.676 0.676 0.627 0.571

IPLV
0.630 0.615 0.580 0.540

IPLV
0.600 0.586 0.540 0.490

Positive displacement chillers evaluated only at AHRI Standard 550/590 standard conditions All requirements in kW/ton. Chiller performance must be less than or equal to the requirements in the table
2010 Trane

ASHRAE 90.1
Capacity (tons) <150 150 and < 300 300 and < 600 600

Water-cooled Centrifugal Chillers 2007 Full Load 0.703 0.634 0.576 0.576 IPLV 0.669 0.596 0.549 0.549 2010 Path A Full Load 0.634 0.634 0.576 0.570 IPLV 0.596 0.596 0.549 0.539 2010 Path B Full Load 0.639 0.639 0.600 0.590 IPLV 0.450 0.450 0.400 0.400

Centrifugal chiller requirements must be adjusted for non-standard conditions All requirements in kW/ton. Chiller performance must be less than or equal to the requirements in the table
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Chiller Upgrade Options

Comply with ASHRAE 90.1


Add a variable speed drive Replace the chiller
Size

the new chiller properly same-price new chiller options

Compare

Variable speed drive High efficiency

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Overhauled Chillers

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Adding a VSD to an Existing Chiller

Comply with ASHRAE 90.1 requirements for retrofits


Ensure

that modification will not result in an increase in annual energy consumption

Understand how a drive may benefit chiller performance

Perform return on investment analysis

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Drive impact on existing chiller performance

Demand rises 2-4% at design conditions


Largest benefit at lower condenser water temperatures

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Lift versus Load


lvg condenser water

2 gpm/ton

lift (DT)

58F

800 gpm

load = 500 tons

lvg evaporator water

load a gpm (Tent evp Tlvg evp)


2006 American Standard Inc.

lift a Pcnd Pevp

lift a Tlvg cnd Tlvg evp


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Compressor Work and Chiller Efficiency


lvg cond water

head/lift

compressor work

58F

cooling capacity/load

500 tons
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lvg evap water

2006 American Standard Inc.

Lessons Learned

To reduce lift:

Decrease condenser pressure by reducing leaving-tower water temperature Increase evaporator pressure by raising chilled water setpoint

lvg cond water

99F 73F
compressor work

VSDs optimize chiller lift efficiency

lvg evap water

45F 41F

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Drive impact on existing chiller performance 700-Ton Chiller VSD Retrofit


500 450 400 350 300
Existing-85F VSD-Retrofit-85F Existing-75F VSD-Retrofit-75F Existing-65F VSD-Retrofit-65F

No savings at constant ECWT

kW

250 200 150 100 50 0 0 200 400 600 800

Savings at reduced ECWT

Tons
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Drive Retrofit: Issues to consider


Utility rates? Demand Charge? Ratchet?
VSD If

adds inefficiency

chiller was oversized the demand may be lower


24/7

How often will it operate at advantageous conditions? How much energy is consumed by the cooling tower? Is the chiller oversized for the load?

operation may be beneficial

Economizer

reduces the loads at advantageous conditions


Need to balance tower and chiller energy Load reduction in conjunction with reduced CW temperatures may offer significant savings

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Analysis must include

Simultaneous
Weather Building

data load characteristics

Operational hours Economizer capabilities

Energy drawn from auxiliaries


Actual utility rates
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Chiller Plant Analyzer

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Chiller Upgrade Options

Comply with ASHRAE 90.1


Add a variable speed drive Replace the chiller
Size

the new chiller properly same-price new chiller options

Compare

Variable speed drive High efficiency

2010 Trane

Chiller Replacement

Correctly size the new chiller


Determine Downsize If

actual building load

chiller if possible

more tonnage is needed, higher efficiency allows present electrical system to serve

Replace with higher efficiency chiller


Reduce

demand and consumption speed or variable speed?

Constant
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Chiller Replacement:
Constant or Variable Speed?

Different than retrofit where only VSD makes economic sense


Compare same price VSD chiller and higher full load efficiency chiller
Make

sure each chiller meets ASHRAE 90.1 full and part-load requirements

Use comprehensive analysis to determine which to purchase


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Same-price Chiller: Example Performance


Option VSD High Efficiency Full Load IPLV (kW/ton) (kW/ton) 0.572 0.501 0.357 0.430

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Same-price Chiller: Example Performance


600-ton Replacement Chiller Performance
400 350 300 250
High_efficiency_85F VSD_85F High_efficiency_75F VSD_75F High_efficiency_65F VSD_65F

kW

200 150 100 50 0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

% Load

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Same-price Chillers: Observations

At high condenser water temperatures, constant speed is more efficient At low condenser water temperatures (low lift), variable speed is more efficient Analysis is required

Load and condenser water temperature do not vary directly with one another Account for loads at different ECWT

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Guidance: VSD or High Efficiency?

High efficiency

VSD

Significant demand charges Humid climates Multiple chillers in the plant Economizer that reduces low load/low lift operating hours

Many hours at low condenser water temperature and low load Perhaps only on one chiller Factor in replacement of VSD when performing life cycle assessment

2010 Trane

Upgrade options

Change the Chiller


Retrofit Replace

Change design parameters Change system configuration

Enhance controls

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chilled water plant design

Provocation

Are our rules of thumb

44 F chilled water supply

10 F DT for chilled water system


3 gpm/ton condenser water flow

in need of repair?

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Design Parameters

Many chilled water systems selected at:

ASHRAE GreenGuide Guidance

Chilled water

Chilled water

44F 2.4 gpm/ton (10F T)

12F to 20F T 2.0 to 1.2 gpm/ton

Condenser water

Condenser water

85F Entering 3 gpm/ton (9.4F T)

12F to 18F T 2.5 to 1.6 gpm/ton

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High Performance Design Parameters


Kelly and Chan

Chilled water DT: 18F Condenser water DT: 14.2F (3.6 - 8.3% energy savings in various climates)

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a history of

Chiller Performance
8.0 chiller efficiency, COP
centrifugal >600 tons screw 150-300 tons scroll <100 tons reciprocating <150 tons

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0

ASHRAE Standard 90
90-75 (1977) 90-75 90.1-89 90.1-99 (1980)

NBI

best available

2008 Trane

Efficiency changes in the past 35 years

Chiller COP increased up to 75%


Pumps? motors more efficient Cooling towers? motors more efficient, fill design has changed

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Retrofit applications and reduced flow - evap


Chilled water side

Coil

Its a simple heat transfer device Reacts to colder entering water by returning it warmer

Ideal for system expansion

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Cooling Coil Performance


MBH EWT GPM 504 44F 101 504 41F 63

GPM/ton
LWT

2.4
54F

1.5
57F

WTR

10F

16F

GPM reduction of 37.6%


2008 Trane

Retrofit applications and reduced flow - cond


Condenser side retrofit opportunity

Chiller needs to be replaced Cooling needs have increased by 50% Cooling tower was replaced two years ago Condenser pump and pipes are in good shape

2010 Trane

Retrofit applications and reduced flow - cond


Existing Capacity (tons) Flow rate (gpm) Condenser Entering Water Temperature (F) Condenser Leaving Water Temperature (F) Design Wet Bulb (F) 500 1500 85 95 78 Retrofit 750 1500 88 103 78

2010 Trane

Upgrade options

Change the Chiller


Retrofit Replace

Change design parameters Change system configuration

Enhance controls

2010 Trane

Variable Primary Flow Systems

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VPF System Retrofit Benefits

Reduced pumping costs


Ability to respond to Low T Syndrome

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Flow requirements

VPF System

Limits (consult manufacturer)


Absolute flows - Minimum and maximum

Always need a method to allow minimum flow (bypass) Flow rate changes

2% of design flow per minute not good enough 10% of design flow per minute borderline 30% of design flow per minute many comfort cooling applications 50% of design flow per minute best

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Chiller Control
Variable Water Flow
130 120 110 100 90 Evaporator Water Flow 80 70 60 50 40 30 3:50:00 Evap Entering Water Temp 500 300 100 -100 -300 -500 4:10:00 1500 1300 1100 900 700

Water Temp [degF]

Evap Leaving Water Temp

3:55:00

4:00:00
Time (hour:min:sec)

4:05:00

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Flow [gpm]

Specify and install proper flow control devices

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Conversion: Constant to Variable Flow

Confirm existing chillers and controls can operate with variable evaporator flow
Ensure evaporator flow rate can stay above minimum
New

bypass or 3-way valves

Ensure flow rate changes are below allowable chiller allowances

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VPF System

constant flow conversion


Single chiller
Retrofit

Controller

D D P P

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Convert Primary Secondary to Variable PrimaryVariable Secondary VFDs


DP

Placeholder for Manifolded P-S System picture (Beth to supply)

DP

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More information

VPF System

Http:/trane.com/commercial /library/newsletters.asp (1999 and 2002) Dont Ignore Variable Flow, Waltz, Contracting Business, July 1997 Primary-Only vs. Primary-Secondary Variable Flow Systems, Taylor, ASHRAE Journal, February 2002 Comparative Analysis of Variable and Constant Primary-Flow Chilled-Water-Plant Performance, Bahnfleth and Peyer, HPAC Engineering, April 2001 Campus Cooling: Retrofitting Systems, Kreutzmann, HPAC Engineering, July 2002
2010 Trane

Upgrade options

Change the Chiller


Retrofit Replace

Change design parameters Change system configuration

Enhance controls

2010 Trane

Control Options

Proper number of chillers


Pump control Chiller-tower optimization

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Number of chillers operating

Operate one at nearly full load or two at part load?


Examine IPLV assumptions

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VSDs and centrifugal chillers

A Closer Look at IPLV


Load 100% 75% 50% 25% Weighting 0.01 0.42 0.45 0.12 ECWT 85F 75F 65F 65F kW/Ton 0.572 0.420 0.308 0.372

VSDs improve part-lift performance, so running two chillers with VSDs at part load seems more efficient than one chiller at double the same load, but is dependent on condenser water temperature
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Chiller power only

45% Plant load

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Chillers plus pumps

45% Plant load

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Operate 1 or 2 chillers?

Operate multiple chillers here, otherwise single chiller

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Chilled Water Pump Control

Communicating BAS

Pump Speed

Valve position

Pump Pressure Sensor

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pump-pressure optimization

Control Logic 90.1-2007 Addendum ak


Increase pump static pressure setpoint
75%
Position (% open) of critical valve

No action
65%

Reduce pump static pressure setpoint

This will be required for many systems by 90.1-2010


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optimal condenser water control


400

ChillerTower Interaction
energy consumption, kW total
300

chiller
200

optimal control point

100

tower

72

74

76

78

80

82

84

condenser water temperature, F


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chillertower optimization

An Example

720,000 ft hotel
2 chillers, 2 tower cells Control strategies

Make leaving-tower water cold as possible (55F)


Optimize system operation Entering-condenser setpoint equals design
85F for humid climates, 80F for dry climates

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chillertower control strategies

North America
350K annual operating cost, $ USD

control strategy:

300K
250K 200K 150K 100K 50K

55F lvg tower optimal control design ECWT

0
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Mexico City

Orlando

San Diego

Toronto

chillertower control strategies

Global Locations
500K annual operating cost, $ USD 400K
control strategy: 55F lvg tower optimal control design ECWT

300K

200K

100K

0
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Dubai

Paris

Sao Paulo Singapore

operating cost savings, chiller + tower annual costs, % 2 6 10 12 14

0
Dubai Paris Sao Paulo Singapore location Orlando Toronto Mexico City San Diego

chillertower optimization

Operating Cost Savings

2010 Trane

Upgrading chilled water systems

Retrofit or replace chiller


Consider VPF
Update controls

Comply with 90.1 requirements Consider same-price high efficiency replacement

Number of chillers operating Pump pressure optimization Chiller-tower optimization

Select different design parameters

Reduce flow rates by increasing T


Chilled water Condenser water

Perform analysis

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References

Upgrading Chilled-Water Systems, ASHRAE Journal, November 2009.

2010 Trane